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Eurock '96, Barfa (ed.)!$;) 1996 Bafkema, Rotterdam.

ISBN 90 5410843 6

Rock joint shear mechanical behavior with 3D surfaces morphology


and degradation during shear displacement
Comportement mecanique avec modelisation 3D d 'un joint en cisaillement
Das mechanische Verhalten und die 3D-Modellierung der Morphologie der
Oberflachen und ihrer Beschadigung in Direcktschnitt-Proben
Guy Archambault & Rock Flarnand - Centre d' Etudes sur les Ressources Minerales, Universite du Quebec
d Chicoutimi. Que .. Canada
Sylvie Gentier - BRGM. Direction de /0 Recherche. Or/eons, France
Joelle Riss - Centre de Developpement des Geosciences Appliquees, Universite de Bordeaux I, Talence, France
Colette Sirieix -ANTEA, Direction de /0 Geotechnique, Orleans, France

ABSTRACT: Joint shear behavior is analyzed in relation with profiles 20 statistical description, 3D statistical
modelling of asperities angularity, geostatistical analysis and krigeage modelling to detect superposed structures
and restitute surfaces topography of a joint roughness morphology on replicas of a natural fracture submitted to
direct shear tests performed under various normal stresses and stopped at defined shear displacements. The
shear processes and progressive degradation on the replicas joint surfaces as well as their evolution are evaluated
through measurements of the damaged areas using image analysis. The evolution of the size and location of the
damaged areas arc analyzed in relation with normal stress for given shear displacement.

RESUME: Le comportement d'un joint en cisaillement est analyse en fonction de la description stanstique 20
des profils, de la rnodelisation statistique 3D de l'angularite des asperites, de l'analyse geostatistique et du
krigeage permenant de detecter la superposition de structures et de restituer la topographie des surfaces de la
morphologie de la rugosite du joint, sur des repliques d'une fracture naturelle sollicitees en cisaillement direct
sous diverses contraintes normales et pour des deplacernents en cisaillement definis. Les mecanismes de cisail-
Iernent et la degradation progressive des surfaces du joint sur les repliques, ainsi que leur evolution sont cvalues
en rnesurant les aires endornmagees a I'aide de la technique d'analyse images. L'evolution de la dimension et de
la localisation des aires endornrnagees sont analysecs en fonction de la contrainte norrnale appliquee pour des
deplacements en cisaillemcnt definis.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Das Verhalten von Kluftscherung wird analysiert in Benzug auf 2D-statitische
Beschreibung del' Profile, 3D-statitische Modellisierung del' Winkel von Asperiten, geostatitische Analyzen und
Krigeagemodellierung, urn aufeinandcrgereihte Strukturen einer rauhen Kluftmorphologie auf Bausteinmodelle
elnes naturlichen Bruches, festzustellen. Scheversuche an diesen Modellisierungsversuch wurden unter
verscheidene norma Ie Spannungen ausgefuhrt und bei hestimmten Scherdeplacierungen angehalten. Del'
Scherungsprozess und progressive Degradierung del' Kluftflachen des Bausteinrnodels wurden in den gestortcn
Zonen durch lmageanalysierung ausgewertet. Die Entwicklung del' Grosse und genaue Stellung diesel'
Storlingszonen wurden analysiert in Bezung auf Norrnalspannung fur einen bestimmten Scherungswert.

fNTRODUCTION tacting surfaces and the evolving surfaces topography


during sliding. A recent review of the literature on
The prolific literature on characterization and behavior rock joints testing and modelling (Stephansson &
of single, irregular rock joints submitted to various ling 1995) pointed out that there is still a large
normal and direct shear loading conditions, to eva- number of problems to solve before having an overall
luate the needed mechanical and hydraulic parameters understanding of the phenomenon, particularly the
In hydromechanical stability analysis of workings in roughness morphology and the difficulty of its
fractured rock masses (Stephansson 1985; Barton & characterization and modelling.
Stephansson 1990; Myel' et al. 1995; to cite only the In this paper, an approach is reviewed for geo-
three organized symposium of the .ISRM commission metrical description of joint surfaces morphology on
On rock joints) show their inextricable complex the basis of a 3D statistical description and modelling.
behavior and characteristics. These numberless A contribution to the characterization of damaged
research works on various rock joints problems areas in relation with shear displacement under
Confirm Scholtz (1990) statement that there is no constant normal stress is also presented, in which the
constitutive law for friction quantitatively built upon evolution and geometrical characteristics of the
micromechanical framework because of the com- damaged zones are evaluated in relation with the
plexity of shear contacts, the topography of con- normal stress magnitude, for given shear displace-

