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Lesson Plan for Implementing

NETS•S—Template I
(More Directed Learning Activities)
Template with guiding questions
Name Kurt Doehrman

Position Teacher

School/District North Oconee High School/Oconee County Schools

E-mail kdoehrm1@students.kennesaw.edu

Phone 678-485-0201

Grade Level(s) 12th Grade

Content Area Economics

Time line Two Weeks (10 Days)

Standards (What do you want students to know and be able to do? What knowledge, skills, and strategies do you
expect students to gain? Are there connections to other curriculum areas and subject area benchmarks? ) Please
put a summary of the standards you will be addressing rather than abbreviations and numbers that indicate which
standards were addressed.

At the conclusion of this project, students will have a number of targeted understandings.
Students will understand that rational decision-making helps people make wise choices.
Additionally, students will understand that monetary and fiscal policies can have an impact
on an individual’s spending and saving choices. Students will understand that using credit
can have both positive and negative effects on present and future economic well-being.
Furthermore, students will understand that insurance and risk management can help
protect one against financial loss. Lastly, students will understand that a worker’s earnings
are determined by the marketplace.

SSEPF1 The student will apply rational decision making to personal spending and saving
SSEPF3 The student will explain how changes in monetary and fiscal policy can have an
impact on an individual’s spending and saving choices.
SSEPF4 The student will evaluate the costs and benefits of using credit.
SSEPF5 The student will describe how insurance and other risk-management strategies
protect against financial loss.
SSEPF6 The student will describe how the earnings of workers are determined in the
Content Standards marketplace.

ISTE Standard 3 Knowledge Constructor Students critically curate a variety of resources

using digital tools to construct knowledge, produce creative artifacts and make meaningful
learning experiences for themselves and others. The tools used to achieve this standard
will include a variety of online, digital and Web 2.0 tools such as: a blog (Weebly), Google
NETS*S Standards: Apps for Education, Prezi, screencasting and other visual generators.

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Overview (a short summary of the lesson or unit including assignment or expected or possible products)

This project will be completed in the weeks following the End-of-Course Milestone assessment for Economics.
Students will have already learned the content for the “Personal Finance Unit,” and this project will serve as
their final assessment for the unit and class. Working as individuals or in partners, students will complete a
realistic annual budget for their household. Students will analyze data and form conclusions about the
relationship between education and income. Students will be randomly assigned occupations and their
accompanying salaries and will be expected to accurately calculate their monthly revenue and expenditures.
The project will be worth 75 points and the graded components will include:
1. Budget - Google Spreadsheet (individual or partner)
2. Blog Post (individual)
3. Screencast Presentation (individual)
4. Overall Effort

Essential Questions (What essential question or learning are you addressing? What would students care or
want to know about the topic? What are some questions to get students thinking about the topic or generate
interest about the topic? Additionally, what questions can you ask students to help them focus on important
aspects of the topic? (Guiding questions) What background or prior knowledge will you expect students to bring
to this topic and build on?) Remember, essential questions are meant to guide the lesson by provoking inquiry.
They should not be answered with a simple “yes” or “no” and should have many acceptable answers.

• How can a rational plan for decision-making in spending and saving help achieve future goals?
• How do changes in tax rates and interest rates respectively affect individual’s spending and saving
• How can the use of credit impact an individual’s financial health?
• Why do individuals carry different types of insurance?
• How will varying degrees of knowledge, skills and abilities affect earnings?

Assessment (What will students do or produce to illustrate their learning? What can students do to generate new
knowledge? How will you assess how students are progressing (formative assessment)? How will you assess
what they produce or do? How will you differentiate products?) You must attach copies of your assessment and/or
rubrics. Include these in your presentation as well.

Students will illustrate an understanding of fiscal responsibility and the ability to make rational decisions that will
prepare them for unpredictable economic and financial situations. Students will discover new knowledge
through researching online resources, interviewing their parents/guardians, and budgeting trial/error. Students
will be assessed on their budget (either google doc or google spreadsheet), blog posting, and visual
presentation (screencast, Google Slides, Prezi, Video, etc). I will assess student progress through observation
(access to their google budget), asking questions and providing feedback. The student products will be
assessed using a teacher created rubric, as provided below. Products will be differentiated through students
having the freedom of choice in regards to the platform they would like to use for their budget chart or
spreadsheet and their method of presenting their attained knowledge. Students will have a choice to visually
present their budgets using a screencast (5-10 minutes), Google Slides, Prezi, or video.

