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Running head: PLANNING, PREPARATION, INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSMENT 1

Planning, Preparation, Instruction and Assessment of Learners

Regent University

Tiffany Crisp

In partial fulfillment of UED 495 Field Experience ePortfolio, Spring 2018


Running head: PLANNING, PREPARATION, INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSMENT 2

Introduction

My job as a teacher is to give my students the best education that I can. I do this through

detailed planning, thoughtful preparation, effective instruction and standard of learning (SOL)

aligned assessments. All of these parts of teaching are crucial to setting your students up to be

successful. In the following reflection, I will be unpacking these four components (planning,

preparation, instruction, assessment) of efficient lessons and maximum learning.

Rational for Artifacts

Pre-Assessment and Post-Assessment-

The first artifacts I highlighted are the pre and post assessments I gave to my second-

grade class. These assessments were used in the time unit. The pre-assessment was used to gauge

where the students’ prior knowledge was on the time content. The pre-assessment focused on a

few specific areas: differentiation of the hands on a clock, matching alike clock times, and

differentiating am and pm. Although the students didn’t need to know the difference between

a.m. and p.m. times for the post-assessment, this information was used to tell me if they

understood that there were two 12-hour rotations in one 24-hour day. I used the pre-assessment

to group students into varying small groups (low, medium and high) in order to give the students,

the specific instruction they needed based on what they already knew.

The post-assessment was the assessment given by the VDOE to use for testing the

students on their knowledge of time. If you look at the chart that depicts before and after results

from the pre and post assessment, you will see that all the students improved from their pre-

assessment with all but one student achieving proficient or better. After grading the post-

assessments, I discovered that I needed to keep working with only one of my students with time.

All of my other students achieved proficient or better.


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Pre-Assessment
Running head: PLANNING, PREPARATION, INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSMENT 4

Post-Assessment

Quantitative “Time” Unit Results-

After I assessed the students with a pre-assessment on time, I recorded their results in a

chart so I could track how effectively I was teaching my lesson and how much the students were

learning. I also recorded the scores of the post-assessment to compare scores of learning. I

discovered that my students greatly improved from where they started at which means that I

taught thoroughly and successfully on time. I scored the students two ways on each assessment

in order for me to see improvement. I scored the number of questions they got correct along with

the letter grade (“N” meaning “Needs Improvement;” “DP” meaning “Developing Proficiency;”

“P” meaning “Proficient;” and “AP” meaning “Advanced Proficiency”). The names are blacked

out for privacy reasons.


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Reflection

Before starting any lesson or new unit, the most important tool to use first and foremost

are the SOL’s and District learning objectives. The unit planning process needs to start with the

standards and then can move into the content level and how teachers are going to teach the

content.
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“Assessment is considered to be a critical component in the process of teaching and

learning as it enables educators to evaluate student learning and utilize the information to

improve learning and instruction” (Calveric, 2011). Through pre-assessments and post-

assessments, teachers can “evaluate performance” of students to better implement

“improvements” in the classroom. “Evaluating performance is not only a powerful predictive

tool; it can also help guide improvements in interventions for all kinds of disciplines” (Tesch,

2016). In addition to using the formal assessments, I also used exit tickets during the unit to help

understand what my students were understanding and what they weren’t. The pre-assessment and

exit tickets directly drove how I facilitated instruction.

Because most of my students were at varying levels of understanding of time, I taught the

time lessons primarily in small groups. I had one group who didn’t know how to tell any time,

didn’t know the difference between a.m. and p.m. and couldn’t tell the difference between the

minute and hour hand. On the other end of the spectrum, I had one group who need some

clarification on time specific vocabulary, but the rest they understood. As a result, I spent most

of my time with the students who struggled more with time and challenged the students who had

an advanced level of understanding of time.

In the small groups, I used hands on instructional methods to help my students succeed.

Studies have showed that students do better and learn better when they are involved in their

learning and are engaged rather than just listening. I used small manipulative clocks for each of

my students in the groups and asked them to show me varying times and asked them why they

think the time they made is correct. The students all made great progress and improved greatly

with the small group instruction rather than whole group instruction. I was able to meet the needs
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of each individual learner in the small groups which is why the pre-assessment was crucial for

effective student learning.

Conclusion

In conclusion, students benefit most from effective teaching. To have the most effective

teaching, teachers need to carefully plan the unit, spend time preparing, interactively engage

learners in instruction and assess students on their learning before, during and after the

instruction is given for a new unit.


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References

Calveric, S. B. (2011). Elementary Teachers' Assessment Beliefs and Practices. Ricmond:

ProQuest.

Tesch, A. (2016). Implementing Pre-Post Test Designs in Higher Education Evaluations. New

Directions for Evaluation.