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PVP2011

July 17-21, 2011, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division Conference

PVP2011

July 17-21, 2011, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

PVP2011-57497

PVP2011-57497

Ghent University

Laboratory Soete

St.-Pietersnieuwstraat 41

9000 Gent, Belgium

Jeroen.VanWittenberghe@UGent.be

Ghent University Ghent University

Laboratory Soete Laboratory Soete

Patrick.DeBaets@UGent.be Wim.DeWaele@UGent.be

at an early stage the importance is demonstrated of accurate

Threaded couplings are used in various applications to knowledge of the fatigue behavior of threaded connections in

connect steel pipes. To maintain a secure connection, such order to define acceptable flaw sizes and inspection intervals.

couplings are preloaded and during service additional dynamic

loads can act on the connections. The coupling’s threads act as INTRODUCTION

stress raisers, initiating fatigue cracks, which can cause the

connection to fail in time. Accurate knowledge of the fatigue Threaded pipe couplings are used to connect tubular

behavior, taking into account crack initiation and propagation is products. They can be found in small diameter pipe fittings, in

necessary to understand the fatigue mechanisms involved. drill pipe connections and large diameter pipeline connections

In this study, the fatigue behavior of tapered couplings with for risers or oil well casing strings.

NPT threads is studied. This is done by analyzing the results of Such pipe couplings consist of a male pin member that is

an experimental four-point bending test. The fatigue crack made up into a female box part. In order to maintain a sealed

propagation is monitored using an optical dynamic 3D connection under external static and dynamic loads, these

displacement measurement device and LVDTs to measure the couplings are generally preloaded. For this reason, the

crack opening. At certain times during the test, the load ratio is couplings commonly have tapered threads and they are

changed to apply a number of beach marking cycles. This way a assembled by applying a certain make-up torque. The

fine line is marked in the fracture surface. These marked crack combination of the make-up torque with external loads results

shapes are used as input for a finite element model. The in a multiaxial stress distribution over the coupling, where the

measured deflection and crack opening are compared to the coupling’s threads act as stress raisers. When subjected to

results of the numerical simulations. dynamic loads, fatigue cracks tend to initiate at the root of the

Using this methodology a distinction is made between threads.

fatigue crack initiation and propagation. By analyzing the Several thread shapes and coupling types are described in

fracture surface it was observed that once the crack is initiated, standards, e.g. by the ASME [1] and the API [2, 3]. Besides

it propagates over a wide segment of the pipe’s circumference these, several so-called premium connections exist, which claim

and subsequently rapidly penetrates the wall of the pipe. The to provide better than standard fatigue performance. In a

observed crack growth rates are confirmed by a fracture previous study by the authors it was shown, using finite element

mechanics analysis. analyses, that the load distribution over the threads is one of the

defining factors of the fatigue life of a connection [4]. Typically, In Figure 1 two examples are given of appearing fatigue

the last engaged thread (LET) of the pin carries a high cracks. The fatigue crack shown in Figure 1.a initiated at the

percentage of the total load transferred by the coupling, which root of the LET and propagated over a wide segment of the

makes this location the most susceptible to fatigue crack circumference with only a limited crack depth. It is clear that

initiation. Nevertheless the load distribution can be optimized this crack shape can not accurately be represented by a semi-

by changing the coupling geometry. Experimental validation for elliptical approximation. The crack in Figure 1.b was obtained

these numerical results was provided by means of fatigue tests by stopping the experiment as soon as a leak was detected.

on 1 inch diameter threaded connections [5]. S-N curves were Hence a through-thickness crack is present. Nevertheless this

obtained for different coupling geometries based on the number crack shows a similar shape, it initiated at the LET’s root and

of cycles at which a through-wall crack appeared. This was propagated rather in the circumferential direction than in depth.

detected during the tests by pressurizing the tubular specimens In this study the appearing fatigue mechanisms in threaded

and detecting a leak. However, the exact contribution of the pipe couplings are studied more in detail. To monitor fatigue

fatigue crack initiation and propagation stages remained crack growth a novel dynamic 3D optical measurement device

unknown. is used to measure the global deformation shape of the pipe in

To study the crack propagation behavior in detail, combination with a crack opening measurement. The goal is to

appearing fatigue cracks should be sized. Common crack sizing make a distinction between fatigue crack initiation and

techniques for threads are alternating current field propagation and to gain more insight into the crack growth

measurements (ACFM) [6] or magnetic flux leakage [7]. Both behavior. This is necessary to evaluate the severity of an

techniques are performed offline and the threaded connection appearing crack, determine acceptable flaw sizes and define

must be uncoupled for the measurement. Online monitoring of minimum inspection intervals.

