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IC Technology II – Mid-term Examination

Part-I Open Book

2011.04.26 15:40 – 16:30
1. For an Si MBE process with a flux of 1x10 15 atoms/cm2/sec on substrate surface and a Ar background
pressure of 1x10-11 torr, estimate the Ar concentration in ppm of the grown expi-layer. The surface atom
density of the Si substrate is 3.2x1014 cm-2. The molecular weight of Si and Ar is 28 g/mole and 40
g/mole, respectively. (10 pts)
2. Propose three methods to suppress overhang phenomenon of PVD process. The mechanism should be
explained briefly. (15 pts)
3. Boron ions are implanted into a n-type Si substrate at 30 keV to a dose of 1x10 13 cm-2. Then, a thermal
annealing process was perfromed at 900C for 30min. Estimate the peak concentration before and after
thermal annealing. (10 pts) If the doping concentration of the Si substrate is 1x1015 cm-3, estimate the
junction depth. (5 pts) In all calculation, assume Gaussian distribution and ignore the effects of defects
on diffusion coefficient.
4. After several proceses, there are a 0.5-m-height step on the wafer surface. To planarize this step height,
a thick dielectric layer will be deposited followed by a CMP process. If the planarization rate

A 
 f 
AI  is 0.7, what is the minimum thickness of the deposited dielectric ? (10 pts)
P 
IC Technology II – Mid-term Examination
Part-II Close Book
2011.04.26 16:40 – 17:30
A. True or False (20 pts)
1. The ratio of the number of atoms that actually stay or “stick” on the surface relative to the number of
incident atoms. (PVD-5)
2. One of the drawbacks of the evaporation method is difficult to deposit alloys, compounds, and low
vapor pressure materials. (PVD-19)
3. For ionized sputtering process, lower substarte bias results in better step coverage. (PVD-50)
4. Overpotential is the potential required to overcome hindrance of the overall electrode reaction. (ECD-
5. In Cu ECD process, the Leveler is larger than the brightener and is more easier to be adsorbed at upper
parts of the structure to inhibit deposition. The Cu growth rate on protruded surface is thus suppressed.
6. If the doping concentration is lower than the intrinsic carrier concentration at the diffusion temperature,
electric fields set up near the front of the diffusion profile. In this case, dopant diffusion would be
enhanced by the electric field. (Diffusion-12)
7. Channeling occurs when incident ions align with a major crystallographic direction and are guided
between rows of atoms in a crystal. An amouphous capping can suppress the channeling effect.
8. Reverse annealing, i.e. activation level decreases with the increase of annealing temperature, may occur
on the Boron implanted sample. This phenomenon does not observed on the Phosphorus implanted
sample. (Implant-23)
9. Polishing at a pH value close to the IEP of the abrasive, no ionic double layer forms at the particle
surface, results in a maximum hardness of the particle surface and a high polishing rate. (CMP-33)
10. SiO2 erosion is defined as the difference in the SiO 2 thickness before and after the polish step, resulting
because the polish rate of SiO2 is non-zero during the over polish step. (CMP-51)

B. Essay questions (30 pts)

1. Draw a high-low-high strcuture and define the (a) aspect ratio, (b) sidewall
coverage, (c) bottom coverage, and (d) over hang. (12 pts) (PVD-5~6)
2. Explain the potentiostatic current-time transienttranscient current of a ECD
deposition process shown in the right figure. (6 pts) (ECD-33)
3. Dopant A distributes uniformly in substrate S initially at a concentration of C o
as shown in the right figure. Let the solid state solubility of A in the capping
layer L is 1/3 of that in the substrate S and the segregation coefficient k 0 is 0.5,
draw the dopant distribution C/Co after high temperature annealing. Assume
the diffusion of A in L is very slow. (3 pts) (Diffusion-17)
4. Explain the mechanisms of SiO2 CMP, Cu CMP, and W CMP. (9 pts) (CMP-
32, 49, 55)