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FACILITATION SHEET

Title: Ch. 2 Finding Meaning in Aesthetics: The Interdependence of Form, Feeling, and
Knowing

Author(s): Kerry Freedman

Source/Date: 2003

Main Idea/Purpose (2-3 sentences):


The chapter revolved around the idea of aesthetic education and the complications
and complexities that arise when trying to assess art through the lens of form and
meaning being disjointed from one another. Freedman comes to the conclusion that as
artists and as art educators, we cannot analyze art simply for aesthetic form or for
conceptual framework apart from one another, but that concept and form work together
and therefore must be read together.

Short Overview (including any important quotes):


Throughout the chapter, Freedman discusses the interconnectedness of teaching
form and concept and the importance of emphasizing these two ideas as one to our
students. She discusses how we as a community have greatly accepted art meaning and
its social context to be connected but have been hard-headed in accepting form into the
equation. She states that “The modernistic notion of aesthetic experience was a closed
concept, based on a limited general human experience with imagery, conceptualized as
disinterested and sublime, and shaped by the assumed existence of an inherent aesthetic
quality… [visual culture] tells us that the aesthetic exists in many forms and is as
interested as it is sublime” (Freedman, 2003, pp. 31-32). She recognizes the coming shift
in the discussion of aesthetics and concepts by acknowledging the past beliefs on the
importance of aesthetics and the changing discussion with todays approach which
encourages both formal and conceptual background equally. Freedman goes on to discuss
this idea of aesthetic and conceptual connections by stating “it is no longer easy to view
cultures or subcultures as totally separate because they interact on many levels and
through many media” (Freedman, 2003, p. 36). Perhaps I’m falling back into a more of a
literary analysis rather than a direct overview, but I do believe Freedman uses the idea of
multicultural education as a parallel to her original argument about aesthetic
interconnectedness. By discussing cultural interconnectedness and cultural connection to
concept in art as a way of discussing and a way of viewing the world, she also references
back to this idea of formal qualities interacting and changing within a conceptual
framework.
Throughout the chapter, freedman points out the flaws of art educations previous
approaches to viewing, analyzing, and discussing art through a modernist lens, however
rather than just solely criticizing our past mistakes, she offers the solution of using the
ideas behind visual culture to teach “symbolic uses that suggest multiple extended social
meanings” (Freedman, 2003, p.42) in art while still recognizing the importance of form
as well.
Response/Critical Reflection (Include applications to future teaching):
The idea that any one thing can exist without the context of that which operates
around it is absurd in itself. Coexisting comes into play in everything we do from giving
direction (the CVS is a block away from Taco Bell, right across the street from Chipotle)
to the way we describe who we are (My name is Maleigha, I am from Oklahoma, my
parents are from Iowa, and I’ve lived in Round Lake, which is about 15 minutes from Six
Flags, for most of my life). If we create this dialogue of multiple ideas in our day-to-day
lives, how can we avoid those constant, ingrained types of dialogues in which we
reference back to other nouns in order to establish the point-of-view? If we cannot
function in our day to day lives without pointing out the interconnectedness of our world,
how can we expect to teach art as a series of separate entities, ideas, and forms without
solid connections to one another?
This overall approach or philosophy of education is important for our futures as
educators because we often forget (forgive my reference back to the mindset of a banking
theorist) that we hold knowledge our students don’t yet have access to. If we want to
teach abstract concepts (which we should) we have to first establish a viewpoint for our
students to reference back to. If our students have a place from which they can view the
concept without having to shift too dramatically, they can follow along and get from
point A to point B following the path we lay out without getting lost. You wouldn’t tell a
student to meet you in Chicago without establishing reference points such as where in
Chicago, how to get to that location, why you chose that location and what the place
looks like, so why would you approach viewing art any differently? **

**I feel the approaches to aesthetics and concept comes off as obvious as we are
being educated with this same visual culture approach, but I chose to leave my reflection
more open-ended to be applied to all aspects of educating students because I often feel
like we art just art teachers. We teach a little bit of every subject sprinkled with a little bit
of real life.
FACILITATION SHEET

Title: Teaching Visual Culture Ch. 3. The Social Life of Art: Importance of Connecting
the Past with the Present

Author(s): Kerry Freedman

Source/Date: 2003

Main Idea/Purpose (2-3 sentences):


The concept behind this chapter revolves around the idea of art history’s influence
on how we assess art today. By recontextualizing our art-making and art-assessing
worldviews and recognizing the biased lens from which we view and value art, we can
relearn some of those ingrained ideas of what is “valuable” and what is “worthless” when
looking at the work of our students, and we can help our students navigate their own
social biases and contexts for viewing and making art by addressing historical influences
that lead to these biases.