247
damaged zones are evaluated in relation with the wheter we are interrested in the 3D spatial reality of
normal stress magnitude, for given shear displace- each joint wall surface or to each joint wall surface
ment. recording directions related respectively to:
a) the total variance of all profiles set of points,
the residual variance and correlation coefficient after
2 JOINT ROUGHNESS CHARACTERIZATION linear regression of the altitudes z in function of the
coordinates (x,y) on the reference plane, the azimuth
Joint walls morphology characterization means here and colatitude in a given reference system of the
that a 3D quantitative description of roughness evolu- regression plane and of the principal plane resulting
tion on the joint surfaces was done during laboratory from the diagonalization of variance and covariance
shear tests performed on a series of identical replicas matrices of the whole set of points; or
from the walls of a natural fracture in a granite b) the linear roughness coefficient RL, the z2, z3
(Gueret, France) for which a detailed study of the and z4 coefficients and the linear regression parame-
morphology was done (Gentier 1986; Riss & Gentier ters (8rcgrcssion and residual variance ~.~ ).
1990, 1995). The replicas were submitted to direct As the total variance is an invariant for a given
shear tests under three different normal stress and set of points (x , y, z referred to given reference
each shear test was stopped at a defined shear dis- systems: VI01al = V x+Vy+ V z) the spatial dispersion of
placement for five displacements (Flamand et a!' the set of recorded points and its evolution during
1994). This procedure permits a control on the shear displacement can be measured and compared
evolution of the joint wall surfaces morphology with providing profiles are recorded at the same positions
shear displacement. on each wall surfaces of the fracture replica and kept
The shear stress, shear displacement, normal constant in each shear test. Taking into account both
stress and normal displacement being available at the variances and covariances, it is also possible to
end of each test; a morphological analysis was compute estimations of the local mean plane of the
performed using five profiles, z=f(x,y), recorded on fracture that could be slightly different from the
the joint wall surfaces 15.26 rnm apart in four direc- regional one. They are based firstly on a linear
tions, digitized at a constant step (L'l.x=0.5 rnrn) and regression of z on x and y and secondly on deriving
kept constant for all shear tests (Flamand et a!' 1994; the first principal plane from the diagonalization of the
Riss et a!' 1995). The analysis of these data consists variance-covariance matrix. The following analysis
first in the deduction of parameters characterizing the performed on the joint wall surfaces under study
whole set of recorded points, i.e. the joint wall permits to establish that the local mean plane dips
surface expanding in a 3D space and, secondly, in slightly (5°) in a direction perpendicular to the shear
detailed distribution analysis of the 82 angles between direction, that the upper wall dips slightly more than
a reference plane and a line segment linking two the lower one and that the lower wall is rougher than
successive points on the recorded profiles. This the upper one. The detail of these analyses and
analysis is fundamental to restore the true 3D colati- computations are given in Riss et a!' (1995).
tude (83) distribution of elementary plane facets From the computed linear roughness coefficient
composing the joint wall surfaces before and after (RL) (Table I), dependent on 82 distributions, and on
testing and correcting by the same way the bias intro- the basis of experimental 20 colatitudes distributions
duced by the profiles. characteristics, it is observed that probabilities of 82
is slightly higher than for the negative 82, but the
2. I Statistical description and analysis of the joint mean values of the latter are smaller than the other
surfaces one. In average, there are more asperities in the
positive direction than in the opposite one but these
The overall analysis of the joint wall surfaces gives a asperities are smoother than in the negative direction.
global view of the morphology and depends on On the whole, repartitions of positive and negative

Table I. Classical linear roughness coefficients measured on profiles parallel to the shear direction.

