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ITEM ANALYSIS

Test I.

Item #1

OPTIONS A B *C D
UPPER GROUP 0 1 6 0
LOWER GROUP 2 0 5 0

n = 6+5 = 11

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

11
DF = 14

DF = 0.78 or 78%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 6

CLG = 5

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

6−5
DI = 7

1
DI = 7

DI = 0.14 or 14%

3. Analysis:

a. 78% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is easy.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 14%, which denotes that this item is poor.
c. No need to change the distracters.
4. Conclusion: Retain the test item and no revision of the distracters.

Item #2

OPTIONS *A B C D
UPPER GROUP 7 0 0 0
LOWER GROUP 4 1 0 2

n = 7+4 = 11

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

11
DF = 14

DF = 0.78 or 78%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 7

CLG = 4

D=7
𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

7−4
DI = 7

3
DI = 7

DI = 0.42 or 42%

3. Analysis:

a. 78% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is easy.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 42%, which denotes a very good item.
c. No need to change the distracters.

4. Conclusion: Retain the test item.

Item #3

OPTIONS A *B C D
UPPER GROUP 1 1 1 4
LOWER GROUP 0 5 1 1

n = 1+5 = 6

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

6
DF = 14

DF = 0.42 or 42%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 1

CLG = 5

D=7
𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

1−5
DI = 7

−4
DI = 7

DI = -0.57 or -57%

3. Analysis:

a. 42% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is moderately
difficult.
b. More pupils from the lower group got the item correctly; therefore, it is a negative
discrimination. The discrimination index is -57%, which denotes that the item is very poor.
c. No need to analyse the distracters because the item discriminates negatively.
d. Modify all the distracters because they are not effective. Most of the pupils in the upper group
choose the incorrect options. The options are effective if most of the pupils in the lower group
choose the incorrect options.

4. Conclusion: Reject the item because it has a negative discrimination index.

Item #4

OPTIONS A *B C D
UPPER GROUP 4 3 0 0
LOWER GROUP 3 3 0 1
1. Computation for the Difficulty Index:

n = 3+3 = 6

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

6
DF = 14

DF = 0.42 or 42%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 3

CLG = 3

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

3−3
DI = 7

0
DI = 7

DI = 0 or 0%

3. Analysis:

a. 42% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is moderately
difficult.
b. Equal number of pupils from the upper and lower groups answered the item correctly;
therefore, it has zero discrimination. The discrimination index is 0%, which denotes that the item
is poor.
c. About equal numbers of top pupils went for option A and option B, this implies that they could
not tell which is the correct answer. The pupils do not know the content of the test, thus, a
reteach is needed.

4. Conclusion: Revise the test item because it is ambiguous.

Item #5

OPTIONS A B C *D
UPPER GROUP 0 2 0 5
LOWER GROUP 1 0 0 6

n = 5+6 = 11

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

11
DF = 14

DF = 0.78 or 78%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 5

CLG = 6

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

5−6
DI = 7

−1
DI = 7

DI = -0.14 or -14%

3. Analysis:

a. 78% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is easy.
b. More pupils from the lower group got the item correctly; therefore, it is a negative
discrimination. The discrimination index is - 14%.
c. No need to analyse the distracters because the item discriminates negatively.

4. Conclusion: Reject the item because it has a negative discrimination index.

Item #6

OPTIONS A *B C D
UPPER GROUP 0 6 0 1
LOWER GROUP 2 0 5 0

n = 6+0 = 6

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁
6
DF = 14

DF = 0.42 or 42%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 6

CLG = 0

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

6−0
DI = 7

6
DI = 7

DI = 0.85 or 85%

3. Analysis:

a. 42% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is moderately
difficult.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 85%, which denotes a very good item.
c. Retain options A, C, and D because most of the pupils who did not perform well in the overall
examination selected it as their answer. Hence, options A, C, and D are effective distracters.