flaws in threads is challenging because there is no direct access

to the crack location. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

Besides the crack sizing, a second difficulty in the analysis

of fatigue crack growth in threaded connection is dealing with For further investigation of the fatigue behavior of threaded

the common semi-elliptical representation for modeling surface couplings an experimental test is carried out on a 4.5” National

cracks [8], where this geometry does not correspond with the Pipe Thread Taper NPT (114.3 mm pipe outer diameter) or so-

appearing crack shapes during the experimental tests performed called API Line-Pipe threaded connection. The test specimen’s

by the authors in [5]. material is API 5L Grade B steel with yield strength of 356 MPa

and ultimate tensile strength of 500 MPa determined by tensile

a) testing.

thread flank The fatigue test is carried out on the four-point bending test

fatigue crack rig as used in [4]. This test rig is schematically shown in Figure

2. The test specimen consists of two pipes (1b) with threaded

ends, connected by the threaded coupling (1a). The test

specimen is carried by two supports positioned 3 m apart on a

central rigid frame. A vertical force is applied by the hydraulic

cylinder (2) and its magnitude measured by the loadcell (3). The

ball joint (4) connects the loadcell to a transverse beam that

transmits the load to two points spaced 1 m apart on the test

specimen.

For a given applied cylinder force, the bending moment M

b) between the two inner points is constant. As a result, the test

thread flank specimen is subjected to a bending stress that is tensile below

fatigue crack the neutral axis of the pipe and compressive above. The bending

stress σb is given by Eq.(1), where y is the vertical distance

between the considered material fiber and the neutral axis and I

is the area moment of inertia of the cross section of the pipe.

The x-axis coincides with the centerline of the test specimen.

M⋅y

σb = (1)

I

FIGURE 1: APPEARING CRACKS

CRACKS IN A 1” NPT

THREADED CONNECTION The test is performed with a force amplitude of 7.4 kN at

an applied load ratio of R = 0.1 and at a frequency of 2 Hz.

Since fatigue cracks generally initiate at the last engaged

thread of the pin the LVDTs (5) are mounted at either side of

the coupling. These measure the axial distance between the

edge of the coupling and a point on the pin’s pipe body close to

the coupling, so that the crack opening displacement can be

2 4 monitored when a fatigue crack is propagating. The used

LVDTs have a resolution of 1 µm.

1a During crack propagation, the bending stiffness of the pipe

3 is reduced and consequently the pipe deflection increases. To

1b 1b measure this deflection, reflective optical markers (6) are

attached over the length of the test specimen. The displacement

of these points is measured by an optical dynamic 3D

displacement measuring device as illustrated in Figure 3.

5 6

This system consists of two high speed digital cameras that are

1m fixed under a certain viewing angle α on a rigid bar with length

L. Around the cameras two integrated flash LED systems

illuminate the measuring area synchronously to the recording of

3m

the images. Due to the flash LED system the markers show up

as clear dots in the captured pictures. Afterwards, the data is

FIGURE 2: FOUR-

FOUR-POINT BENDING TEST RIG

RIG

post-processed to generate the marker displacements (in x, y

and z-direction) which are represented by the vector arrows as

shown in Figure 3. Additional markers are attached to the

framework as a fixed reference. In this application the

resolution of the system is about 50 µm.

TEST RESULTS

Measurements

measurement is performed every 500 cycles and crack opening

is logged continuously. The test is stopped after 30125 cycles,

as a consequence of the pipe deflection increase becoming too

large.

L

17 2.0

Max. Bending Deflection

Max. Bending Deflection [mm]

Crack Opening

15 1.5

Crack Opening [mm]

13 1.0

DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENT

MEASUREMENT 11 0.5

between 1.65 kN and 16.5 kN and a bending stress at the 9 0.0

bottom fiber of the pipe body between 15.5 MPa and 155 MPa. 0 10000 20000 30000

The pull-out strength of this connection corresponds to a pipe Cycles

body stress of 246 MPa according to [9]. Hence, the maximum

applied stress during the test is equal to 63 % of the FIGURE 4: MEASURED BENDING DEFLECTION

DEFLECTION AND

connection’s joint strength. CRACK OPENING

In Figure 4 the obtained maximum bending deflection and

crack opening are shown over the entire test. Only the signal a) thread flank

where the crack appears is plotted.