Profile RL Z2 Z3 8rcgrcssion
z=f(x)
S/x mm2 Z4

A B A B A B A B A B A B
I 1.029 1.029 0.251 0.246 0.547 0.608 1 59
0
1 63
0
0.108 0.092 0.089 0.190
2 1.030 1.031 0.249 0.254 0.528 0.551 0056 0064 0.281 0.286 0.111 0.220
3 1.033 1.033 0.263 0.264 0.597 0.581 -0074 -0076 0.327 0.321 -0.018 0.024
4 1.041 \ .036 0.300 0.283 0.611 0.521 0 05
0
0 02
0
0.585 0.552 0.057 0.101
5 1.022 1.030 0.212 0.254 0.448 0.56\ -1 88
0
-1 68
0
0.702 0.637 -0.017 0.048
6 1.042 1.043 0.300 0.306 0.556 0.590 -0034 -0037 0.493 0.485 0.136 0.103

248
angles can be considered as identical for wall A and
slightly more dispersed for wall B. Experimental 20 A)
colatitudes (82) for both walls are quite similar and
the mean fW> is 10.31 for wall A and 10.08 for wall
0 0

B while 8~-) is -11.910 and -12.490 for wall A and 8 Section


respectively. Also, from Table I, the parameters (prOfil~e
Facet
8rcgrcssion and residual variance S;.x indicate the trend
of the profiles to dip and the latter measures the part
of the elevations z that are not explained by the global Line of
reference T
"'-
8] I
dip of the fracture replica. The dipping trend of rue ang e
8,
profiles can indicate probable zones of contact where Apparenl angle

asperities may be damaged, particularly for the


profiles dipping towards the shear direction and
against the sense of shear displacement while, for B)
3.5
oppositc dipping, there will be a trend of the surfaces (IN l(Jc
to separate in creating voids between them. But these 1.0
3.0
situations depend also on asperities heights (CLA or
R¥S), profile roughness (RL), roughness dispersion '"••
~ 25
(S;.x) and other linear coefficients, So, looking at .c 0.75
o
one of them without taking into account informations 0.20
from the others can introduce large errors and biased '0'
informations on the morphology of the surfaces. ~ 0.5
Moreover, 20 roughness parameters are insufficient
o
•.
.~ 1.5

to describe adequately the joint wall surfaces 1.0


IllOllJhology changing from to point to point. 0.25
0.5
2.2 Statistical modelling in 3D of roughness
angularities o
10 20 30 40 50 60
Digitized profiles look like polygonal lines and a 3D Cotaliludes
polygonal surface results from a joint wall inter-
section wih a set of contiguous hexagonal prisms
K ~ RA I Model fh
orthogonal to the mean regional plane. Then, the WaliA 16.58 1.10 1.0634 13° 16°11
surface is subdivided into small facets, small enough WallB 15.08 1.25 1.0625 [ 13° 15'96
to be considered as planar (Fig. IA). Angles between
the normal to facets and z axis are the real colatitudes
A+B 12.06 1.65 1.0632 13° I 15°88
I
(83). As shear direction is parallel to the local mean
Figur-e I. AlDcfinitions of 02 and 03 and stercogrnphic projection showing
plane horizontal direction, it is assumed that 20 the dependence of 02 on 03 the direction of the vertical section plane; ll) 3D
colatitudes (82), measured in vertical planes in this reconstructed distributions and models for colatitudcs 83 with characteristics
of the filled models for 3D distribution.
direction, can represent any colatitude measured in a
plane perpendicular to the local mean plane. Using
classical method of 3D colatitude reconstruction
Exp (Kcos~83)
(Gentier 1986), inference of the 3D colatitudes distri- F(e3) = fl sin 03
butions is done (Fig. IB). The reconstructed distri- o Exp(Kt~)dt
butions are not strictly similar for each wall, like the Models derived from the fitting process are shown in
20 distributions. Then areal roughness (RA) is Figure IB with the parameters used and the charac-
computed from these distributions in order to teristics deduced for RA, the mode and the mean (83).
evaluate, by comparison, the reconstructed distribu- The most important result is that the 3D elementary
uons F(83) using RA values deri ved from a stereo- facets dip in any direction with a mean angle of 16°
logical method. The F(83) distributions being and this angle is obviously greater than the 20 mean
acceptable, then theoretical models must be fit to them angle of individual segments (Riss et al. 1995).
In order to have an expression useful for further These statistical analyses and deduced physical
developments such as a simulation of the fracture wall conditions of the joint walls permit to establish that a
Surfaces and for estimating RA. Inference is done perfect matching between the surfaces is highly
either by fitting the 3D empirical distribution derived improbable with the differential variation between
frOIll the 20 (82) distribution to a model or by filling walls dipping and roughness as well as between 20
the 20 experimental (82) to a 20 distribution from a and 3D colatitudes (82 and 83) or asperities slopes
3D model (Riss & Gentier 1989, 1990). The 3D distributions on both walls. Moreover, Gentier
mOdels used are generalized axial distributions: (1986), in its evaluation of voids between the joint