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3 2 1 Weight
• All items are filled in with • Numbers not
accurate/realistic numbers. researched/accurate.
• Spreadsheet is
• Math is correct and all • Some items missing or
MOSTLY incomplete.
expenses stayed within incomplete
Spreadsheet • Income restraints totally X7
income. • Math is incorrect on parts.
• Visual of budget is posted to • Did not stay within income
blog. restraints.

• Blog post explains details not

found in spreadsheet (type of
• Blog post does not
car, type of residence,
mention incentives.
entertainment expenses etc). • Blog post lacks major details
• Blog post only
Blog Post • Blog post ALSO explains the or vaguely explains incentives. X7
discusses items found in
role of incentives when • 1-2 grammatical errors
the budget spreadsheet.
creating a budget.
• 2+ grammatical errors
• Blog post is free of spelling
and grammatical errors.
• Both partners had speaking
parts explaining major part of
the project.
• Presentation included • One partner presented.
discussion of income, major • Presentation left out important
Visual Presentation expenses, and overall lifestyle details or required number of • Presentation did not
(Screencast, Google X7
Slides, Prezi, or video)
AND SOURCES OF INFO. months. include any major details.
• At least 3 different months • Visuals did not relate to
were explained. presentation or to spreadsheet.
• Visuals used during the
presentation related directly to
• Little effort
• Realistic numbers, evidence of
outside research.
• Mostly realistic numbers • Project apparently
• Prepared for presentation,
demonstrating some research. thrown together last
• Took project seriously by
Overall Effort • At times not on task/did not minute. X4
asking relevant questions,
take project seriously. • Continually making
taking time to plan out realistic
• Not prepared for presentation. unrealistic or silly
• ALWAYS on task in class!
• Often off task.
Resources (How does technology support student learning? What digital tools, and resources—online student
tools, research sites, student handouts, tools, tutorials, templates, assessment rubrics, etc—help elucidate or
explain the content or allow students to interact with the content? What previous technology skills should students
have to complete this project?)

All information transferring from teacher to student regarding this project will be delivered through use of
Google Classroom and will utilize tools such as Google Docs and Google Sheets. The three student handouts
attached below (p.4-6) will be available for students to reference and the two pages of careers/salaries and
unanticipated events (p. 7-8) will be drawn out of a hat. The student handouts include a rubric, instructions, a
budget template and vocabulary descriptions. Students will complete this project in a computer lab equipped
with student desktops, Chromebooks, iPads and web cameras. They are encouraged to use content
knowledge provided by their parents/guardians, and they may also obtain information regarding expenditures
from various online resources like https://www.census.gov. Students will already be equipped with the
necessary skills to use Google Apps for Education and will be provided tutorials on how to create a screencast,
if they chose this option for their visual presentation.

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Annual Budget Project

In this project you and a partner will complete a realistic annual budget based on assigned incomes. There are
three graded sections to the project and the overall point value is 75 points. Requirements for the project are as
1. You MUST stay within your income. You are not allowed to purchase on credit in this simulation. Assume that you
will make all of your purchases this year. For example, if you wish to buy a used car to avoid payments, when will you
do that? Here are the ONLY things you may ASSUME you already own OR your residence will come equipped with:

2 Beds w/ sheets, linens, pillows etc; 1 television/TV stand; 1 DVD player; 1 personal computer, your current wardrobes,
basic pots/pans, dishwasher, refrigerator, microwave, oven, basic couches/furnishings, your current cell phone (IF YOU are
going to continue paying the service)

2. You must have ONE completely filled-in collaborative Google spreadsheet or a chart using Google docs. You also
must write a blog post where you explain your budget spreadsheet. Not all of the spaces on the spreadsheet have to be
filled in, but if you choose, for example, not to have a car, you must explain how you will travel in your blog post.
Your blog post should include the details of your life like what TYPE of residence you will live in, what kind of car
you will have, etc. REALISM IS IMPORTANT!!!!!! If you’re not sure if you’re being realistic, ASK!!! Parents,
teachers, etc. can all be helpful. Finally, in your last section, explain the role of incentives when making a budget.
3. Use the “Description of Categories” page to help you with your decisions.
4. You will present your budget to the class through your visual presentation. Choose AT LEAST 3 different months
that have different expenses and explain why. The rubric below tells you what you need to include in your presentation.