4. Conclusion: Retain the test item, as well as the distracters.

Item #7

OPTIONS *A B C D
UPPER GROUP 0 0 1 6
LOWER GROUP 0 1 2 4

1. Computation for the Difficulty Index:

n = 0+0 = 0

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

0
DF = 14

DF = 0 or 0%
2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 0

CLG = 0

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

0−0
DI = 7

0
DI = 7

DI = 0 or 0%

3. Analysis:

a. 0% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is very difficult.
b. No one got the correct answer for both groups; therefore, it is a negative discrimination. The
discrimination index is 0%, which denotes that the item is very poor.
c. No need to analyse the distracters because the item discriminates negatively.

4. Conclusion: Reject the item because it has a negative discrimination index.

Item #8

OPTIONS A B *C D
UPPER GROUP 0 2 3 2
LOWER GROUP 5 1 0 1

n = 3+0 = 3

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

3
DF = 14

DF = 0.21 or 21%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 3

CLG = 0
D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

3−0
DI = 7

3
DI = 7

DI = 0.42 or 42%

3. Analysis:

a. Only 21% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is difficult.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 42%, which denotes a very good item.
c. Retain option A because most of the pupils who did not perform well in the overall
examination selected it as their answer.

4. Conclusion: Retain the test item, as well as the distracters.

Item #9

OPTIONS A B C *D
UPPER GROUP 1 0 2 4
LOWER GROUP 3 2 1 1

n = 4+1 = 5

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

5
DF = 14

DF = 0.35 or 35%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 4

CLG = 1

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷
4−1
DI =
7

3
DI = 7

DI = 0.42 or 42%

3. Analysis:

a. 35% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is difficult.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 42%, which denotes a very good item.
c. Retain options A, B, and C because most of the pupils from the lower group selected it. Those
options attract most students from the lower group.

4. Conclusion: Retain the test item, as well as the distracters.

Item #10

OPTIONS A *B C D
UPPER GROUP 2 2 1 2
LOWER GROUP 1 0 5 1

n = 2+0 = 2

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

2
DF = 14

DF = 0.14 or 14%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 2

CLG = 0

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

2−0
DI = 7

2
DI = 7

DI = 0.28 or 28%
3. Analysis:

a. Only 14% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is very
difficult.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 28%, which denotes that the item needs some revision.
c. About equal number of pupils went for option A, B, and C which implies that they could not
tell which the correct answer is. Hence, there are more number of pupils have chosen option C.

4. Conclusion: Revise the test options because it is ambiguous.

Item #11

OPTIONS *A B C D
UPPER GROUP 3 3 0 1
LOWER GROUP 4 1 0 2

n = 3+4 = 7

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

7
DF = 14

DF = 0.5 or 5%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 3

CLG = 4

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

3−4
DI = 7

−1
DI = 7

DI = -0.14 or -14%

3. Analysis:

a. Only 5% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is very difficult.
b. More pupils from the lower group got the item correctly; therefore, it is a negative
discrimination. The discrimination index is - 8%.
c. No need to analyse the distracters because the item discriminates negatively.

4. Conclusion: Reject the item because it has a negative discrimination index.

Item #12

OPTIONS A B *C D
UPPER GROUP 1 0 6 0
LOWER GROUP 1 1 2 3

n = 6+2 = 8

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

8
DF = 14

DF = 0.57 or 57%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 6

CLG = 2

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

6−2
DI = 7

4
DI = 7

DI = 0.57 or 57%

3. Analysis:

a. 57% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is moderately
difficult.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 57%, which denotes that it is a very good item.
c. Retain options A, B, and D because most of the pupils who did not perform well in the overall
examination selected it. Those options attract most students from the lower group.