249
walls, has illustrated a series of profiles of both walls
adjusted together in which large void spaces and few
contact areas could be seen between them. 3D analy-
sis of enclosed void spaces between the fracture
surfaces to evaluate voids morphology, either by
statistical simulation or casting of voids, show also
few contact areas between joint surfaces (Gentier &
Riss 1990). These studies also show that most of the
contacts seem to be located on the slopes of asperities
and it even may happen that on particular profiles no
contact can be seen. Equally, an anisotropic joint
shear behavior with shear direction and sense may be
deduced from the previous analyses and be attributed
to the slight dip (5°) of the tested joint local mean
plane perpendicular to the shear direction used, the
dip variations of the profiles with the recorded direc-
tion, the variability in roughness of each joint wall
and the dissymmetry between the positive and nega-
tive colatitudes (82) on the profiles. Fi~urc 2. Example ofkrigcage of a joint surface based 011 an isotropic
spherical variogram model. ({lJler Gcnticr, /986)

2.3 Geostatistical analysis a/joint sur/aces

Even with all these quantitative statistical analyses and


the more sophisticated 3D statistical modelling and 3 JOINT SHEAR BEHAVIOR PHASES WITH
characterization of joint roughness angularities giving SHEAR DISPLACEMENT
a more realistic figure than the 2D statistical evalua-
tion, no spatial structural information is given 3.1 Direct shear testing and results
regarding asperities structures (shape, size, jogs,
waviness and others) for an adequate modelling of The direct shear test results come from a shear test
joint shear deformation and strength. Asperities spa- program (Flarnand et al. 1994) on joint replicas
tial distribution and shape on joint wall surfaces are submitted to three different constant normal stress (7,
not necessarily at random and the presence of super- 14 and 21 MPa). The 15 shear tests were performed
posed structures cannot be detected on 3D angularities and stopped at various shear displacements (0.35,
distribution (Fig. IB) and the presence of a major 0.55, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 rnrn) and the results are
structure like a jog showing high angularity (>45°), summarized in Figure 3. In Figure 3A the shear
this will not change appreciably the distribution stress-shear displacement-dilatancy relationships arc
shown. But the mechanical shear behavior will be recorded for the shear tests done. These results arc
greatly affected by this structure which will control plotted, for the main characteristics, in a Mohr
the joint shear strength and the related dilatancy diagram (upper part, Fig. 3B) while the lower
behavior. Various methods are available to do it and diagram shows the dilatancy rate (or angle) in relation
among them geostatistics with which variograms and with normal stress (ON)' These results are compared
variographic analysis of profiles permit to characterize with LA DAR model (Ladanyi & Archambault 1969)
the size of asperities structures (range) related to the for io values of 15° and 30° and with Barton's model
heights, curvature radii and angularity distributions (Barton 1973) for JRC values of 10 and 14, values
while krigeage modelling and simulation can restitute estimated with the Z2 coefficient in Table I (Tse &
the topographic surfaces (Fig. 2) (Gentier 1986; Cruden 1979). A good agreement between experi-
Gentier & Riss 1990). mental results and io values of LADAR model
As an example, the variograms analyses applied between 15° and 17° very near the mean ih value of
to heights, curvature and angularity statistical 16° (Fig. IB) evaluated statistically for the 3D
distributions on various samples of Gueret granite angularity of asperities on the joint surfaces. The
joint surfaces show at least two overlapping asperity same observation regarding dilatancy rate (or angle
structures: 4 to 6 rnrn and 18 to 20 mm, and also a dnr) behavior with the normal stress where dl~r took
large one (40 mm) causing a 5° dipping of the joint values of 14.1°,11.7° and 10.4° for ON = 7,14 and
plane sample. The chosen shear direction was 21 MPa respectively for very low ON/Oc (values
parallel to the principal structure, so that only the between 0.1 and 0.3). This also is in better
roughness morphology represented by the 3D agreement with the reconstructed 3D distribution of
colatitudes (83) distributions (Fig. IB) are controlling asperity angularity discussed in detail in Archambault
the joint shear behavior. et al. (1995). A compilation of peak dilation angles

