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Assignment #2
Four Stroke Gasoline Engine Theory
Please do not “cut and paste” answers from the online articles. Use your own words unless I
am asking for specific names or components

Go to http://auto.howstuffworks.com/engine.htm to find answers for questions 1 through 15

1) Where does the power come from to run an engine?


(found on page 2. Internal Combustion)

2) What are the four strokes of the internal combustion engine?

3) In your own words… explain each of the four strokes for the internal combustion engine.
Include: the name of the stroke, what direction the piston is moving (up or down),
and what position each valve is in (open or closed) for each stroke.
NOTE: study figure #1 to help answer this question
4) What opens the intake and exhaust valves? (study figure 1)

5) What closes the intake and exhaust valves? (also found in figure 1)

6) The piston moves in a linear direction, that is it moves Up or Down in a straight line.
What engine components change this linear motion into a rotational motion?

7) What is the function of the spark plug?


(found on page 3. Basic Engine Parts)

8) Each piston has a number of piston rings. What are the two functions for the piston rings?

9) An engine will turn over (the starter motor works), but it will not start or run.
What are the three fundamental things that can cause this?
(found on page 4. Engine Problems)
10) What are four things that can cause a bad fuel mix?

11) What are three reasons for a lack of compression?

12) Where is the most common place for a “hole” to appear in the cylinder?

13) What are three reasons for a nonexistent or weak spark?

14) The engine valve train consists of valves and a mechanism for opening
and closing the valves. What is the name of the mechanism that opens the valves?
(found on page 5. Engine Valve Train and Ignition Systems)

15 What is the function of the timing belt or timing chain?

Go to http://auto.howstuffworks.com/camshaft.htm to find answers for questions 16 & 17


16) Explain what valve overlap is
17) Why do engines designed to run at high rpm have more valve overlap
than engines designed to run at low rpm?

Go to http://www.compcams.com/Pages/416/valve-timing-tutorial.aspx for questions 18 – 21.


Carefully read the first half of this article.
18) Which turns faster, the crankshaft or the camshaft?

19) At idle a crankshaft will turn at about 800 Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
How many RPM will the camshaft turn at idle?

20) When the exhaust valve begins to open, exhaust gasses will start to flow out of the
cylinder and into the exhaust manifold. What is the force that begins this process?
A) the piston has reached the bottom of the power stroke and is beginning to move
up the cylinder for the exhaust stroke.
B) the burned hot gasses of the power stroke are allowed to expand out
past the opening exhaust valve.
C) Both A and B
D) Neither A nor B
21) Explain the “scavenge” effect that occurs during valve overlap.