Both signals show a similar behavior. Three distinct phases

fracture surface

in the crack growth behavior can be observed as indicated in

Figure 4 by the dashed vertical lines at 21 000 and 28 000

cycles, In the first phase from the start of the test until about

21 000 cycles, no increase in the crack opening nor in the

maximum bending deflection is detected, which may indicate b) 0 to 24 000 cycles

24 000 to

that the crack is initiating during this phase. During the second 26 000 cycles

phase from 21 000 to about 28 000 cycles, the crack opening

26 000 to

and bending deflection increase gradually. From about 28 000 28 000 cycles

cycles, in the third phase, the crack opening and bending

deflection begin to rise much faster so that both signals increase 28 000 to

28 500 cycles

almost asymptotically when the test is stopped.

FIGURE 5: FRACTURE SURFACE

Fracture surface

The second phase during which the increase of crack

In order to explain the three phases of crack growth opening and pipe deflection is only limited, is actually the most

behavior a ‘beach marking’ technique was used during the test. important phase since here the crack starts propagating without

This technique allows visualization of the appearing crack creating a leak. It is noted that crack depth at 24 000 cycles is

shape at certain moments during the test by changing the crack only limited, which may confirm the assumption that the first

growth rate and marking a fine line in the fracture surface [10– phase until 21 000 cycles, where no crack opening is measured

12], which is done by increasing the applied load ratio to is the crack initiation phase.

R = 0.85 while keeping the same maximum applied force, and

increasing the minimum force. The applied stress range and ANALYSIS OF THE BENDING DEFLECTION

number of cycles is chosen in order to drastically reduce the

crack growth rate. The beach marking cycles have a negligible To further verify that the observed beach marks correspond

effect on the global fatigue crack growth and can be excluded to the specified number of fatigue cycles, the deflection

from the number of load cycles at the range of R = 0.1, but a measurements are compared with a simplified finite element

fine beach marking line appears in the fracture surface. model of a threaded connection containing a crack (see Figure

During the test beach marking cycles were applied four 6) as developed previously by the authors for a preliminary

times: after 24 000, 26 000, 28 000 and 28 500 load cycles, test [13]. Four different crack shapes are inserted at the LET

giving the fracture surface shown in Figure 5.a. Note that the with a geometry based on the beach mark lines in Figure 5. The

thread flank of the LET is also visible. In Figure 5.b the beach cracks are modelled using the seam-feature in Abaqus®.

mark lines are highlighted. It can be seen that at 24 000 cycles Additionally, the model contains the same measurement points

the crack has a limited depth of 1.2 mm, but has extended over where the left-hand LVDT is attached to measure the crack

a length of approximately 50 mm. Due to this extension in the opening on the test specimen.

circumferential direction, the crack shape can not be considered The exact shape of the coupling thread is not incorporated

semi-elliptical. After 26 000 cycles, the crack has propagated into the model in order to reduce its complexity and calculation

through half the wall thickness of the pipe. After 28 000 cycles, time. Additionally, linear elastic material behavior is used,

the remaining wall thickness is only 0.4 mm and the crack has which gives a local stress around the crack tip that exceeds the

extended to over a quarter of the entire circumference. Over the material’s tensile stress. However, this has a limited effect on

next 500 cycles, the crack penetrates through the wall thickness the global pipe deflection.

of the pipe and at 28 500 cycles, two separate crack fronts are In Figure 7 the modelled pipe displacement is compared

formed extending the crack at both ends. with the optical measurements. Data points are plotted for the

By comparing the fracture surface with the measurements uncracked pipe at the start of the test and for the 4

in Figure 4, it is clear that the third phase in the crack growth measurements beginning at 28 000 cycles (phase 3 of the crack

behavior starts when the crack penetrates the pipe wall. Once growth). Only the central section of the specimen

this through thickness crack starts propagating, the bending (-500 < x < 500 mm) is shown. It is again clear that in this

stiffness of the pipe is reduced significantly and the bending phase the deflection increases rapidly, while the increase in the

deflection increases rapidly. preceding cycles is only limited.

2.0

Measured

FEM

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

21000 23000 25000 27000 29000

Cycles

MODELL

DELLED CRACK

Crack opening Crack OPENING

FIGURE 6: SIMPLIFIED

SIMPLIFIED FINITE ELEMENT

ELEMENT MODEL

FRACTURE MECHANICS APPROACH

0 cycles 28 000 cycles

28 500 cycles 29 500 cycles The observed crack growth behavior of the threaded

30 000cycles FEM no crack coupling is now analyzed using the fracture mechanics

FEM Crack 28 000 cycles FEM Crack 28 500 cycles calculations according to the AMSE BPVC VIII-3-app.D [14].

-9 Here a crack at the root of a thread is considered as an annular

Pipe Vertical Displacement [mm]

better assumption then using a semi-elliptical shape.

-11

The stress intensity factor KI for a certain crack depth a is

-12 calculated according to Eq. (2).