Have fun with this, but be serious too. Research, ask parents, friends, teachers what they pay for these items to get an
idea of what real living expenses are. The more realistic your budget the better!

3 2 1 Weight
• All items are filled in with accurate/realistic • Numbers not researched/accurate. • Spreadsheet is MOSTLY
numbers. • Some items missing or incomplete incomplete.
• Math is correct and all expenses stayed within • Math is incorrect on parts. • Income restraints totally
Spreadsheet income. • Did not stay within income restraints. ignored. X7
• Visual of budget is posted to blog.

• Blog post explains details not found in spreadsheet • Blog post lacks major details or vaguely • Blog post does not mention
(type of car, type of residence, entertainment explains incentives. incentives.
expenses etc). • 1-2 grammatical errors • Blog post only discusses items
Blog Post • Blog post ALSO explains the role of incentives found in the budget spreadsheet. X7
when creating a budget. • 2+ grammatical errors
• Blog post is free of spelling and grammatical errors.

• Both partners had speaking parts explaining major • One partner presented. • Presentation did not include any
part of the project. • Presentation left out important details or major details.
• Presentation included discussion of income, major required number of months.
Visual expenses, and overall lifestyle AND SOURCES OF • Visuals did not relate to presentation or
Presentation INFO. to spreadsheet.
(Screencast, • At least 3 different months were explained. X7
Google Slides, • Visuals used during the presentation related directly
Prezi, or Video) to topic.

• Realistic numbers, evidence of outside research. • Mostly realistic numbers demonstrating • Little effort demonstrated.
• Prepared for presentation, some research. • Project apparently thrown
• Took project seriously by asking relevant questions, • At times not on task/did not take project together last minute.
Overall taking time to plan out realistic expenses. seriously. • Continually making unrealistic
• ALWAYS on task in class! • Not prepared for presentation. or silly comments. X4
Effort • Often off task.

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YEARLY BUDGET SHEET Names:_____________________________________
Occupation 1:________________ Pre-Tax Income:_____________ After Tax Income (Pre-Tax X .70):___________
Occupation 2:________________ Pre-Tax Income:_____________ After Tax Income (Pre-Tax X .70):____________
NET Total Income (Add after-Tax Incomes):_________________ Disposable Monthly Income (Net Total Income / 12):__________
Disposable Retail TOTAL
Utility Entertain TOTAL
Income Transp: Bills Spending OTHER Spent For the
Food: ment Saved
Monthly Residence Car Water/ Grocery Clothing/
Gym, Month Income – Total Spent
Month income plus (Payment + Payment/ Power/ house items/ vacation (Add Residence
any Insurance) Gas Cable/
and eating supplies/any
UNEXP through Other)
*Keep a running total
Six Flags, *DO NOT add savings to income
unexpected and Ins. Internet/ out “stuff” you expenses *If more than *To use savings from previous month,
Cell Phone ETC) income, subtract
extra buy from savings
you may overspend

JAN Month Total

FEB Month Total

MAR Month Total

APR Month Total

MAY Month Total

JUNE Month Total

JULY Month Total

AUG Month Total

SEP Month Total

OCT Month Total

NOV PROP. TAX Month Total

DEC Month Total


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Description of Categories

Residence: You may choose an apartment, house, duplex, etc. You MUST choose a location in Georgia. Remember, I
am looking for realistic choices. Legitimately pretend you are going to live in this place so don’t just look at price.
Consider safety, livability, proximity to work, family, or things you like to do as well.

Transportation: You do not HAVE to have a car, but you must have a realistic method of getting around, particularly
if your job requires you to go to a specific location (i.e. teacher, office worker, etc). Atlanta has a somewhat poor
public transportation system, but if you’re living in the city, it’s possible to make it work.
***If you are planning to have a car, you must ALSO include insurance, gas, and upkeep on the car.
Insurance: If time permits, we will try to get an insurance quote in class. Otherwise, ask your parents what
they currently pay and multiply that by 2.13. This is because when you are not under them your insurance will likely
double at your age.
Gas: Try to get a rough estimate of how far from work you will be. Calculate how many miles you will drive
a month. Try to find your car’s miles per gallon to calculate how many gallons you’ll need each month. Multiply that
number by AT LEAST 3.45 (for cheap gas) for your monthly gas payment.

