Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 25

DRAPING SIMULATION

Recent achievements and future trends

Dr. Sylvain Bel – LGCIE – University Lyon 1


9/24/2014 Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC
DRAPING SIMULATION
Why ? How ? What ?
2
DRAPING SIMULATION – WHY ?

9/24/2014
Clamps

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


Punch

Fabric
Die
1 2 1 2

Resin

3 4
3 4
Fig. 1: Matched-Die Press forming Fig. 2: Matched-Die Press forming
for dry fabric before RTM for prepreg

Only a few examples of draping processes are given here. 3


Of course, also other draping processes exist as well!
DRAPING SIMULATION – WHY ?

9/24/2014
Goals & Challenges:
— building of a complex shape (3D) without defects

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


— final fiber alignment should be suitable for structural
loads of the final part
— less or no cutting scrap (near-net shape preforming)
— high fiber volume content (final fiber distribution)
— low production cycle time
— high quality and reproducibility

[Hancock 2006]
DRAPING SIMULATION – WHY ?

9/24/2014
A combination of the deformation modes enables
the textile to be formed in a 3D shape

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


Transverse compression

Undeformed square of fabric

Bending

5
Inter-ply movement
Elongation Shear
DRAPING SIMULATION – WHY ?

9/24/2014
A combination of the mesoscopic deformation
modes leads to macroscopic deformations

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


Fibre bending
Undeformed square
of woven fabric
Fibre buckling

Fibre straightening

Fibre Elongation Inter-fibre Shear Inter-fibre sliding


DRAPING SIMULATION – HOW ?

9/24/2014
The forming behavior of a homogenous material (e.g. metal sheet) can
be easily describe with Hooke’s Law. Describing the forming behavior
of a textile is not straight forward. The Young’s modulus and the
shear modulus of a textile are decoupled from each other. They are

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


not coupled via the Poisson’s ratio.

1 0
= 1 0
0 0 2(1 + ) 2
Hooke’s Law for Plane Stress for Homogenous Materials

? ?
= ? ?
? ? , 2
Constitutive Law for Plane Stress for Textiles 7

(“?” Matrix Entries are dependent on the type of textile)


DRAPING SIMULATION – HOW ? Macro-level Approach

9/24/2014
To have a realistic textile behavior
suitable composite elements have to be chosen.

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


Composite Material Model
Composite Element PAM-FORM (ESI)

Shell Formulation
DRAPING SIMULATION – HOW ? Meso-level Approach

9/24/2014
The FE draping simulation at mesoscopic scale is based on common
2D/3D elements.

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


Ø Each yarn is modeled separately.

~ 105 DOF

~102 DOF

9
[Hamila 2010]
DRAPING SIMULATION – WHAT ?

9/24/2014
Material characterization

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


Material modelling

Software development

Comparison - validation

Draping simulation
10
DRAPING SIMULATION – WHAT ?

9/24/2014
Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC

. cos sin .
2 2 2 2 2

11

[Airbus Helicopters] [LCC/GE]


9/24/2014 Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC
DRAPING SIMULATION
Nowadays at the LCC
12
DRAPING OF THERMOPLASTIC PANELS

9/24/2014
• Thermoplastics sheets/panels
• Impregnated or comingled with thermoplastic resin
• Draped at high temperature (over temperature at melting point)

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


• Thermal dependency

[LCC] [LCC]
CF/PA6 : raw material, plate before and after consolidation

13
1 2 3 4

Deep drawing for thermoplastic prepreg


DRAPING OF THERMOPLASTIC PANELS

9/24/2014
Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC
Parameters :
Composite Material Model
PAM-FORM (ESI) • Tension modulus
Composite • Shear modulus
Element
• Bending modulus
• Viscous behavior
• Thermal behavior
• Friction

Shell Formulation
14
Investigations on the thermo-viscous behavior
DRAPING OF THERMOPLASTIC PANELS

9/24/2014
[Harrison 2004] : “Shear characterisation of viscous woven textile composites:
a comparison between picture frame and bias extension experiments”
ØPicture Frame test on Twill woven thermoplastic composite

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


15
Reproducible test, no mention of folds or wrinkles
DRAPING OF THERMOPLASTIC PANELS

9/24/2014
Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC
[LCC] [LCC]
Picture Frame test on a CF/PA6 sheet at 280°C