250
and 1/(JN values from direct shear test results • Phase I: Elastic mobilization of shear stress by
performed on various rock joints by different workers friction, with the shear load gradual application from
(Barton 1973) including Barton's own results as well zero level causes a new closure (negative dilatancy).
as those from Ladanyi & Archambault (1980) on It results in an increase of the real contact area until
irregular tensile fractures and more in the last decade gross slippage is imminent and it may reach three
confirm a certain trend for io values to be between ISO times the initial static area without change in the
and 35° limits and for dnf, variation between 0° and normal load. However for any two surfaces, the final
25° at peak, was observed. area is a numerical constant times the initial area
developed with the normal load only, so that the
3.2 Shear behavior phases proportionality between both forces (shear and
normal) at the point of slipping is maintained, and this
The shear process and mechanisms of a joint with increase in contact area was called "junction growth"
irregular surfaces, on the basis of the previous by Tabor (1959). This phenomenon was indirectly
results, may be summarized in the following phases observed by an increase of induced interstitial
(Fig.3A): pressure (Poirier 1996) in this phase of shear
• Pre-phase: Normal loading on the mean shear displacement on joints. This phase of increasing
plane of the joint concentrates the normal stress on shear load give rise to a transfer of the stresses on
very few points (contact areas) with a normal closure asperities positive slopes defined by their angularity
depending on normal load magnitude and joint and friction is mobilized on their inclined planes and
surfaces asperities morphology well studied in the accompanied by their deformation.
literature (Goodman 1976; Gentier 1986; Bandis et al. • Phase 11: A non-linear shear stress-shear dis-
1981 ). placement-dilatancy hardening mobilization phase to

A B
35 35 Fairhurst

IV V
30 30 Ladar (i = 30)
l.adar (i = 15)

"'
~ 25
lJl
25 ~,,/' Barton (JRC = 14)
/ ..,< Barton (JRC = 10)
lJl
20 (JN3 (21 MPa) ,," .....
;/ Basic friction
e
Vi
:;; 15
'"
.c:
(J)
10
(JN2 (14 MPa)
fr;;~~i><!· : i',':m
5
(JNl (7 MPa)
?{
/)- .... .3.5 mm
I. ....
+ 5.0mm
o I I
o 1 234 5 -10 0 10 20 30
Shear displacement (mm) Normal stress (MPa)
30

25
60 III
IV V (JNI (7 MPa)
III dn
..,
N"
20
~ (JN2 (14 MPa)
>< 40 15
.sE
:..c 10
c:
'" 20 II-.
]1
Q 5
.... -v , --. ___ •
dnr al5 mm
__~I~placemenl
0- 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 10 20 30
Shear displacement (mm) Normal stress (MPa)

Figure 3. Direct shear lest results: A) shear srress-displnccrncnt-dilntancy relationships and U) calculated peak strength envelopes ami dilatancy
variation with normal stress according 10 models and test results.