Utilities: These will vary greatly depending on whether you are in an apartment or house. Also, some apartments
include utilities in the payments. Ask your parents what they currently pay and adjust accordingly. You will only have
2 people in your house/apartment. Also, power bills tend to increase in the coldest and hottest months as people use
more air or heat. Account for this. If you can’t find ANY information, ask Coach Doehrman for help on this one. Be
sure to include your Cell Phone plans in this as well! Also, if you are going to buy new cell phones, make sure you
include that!

Food: This is traditionally one of the hardest areas for students to accurately account for. In order to get started
on this accurately, you and your partner need to spend at least 10-15 minutes discussing what you eat during a
NORMAL WEEK. Include snacks, eating out (Starbucks coffee counts here too!), meals you cook, juice, etc and
write it down. Remember, you won’t be living at home so “my momma cooks” won’t cut it anymore. Once you
have your list of food, CREATE A GROCERY LIST. Seriously, create a grocery list of the things you will need
to buy for a week. Once you figure out the price for a week, you should multiply this number 4.3. That is your
monthly food MINIMUM budget. Having a party one month? Better increase it. Going on vacation? People
usually spend a lot more on food during vacation. REMEMBER – REALISTIC NUMBERS!!!!

Retail Spending: The other MAJORLY OVERLOOKED category. This includes ALL NON-FOOD RETAIL
EXPENSES! What does that mean? Think about the following items: light-bulbs, toilet paper, cleaning supplies,
paper-towels, a vacuum cleaner, pet-products, napkins, new clothes, shampoo, soap, washrags, cologne, plates,
forks, a blender, a mixer, hair-care products, nail-products, printer-cartridge, pins, tape, DVDs, jewelry, new
shoes, glasses, air-fresheners, video game system, hair cuts, …basically any good you will ever need or want to
buy goes here. This column should NEVER be $0! That is not realistic even for many families in poverty and
your incomes are above that level.
****Don’t forget about Christmas and birthdays! People buy more “stuff” during these times!****

Entertainment: This category is for things like concert tickets, plays, football games, going “clubbin”, or anything
that involves some kind of “entry” fee or “ticket charge.”

Other: Anything not accounted for somewhere else goes here. Vacations, road trips, adopting a kid, all would count
under “other” expenses. That includes membership in any social clubs or gyms or other organization. This is also
where you will account for your “unexpected events” as you select them.

Total spent for the month: Add everything in Residence through other.

Total saved for the month: Subtract the total spend for the month from the disposable income.

Total Saved TOTAL: Any monthly savings added to LAST MONTH’s savings. For January, the monthly
savings and total savings will be equal

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Career/Salary Assignments

You are a HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER. You are a PEST CONTROL expert. You make
You make $46,000 a year. $39,500 a year.

You are a self-employed Lawyer just getting You are a VETRINARY ASSISSTANT. You
started. You make $63,500 a year. make $26,750 a year.

You are a CONSULTANT to major businesses You are an AUTOMOTIVE MECHANIC.

in Atlanta. You make $63,000 a year. You make $32,000 a year.

You are a SECRETARY at a law firm. You are a BUS DRIVER with MARTA.
You make $32,000 a year. You make $28,850 a year.


to a Real Estate Group. company. You make $40,000 a year.
You make $45,000 a year.
You are a MANAGER of a small, firm in Atlanta. You make $90,450 a year.
independently owned, restaurant.
You make $48,500 a year. You are a CONSUMER CREDIT ANALYST.
You make $39,750 a year.
You are a BARTENDER at a local club.
After tips, you make $65,000 a year. You are INDEPENDENT PAINTER with much
experience. You make $52,000 a year.
You make $46,750 a year. You are a CARPENTER/HOME REPAIR
TECHNICIAN. You make $36,601 a year.
You are an APPRAISER.
You make $41,367 a year. You are a self-employed ELECTRICIAN.
You make $44,000 a year.
You make $17,500 a year. You are a CORRECTIONS OFFICER at the
local jail. You make $35,650 a year.
SERVICE worker. You make $21,900 a year. You are a FIREFIGHTER for the city of
Atlanta. You make $37,000 a year.
You are the EXECUTIVE CHEF of a high- end
restaurant in Atlanta. You make $79,000 a year. You work for a major movie studio as a
You are an AIRCRAFT MECHANIC. You make $60,000 a year.
You make $38,900 a year.
You are a FLIGHT ATTENDANT. You make You make $22,500 a year.
$50,450 a year.