Short Overview (including any important quotes):


Freedman discusses the philosophy of visual culture-based art education by first
recognizing that art history plays a huge role in what is our visual culture, and addresses
the fact that history is written and rewritten all the time and, “the discipline of art history
has cast what came to be called the fine arts in a role of elevated economic value, moral
value, and universal appreciation” (Freedman, 2003, p. 44). She goes on to discuss that
history, with all of its complexities, is not a valid way of measuring what is right and
good within the context of art because of the social values that different cultures place on
different art. The history we read in books and see in classrooms is typically written from
a white male perspective and therefore does not “extended to popular forms of art, art
made by non-Western cultures, or even some cross-cultural aspects of Western fine art”
(Freedman, 2003, p. 45). Again, Freedman recognizes the biases of both the art world and
the history world and addresses the issue within both frames of context. That being said,
despite the biases history, art history, and we hold because of these two, we should not
say throw assessment out the window, an we don’t even have to throw those histories out
the window, Freedman states that “new educational representations of the past that infuse
ideas and practices involving the social relevance of visual culture are important to
making meaning in the postmodern world” (Freedman, 2003, p. 62).

Response/Critical Reflection (Include applications to future teaching):


I’m a big fan of history in general. I love reading about world history events,
historical figures and understanding the historical impacts that have changed the world
we live in today. I love all of these things so much that I often forget that a lot of it has
been rewritten to make the “good guys” look good and the “bad guys” look bad that that
the “good guys and bad guys” have only been determined by the person that wrote the
book. I forge that, as a white person in America, I have been taught that America is a
great place, the land of freedom and opportunity, and that I have the right to be here. I
forget that history is written by the survivors and the survivors were the ones with the
biggest weapons and the most power. It is important for me as a future educator to realize
that no matter how aware I think I am about social issues both past and present, I am
always viewing them from the lens of a person who cannot and will not ever have all of
the facts. With that in mind, it is important to enter the classroom open-minded and ready
to accept every personal understanding of history from every student of every cultural
and social background. This may not seem like it would apply so heavily to art as it might
in a social studies of general history class, but these judgements I make about art come
from a lens where a group of people told me what to think of as “good,” and my personal
biases may cloud my judgement.
FACILITATION SHEET

Title: Teaching Visual Culture Ch. 4. Art and Cognition: Knowing Visual Culture

Author(s): Kerry Freedman

Source/Date: 2003

Main Idea/Purpose (2-3 sentences):


This chapter, quite interestingly, goes into the science and psychology behind
cognition, and seeks to make sense of the art of thinking and how it is applicable to the
ideas behind visual culture. Freedman postulates that in order to understand visual
culture, we must apply our cognitive skills and work towards understanding ourselves
and the context in which we are viewing in order to truly grasp the significance of what
we see.

Short Overview (including any important quotes):


Throughout the chapter, Freedman works around the discussion point that
knowledge is socially constructed and therefore cultural influence does not just decide
what visual culture is important, but also shapes how the audience interprets said visual
culture. She analyzes the way in which culture affects audiences of different ages in
different ways because of the amount of overall culture the individual has experienced (in
the same way that adults notice plot holes that children wouldn’t because of the sheer
amount of life they’ve experienced, people of different ages react to images seen through
visual culture in contrasting ways). Freedman states that, “Children are often more
accepting of ambiguity in visual culture because they do not have the same feelings tied
to understanding” (Freedman, 2003, p.66). By this she recognizes that age is an important
factor to consider when recognizing the audience in a visual culture setting, and she later
emphasizes this importance when stating “The experience of the audience with visual
culture makes it meaningful” (Freedman, 2003, p. 69). While Freedman discusses the
idea of cultural context and social and cognitive development in understanding visual
culture, she also discusses the idea in the classroom setting, recognizing that “Students
shape context as context shapes them” (Freedman, 2003, p. 80) and that because of this,
context is a fluctuating concept in the discussion of visual culture as well. She concludes
by emphasizing the fact that “Coming to know visual culture occurs through the
cognitive processes of production and viewing” (Freedman, 2003, p. 85) which is
important to remember as we work to become teachers. Knowing visual culture is a
fluctuating thing that we must always keep up with through the processes of creating and
viewing what is happening around us and working through own our understandings of the
world through our own cultural and contextual lenses.

