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# ACID-BASE TITRATION

A. Objection
1. Student can prepare acid standard solution
2. Student can determine the normality of the acid / base using a standard
solution
3. Student can determine the equivalence point using titration curve

B. Theoretical Background
An aqueous solution is acidic, neutral, or basic depends on the
hydronium-ion concentration. You can quantitatively describe the acidity
by giving the hydronium-ion concentration. But because these
concentration values may be very small, it is often more convenient to
give the acidity in terms of pH, which is deﬁned as the negative of the
logarithm of the molar hydronium-ion concentration[ CITATION Ebb09 \l
1057 ].
A convenient way to measure the approximate pH of a solution is by
using
1. indicator paper
a strip of paper coated with a combination of indicators. Indicator
paper turns a specific color for each pH value.
2. pH meter
A pH meter contains a probe that is very sensitive to the [ H +] in a
solution. When the probe is inserted into a solution, the [H +] in the
solution produces a voltage that appears as a pH reading on the
meter. Because a pH meter can determine the pH value of a
solution so quickly and accurately, these devices are now used
almost universally.

## A strong acid solution contains H+ ions and a solution of strong

base contains OH- ions. Whena strong acid and a strong base are mixed,
the H+ and OH- react to form H2O :
H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l)
This reaction is called a neutralization reaction because if equal amounts
of H+ and OH- are available for reaction, a neutral solution (pH = 7) will
result.
An acid–base titration is the determination of the concentration of
an acid or base by exactly neutralizing the acid or base with an acid or
base of known concentration. It makes use of the neutralization reaction
that occurs between acids and bases. Acid–base titrations can also be used
to find percent purity of chemicals. (Anonymous, 2016)
To analyze the acid or base content of a solution, chemists often
perform a titration. A titration involves the delivery of a measured volume
of a solution of known concentration (the titrant) into the solution being
analyzed (the analyte). The titrant contains a substance that reacts in a
known way with the analyte. For example, if the analyte contains a base,
the titrant would be a standardsolution (a solution of known concentration)
of a strong acid. To run the titration the standard solution of titrant is
loaded into a buret. A buret is a cylindrical device with a stopcock at the
bottom that allows accurate measurement of the delivery of a given
volume of liquid. The titrant is added slowly to the analyte until exactly
enough has been added to just react with all of the analyte. This point is
called the stoichiometricpoint or equivalencepoint for the titration. For an
acid–base titration the equivalence point can be determined by using a pH
meter or indicator. In the titration of a strong acid and a strong base, the
equivalence point occurs when an equal amount of H+ and OH- have
reacted so that the solution is neutral (pH = 7). Thus the titration would
stop when the pH meter shows pH = 7. Alternatively, an indicator could be
used that changes color near pH = 7. (Zumdahl, 2007)
C. Apparatus and Reagent
- Analytical balance - Oxalic acid crystal
- 100 mL volumetric flask - Distilled water
- 100 mL erlenmeyer - 0,1 M NaOH
- 50 mL buret - 0,1 M HCl
- Clamps and statif - 0,1 M CH3COOH
- 10 mL volumetric pipet - PP Indicator
- pH meter / universal
indicator

D. Procedure
1. Preparation of primary standart solution of H2C2O4(COOH)2.
2H2O

## Weighing accurately 1. Dissolving with distilled

2607 gram oxalic acid waterin a 100 ml volumetric

## Cleaning buret with NaOH Filling 10 ml (using

solution that will be used volumetric pipet) oxalic acid
and then filling with NaOH into erlenmeyer flask.
solution up to the 0 ml Adding 3 drops of indicator
mark PP

## Droping down NaOH

Recording the volume (ml)
solution in the buret into the
of NaOH used (the final
acid solution, and shaking at
state on scale of buret)
the same times until the color
change from colorless to pink

## Calculating the concentration

Perfoming the above of NaOH by the formula :
experiment in duplicate
(V.N)Oxalic acid=(VN)NaOH

## 3. Determination the concentration of HCl using secondary

standard solution of NaOH
Providing two erlenmeyers
Filling the buret with
and filling with 10 ml of
standarized of NaOH
HCl and adding 3 drops of
solution
PP

## Recording the volume (ml) Droping down NaOH

of NaOH used (the final solution in the buret into the
state on scale of buret) acid solution, and shaking at
the same times until the
color change from colorless
to pink

## Perfoming the above

Calculating the concentration
experiment in duplicate
of NaOH by the formula :