-13

K I = F πa (2)

-14

where

-15 2aA1 F2 a 2 A2 F3 4 a 3 A3 F 4

F = A0 F1 + + + (3)

-16 π 2 3π

-17

In Eq. (3) the F1, F2, F3 and F4 are magnification factors

-500 -250 0 250 500

Distance along pipe axis [mm] relative to the crack geometry, as given in [14]. The four

coefficients A0, A1, A2 and A3 are determined by the Buchalet-

FIGURE 7: PIPE DEFLECTION SHAPE

SHAPE Bamford method [15] in which the distribution of stresses σ

normal to the plane containing the annular crack is

The modelled deflection shapes confirm the measured approximated by a third order polynomial Eq. (4).

behavior of the pipe. Also note that the deflection shape is

asymmetrical because the crack is propagating at the left-hand σ = A0 + A1 x + A2 x 2 + A3 x 3 (4)

side of the coupling, as can be clearly seen from the data points

measured at 30 000 cycles.

where x is the radial distance from the free crack surface or

Figure 8 illustrates the crack opening data. The four

x = 0 in the root of the LET. The stress distribution is first

circular markers correspond to the four different crack shapes

calculated by a linear elastic analysis and the coefficients are

that were modelled. Here the observed trends are again

determined by the best curve fit of the polynomial. If a single

confirmed by the numerical simulations. Between 24 000 and

polynomial is not sufficient to fit the stress distribution, it is

28 000 cycles, the crack opening increases only gradually, but

acceptable to split the distribution into several regions and

at 28 500 cycles, a significant crack opening is obtained. Hence

describe each region by a different polynomial.

it is confirmed that the observed beach mark lines correspond to

the crack shapes at the specified number of cycles.

1000 0.1 mm since a finite value is necessary for the calculations, a

value of 0 mm would lead to an infinite number of cycles. The

Maximum

calculated number of cycles are obtained by integrating Eq. (5).

800 The measured number of cycles is the amount of fatigue cycles

Minimum

between the application of the beach markings.

Axial Stress [MPa]

x 600 calculated and measured number of cycles. Moreover, it is

0 confirmed by the crack growth calculations that the crack

initiated at approximately 21 000 cycles. Because the total

400 number of calculated cycles to reach the final crack depth of

3.6 mm is 7502 cycles and this crack depth was reached during

the experiment at 28 500 cycles.

200

Crack Initial

Total Calculated Measured

0 Depth Crack

Number Number of Number

Increase Depth

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 of Cycles Cycles of Cycles

x [mm] [mm] [mm]

24 000 1.1 0.1 3313 3000

FIGURE 9: AXIAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

DISTRIBUTION AT THE LET 26 000 1.0 1.2 2012 2000

28 000 1.0 2.2 1583 2000

Since the crack is considered to be annular, the 2D 28 500 0.4 3.2 594 500

axisymmetric FE model as used previously in [4], now with

linear elastic material properties, is used to obtain the stress TABLE 1: CRACK GROWTH RATES

distribution. In Figure 9 the resulting axial stress distribution at

the LET is plotted for the minimum and maximum applied load. CONCLUSIONS

The load is applied as a uniform stress over the wall of the pin

with a magnitude of 15.5 MPa and 155 MPa respectively. Two In this paper the fatigue behavior of a 4.5” NPT threaded

polynomials are used to describe each curve. The first connection is studied in detail. During an experimental four-

polynomial describes the region 0 < x < 0.36 mm, the second point bending test the fatigue crack growth is monitored by

describes the region 0.36 < x < 3.5 mm. The boundary between measuring the change in the global deflection shape of the pipe

both regions is indicated by the dashed vertical line in Figure 9. by an optical 3D dynamic measurement device and by a local

For each polynomial the coefficients A0 to A3 are crack opening measurement. Additionally, a beach marking

determined. The fatigue crack growth rate can now be technique is successfully used to mark the crack shapes at four

calculated using the Paris Law Eq.(5), where N is the number of different moments during the test. The test specimen was

fatigue cycles, f is the crack growth rate factor and ∆K is range subjected to 30125 load cycles.

of the stress intensity factor corresponding to the minimum and Three distinct phases are observed during the fatigue life of

maximum applied load. the coupling. The first phase consists of crack initiation. During

the second phase the crack propagates gradually over the pipe

da

= C ⋅ f ⋅ ∆K m (5) circumference and in the depth, forming a long shallow crack.

dN The third phase begins when the crack penetrates the wall of the

pin after which the crack rapidly increases in size.