Response/Critical Reflection (Include applications to future teaching):


Throughout reading this chapter, I began to worry about how I might apply this to
my teaching. I like to think I’m not a lazy person, but I can’t help but wonder what I’ll be
like after teaching in this field for 40 years. Will I stop paying attention to the ever-
changing popular culture? Will I become that stereotypical old lady who keep Werther’s
Originals in my purse and complain about children playing music too loud and dancing
inappropriately? This chapter made me realize that the way I view the world has already
changed so dramatically from even how I viewed it when I was in high school 3 years
ago. It’s bound to change over the next 40, and I don’t want the way I view the world as
it changes over the decades to negatively impact the way my students create and
understand visual culture. I’m actually starting to get worried that maybe I should retire
at 40 to avoid becoming absolutely horrible. I guess in the meantime there’s nothing I can
really do but continue to allow myself to be influenced and to influence visual culture,
and hopefully my working to better myself now will continue on throughout my career.
FACILITATION SHEET

Title: Teaching Visual Culture Ch. 5. Interpreting Visual Culture: Constructing Concepts
of Curriculum

Author(s): Kerry Freedman

Source/Date: 2003

Main Idea/Purpose (2-3 sentences):


This chapter revolved around the idea of creating curriculum through visual
culture and understanding the importance of why it is important to integrate visual culture
into the classroom. The chapter also discusses the importance of cultural context and
approaching art through the culture in which it was created.

Short Overview (including any important quotes):


In this chapter, Freedman discusses the importance of creating open dialogue
across cultural variations to enjoy art through the lens it was intended to be seen through
and through the lens in which the audience views it now. She states that “In order to help
students to critically reflect on their interpretations, inquiry should be promoted by
teachers and students” (Freedman, 2003, p. 87). BY understanding this idea, we realize
we must take into account that the audience members will each bring in different
experiences and understanding of the world around them from their personal and their
cultural understandings of the world, with this in mind, a teachers job is to not only share
their own understanding of the art though their own lens, but to create a discussion-based
environment for students and other audience members to share their interpretations from
their lenses. While Freedman also advocates for the audiences’ interpretations to be
projected onto art from various lenses, she also emphasizes the importance of cross-
cultural understandings so that audiences may take into account the artist’s cultural
context in order to better understand the original intent of the art; she states, “In order to
understand visual culture and maintain the integrity of the artist and the culture in which
it was created, the context of production must be taken into account” (Freedman, 2003, p.
88). Above all, this chapter emphasizes the fact that this approach to understanding and
valuing art is above all important to students in both the classroom and outside and
therefore must be taught to help students make informed decisions about the context in
which they view all aspects of visual culture; to stress this she states that “Good students
of visual culture make informed decisions in all their roles as members of an audience, as
artists, and so on” (Freedman, 2003, p. 101). Because “Cultural knowledge is
reconstructed in a classroom through curriculum” (Freedman, 2003, p. 104) it is
important to allow this approach to art education to govern the classroom setting so
students may grasp the importance of looking at the world critically and through different
contextual lenses.
Response/Critical Reflection (Include applications to future teaching):
I guess we have talked about it in Dr. Boughton’s class last year, and briefly this
semester, but I never fully grasped the importance of approaching both fine art and
popular culture through this lens until this chapter pointed out the connection of teaching
students to critically think outside of the classroom. Some examples in the past that
teachers have used to fortify the importance of critically analyzing art is the idea of using
advertisements as a form of art to have students deconstruct. That example made sense to
me because of the obvious usefulness of understanding advertisements, however I failed
to see the connection between deconstructing fine art as just as useful until this chapter
and the previous chapter pointed out the importance of scaffolding knowledge and
accumulating analytical skills.
FACILITATION SHEET

Title: Teaching Visual Culture Ch. 6 Curriculum as Process: Visual Culture and
Democratic Education

Author(s): Kerry Freedman

Source/Date: 2003

Main Idea/Purpose (2-3 sentences):


This chapter attests to the importance of art as a field of study in the K-12
(especially in the high school) setting, and focuses on the idea of incorporating art
curriculum and visual culture into the classroom as a way to allow students to explore
themselves and the world around them rather than having art classes focus on a particular
as they have for so long now. The chapter also discusses how art curriculum differs from
core class curriculum in that it allows students and in-the-moment experiences in the
classroom to shape curriculum just as thoroughly as curriculum shapes the classroom and
student experiences.

