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1))design stage …1 Preliminary design  3))Approximate quantities cost 5))Appendix A – Scope of services to be furnished.

2 Final design plan (from the end of detailed Appendix B – Assigned resources.
3 Cost re-evaluation or value engineering design through to tender). Appendix C – Remuneration and payment
4 Construction documents and bid Schedules.
 Pre-tender estimate (prepared *Conditions regarding general provisions.
specifications… alongside tender documentation).
design activity Design is the fundamental *Conditions regarding commencement,
 Tender pricing document (strictly completion and alteration of agreement.
activity which commences with a market need
speaking this is not a priced *Conditions regarding postponement and
and the activity is completed when the
document, but is part of the tender termination of agreement.
resulting product is satisfactorily delivered.
documentation issued to *Conditions regarding rights and duties of the
Need  economic existence  prepared to
the contractor for pricing). consulting engineer
pay the price.
(Ex. Demand for private hospitals  investors  Contract sum (agreed with *Conditions regarding liability of the
can make a profit  design & construct) the contractor during
the tender period and adjusted consulting engineer.
The purpose of the construction industry is to
provide products arising from some human during the construction period). *Conditions regarding the obligations of the
need.  Contract sum analysis (a break down client.
Core Phases of Design Activity of the contract sum prepared by *Conditions regarding settlement of disputes.
**Market investigation phase.**Product brief the contractor on design and *Conditions regarding personnel.
phase.**Conceptualphase.**Detail build projects). *Conditions regarding remuneration of the
phase**Construction phase.*Use phase.  Final account (agreed during Consulting Engineer.
Conceptual design is the earliest phase of the the defects liability period). *Conditions regarding payments to the
building design process and commences with a Consultancy agreement Consulting Engineer.
MANAGEMENT OF QUALITY IN CONSTRUCTION
set of initial concepts. Keeping in mind that Services, Time andAvailability.confidentiality,
Standard of Conduct, Outside Services. Three ways of managing quality
there is no single solution with optimal
Reports. IndependentContractor,Taxes, Benefi  Prevention – quality assurance
performance with respect to al1 requirements
 Inspection – quality control
due to the fact there are conflicting objective ts, Compensation Reimbursement. TERM AND
TERMINATION Term.Termination.
 Failure – no checks on quality
criteria, designers must evaluate different
competing criteria with the view to achieve a Responsibility upon Termination. Survival. failure
CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION, Obligation of  No checks are made on quality.
good compromise design. That is, the selection
Confidentiality.  Non compliant products are allowed
of a suitable solution involves making
Definition. Property of the Company. to come out of production line.
subjective compromises between confiicting
RIGHTS AND DATA,Conflict of  Rectification will be late and
objective criteria. The conceptual design phase
Interest. Non-Solicitation. RIGHT TO expensive.
involves making decisions that can have the
INJUNCTIVE RELIE, GENERAL Inspection
maximum influence on the final design and
PROVISIONS., Construction of Terms, *Inspections use observation, measurement,
project cost. One study suggested that as much
Governing Law, Complete Agreement. testing and judgment to evaluate conformity.
as 80% of the total resources required to
Dispute Resolution,Modification. Waiver of *Inspection results are compared with
constmct a building are comrnitted by the
Breach.Successors and Assigns. No Conflict. specified requirements in order to establish
decisions made in the first 10% of the design
whether conformity has been achieved – check
process. Bid evaluation
Small / Medium size projects. for compliance.
Schematic Design: An initial design
*Completeness of the tender. Product inspections compare product
scheme that seeks to define the general scope
*Conformity with the instructions to tenderers. characteristics with product requirements in
and conceptual design of the project including
order to evaluate conformity
scale and relationships between building *Conformity with the specifications and
components. At the end of the drawings. Prevention
*Arithmetical correctness. *Preventive actions are steps that are taken to
schematic design phase the architect will
*Contractors qualifications and experience. remove the causes of potential
present some very rough sketches to the owner
nonconformities or potential situations that are
for approval. *Accuracy of unit rates.
Evaluation of tenders for large and complex undesirable.
Project brief is the final stage in the process
projects should be done with respect to *The preventive action process is designed to
of defining the client's requirements for the
contractual, technical and financial aspects. prevent the occurrence of nonconformities or
development of a built asset: The statement of
situations that do not yet exist. It tries to
need is the first attempt to describe the *Contractual – Conformity with instructions to
tenderers and completeness of tender, validity prevent occurrence by eliminating causes.
possible requirements of the project.