4. Conclusion: Retain the test item.

Item #13

OPTIONS A B C *D
UPPER GROUP 0 6 1 0
LOWER GROUP 2 2 1 2

n = 0+2 = 2

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

2
DF = 14

DF = 0.14 or 14%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 0

CLG = 2

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

0−2
DI = 7

−2
DI = 7

DI = -0.28 or -28%

3. Analysis:

a. Only 14% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is very
difficult.
b. More pupils from the lower group got the item correctly; therefore, it is a negative
discrimination. The discrimination index is - 28%.
c. No need to analyse the distracters because the item discriminates negatively.
d. Modify all the distracters because they are not effective especially option B. Both upper and
lower groups selected it, which is incorrect. Most of the pupils in the upper group chose the
incorrect options.

4. Conclusion: Reject the item because it has a negative discrimination index.

Item #14
OPTIONS *A B C D
UPPER GROUP 2 2 1 2
LOWER GROUP 1 1 4 1

n = 2+1 = 3

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

3
DF = 14

DF = 0.21 or 21%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 2

CLG = 1

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI =
𝐷

2−1
DI = 7

1
DI = 7

DI = 0.14 or 14%

3. Analysis:

a. Only 21% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is difficult.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 14%, which denotes it is a poor item.
c. Modify all the distracters because they are not effective. Both upper and lower groups selected
the incorrect options.

4. Conclusion: Revise the test item by modifying the distracters.

Item #15

OPTIONS A *B C D
UPPER GROUP 1 5 1 0
LOWER GROUP 1 4 1 1
1. Computation for the Difficulty Index:

n = 5+4 = 9

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

9
DF = 14

DF = 0.64 or 64%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 5

CLG = 4

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

5−4
DI = 7

1
DI = 7

DI = 0.14 or 14%

3. Analysis:

a. 64% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is easy.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 14%, which denotes that it is a poor item.
c. Retain all the options.

4. Conclusion: Retain the test item and no revision of the distracters.

Item #16

OPTIONS *A B C D
UPPER GROUP 6 0 1 0
LOWER GROUP 0 0 6 1

n = 6+0 = 6

N = 14
𝑛
DF =
𝑁

6
DF = 14

DF = 0.42 or 42%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 6

CLG = 0

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

6−0
DI = 7

6
DI = 7

DI = 0.85 or 85%

3. Analysis:

a. 42% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is moderately
difficult.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 85%, which denotes a very good item.
c. Retain option C because most of the pupils from the lower group selected it. That option
attracts most students from the lower group.

4. Conclusion: Retain the test item, as well as the distracters.

Item #17

OPTIONS A B *C D
UPPER GROUP 2 1 4 0
LOWER GROUP 4 1 1 1

n = 4+1 = 5

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

5
DF = 14
DF = 0.35 or 35%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 4

CLG = 1

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

4−1
DI = 7

3
DI = 7

DI = 0.42 or 42%

3. Analysis:

a. 35% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is difficult.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 42%, which denotes a very good item.
c. Retain option A because most of the pupils from the lower group selected it. That option
attracts most students from the lower group.

4. Conclusion: Retain the test item.

Item #18

OPTIONS A B C *D
UPPER GROUP 1 0 4 2
LOWER GROUP 2 1 4 0

n = 2+0 = 2

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

2
DF = 14

DF = 0.14 or 14%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 2

CLG = 0

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

2−0
DI = 7

2
DI = 7

DI = 0.14 or 14%

3. Analysis:

a. Only 14% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is very
difficult.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 14%, which denotes it is a poor item.
c. Modify all the distracters because they are not effective. Both upper and lower groups selected
the incorrect options.

Test II.

Item #19

UPPER GROUP 7 0
LOWER GROUP 6 1

n = 7+6 = 13

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

13
DF = 14

DF = 0.92 or 92%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 7

CLG = 6

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

7−6
DI = 7

1
DI = 7

DI = 0.14 or 14%

3. Analysis:

a. 92% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is very easy.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 14%, which denotes that this item is poor.

Item #20

UPPER GROUP 4 3
LOWER GROUP 6 1

n = 3+1 = 4

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

4
DF = 14

DF = 0.28 or 28%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 3

CLG = 1

D=7
𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI =
𝐷

3−1
DI = 7

2
DI = 7

DI = 0.28 or 28%

3. Analysis:

a. Only 28% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is very easy.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 28%, which denotes that this item is poor.