Short Overview (including any important quotes):


In the early portion of the chapter, Freedman establishes the them of the coming
pages by stating that “contemporary curriculum involves more complex systems of
freedom, individualism, equity, and social responsibility” (Freedman, 2003, p. 106). In
stating this so early on, she lays out the idea of curriculum in art education as a free-
flowing and changing concept that shifts which each coming wind of students input and
social situation that students grab hold of and take interest in. Freedman discusses
curriculum in the same way as artists discusses art-making: as a process. She emphasizes
the creative process of writing a curriculum as something that changes with each
spontaneous interaction with students and their culture. In the same way as an artist
makes a sketch, then jumps into their final work, yet changes their ideas ever-so slightly
with each mistake or spontaneous interaction with the media or concept as they work, a
teacher must accept that “curriculum is a creative production. It is sketched, formed, and
enacted and it continually changes as it is implemented, criticized, and revised”
(Freedman, 2003, p. 110). Because the sketch never looks quite like the finished work, a
teacher must also recognize that a written curriculum is never going to look quite like the
actual learning and teaching outcomes. She goes on to say that “objectives can be
planned, but important learning outcomes cannot always be predicted, and, in art
education, the best outcomes are often those that are beyond “the box” of the objectives
in their creativity, imaginativeness, and originality” (Freedman, 2003, p.p. 112-113).
Freedman also recognizes that the individual student and the teacher do not exist in a
vacuum in the classroom setting, and that inter-student collaboration is equally if not
more important than individual student-teacher collaboration. She welcomes the idea of
classroom collaboration by stating that learning and discussing art through a visual
culture lens “involves some collaboration between and among students so that the sum of
the students’ knowledge can be used to the advantage of individuals and so that students
understand that individual, professional artists draw on the work of their peers”
(Freedman, 2003, p. 120). Overall, this chapter was about the way art curriculum flows
from classroom to classroom, and culture to culture. In the same way that a high
schooler’s visual culture is (usually) different from a 9-year-old’s visual culture, the
overall culture of the classroom will shift based off of the needs of the students and
before, during, and after the art-making process. She concludes the chapter by reinforcing
her original theme throughout the entire book that “teaching visual culture requires that
art education be seen as fundamental to any study of culture and that culture is seen as
foundational to art education” (Freedman, 2003, p. 127).

Response/Critical Reflection (Include applications to future teaching):


I’m writing this facilitation an hour after writing my final teaching reflection for
our middle school clinical course, and I honestly don’t think I could have picked a better
time to read this chapter. Before going into our lessons, I might have only understood the
differing visual culture and curricular approaches by age and grade-level, but I probably
wouldn’t have fully grasped the differences by individual students and the importance of
recognizing those strengths, weaknesses, and interests of the class as a whole through the
entire process of the lesson, not just at a certain point. Last night at the art show, a student
of mine was looking at the other half of the 5th grade artwork and telling me how he was
so glad he got my class because if he had to do painting he “probably would’ve just ran
for the hills or something.” I hadn’t really thought about it at that point because so far
we’ve learned to create projects based off of grade-levels and technical abilities at each
age, but student engagement is a huge aspect of creating the curriculum and the
individual projects themselves. Jack would have hated working with 2D art about social
issues but enjoyed working with clay in 3D creating animals because it engaged his
interests. On the other hand, another student told me the only part of her project that she
enjoyed making was the display box because she got to use a bunch of different materials
and work in 2D. She hated working 3D with clay and talking about herself, so she would
have preferred to work 2D and discuss social issues. While it would be naïve to say that
because your group of students is only interested in one thing conceptually or technically
you should only write curriculum that includes those things and nothing else, it is
important to include what your students are interested in and allow their culture and
visual culture to shape the classroom setting. I think the best thing to do is find that
balance of embracing the culture the students bring in and allowing that to shape the
classroom, but not entirely control it. It is important to introduce topics that students are
not yet interested in or fully aware of. That’s the teaching portion of art education.
FACILITATION SHEET