• Wrinkles, almost from the start of the test 16


• Sliding, clamp pressure at high temperature
• Thermal expansion of the rig
DRAPING OF THERMOPLASTIC PANELS

9/24/2014
[Harrison 2013] : “Press forming a 0/90 cross-ply advanced thermoplastic
composite using the double-dome benchmark geometry”
ØPicture Frame test on uniaxial cross-ply sheet comprised of two
layers of unidirectional glass-PP plies, with a 0/90 initial fiber

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


orientation

“Due to unavoidable misalignments, of the 35 tests that were conducted, only 7 were
found to meet [the following] conditions”

1. the result should be the lowest force curve produced under a given experimental
state (rate, temperature)
17
2. the result can only be used up until wrinkling of the specimen is observed during
the test
3. the data should be physically consistent
9/24/2014 Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC
DRAPING SIMULATION
What’s coming next…
18
MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION :
THERMOPLASTICS COMPOSITE

9/24/2014
Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC
Single Cantilever Double Cantilever

Dynamic Mechanical 3 points bending (20mm) 3 points bending (50mm)


Analysis System 19

[Margossian2014]
MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION :
THERMOPLASTICS COMPOSITE

9/24/2014
• Test method

o Setup: 3 point bending (20 mm)


o Specimen: 1mm thickness

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


• Procedures
o Procedure 1: Temperature influence
o Heat up to specified temperature at 10°C/min → 200°C,
220°C, 230°C, 240°C, 260°C, 280°C
o 5 minutes isothermal
o Quasistatic tests at 500 μm.min-1
o Procedure 2: Loading rate influence
o Heat up to 280°C at 10°C/min
o 5 minutes isothermal
o Quasistatic tests at specified loading rates → 100 μm.min-1,
500 μm.min-1, 1000 μm.min-1, 5000 μm.min-1, 10000 20
μm.min-1
[Margossian2014]
MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION :
THERMOPLASTICS COMPOSITE

9/24/2014
• Strong temperature and displacement rate dependencies → visco-elastic behaviour

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


• Inaccuracies in the application of the loading rates at the beginning of the test
are noticed for some cases (due to actuator accelaration)
21

[Margossian2014]
THERMOPLASTICS AND PREPREG COMPOSITES

9/24/2014
Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC
[Wang2014, Lyon] [Harrison2013, Glasgow]

22
[Sachs2014, Twente]
THERMOPLASTICS AND PREPREG COMPOSITES

9/24/2014
Material characterization of prepreg materials at forming temperature
ü Complex and attractive topic

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


ü Requires new methods

Material modeling of such materials is onerous


ü Time dependent
ü Temperature dependent

Software development should enable the thermoforming simulation

ü FE modeling with both mechanical and thermal calculation ??


23
9/24/2014 Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
24
BIBLIOGRAPHY

9/24/2014
¢ [Hancock 2006] The use of kinematic drape modeling to inform the hand lay-up of
complex composite components using woven reinforcements, Composite Part A, 2006
¢ [Hamila 2010] Textile Composite Reinforcement forming simulation, Numerical
methods and simulation, 2010

Symposium – 5th anniversary LCC


¢ [Pickett 2011] Analysis and process simulation of textile structures, 2011
¢ [Boisse 2011] Simulation of wrinkling during textile composite reinforcement
forming. Influence of tensile, in-plane shear and bending stiffnesses, Composites
Science and Technology, 2011
¢ [Harrison 2004] Shear characterisation of viscous woven textile composites: a
comparison between picture frame and bias extension experiments, Composites
Science and Technology, 2004
¢ [Harrison 2013] Press forming a 0/90 cross-ply advanced thermoplastic composite
using the double-dome benchmark geometry , Composites Part A, 2013
¢ [Margossian2014] Flexural characterisation of unidirectional thermoplastic tapes
using dynamic mechanical analysis, ECCM, 2014
¢ [Wang2014] Thermo-mechanical behavior of stretch-broken carbon fiber and
thermoplastic resin composites during manufacturing, Polymer Composites, 2014 25
¢ [Sachs2014] Bending characterisation of UD composites, 2014