Item #21

UPPER GROUP 6 1
LOWER GROUP 5 2

n = 6+5 = 11

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

11
DF = 14

DF = 0.78 or 78%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 6

CLG = 5

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

6−5
DI = 7

1
DI = 7

DI = 0.14 or 14%
3. Analysis:

a. 78% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is easy.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 14%, which denotes that this item is poor.

Item #22

UPPER GROUP 7 0
LOWER GROUP 6 1

n = 7+6 = 13

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

13
DF = 14

DF = 0.92 or 92%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 6

CLG = 5

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

7−6
DI = 7

1
DI = 7

DI = 0.14 or 14%

3. Analysis:

a. 92% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is very easy.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 14%, which denotes that this item is poor.
4. Conclusion: Retain the test item.

Item #23

UPPER GROUP 5 2
LOWER GROUP 6 1

n = 5+6 = 11

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

11
DF = 14

DF = 0.78 or 78%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 5

CLG = 6

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

5−6
DI = 7

−1
DI = 7

DI = -0.14 or -14%

3. Analysis:

a. 78% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is easy.
b. More pupils from the lower group got the item correctly; therefore, it is a negative
discrimination. The discrimination index is -14%, which denotes that this item is poor.

Item #24

UPPER GROUP 1 6
LOWER GROUP 1 6

n = 6+6 = 12

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

12
DF = 14

DF = 0.85 or 85%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 6

CLG = 6

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

6−6
DI = 7

0
DI = 7

DI = 0 or 0%

3. Analysis:

a. 85% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is very easy.
b. Equal number of pupils from the upper and lower groups answered the item correctly;
therefore, it has zero discrimination. The discrimination index is 0%, which denotes that the item
is poor.

Item #25

UPPER GROUP 7 0
LOWER GROUP 4 3

n = 7+4 = 11
N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

11
DF = 14

DF = 0.78 or 78%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 7

CLG = 4

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

7−4
DI = 7

3
DI = 7

DI = 0.42 or 42%

3. Analysis:

a. 78% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is easy.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 42%, which denotes that it is a very good item.

Item #26

UPPER GROUP 3 4
LOWER GROUP 2 5

1. Computation for the Difficulty Index:

n = 4+5 = 9

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

9
DF = 14

DF = 0.64 or 64%
2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 4

CLG = 5

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

4−5
DI = 7

−1
DI = 7

DI = -0.14 or -14%

3. Analysis:

a. 64% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is easy.
b. More pupils from the lower group got the item correctly; therefore, it is a negative
discrimination. The discrimination index is -14%, which denotes that this item is poor.

Item 27

UPPER GROUP 7 0
LOWER GROUP 6 1

n = 7+6 = 13

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

13
DF = 14

DF = 0.92 or 92%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 7

CLG = 6
D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

7−6
DI = 7

1
DI = 7

DI = 0.14 or 14%

3. Analysis:

a. 92% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is very easy.
b. More pupils from the upper group got the item correctly, hence, discriminates positively. The
discrimination index is 14%, which denotes that this item is poor.

Item 28

UPPER GROUP 4 3
LOWER GROUP 6 1

n = 4+6 = 10

N = 14
𝑛
DF = 𝑁

10
DF = 14

DF = 0.71 or 71%

2. Computation for the Discrimination Index:

CUG = 4

CLG = 6

D=7

𝐶𝑢𝑔−𝐶𝑙𝑔
DI = 𝐷

4−6
DI = 7
−2
DI =
7

DI = -0.28 or -28%

3. Analysis:

a. 71% of the pupils got the correct answer on this item, hence, the test item is easy.
b. More pupils from the lower group got the item correctly; therefore, it is a negative
discrimination. The discrimination index is -28%, which denotes that this item is poor.