251
peak shear stress with increasing dilatancy rate, Asperities with lower angularity are creating voids by
decreasing area of contact on the joint plane separation of the two surfaces of the joint in thesc
depending on aN, increasing contact normal stress on areas and the increase in void spaces depends on dila-
it, in addition to friction on the Facets slope of asperi- tancy rate. The selection process of asperities angu-
ties involved, till failure occurs. larity in Friction on the distribution is done by the
• Phase III: Peak shear stress (or shear strength) normal stress magnitude, as illustrated alternatively
phase, following a behavior between constant peak by aN = aNa < aNb < aNe < aNd and by the curve
displacement and constant stiffness models aN/ae giving an hypothetical magnitude variation in
(Goodman 1976) in relation with aN, at maximum relation with angularity density of probabilities (Fig.
dilatancy rate with more or less asperities failure and IB), that depends on angularity statistical distribution
reincreasing contact areas with aN. This phase was model used and on asperities structures at different
well studied and a large number of models were scales. The 3D colatitudes (83) distribution show for
formulated to predict joint shear strength. 83 ~ 30° a very low density of asperities having these
• Phase TV: Progressive softening phase of angularities so that their failure will occur at extremely
unstable yielding with a progressive degradation of low normal stress. As observed From results (Fig.
asperities on the joint surfaces by microfracturing, 3), normal stress as low as aN < 0.1 ac (-7 MPa)
crushing, ploughing, identation or asperities failure at already show shear strength corresponding to io
the base (for high aN); a decreasing shear stress values near 83 mean = 16° corroborated by dilatancy
towards residual strength under a given shear stress angle dl~r == 14°_15°. So, to mobilize 83 value (or io)
gradient (softening modulus) with increasing contact beyond the mean (83 > 16°) in friction, without
area, releasing the highly concentrated contact normal asperities failure, need lowest normal stress (aN <
stresses towards the joint mean normal stress; dila- 0.05 ac or less than 4 MPa). These low o-, values
tancy still increasing at reduced rate for low to are almost the rule from literature experimental results
moderate aN values. of direct shear test on joint and this correspond to a
• Phase V: Residual strength phase of stable certain range of stress level observed in the design of
sliding in which shear and normal stresses are rela- workings in jointed rock masses.
tively stable on a large surface of contact but degrada- Such conditions do not permit to observe all the
tion on the joint surfaces is still operating with shear mechanisms related to joints shear behavior. This
displacements by ploughing, wear, friction and means that at a given very low normal stress
grinding of asperities and particles on the joint shear (aN :s;0.05 ae), io values selected in Friction will be
plane to produce gouge material filling valleys and 83 ~ 30°, almost no asperities will be sheared off',
troughs so that the area of contact trends towards friction and dilation will be the only mechanisms.
mean shear plane area. Dilatancy may still be present Shear strength will be given by Patton's model
but at a very reduced rate for low to very low oj, (1966) or LADAR's model (Ladanyi & Archambault
values but will disappear with shear displacement. 1969) in which the sheared area ratio as == 0 and i = io
corresponding to the 83 colatitudes selected.
Increasing aN to higher values (0.05 ac < aN < 0.3
4 rMPLICA TIONS OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS
ad in which the values tested are, mobilize in Friction
lower io values near 83 mean == 16° with usually an
ON JOINT FRICTIONAL MECHANISMS
increasing proportion of asperities sheared off at peak
proportional to aN/ad ratio. Further increments (aN
4.1 Selecting process of asperities angularity in > 0.3 ad must lower io values mobilized in friction
friction and failure below mean (16°) and mode (13°) progressively with
aN/aC increasing very rapidly towards transition
The normal stress magnitude (aN) is the main stress (1.0). This behavior is for asperities
selecting factor of asperities angularity in the simulta- distribution at random on the joint mean plane without
neous friction and failure mechanisms on asperities of the presence of major structures such as jogs, steps or
the joint surfaces during the shear process. As others with high angularity not detected in the
shown in Figure IB, under a given normal stress (say distribution, then all the shear process will be
for exemple aN = aNb), asperities within a restricted controlled by these structures even if their colatitude
domain of angularity, depending on the joint surfaces 83 > 30°. The limits given by the LADAR model of
asperities angularity distribution, their structures and io value between 15° and 30° are only indicative, the
contact areas, are mobilized in friction and their angu- model was developed for regular sawtooth planar
larity control the rate or angle of dilatancy in the shear asperities for one angularity distribution of teeth on
process on the joint plane. Asperities with higher the mean joint plane and full contact between the joint
angularity than the range of those mobilized in friction wall surfaces. There is major differences in behavior
are deformed and sheared off for very small shear between these joint planes and irregular joint
displacement and show frictional behavior thereafter. surfaces.