*While corrective actions prevent recurrence,
 A description of the client of tender, insurance, administrative experience
preventive actions prevent occurrence. Both
 Site information etc. should be considered.
types of actions are intended to prevent
 Spatial requirements *Technical – Confirmation with specifications
nonconformities.
 Technical requirements and drawings, alternative offers, construction
*In general, the preventive action process can
 Component requirements method, temporary works, programme, sub
contracted work, construction plant & be thought of as a risk analysis process.
 Project requirements and other issues Corrective action
Activiy model equipment etc. should be considered.
*Financial – Bonds, guarantees, daywork rates *Identify the reason for non-conformance to
Map of the activities that make up a process prevent recurrences. Any non-conformity upon
and showing their interconnections and and any other financial matters should be
considered. being reviewed may be:
interactions, inputs and outputs, types of *Reworked to meet the specified requirements
resources assigned, and the nature and extent Inspection and test procedures
*Slump test before leaving the batching plant *Accepted with or without rectification subject
of constraints and controls. An as-is model to client approval
maps the current process without the and on arrival on site- for example the slump
of approved concrete design mix for your Rejected or scrapped and disposed off
suggested improvements, and a to-be model QA-All actions taken to ensure that standards
maps the process with the improvements suspended slab is 150 mm +/- 25. It means that
the drop of concrete after the slump cone is and procedures are followed to and that
implemented. delivered products or services meet
Following FEED is the Detailed Design removed should not be more than 175 mm nor
less than 125 mm performance requirements.
(Detailed Engineering) phase, which may *Examples of quality assurance include
consist of procurement of materials as well. -*-Compressive strength test- Three samples
process checklists and project audits as well.
This phase further elaborates each aspect of of cubes or cylinders shall be taken for
compressive strength test, but it is not *The auditor being able to tell if the
the project/product by complete description deliverable seems acceptable based on the
through solid modeling, drawings as well commonly three samples, sometimes it is two
process used to create it (quality assurance).
as specifications. depend on the specification.
Quality Assurance is the process that no matter
Some example specifications to be finalized *-Water Permeability test
A water permeability test is one of the tests to the complex the program; defects can be easily
may include:[2] fixed to ensure quality later when truly Quality
determine the durability of concrete. Three
 Operating parameters cubes shall be taken from fresh concrete and should be designed into the product

2)) 4))tested in accordance to the German 6))QC-Quality control refers to the process,
 Operating and nonoperating Standard DIN 1048 at 28 days age. This kind most often implemented in manufacturing, of
environmental stimuli of test shall be taken from substructures monitoring the quality of finished products
 Test requirements concrete elements like foundations, concrete through measures and an overall corporate
water tank, retaining wall etc. commitment to producing defect-free
 External dimensions
*- Rapid Chloride Ion Penetration Test products.
 Maintenance and testability Like water permeability test, this is also one of Quality Control refers to quality related
provisions the tests to determine the durability of activities associated with the creation of
 Materials requirements concrete. Three cubes shall be taken from project deliverables. Quality control is used to
 Reliability requirements fresh concrete delivered on site and tested at verify that deliverables are of acceptable
 External surface treatment 28 days age. The test shall be done in quality and that they are complete and correct.
 Design life accordance to ASTM C1202-97. Examples of quality control activities include
* Water Absorption Test deliverable peer reviews and the testing
 Packaging requirements
Here is the other test that would determine the process.
 External marking durability of concrete. The three cube sample ISO 9000 is a quality management standard
The information inputs into the core phase shall be taken from the delivered fresh that presents guidelines intended to increase
are very vital and are dependent on the concrete and kept it in the curing tank for 28 business efficiency and customer satisfaction.
specific area of engineering. days or after 24 hours the concrete sample The goal of ISO 9000 is to embed a quality
 **Legislation – needs to comply with the would be demoulded and it will be sent management system within an organization,
rules and regulations enforced by various directly to the approved third party laboratory increasing productivity, reducing unnecessary
authorities concerned. to ensure its curing. The size of cube sample is costs, and ensuring quality of processes and