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Unanticipated Events

Your Car breaks down in May. You get sick and insurance won’t cover your
Cost to repair it is $800. medical costs. You have to pay $200 for
medicine in May.
Found a lost puppy in August. $500 reward.
Your Car breaks down in May.
You get very sick in July and lose an entire Cost to repair it is $850.
month’s pay.
Found a lost puppy in April. $200 reward.
You won a small lottery in May! You may add
$800 to your monthly income. You get very sick in July and lose an entire
month’s pay.
You help bail a friend out of jail in November.
It costs you $950. You help bail a friend out of jail in November.
It costs you $500.
Your refrigerator breaks in August.
A new one is $650. Your refrigerator breaks in August.
A new one is $650.
Your air-conditioning breaks in June.
Repairs cost $400. Your air-conditioning breaks in June.
Repairs cost $300
Your car needs a new set of tires in April. $350.
Your car needs a new set of tires in April. $250.
You lose a lawsuit in June.
You must pay the plaintiff $4500. You win a contest for a local radio station in
September and get $1000.
You win a lawsuit in June. You get $1500.
Your car breaks down in September.
Oops, the IRS didn’t take out enough taxes. It costs $800 to repair it.
You owe them $1,000 in May.
You win a lawsuit in June. You get $1500.
The IRS took out too much in taxes from you.
You get a $600 refund in October. Oops, the IRS didn’t take out enough taxes.
You owe them $900 in May.
You got a speeding ticket in July. $225.
The IRS took out too much in taxes from you.
You were fined $500 in November for littering You get a $600 refund in October.
on the roadway.
You got a speeding ticket in July. $200.
You received an inheritance check in December
for $3,000. You were fined $600 in November for littering
on the roadway.
A business you invested in a while back begins
making a profit. You receive a check in Mildew is found in your bathroom in June.
February and August for $500. It costs you $2250 to remove.

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Instructional Plan
Preparation (What student needs, interests, and prior learning provide a foundation for this lesson? How can
you find out if students have this foundation? What difficulties might students have?)

Students prior learning of the concepts of marginal cost and marginal benefit will serve as a foundation for this
lesson. Weighing costs and benefits are essential for making rational decisions. Students need to be equipped
with the ability to successfully make rational decisions regarding their finances. Fulfilling this need is essential
for preparing students for independent living and leading a self-sufficient lifestyle in our democratic society.
Over my years teaching high school economics, I have found that students really enjoy learning about money
and finances. This project provides students with a worthwhile experience that is relevant to their near future
and increases the likelihood of students being actively engaged in their education.

Management Describe the classroom management strategies will you use to manage your students and the use
of digital tools and resources. How and where will your students work? (Small groups, whole group, individuals,
classroom, lab, etc.) What strategies will you use to achieve equitable access to the Internet while completing this
lesson? Describe what technical issues might arise during the Internet lesson and explain how you will resolve or
trouble-shoot them? Please note: Trouble-shooting should occur prior to implementing the lesson as well as
throughout the process. Be sure to indicate how you prepared for problems and work through the issues that
occurred as you implemented and even after the lesson was completed.

For this project, students will either be working individually or in a partnership with one other student. For the
duration of the project, our class will meet in our school’s media center computer lab. Each student will work at
their own individual student desktop computer. I will monitor students’ progress and behavior by walking around
and through the use of a digital software called LanSchool. LanSchool is a digital software tool that was
purchased by our school district to monitor student web access and computer use. LanSchool helps provide a
digital learning environment that is safe and engaging through giving teachers the ability to see and control
everything that utilized on a student desktop.
The most obvious technical issue that could arise during this project is a loss of connection to our schools’
internet network. I will be prepared for this issue and will respond by adjusting the method of research for that
day. Being that our class will already be in the media center, my students will have multiple almanacs readily
available for their access. Students may also use Microsoft office tools that can easily be transferred to the
Google Apps for Education. This would also be a great opportunity for student to continue work on their blog
post. Prior to beginning the lesson, I will troubleshoot all documents and tutorials that are posted to the Google
Classroom page by using a proxy student account.

