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INDEX

Acceptance angle, 653 Ac resistance, 427 Ampere's law, 262, 273, 290 applications of, 274-278 Amperian path, 274 Amplitude, 412 Angle of incidence, 451 Angular frequency, 412 Antenna pattern. See Radiation pattern Antenna arrays, 612-618 binomial type, 621 broadside type, 615 end-fire type, 615 Antennas, 588-618 types of, 589 Array factor, 613 Attenuation, 649, 654 Attenuation constant, 421, 479 Azimuthal angle, 30

Bac-cab rule, 16 Band matrix method, 672, 702 Bandwidth, 638, 649 Bessel differential equation, 223 Biot-Savart's law, 262-266, 290, 307 Bonding, 647 Bonding effectiveness, 648 Bounce diagram, 514

Boundary conditions, 182-187, 330-332,

385

Boundary-value problems, 199 Brewster angle, 455

Capacitance, 224-230 Capacitor, 224-230 Cartesian coordinates, 29, 53 Characteristic admittance, 480 Characteristic impedance, 479, 525 Charge conservation, 180 Charged ring, 118 Charged sphere, 128 Circular cylindrical coordinates, 29, 55 Circulation, 60

Closed form solution, 660 Coaxial capacitor, 227 Coaxial line, 276 Colatitude, 33 Complex permittivity, 422 Complex variables, 728-729 Components of a vector, 6 Conductivity, 162, 164 values of, 737 Conductors, 161, 164-167 Conservation of magnetic flux, 283 Conservative field, 87 Constant-coordinates surfaces, 41^14 Constitutive relations, 385 Continuity equation, 180, 385 Coulomb's law, 104-107, 305 Critical angle, 653 Cross product, 13 Curie temperature, 328 Curl, 75-80 definition of, 76 properties of, 78 Current, 162-164 conduction type, 164 convection type, 163 definition of, 162 displacement type, 382 Current density, definition of, 163 Current reflection coefficient, 487 Cutoff, 549 Cutoff frequency, 542, 550 Cutoff wavelength, 550

Dc resistance, 427, 647 Definite integrals, 734 Degenerate modes, 576 Del operator, 63 Derivatives, 731 Diamagnetism, 327 Dielectric breakdown, 175 Dielectric constant, 175 values of, 738

Dielectric strength, 175 Dielectrics, 161 Difference equations, 669 Differential displacement, 53, 55, 56, 89 Differential normal area, 54, 55, 57, 89 Differential solid angle, 606 Differential volume, 54, 55, 57, 89 Dipole antenna, 589 Dipole moment, 143 Directional derivative, 67 Directive gain, 606 Directivity, 606 Dispersion, 654 Displacement current density, 381 Distance vector, 8 Distortionless line, 481 Divergence, 69-73 definition of, 69 properties of, 72 Divergence theorem, 72, 125 Dominant mode, 554, 578 Dot product, 12

Effective area, 621 Effective relative permittivity, 525 Electric dipole, 142 Electric displacement, 123 Electric field intensity, 106 Electric flux, 123 Electric flux density, 122, 123 Electric flux lines, 144 Electric susceptibility, 174 Electrical length, 486 Electrohydrodynamic pump. 203 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). 644 Electromagnetic interference (EMI). 644 Electromagnetics (EM), 3 Electrometer, 179 Electromotive force (emf), 370 Electrostatic field, 103, 592 Electrostatic shielding, 186 Electrostatics, 103 Element coefficient matrix, 698

763

764

Index

Emf. See Electromotive force Energy, 146, 339-341 Equipotential line, 144 Equipotential surface, 144 Evanescent mode, 549 Exponential identities, 730 External inductance, 338

Far field, 592 Faraday's law, 370 Ferromagnetism, 328 Field, classification of, 86-88 definition of, 5 harmonic type, 84 time-harmonic type, 389 uniform type, 8 Field pattern, 604 Field plotting, 661-663 Filtering, 649 Finite difference method, 669-674 Finite element method, 694-703 Finite elements, 694 Five-node molecule, 672 Fixed node, 670 Force, 104, 304-308, 349 Flux, 60 Flux linkage, 336 Free node, 670 Frequency, 412 Fresnel's equations, 455, 457 Friss transmission formula, 623

Gauss's law, 124, 125, 283 applications of, 126-130, 224-228 Gaussian surface, 126 Global coefficient matrix, 699 Gradient, 65-67 Gradient operator, 63 Grounding, 647 Group pattern, 613 Group velocity, 563

Half-wave dipole antenna, 594 Helmholtz's equation, 419 Helmholtz's theorem, 88 Hertzian dipole, 590 Homogeneous material, 175 Hyperbolic functions, 729 Hysteresis, 329

Indefinite integrals, 732-734 Inductance, 336 Inductive field, 592 Inductor, 336 Infinite line charge, 114, 127 Infinite line current, 274

Infinite sheet of charge, 115, 128 Infinite sheet of current, 275 Input impedance, 484-486 Insertion loss, 649 Insulators, 161,162. See also Dielectrics Integral equation, 683 Internal inductance, 338 Intrinsic impedance, 420 of free space, 424 Irrotational field, 87 Isolated sphere, 228 Isotropic antenna, 606 Isotropic material, 175 Iteration method, 672, 702