(V.N)NaOH = (VN)HCl

## Putting 10 ml 0.1 M HCl into Measuring the initial pH of

the erlenmeyer and HCl and then adding 1 ml
standarized NaOH into buret NaOH dropwise into
up to the 0 ml mark. erlenmeyer
Shaking and measuring the
Repeating the same way by
pH of solution and continuing
replacing HCl with 0.1 M
pH measurement every
CH3COOH

E. Observation
a. Mass of oxalic acid = 1.2607 gr
Volume of solution = 100.00 mL
Molarity of oxalic acid = 0.1M
Normality of oxalic acid = 0.2N

## b. Volume of oxalic acid =10.00 ml

Volume of NaOH (1) = 18.00 mL
Volume of NaOH (2) = 18.20 mL
Average Volume of NaOH = 18.10 mL

## c. Volume of HCl = 10.00 mL

Volume of NaOH (1) = 9.50 mL
Volume of NaOH (2) = 9.00 mL
Average Volume of NaOH = 9.25 mL

titration

## Volume of Volume of NaOH(ml)

No. NaOH(ml) added to pH No. added to 10 ml of 0,1 pH
10 ml of 0,1 M HCI M CH3COOH

1. 0 1 1. 0 4

2. 1 1 2. 1 4

3. 2 2 3. 2 4

4. 3 2 4. 3 4

5. 4 2 5. 4 5

6. 5 3 6. 5 5

7. 6 4 7. 6 5

8. 7 6 8. 7 6

9. 8 10 9. 8 6

10. 9 10 10. 9 7

11. 10 10 11. 10 10

12. 11 10 12. 11 10

13. 12 10 13. 12 10

14. 13 10 14. 13 10
F. Calculation

## Mass of Oxalic acid 1000

Molarity of oxalic acid = .
Mr Oxalic Acid V

= .
126.07 100

= 0.1 M

## Normality of oxalic acid = M . Valensi

= 0.1 . 2 = 0.2 N

## MNaOH. 18.10 ml. 1 = 2

2
MNaOH =
18. 1 0 ml

MNaOH = 0.11 M
c. Volume of HCl = 10 mL

## MNaOH. VNaOH = MHCl . VHCl

0, 11 M. 9.25 ml = MHCl . 10 ml

MHCl = 0.10175 M

titration

Reaction :

m 0.11 1 - -

## s - 0.89 0.11 0.11

HCl  H+ + Cl-
0.89 mmol 0.89 mmol 0.89 mmol

0,89mmol
[ H+] =
10

= 0.081 M

pH = - log [ H+]

= 3 - log 81

= 3 – 1.91

= 1.09

Reaction :

V total = 12 ml

m 0.22 1 - -

HCl  H+ + Cl-

0.78 mmol
[ H+] =
12

= 0.065 M
pH = - log [ H+]

= 2 - log 6.5

= 2 –0.81

= 1.19

V total = 13 ml

m 0.33 1 - -

HCl  H+ + Cl-

0.69mmol
[ H+] =
13

= 0.053 M

pH = - log [ H+]

= 2 - log 5.3

= 2 – 0.72

= 1.28

V total = 14 ml

m 0.44 1 - -

HCl  H+ + Cl-

0.56 mmol
[ H+] =
14

= 0.04 M

pH = - log [ H+]

= - log 4. 10-2
= 2 - log 4

=2 – 0.6

= 1.4

V total = 15 ml

m 0.55 1.00 - -

HCl  H+ + Cl-

0.45mmol
[ H+] =
15

= 0.03 M

pH = - log [ H+

= - log (0.03)

= 1.52

## 6. Titration between 10 ml HCl 0,1 M with 6 ml NaOH 0.11 M

V total = 16 ml
NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O

m 0.66 1.00 - -

HCl  H+ + Cl-

0.34 mmol
[ H+] =
16

= 0.021 M

pH = - log [ H+]

= - log (0.021)

= 1.7

V total = 17 ml

m 0.77 1.00 - -

HCl  H+ + Cl-

0.23mmol
[ H+] =
17

= 0.014 M

pH = - log [ H+]

= - log (0.014)

= 1.85

V total = 18 ml

m 0.88 1.00 - -

HCl  H+ + Cl-

0.12mmol
[ H+] =
18

= 0.007 M

pH = - log [ H+]

= - log (0.007)
= 2.15

V total = 19 ml

m 1.1 1.00 - -

HCl  H+ + Cl-

## 0.01 mmol 0.01 mmol 0.01 mmol

0.01mmol
[ H+] =
19

= 0.0005 M

pH = - log [ H+]

= - log (0.0005)

= 3.3
10. Titration between 10 ml HCl 0,1 M with 10 ml NaOH 0.11 M

V total = 20 ml

M 1.10 1.00 - -

0.10 mmol
[ OH-] =
20

= 0.005 M

## pOH = - log [ OH-]

= - log (0.005)