Instructional Strategies and Learning Activities – Describe the research-based instructional strategies you will
use with this lesson. How will your learning environment support these activities? What is your role? What are the
students' roles in the lesson? How can you ensure higher order thinking at the analysis, evaluation, or
creativity levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy? How can the technology support your teaching? What authentic,
relevant, and meaningful learning activities and tasks will your students complete? How will they build knowledge
and skills? How will students use digital tools and resources to communicate and collaborate with each other
and others? How will you facilitate the collaboration?

This project-based learning experience employs the use of authentic meaningful tasks where the students take
on the responsibility of producing something of real use to their future. Digital tools like Google Docs and
Google Sheets, allows students to collaborate with other students, while allowing me to give feedback and
monitor student progress and individual contributions. According to Schrock (n.d.), having the students create a
budget using a spreadsheet would fall under “analyzing” in Bloom’s Taxonomy. While creating their budgets,
many students will be forced to adapt their plans due to unexpected circumstances; thus, students are forced to
use higher level thinking to solve real world problems. Another strategy to achieve the higher-order thinking of
the “evaluating” level of Bloom’s Taxonomy is requiring students write a blog post using the Web 2.0 tool
Weebly. Blogs are an excellent way for students to express their problem solving processes and strategies.
Blogs also present an opportunity to introduce a more authentic audience that students can defend and share
their reasoning with. Lastly, the “creating” level of Bloom’s Taxonomy is achieved by students producing visual
presentations that must be presented to their peers for evaluation.

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This utilization of digital and Web 2.0 tools was the main strategy used to create an authentic learning
experience where students were producers of meaningful products that actively engaged them in higher order

Differentiation (How will you differentiate content and process to accommodate various learning styles and
abilities? How will you help students learn independently and with others? How will you provide extensions and
opportunities for enrichment? What assistive technologies will you need to provide?)

This lesson is differentiated by allowing students the freedom to select different research strategies and the
digital tools they will use for their visual presentations. Students are given the choice to either work
independently or with a partner. However, I believe this lesson can be extended by requiring students to
respond to several of their classmates’ blog posts. This extension will also provide students with authentic,
constructive feedback from their peers. For ELL students, I would allow them to present their screencast in their
native language and would require the assistive technology of a subtitle generator, if possible.

Reflection (Will there be a closing event? Will students be asked to reflect upon their work? Will students be
asked to provide feedback on the assignment itself? What will be your process for answering the following
• Did students find the lesson meaningful and worth completing?
• In what ways was this lesson effective?
• What went well and why?
• What did not go well and why?
• How would you teach this lesson differently?)

At the conclusion of this project, students will be required to complete a survey using Google Forms. This will
provide myself and other teachers in my department with valuable feedback and data that we can use to adjust
and improve the project. I believe it would be extremely beneficial to have the students write an additional
reflective blog post about what they learned through this experience. Personally, I will reflect on how engaged
students were with this project. I will evaluate the quality of their questions, the quality of their products, and the
survey feedback that provide. I will also seek out my school’s instructional coach for their invaluable outside
perspective and suggestions.

Closure: Anything else you would like to reflect upon regarding lessons learned and/or your experience with
implementing this lesson. What advice would you give others if they were to implement the lesson? Please
provide a quality reflection on your experience with this lesson and its implementation.
I believe all people can learn by encountering problems that they care about and trying to figure them out; it is
all about the challenging action of problem-solving. I have to acknowledge the fact that all of my students are
different, and not all of them will care about the same problems/topics or, in this case, vocations. In this project,
I randomly assigned students their careers and accompanying salaries; however, this approach overlooked and
undervalued the diversity within my classroom. A way to improve this lesson and increase student engagement
would be to extend the project by affording students the option to choose what their career is. In order to avoid
students choosing a career based on what it pays, this option should not involve students researching salaries
before making a decision. Students should only be encouraged to make their own selection if they feel
passionate about what career they want to pursue after high school. With that said, I found that the random,
middle-class jobs that students were assigned during my lesson provided realistic budgetary constraints that
they might experience after graduating high school or college. Both approaches have their benefits and should
be left to teachers to decide which would fit the learning needs of their students best.
The last piece of advice I would offer is this: give your students an abundance of options regarding digital and
Web 2.0 tools. These tools afford students the opportunity to demonstrate mastery of the content by
encouraging individualized, creative expression. Moreover, students’ cultural understanding is increased
through engaging in authentic learning experiences that feature the diverse expressions of their classmates.

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