Title: Teaching Visual Culture Ch. 7 Art.edu: Technological Images, Artifacts, and
Communities

Author(s): Kerry Freedman

Source/Date: 2003

Main Idea/Purpose (2-3 sentences):


The main purpose of this chapter was to introduce the idea of technology in the
classroom as an influential aspect of visual culture that affects our students. The chapter
discusses the forms of technology that students experience and the biases they offer, and
gives information on how to discuss art and technology in the classroom from a critical
standpoint and as a way to be utilized in the art world.

Short Overview (including any important quotes):


Freedman begins the chapter with by reinforcing her argument for visual culture
while approaching her rationale through the lens of the importance of technology in our
day by stating, “visual technologies easily and quickly enable us to cross conceptual
borders, providing connections between people, places, objects, ideas, and even
professional disciplines” (Freedman, 2003, p. 128). The rationale for the incorporation of
technology in the context of visual culture is argued slightly different from the way
Freedman argues for visual culture as a whole. She discusses visual technology by stating
how it influences children often through biases students can’t understand fully, so it
should be taught in a way that helps students learn how to make sense of these new
technologies around them. She states, “technological imagery blurs the boundaries
between truth and fiction by acting as both. This imagery has become an important aspect
of students’ lived experience and as such is part of their reality” (Freedman, 2003, p.
129). Freedman continues her rationale by discussing how technologically based art
influences how we make art within or even outside of technology by stating “when
creating a work of art, we are drawn inside ourselves through processes of creating and
interacting with images, people, places, and stories inside out heads. When viewing art,
playing a computer game, or watching a film, we engage with the creators as we seek to
understand their creating while we create our own images and stories at their suggestion”
(Freedman, 2003, pp. 131-132). She encourages educators using this visual culture and
technological culture to delve into it and meet students where they are, she says “most
educators understand that the only way to effectively teach is to start where the students
are conceptually located. In the case of teaching about the visual arts, this means giving
attention to the ways in which students engage with a range of mass media, computer
games, rock videos, and so on” (Freedman, 2003, p. 134). Since there is such a large
variety of ways students receive visual culture and technology culture, Freedman
encourages teachers to approach these critically and teach students how to distinguish
truth and lies that visual and technological culture places in children’s minds. She says,
“many of the images students see every day have been created or manipulated using
computer technology and other advanced technological media. Analyses of these imagery
and the ways in which the images are produced can help students understand the artistic
possibilities of visual technologies and the pervasiveness of their use and influence.”
(Freedman, 2003, p. 139). Freedman concludes the chapter by stating that “the roles and
responsibilities of teachers and students who use these technologies for educational
purposed must change” (Freedman, 2003, p. 146).

Response/Critical Reflection (Include applications to future teaching):


While this chapter of the textbook seemed the most dated to me thus far, there are
still ideas throughout that are extremely applicable to the classroom today. At younger
and younger ages, students are being exposed to various technology-based aspects of
visual culture that have changed so dramatically in just the past 15 years since Dr.
Freedman’s book was published. Many students today spend more time watching
YouTube videos than in a classroom. Many students recognize celebrities more quickly
than they recognize extended family members. So many students are more aware of video
game plotlines than actual written stories. With the amount of technology that saturates
our visual culture today, it is ten times more important now that we teach our students
how to view art and visual culture critically. Incorporating tech-based art into the
classroom is the best way to teach students about the technology-based world in which
they reside. If we teach by doing, students will grasp the information more thoroughly,
and our lessons will have a greater impact on their abilities to think critically.
FACILITATION SHEET

Title: Teaching Visual Culture Ch. 8 Contributing to Visual Culture: Student Artistic
Production and Assessment

Author(s): Kerry Freedman

Source/Date: 2003

Main Idea/Purpose (2-3 sentences):


The purpose of this chapter revolves around the concept of assessing students’
artwork and art-making processes through a visual culture lens. In many instances, this
chapter references back to the concept of community as it discusses assessment strategies
and techniques that can and should be implemented in the classroom.