= 2.3

pH = 14 – 2.3

= 11.7
11. Titration between 10 ml HCl 0,1 M with 11 ml NaOH 0,11 M

V total = 21 ml

M 1.21 1.00 - -

0.21mmol
[ OH-] =
21

= 0.01 M

= - log (0.01)

=2

pH = 14 – 2

= 12

V total = 22 ml

m 1.32 1.00 - -

0.32mmol
[ OH-] =
22

= 0.014 M

= - log (0.014)

= 1.85

pH = 14 – pOH

= 14 – 1.85

= 12.15

V total = 23 ml

## NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O

m 1.43 1.00 - -
r 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

0.43mmol
[ OH-] =
23

= 0.019 M

## pOH = - log [ OH-]

= - log (0.019)

= 1.72

pH = 14 – pOH

= 14 – 1.72 = 12.28

V total = 24 ml

m 1.54 1.00 - -

0.54 mmol
[ OH-] =
24

= 0.0225 M

= - log (0.0225)

= 1.65

pH = 14 – pOH

= 14 – 1.65

= 12.35

V total = 25 ml

m 1.65 1.00 - -

0.65mmol
[ OH-] =
25
= 0.026 M

= - log (0.026)

= 1.58

pH = 14 – pOH

= 14 – 1.58

= 12.42

## The Relationship between adding of NaOH to pH

14
12
10
8 pH
6
4
2
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Based on calculation
The relationship between adding of NaOH to pH
12
10
8
pH
6
4
2
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Based on practicum

## Relationship of the volume of titrant with pH in Acid – Base titration

1. Adding 1 ml of NaOH

## NaOH + CH3COOH  CH3COONa + H2O

Initial : 0.11 1 - -
Reaction : 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11

## Remain : 0 mmol 0.89 mmol 0.11mmol 0.11mmol

+¿¿ na +¿¿
H = .Ka pH = - log H
¿ ng ¿

0.89
= . 1.8 .10-5 = -log14.58 .10-5
0.11

## = 14.58 .10-5 M = 5-log 14.58

= 3.83
2. Adding 2 ml of NaOH

## Remain : 0 mmol 0.78 mmol 0.22mmol 0.22mmol

+¿¿ na +¿¿
H = .Ka pH = - log H
¿ ng ¿

0.78
= . 1.8.10-5 = -log 6.38.10-5
0.22

## = 6.38 .10-5 M = 5-log 6.38

= 4.2

3. Adding 3 ml of NaOH

## Remain : 0 mmol 0.67 mmol 0.33 mmol 0.33 mmol

+¿¿ na +¿¿
H = . Ka pH = - log H
¿ ng ¿

0.67
= . 1.8 .10-5 = -log 3.65.10-5
0.33

## =3.65 .10-5 M = 5-log 3.65

= 4.44

4. Adding 4 ml of NaOH

## Remain : 0 mmol 0.54 mmol 0.44 mmol 0.44 mmol

+¿¿ na +¿¿
H = .Ka pH = - log H
¿ ng ¿

0.54
= . 1.8 .10-5 = -log 2.21.10-5
0.44

## = 2.21 .10-5 M = 5-log 2.21

= 4.66
5. Adding 5 ml of NaOH

## Remain : 0 mmol 0.45 mmol 0.55 mmol 0.55 mmol

+¿¿ na +¿¿
H = .Ka pH = - log H
¿ ng ¿

0.45
= . 1.8.10-5 = -log 1.47 .10-5
0.55

## = 1.47 .10-5 M = 5-log 1.47

= 4.8

6. Adding 6 ml of NaOH

## Remain : 0 mmol 0.34 mmol 0.66 mmol 0.66 mmol

+¿¿ na +¿¿
H = .Ka pH = - log H
¿ ng ¿

0.340
= . 1.8.10-5 = -log 0.93.10-5
0.660

## = 0.93 .10-5 M = 5-log 0.93

= 5.0

7. Adding 7 ml of NaOH

## Remain : 0 mmol 0.23 mmol 0.77 mmol 0.77mmol

+¿¿ na +¿¿
H = .Ka pH = - log H
¿ ng ¿

0.23
= . 1,8.10-5 = -log 0.54.10-5
0.77

## = 0.54 .10-5 M = 5-log 0.54

= 5.23
8. Adding 8 ml of NaOH

## Remain : 0 mmol 0.12 mmol 0.88 mmol 0.88 mmo

+¿¿ na +¿¿
H = .Ka pH = - log H
¿ ng ¿

0.12
= . 1.8 .10-5 = -log 0.25.10-5
0.88

## = 0.25 .10-5 M = 5-log 0.25

= 5.6

9. Adding 9 ml of NaOH

## Reaction: 0.99 mmol 0.99 mmol 0.99 mmol 0.99 mmol

Remain : - 0.10 0.99 mmol 0.99 mmol

+¿¿ na +¿¿
H = .Ka pH = - log H
¿ ng ¿

0.10
= . 1.8 .10-5 = -log 0.182.10-5
0.99

= 5.7

## Remain : 0.1 mmol - 1 mmol 1 mmol

n −¿
[ NaOH ] = OH ¿ = a.
V . tot ¿
[ NaOH ]