 **Economics–Financial aspects of the 150 mm and tested in accordance to BS 1881- products.
project. 122. Advantages-Increased marketability, Reduced
**Soil Mechanics–This information is The elemental cost plan is a detailed cost operational expenses, Better management
required for the design of foundations etc. plan which is broken down into a series of control—Increased customer satisfaction—
**Hydraulics–For water retaining structures elements. Initially, the elemental cost plan will Improved internal communication—Improved
etc. simply be the total construction cost for the customer service—Reduction of product-
**Structures – This information is required to project divided into elements on a percentage liability risks—Attractiveness to investors—
analyze for stresses. basis. As the design becomes more detailed ISO 9000 DOCS The documentation required
The needs of clients can be separated into however, the elemental cost plan will be to effectively operate a business and to satisfy
three distinct categories 'measured', based on the actual quantities of ISO 9000 requirements consist of a Quality
 Time requirements. work and materials that will be required to Policy Manual, Procedures, Work Instructions,
 Cost requirements. construct the project.The design of elements and Records. A company that fulfills these
 Quality requireme maybe controlled by a theoretical cost requirements enhance chances for success in
Factors relate with project cost allocation to a particular element, based on their business operations. By following the ISO
the project, scale and scope of construction, previous experience. 9000 standards, along with having a good
market conditions, method of construction, site *Initial cost appraisals*feasibility company policy toward quality, procedures
constraints, client's financial position, study *Elemental cost plan* project
buildability and location of the project. that tell what will be done and who will do it,
brief* detailed design).*Approximate work instructions to assure consistency of
Analysis of variance, which tests the null quantities cost plan detailed
hypothesis that the opinions of the four operations, and solid record-keeping, a
design to tender).*Pre-tender estimate along company can enhance its chances for success.
categories of companies are not significantly side tender documentation).*Tenderpricing
different, shows that except for the the purpose of internal audit is to
document *Contract sum .*Contract sum determine whether the quality management
procurement route and contractual analysis *Final account, should consider
arrangement factor there is no difference of system conforms to the planned arragement to
* Inflation.*Professionalfees the requirement of the international standard and
opinion, at the 5% significance level, on the .*VAT.*Client contingency.*Statutory ees. to the quality management system requirements
factors influencing cost estimating. Further Lifecycle costing established by the organisation and is effectively
analysis, based on a factor analysis technique, implemented and maintanined
shows that the variables could be grouped into To control the quality system and make sure that
seven factors; the most important factor everyone is working propeply. With the audit you
grouping being project complexity followed can ckeck every departments work and how the
by technological requirements, project people react in difficult situation. Also you can
information, project team requirement, check the training of the workers and what
improvments you can make to save hours and
contract requirement, project duration and, increase your gain and your quality
finally, market requirement. Document Control
The cost planning process consists A construction company needs to keep following
essentially of three phases: documents – Quality Management System
*..The first of these involves the establishment Documents, Project Specific Documents,
of a realistic first estimate (Preliminary Generally, cost of a project includes costs up Supporting Technical Documents
Approximate Estimate) to completion of construction including,  Approving & issuing documents – keep a
*..The second stage plans how this estimate  Land acquisition master list of current documents & check
should be spent among the various parts or  Development documents before issuing
 Design (architectural & structural)  Modifying & changing documents – keep track
elements of the project (Cost Plan) of any changes
 Construction
Cost plans are generally prepared by cost This does not reflect the overall cost of the Inernal Qualiy Audit
consultants (often quantity surveyors). They Conducted to monitor the firms effective
project over its entire life span. implementation of the quality management system
evolve through the life of the project,
Total cost of a project should include cost to by the staff
developing in detail and accuracy as more
construct, operate, maintain and replace a  Carried out at regular intervals
information becomes available about the
facility or a system for a specified life time –  Results helpful to identify follow-up or
nature of the design, and then actual prices are
‘Life Cycle Cost’ corrective actions
provided by specialist Benefits of ISO 9000
contractors, contractors and suppliers: *Reduced number of defects – reduction of costs
 Initial cost appraisals (studies of options *Increased customer satisfaction
prepared during the feasibility *Increased marketability
study stage). FIDIC consultancy agreement *Consistency in output
An agreement consists of, *Factual approach to decision making
 Elemental cost plan (prepared during *Form of Agreement – formal signed agreement. *Assured customer / market share
the project brief stage and carried through *General Conditions of Agreement (Part I) – *Involvement of personnel and consequent higher
to detailed design). conditions generally applicable. productivity
*Conditions of Particular Application (Part II) – *Improved internal communication
 takes account of the circumstances and locality.  Environmental benefits - help reduce
*Appendices – negative impacts on the environment
 Attractiveness to investors
Access to new markets by preventing trade barriers