The factors C and m are material constants with values for The crack shapes obtained by analyzing the fatigue fracture

API 5L Grade B material according to [16]: surface are inserted into a finite element model. The model

C = 1.38 · 10-12 (MPa·m1/2)-m and m = 3.37. The crack growth results confirm the measured values of the pipe deflection and

rate factor f was determined by fitting the crack growth rate of crack opening.

equation (5) to the measured crack depth increase between Finally the crack growth results are analyzed using a

24 000 and 26 000 cycles. This resulted in a value of f = 1.96. fracture mechanics analysis. Again the appearing trends are

Using these factors the number of cycles required to confirmed and the fatigue crack initiation life of 21 000 cycles

achieve a certain crack depth increase can be calculated by is calculated which corresponds to the measured results.

integrating Eq. (5). This is done for the four measured crack The introduced methodology is shown to be effective and

depths at the beach marking lines. The results are summarized may be used for further analysis of additional connection types.

in Table 1. In second column the crack depth increase values as The obtained insights may be used to define allowable crack

measured on the fracture surface are used as inputs in the sizes in threaded pipe couplings and determine minimum

calculations. The initial crack depth on the first row is set to inspection intervals.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS [14] ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 2010, Section

VIII, Division 3, “Rules for Construction of Pressure

The financial support of the BOF fund (B/04939) of the Vessels”.

Ghent University and of the FWO Vlaanderen (3G022806) are [15] Buchalet, C.B., Bamford, W.H., 1976, “Stress Intensity

gratefully acknowledged. Factor Solutions for Continuous Surface Flaws in Reactor

Pressure Vessels, Mechanics for Crack Growth”, ASTM

REFERENCES STP 590, 385–402, as cited in [14].

[16] Lam, P.S., Sindelar, R.L., Duncan, A.J., Adams, T.M.,

[1] ANSI/ASME B1.20.1-1983 (R1992), “Pipe Threads, 2009, "Literature Survey of Gaseous Hydrogen Effects on

General Purpose (Inch)”. the Mechanical Properties of Carbon and Low Alloy

[2] API Specification 5B, 1996, “Specification for Threading, Steels", ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 131(4),

Gauging and Thread Inspection of Casing, Tubing and Line 041408.

Pipe Threads (U.S. Customary Units),” American

Petroleum Institute, fourteenth edition.

[3] API Specification 5L, 2000, “Specification for Line Pipe,”

American Petroleum Institute, forty-second edition.

[4] Van Wittenberghe, J., De Baets, P., De Waele, W., 2010,

“Non-Linear Contact Analysis of Different API Line Pipe

Coupling Modifications”, ASME J. Pressure Vessel

Technol., 132(5), 051701.

[5] Van Wittenberghe, J., De Baets, P., De Waele, W., De

Pauw, J., 2010, “Fatigue Life Improvement of Threaded

Pipe Couplings”, ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping

Division Conference, Bellevue, WA, USA.

[6] Topp, D., Lugg, M., 2005, “Advances in thread inspection

using ACFM”, 3rd middle east nondestructive testing

conference & exhibition.

[7] Ding, J.F., Kang, Y., Wu, X., 2006, “Tubing thread

inspection by magnetic flux leakage”, NDT&E Int, 39,

pp. 53–6.

[8] Zhao, H., Kuang, Z.B., Li, Z.H., 1996, "Stress-intensity

factor for a semi-elliptical surface crack at the thread root

of a screwed-pipe joint", Computers & Structures, 59(3),

pp. 419–424.

[9] Clinedinst, W.O., 1976, “Joint strength formulas for API

threaded Line Pipe”, API 5C3, Appendix 2029, PS

Circular 1533.

[10] Yoo, Y.S., Ando, K., 2000, "Circumferential inner fatigue

crack growth and penetration behaviour in pipe subjected

to a bending moment", Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct,

23, pp. 1–8.

[11] Raghava, G., Mithun, I.K., Gandhi, P., Vaze, K.K., Bhate,

S.R., Bhattacharya, A., 2005 "Application of beach

marking technique to the study of fatigue crack growth in

steel plate specimens subjected to tensile loads", Journal of

Structural Engineering, 32(3), pp. 229–232.

[12] Cai, C.Q. , Shin, C.S., 2005, "A normalized area-

compliance method for monitoring surface crack

development in a cylindrical rod", International Journal of

Fatigue, 27, pp. 801–809.

[13] Van Wittenberghe, J., De Baets, P., De Waele, W., Bui,

T.T., De Roeck, G., 2011, “Evaluation of fatigue crack

propagation in a threaded pipe connection using an optical

dynamic 3D displacement analysis technique”, Engineering

Failure Analysis, 18, pp. 1115–1121.

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