252
4.2 Contact and damaged areas and their variation are evaluated in relation with the normal stress, for
with normal stress and shear displacement given shear displacement.
In general, there is an increasing degradation of
Contact area between irregular joint plane surfaces, surfaces asperities by damage area extension with
after normal loading, is quite small in regards with the increasing roughness, normal stress and particularly
total joint area (Gentier 1986). Phase I of friction with shear displacement. The analysis can produce a
linear mobilization with the raising shear load slight underestimation of the damaged zones because
increases the contact area (Tabor 1959) by a factor as of gouge sticking from one wall to the other without
large as three times, as stated previously, while change in color or by transfer of material without
mobilization of dilatancy in phase II reduces it crushing. From the analysis of results (Fig. 4), the
progressively to peak shear strength corresponding to sequence of joint wall degradation may be summa-
around 0.55 rnm of shear displacement. Following rized as follow: first, for a given normal stress,
this scenario the post-peak phases will show a material from superficial parts of one wall is broken
progressive degradation of the joint wall surfaces. To away and crushed with shear displacement during
quantify asperities degradation on the joint wall which the number of these deteriorating parts
surfaces, after each shear test performed on the fifteen increased and the size of the degradation zones
samples, an image analysis was undertaken on the enlarged both depending on stress level. As normal
thirty images (15 replicas and 2 images per replica) stress increased gouged material is crushed more
and the geometrical characteristics of the damaged densely and sticked plastically on the surfaces with a
zones are measured: shape, size, position and/or transfer of material from one wall to the other. The
orientation. The whole process is detailed in Riss et anisotropy of the joint surfaces morphology show
al. (1996). The damaged areas being defined, it was degradation zones location depending on shear direc-
Possible, with the sequence of five shear tests (for a tion. After 5 mm of shear displacement and in rela-
given normal stress) stopped at different shear tion with the applied normal stress (7, 14 and 21
displacement, to analyze the evolution of the damaged MPa) the total damaged area evaluated, combining the
areas with shear displacement under constant normal degraded zones of both walls (upper and lower) is at
stress (Fig. 4). Also the evolution of damaged areas most 23%, 33% and 58% respectively. With

7 MPA 21 MPA

50

40
tel
Ql
:;: 30
Ql
Cl
tel 7 M~a.
c:
tel 20
c
"g0
Walls
10 % Area sheared
Upper: --
Lower: -----
0
0 2 3 4 5
Displacement (mill)

Figure 4. Proportion of damaged area evaluated 011 Lipper and lower joint walls for an ::: 7, 14, 21 MPa and illustrated for three shear
displacements (0.55 111111,2 mill, 5 nun).

253
increasing shear displacement, the damaged zones are Gentier S. 1986. Morphologie et comportement
extending from the initial ones and by linking them to hydrornecanique d'une fracture naturelle dans Ie
become larger zones nearly perpendicular to shear granite sous contrainte normale; etude experimen-
direction. More details on areas of damaged zones tale et theorique. Documents du BRGM n° 134,
and on position, orientation and spatial correlation BRGM, Orleans, France, 597 p.
Gentier S. & Riss J. 1990. Quantitative description
between upper and lower damaged areas are
and modelling of joints morphology. Rock
discussed in Riss et al. (1996).
Joints: 375-382. Barton & Stephansson (eds).
Observed sheared area proportions at peak shear Rotterdam: Balkema.
strength (phase III) are extremely low, between 2 and Goodman R.E. 1976. Methods of Geological
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Myer L.R., Tsang CF., Cook N.G.W. & Goodman
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stress of around 700 MPa (or 8 ac) an irrelevant ment de la pression interestitielle et de son
value. More appropriate values related to aN::; 2ac influence sur Ie comportement physico-rnecani-
means contact areas between 5 and 15%, so the que d'un materiau poreux intact ou fracture par
difference must be in friction giving no damaged area essais triaxiaux non draines. Unpublished M.Sc.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Acta Steorol 8: 677-682.
Riss J. & Gentier S. 1990. Angularity of a natural
This is a BRGM contribution n° 94059; this work
fracture. Proc. lilt. Con]. on Mech. of Jointed
was financially supported by a BRGM research pro-
and Faulted Rock, Rossmanith P. (Ed.),
ject, an NSERC of Canada research grant and an Balkema, pp. 399-406.
NSERC graduate student followship. Riss J., Gentier S., Archambault G., Flamand R. &
Sirieix C 1995. A reevaluation of irregular joint
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