0.010
= = 1. 0.005 M
20

## = 0.005 M = 0.005 M = 5.10-3 M

−¿ ¿
pOH = - log OH pH = 14 - pOH
¿

1 mmol

## Remain : 0.21 mmol 0 mmol 1 mmol 1 mmol

n −¿
[ NaOH ] = OH ¿ = a.
V . tot ¿
[ NaOH ]

0.21
= = 1. 0.01 M
21

## = 0.01 M = 0.004 M = 10-2 M

−¿ ¿
pOH = - log OH pH = 14 - pOH
¿

= - log 10-2 = 14 – 2

= 3-log 4 = 2.39 = 12

## 12. Adding 12 ml of NaOH

NaOH + CH3COOH  CH3COONa + H2O

1 mmol

## Remain : 0.32 mmol 0 mmo 1 mmol 1 mmol

n −¿
[ NaOH ] = OH ¿ = a. [ NaOH ]
V . tot ¿

0.32
= = 1. 0.014 M
22

## = 0.014 M = 0.014 M = 14.10-3 M

−¿ ¿
pOH = - log OH pH = 14 - pOH
¿

## = - log 14.10-3 = 14 – 1.85

= 3-log 14 = 12.15

= 1.85

## Reaction: 1 mmol 1 mmol 1 mmol

1 mmol
Remain : 0.43 mmol 0 mmol 1 mmol 1 mmol

n −¿
[ NaOH ] = OH ¿ = a.
V . tot ¿
[ NaOH ]

0.43
= = 1. 0.019 M
23

= 0.019 M = 0.019 M

=19.10-3 M

−¿ ¿
pOH = - log OH pH = 14 - pOH
¿

## = - log 19.10-3 = 14 – 1.72

= 3-log 19 = 12.28

= 1.72

1 mmol

## Remain : 0.54 mmol 0 mmol 1 mmol 1 mmol

n −¿
[ NaOH ] = OH ¿ = a. [ NaOH ]
V . tot ¿

0.54
= = 1. 0.0225 M
24

= 0.0225 M = 0.0225 M

= 22.5 .10-3 M

−¿ ¿
pOH = - log OH pH = 14 - pOH
¿

= 1.65

1 mmol

## Remain : 0.65 mmol 0 mmol 1 mmol 1 mmol

n −¿
[ NaOH ] = OH ¿ = a. [ NaOH ]
V . tot ¿

0.65
= = 1. 0.026M
25
= 0.026 M = 0.026 M

= 26 .10-3 M

−¿ ¿
pOH = - log OH pH = 14 - pOH
¿

## = - log 26 .10-3 = 14 – 1.58

= 3-log 26 = 12.42

= 1.58

## The relationship between adding of NaOH to pH

14
12
10
8 pH
6
4
2
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Based on calculation
12

10

6
pH
4

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Based on practicum

G. Discussion
First, we dissolve oxalic acid crystal with distilled water in a
100 mL volumetric flask. We use oxalic acid as primary standard
solution that have concentration 0,1 M and normality 0,2 N. This
concentration is used to determine the concentration of NaOH.

## In this chapter, we used10 mL of oxalic acid to reacted with

NaOH. Then we add 2-3 drop of indicator PP into oxalic acid solution.
After put NaOH into buret, we drop NaOH solution into oxalic acid
solution until the color of oxalic acid become pink.We do this
experiment two times. At the first experiment, we know that need 18.00
mL of NaOH to make the oxalic acid solution become pink and the
second, we know that need 18.20 mL of NaOH to make the oxalic acid
solution become pink. Then we calculate the averageamount of NaOH
that make the oxalic acid solution become pink. It is 18.10 mL. Based
on this experiment, we know that the concentration of NaOH is 0.11
M. In this experiment, we do some mistake. We stop the titration not
when it was pink, but when the color become purple. It’s also affected
by the condition of buret that not good.