Short Overview (including any important quotes):


Within this chapter, Dr. Freedman discusses the idea behind critical assessment of
art and how to incorporate various assessment methods into the art classroom. Because of
the openness of art, many educators often wonder how we in the art education field
critically analyze student works without making students feel attacked; Many educators
often even wonder if assessment is even necessary in the art classroom. Freedman
answers that question by stating that “Artistic production is a critical path to
understanding, partly because the process and the product of art-making enables students
to experience creative and critical connections between form, feeling, and knowing”
(Freedman, 2003, p. 147). In stating this, Freedman legitimizes art as a field of study and
emphasizes its importance by reassuring wonderers that assessment is important in our
field so that teachers may aid students in this journey towards recognizing connections
between form, feeling, and knowing. In other words, without assessment, how will
students get any better in this class or in their other courses? Freedman continues on to
say that while “the purposes of art and art education appear to be individual, social
agendas become visible as they are viewed within the contexts of cultured and
institutions” (Freedman, 2003, p. 149). By stating this, she further enforces the ideas
behind cultural and visual culture-based contexts in the assessment strategies which,
when kept in mind properly, help aid the student in understanding the world around them
(including that connection between form, feeling, and knowing) and helps the teacher
understand student viewpoints better. To help students understand the importance of
assessment in the classroom, Freedman also encourages teachers to include students in
the assessment processes by teaching them about the various alternative ways of
assessing art; by doing this “students can begin to learn about the connection between art
and social life, which is an important step toward understanding why a particular work of
art, and art in general, is valued” (Freedman, 2003, p. 153). Because of the various types
of assessment and factors that go into analyzing, interpreting, and judging student works,
Freedman offers various critique and assessment types (with in-depth descriptions of
each kind) including “traditional critique… student questioning … individual dialogue…
small group critique… peer pairs… role play” (Freedman, 2003, pp. 156-157) all of
which incorporate student though and discussion into the art analysis process. ON a
larger scale, Freedman encourages inter-teacher conversation and community
connectedness by discussing the fact that “an important part of art education in its
communal aspects. Communities for assessment can be seen on several levels, ranging
from the professional arts communities that decide what is avant-garde to teaching
communities that determine quality in student art… groups of teachers have successfully
validated their assessments, not by allowing government testing agencies to institute
standardized forms of testing, but by working together to form communities that arbitrate
the quality of student work” (Freedman, 2003, p. 163). Basically, community is important
in the classroom, between teachers, between artists, and between the art world entirely.
Throughout the chapter, Freedman approaches the concept of community as an important
aspect of assessment criteria. By incorporating this community into the classroom, we
answer those teachers who wonder if assessment will harm our students in art by offering
a service to our classes that many others don’t. When student have that sense of safety
within their community, they don’t have to worry about constructive criticism because
they are with the people they trust. A flower can bloom in a rock bed, but it sure helps to
be planted in soil, watered, given sunshine, and nurtured as it grows.

Response/Critical Reflection (Include applications to future teaching):


In my personal art experience, I learned one thing very quickly: I hate talking
about my work, and I hate other people talking about it even more. Last week, my
printmaking class had our critique on our last two projects, and as we were hanging them
on the wall the instructor mentioned how she considered having us hang our work from
most successful (through the whole class) to least successful. I was shocked. I thought it
was more obvious that singling people out was wrong (especially since there are several
people in the class that are not art majors or even art minors), and I’m glad she changed
her mind before actually going through with that critique method, but the fact that that
option was even considered sent me into a panic I hadn’t felt in an art classroom ever
before. I think everyone who has ever taken an art class before has had some less-than-
positive experiences with critique and other forms of assessment. Sometimes project
guidelines seem vague and stressful when trying to create art based off of a rubric and a
prompt, sometimes there is that one kid in the back of the room who only wants to tear
their peers down so they can be the last artist standing. When the art room becomes a
community (which includes having ground rules about respecting the classroom, the
students, and the conceptual framework and visual culture viewed by everyone in the
room) these issues are resolved by discussion and peer reinforcement. I think
incorporating these ideas into the classroom seem simple and obvious, however given the
fact that so many people have horror stories about art assessment and critique, it must be
reinforced and remembered in all aspects of the art classroom at every level.
References
Freedman, K. (2003). Finding Meaning in Aesthetics. In Teaching visual culture: Curriculum,
aesthetics and the social life of art. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.