Joule's law, 167

Kernel, 683 Kirchhoff's current law, 180, 348,478 Kirchhoff 's voltage law, 477

Laplace's equation, 84, 199-202, 285,

671,703

Laplacian, 83-85 Lattice diagram. See Bounce diagram Lenz'slaw, 371, 374 Line charge, 112, 242 Line integral, 60 Linear material, 175 Logarithmic identities, 730 Lorentz condition, 388 Lorentz force, 305, 314 Lorentz force equation, 305, 384 Loss angle, 422 Loss tangent, 422 Lossless line, 480 Lossy dielectric, 418 Lossy line, 480

Magnetic dipole, 318 Magnetic dipole moment, 317 Magnetic field intensity, 263, 281 Magnetic flux density, 281 Magnetic potentials, 284-287 Magnetic susceptibility, 326 Magnetization, 324 Magnetization, 329 Magnetization volume current density. 325 Magnetization surface current density, 325 Magnetomotive force, 347 Magnetostatic field, 261 Magnitude, 5 Matched line, 489 Maxwell's equations, 4, 125, 139, 182, 273, 283, 369-389, 418,438, 451, 543, 545 Medium velocity, 563

Mesh size, 671 Method of images, 240 Microstrip lines, 524-526 Microwave components, 639 Microwaves, 638 Mode, 546, 548 Moment method, 683-687 Monopole, 143 Motional emf, 373 Mutual inductance, 337

Newton's laws, 308 Noise susceptibility, 649 Nonmagnetic materials, 327 Normalized impedance, 493 Numerical aperture, 652

Ohm's law, 164, 166, 181,348 Ohmic resistance, 608 Open-circuited line, 489 Optical fiber, 649 definition of, 650 Orthogonal system, 28

Parallel-plate capacitor, 225, 226 Paramagnetism, 327 Pattern multiplication, 613 Penetration depth. See Skin depth Period, 412 Permeability, 326 of free space, 281 Permeance, 348 Permittivity, 175 of free space, 104 Phase, 412 Phase constant, 412,421,479 Phase matching conditions, 452 Phase velocity, 563 Phasor, 389 Plane of incidence, 451 Point charge, 104, 126,241 Poisson's equation, 199-202, 291, 670,

671,683

Polarization, 171-174,425 Polarization surface charge density, 173 Polarization volume charge density, 173 Position vector, 7, 106, 135, 451 Potential, 134 Potential difference, 133 Power, 167,435^138 Power gain, 607, 608 Power pattern, 604 Poynting's theorem, 436, 437 Poynting vector, 436 Pressure, 350 Propagation constant, 419, 479 Propagation vector, 451

Quality factor, 578, 579 Quarter-wave monopole antenna, 598 Quarter-wave transformer, 505

Radar, 641,625 types of, 627 Radar cross section, 626 Radar range equation, 627 Radar transmission equation, 627 Radiated emissions, 644 Radiation, 588 Radiation efficiency, 608 Radiation field, 592 Radiation intensity, 605 Radiation pattern, 604 Radiation resistance, 593 Reactance circle, 495 Reflection coefficient, 442, 642, 643 Refraction law, 185,332 Refractive index, 453 Relative permeability, 326 values of, 739 Relative permittivity, 175. See also Dielectric constant Relaxation time, 181, 229 Reluctance, 348 Resistance, 166, 223 Resistance circle, 494 Resistivity, 167 Resonant frequency, 577 Resultant pattern, 613 Retarded potentials, 389 Right-hand rule, 14, 80, 263, 372 Right-hand screw rule, 80, 263

Satellite, 639 Scalar, 5 Scalar component, 16 Scalar product, 12-15

Scattering cross section, 626 Scattering parameters, 641 Self-inductance, 336 Semiconductor, 162 Separation constant, 212, 221 Separation of variables, 212, 221 Shape functions, 696 Shielding effectiveness, 648 Shorted line, 489 Single-stub tuner, 506 Skin depth, 426 Skin effect, 427 Skin resistance, 428 Slotted line, 507 Small loop antenna, 599 Smith chart, 492-498 Snell's law, 453 Solenoid, 271 Solenoidal field, 87 Spectrum, 415 Spherical capacitor, 227 Spherical coordinates, 32,56 Standing wave, 442 Standing wave ratio (SWR), 444 Stokes's theorem, 79 Superconductors, 162 Superposition, 106, 135, 216 Surface charge, 114 Surface integral, 60

Tensor, 176 Time-harmonic field, 389 Torque, 316 Total reflection, 653 Transformation, of point, 34 of vector, 35 Transformer emf, 373 Transient, 512 Transmission coefficient, 442

Transmission line equaoccs. ~ —1~"- Transmission line parameters -I"-!—-~~ Transmission lines, 473-526 Transverse electric (TE) mode. 54".

552-556

Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave. 425, 546 Transverse magnetic (TM) mode, 547-551 Trigonometric identities, 727-728

Uniform plane wave, 425 Unit vector, 5, 6 Uniqueness theorem, 201-202

Vector, addition of, 6 definition of, 5 multiplication of, 11 subtraction of, 6 Vector component, 16 Vector identities, 735 Vector product, 13-15 Voltage reflection coefficient, 486, 487 Volume charge, 115 Volume integral, 62

Wave, 410 definition of, 411 Wave equation, 388, 411, 419, 479 Wave number, 412 Wave velocity, 411 Waveguide resonator, 575 Waveguide wavelength, 563 Wavelength, 412 Work done, 133

Xerographic copying machine, 204