## The aim of the third experiment is to determine concentration

of HCl. In this experiment, we used the NaOH as secondary standard
solution. We titrated 10 mL of HCl with NaOH. Titration end point is
known by the change of color. It is happen when volume of NaOH is
9.50 and 9.00. With the average of amount of NaOH needed to change
the HCl’s color into pink, we know that the concentration of HCl is
0,10175 M. The occured reaction :

## NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O

Same with the previous experiment, we stop the titration not when it
was pink, but when the color become purple. And it’s affected by the
condition of buret that not good.
At the last experiment, we do titration for NaOH-HCl and
NaOH-CH3COOH. We add 1 mL of NaOH, then drop the solution into
pallete and observation the pH of it continuously until 15 mL. The pH
from last addition of NaOH is higher than the pH at the first addition.
It’s causes by the acid solution is neutralized with the base solution.
NaOH is strong base, HCl is strong acid, and CH 3COOH is weak acid,
it’s make difference between the NaOH-HCl titration with the NaOH-
CH3COOH titration. Theoretically, the equivalent point of strong base-
strong acid is 7, but the equivalent point of strong base-weak acid is
more than 7. In this experiment, we hard to get the real pH with the
universal indicator. Because there are some color that not match with
the color on universal indicator.

H. Summary
Based on this experiment, we can conclude that :
1. With titration, the acid standard solution can used to determine the
concentration of base solution.
2. The molarity of NaOH usedis 0.11 M with normality 0.11 M. The
molarity of HCl usedis 0,10175 M and its normality is 0,10175 N
3. The pH of equivalent point of titration between strong acid and strong
base is 7, while for a weak acid and strong base is more than 7.

Suggestion
1. Practicioner should be understand the experiment
2. Practicioner have to manage time as well as possible
3. Practicioner should to measure pH carefully

I. Reference
Ebbing, D.D., Gammon, S.D.. 2009. General Chemistry 9th Edition.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
DeCoste, D.J., Zumdahl, S.L., Zumdahl, S.S.. 2007. World of Chemistry.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Anonymous. “Acid-base Titration”. April 14th 2016.http://en.wikipedia
.org/wiki/Acid-base_titration

J. Question
1. Determine the Molarity of Oxalic Acid as primary standard
solution!
2. Determine the Molarity of NaOH solution!
3. Determine the Molarity of HCl solution!
4. Based on the data d above, draw a titration curve on graph paper by
plotting pH and volume of NaOH added.
5. From HCl-NaOH titration curve, what is the pH of the mixture
empirical / graphics equivalent?
6. From the titration curve of acetic acid-NaOH, determine Ka of
acetic acid Ka ?
7. What is the approximate pH of the mixture equivalence CH3COOH
– NaOH graphically / empirical ?
8. What is pH from CH3COOH-NaOH mixture equivalent
theoretically, if Ka CH3COOH = 1,8 x 10-5 .

1. m = 1.2607 gram

Mr = 126.07

V = 100 mL

Val =2

m 1000
M= x
Mr V

1.2607 1000
¿ x
126.07 100

¿ 0.01 x 10

M = 0.1 M

N = M x Val

= 0.1 x 2

= 0.2 N

2. Molarity of NaOH

## NNaOH. VNaOH. Valensi = MOxalicAcid . VOxalicAcid. Valensi

MNaOH. 18.10 ml. 1 = 0, 1 N. 10 ml. 2

## MNaOH. 18.10 ml. 1 = 2

2
MNaOH =
18. 1 0 ml

MNaOH = 0.11 M
3. Molarity of HCl

## MNaOH. VNaOH = MHCl . VHCl

0, 11 M. 9.25 ml = MHCl . 10 ml

MHCl = 0.10175 M

4. HCl-NaOH

## The Relationship between adding of NaOH to pH

14
12
10
8 pH
6
4
2
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Based on calculation

## The relationship between adding of NaOH to pH

12
10
8
pH
6
4
2
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Based on practicum
CH3COOH-NaOH

## The relationship between adding of NaOH to pH

14
12
10
8 pH
6
4
2
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Based on calculation

12

10

6
pH
4

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Based on practicum
5. pH = 7

6. pH =4
pH = 14 – pOH
pOH = 10
pOH = - log [OH-]
10 = - log [OH-]
[OH-] = 10-10
[OH-] =
√Kw
Ka
x[M ]

10-10 =
√10−14
Ka
10−15
x 0,1

10-20 =
Ka
Ka = 10-5

7. pH =9

8. [OH-] =
√Kw
Ka
x[M ]

−14
10
[OH-] = −5
x 0,1
1,8 x 10
= 7,45 x 10-6
pOH = - log [OH-]
= - log 7,45 x 10-6
= 5,127
pH = 14 – 5,127
= 8,87
K. Appendix