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NFPA 1141

Standard for
Fire Protection
in Planned
Building Groups

1998 Edition

National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, PO Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101
An International Codes and Standards Organization
Copyright ©
National Fire Protection Association, Inc.
One Batterymarch Park
Quincy, Massachusetts 02269

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1141–1

Copyright © 1998 NFPA, All Rights Reserved

NFPA 1141

Standard for

Fire Protection in Planned Building Groups


1998 Edition

This edition of NFPA 1141, Standard for Fire Protection in Planned Building Groups, was pre-
pared by the Technical Committee on Forest and Rural Fire Protection and acted on by the
National Fire Protection Association, Inc., at its Annual Meeting held May 18–21, 1998, in
Cincinnati, OH. It was issued by the Standards Council on July 16, 1998, with an effective date
of August 5, 1998, and supersedes all previous editions.
This edition of NFPA 1141 was approved as an American National Standard on August 6,
1998.

Origin and Development of NFPA 1141


Work on this standard was begun in 1972 by the former Technical Committee on Subur-
ban and Rural Fire Prevention and Promotion in response to needs expressed by several
members. Several drafts were prepared, and a document was adopted by the Correlating
Committee on Suburban and Rural Fire Protection and Prevention (a predecessor to the
present committee) for presentation at the 1977 Annual Meeting. Due to technical problems,
the standard was withdrawn from the meeting agenda.
Following reorganization of the Committee in 1982, a task group undertook a review and
update of the 1977 document, which resulted in the 1985 edition. That edition was revised in
1990.
In this current edition, the Committee resolves several issues in clarity and consistency by
bringing this document in concert with NFPA 1 and NFPA 101®, but because of the specific
circumstances as listed in the revised scope and purpose of the current document, the Com-
mittee continues to require that some elements remain more restrictive than comparable ele-
ments referenced in other NFPA documents.
1141–2 FIRE PROTECTION IN PLANNED BUILDING GROUPS

Technical Committee on Forest and Rural Fire Protection

Richard E. Montague, Chair


Incident Mgmt. Concepts, CA [SE]

John E. Bunting, Secretary


New Boston Fire Dept., NH [U]

Fred G. Allinson, Nat’l Volunteer Fire Council, WA [U] John F. Marker, Firemark Assoc., OR [SE]
Lynn R. Biddison, Chemonics Industries, Fire-Trol, NM Peter Matulonis, Ansul Inc./Tyco, CA [M]
[IM] James F. McMullen, The McMullen Co., Inc., CA [M]
Rep. Chemonics Industries, Inc. Frederick S. Richards, NYS Dept. of State, NY [E]
Michael D. Bradley, City of Flagstaff Fire Dept., AZ [E] Rep. Fire Marshals Assn. of North America
Randall K. Bradley, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Laboratory, John B. Roberts, U.S. Forest Service, ID [E]
CA [U] Rep. U.S. Forest Service
Robert B. Burns, Fire Loss Management Systems, CA [SE] James C. Sorenson, USDA Forest Service, GA [U]
Mary D. Chambers, Bernalillo County Fire District 10, NM Rep. U.S. Forest Service
[U] Herbert A. Spitzer, Los Angeles County Fire Dept., CA [U]
Donald C. Freyer, Warner Robins, GA [SE] Edward F. Straw, Insurance Services Office, Inc., GA [I]
Louis G. Jekel, Rural/Metro Corp., AZ [U] Howard L. Vandersall, Lawdon Fire Services, Inc., CA [M]
Roy A. Johnson, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, ID [E] Ronald R. Walker, American Forest & Paper Assn., CA [U]
Ralph (Randy) Lafferty, MacMillan Bloedel Ltd, BC, Can- Rep. American Forest & Paper Assn.
ada [M] James T. Wooters, Mizelle, Hodges and Assoc., Inc., GA
Daniel Madrzykowski, U.S. Nat’l Inst. of Standards & Tech- [SE]
nology, MD [RT]

Alternates
Philip A. Cocker, Los Angeles County Fire Dept., CA [U] William M. Neville, Jr., Neville Associates, CA [SE]
(Alt. to H. A. Spitzer) (Alt. to R. B. Burns)
Robert L. Crouch, Analytical Laboratory Services, Inc., AZ Robert M. Swinford, USDA Forest Service, UT [E]
[IM] (Alt. to J. B. Roberts)
(Alt. to L. R. Biddison) William D. Walton, Nat’l Inst. of Standards and Technolo-
Sam W. Francis, American Forest & Paper Assn., PA [M] gy, MD [RT]
(Alt. to R. R. Walker) (Alt. to D. Madrzykowski)
Dennis N. Gage, Insurance Services Office, Inc., NY [I] Louis A. Witzeman, Scottsdale Fire Dept., AZ [U]
(Alt. to E. F. Straw) (Alt. to L. G. Jekel)
Curt T. Grieve, 8172 West Port Circle, CA [M] Ed A. Wristen, CA Dept. of Forestry & Fire Protection, CA
(Alt. To J. F. McMullen) [E]
Mitchell J. Hubert, Ansul Inc./Tyco, WI [M] (Voting Alt. to CA/DFFP Rep.)
(Alt. to P. Matulonis)

James C. Smalley, NFPA Staff Liaison

This list represents the membership at the time the Committee was balloted on the text of this edition. Since that time,
changes in the membership may have occurred. A key to classifications is found at the back of this document.

NOTE: Membership on a committee shall not in and of itself constitute an endorsement of the Associ-
ation or any document developed by the committee on which the member serves.
Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on fire protection for
rural, suburban, forest, grass, brush, and tundra areas. This Committee shall also have primary responsibility
for documents on Class A foam and its utilization for all wildland and structural fire fighting. This excludes
fixed fire protection systems.

1998 Edition
CONTENTS 1141–3

Contents

Chapter 1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 4 Chapter 7 Water Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 7


1-1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 4 7-1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 7
7-2 During Construction Phase. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 7
1-2 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 4
7-3 Areas with Municipal-Type Water
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 8
Chapter 2 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 4 7-4 Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 8
2-1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 4
Chapter 8 Structural Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 8
Chapter 3 Plans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 5 8-1 Building Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 8
3-1 Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 5 8-2 Planned Building Groups Adjacent to
Wildland Fuels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 8
8-3 Common Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 8
Chapter 4 Means of Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 5
8-4 Vehicle Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 8
4-1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 5 8-5 Roof Coverings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 8
4-2 Roadways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 5
4-3 Parking Lots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 6 Chapter 9 Fire Protection During Construction . . 1141– 8
9-1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 8
4-4 Fire Lanes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 6

Chapter 10 Referenced Publications. . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 8


Chapter 5 Location of Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 6
5-1 Means of Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 6 Appendix A Explanatory Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 9
5-2 Structure Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 6
Appendix B Referenced Publications. . . . . . . . . . . 1141–10
Chapter 6 Fire Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 7
Appendix C Bibliographical and Information
6-1 Automatic Fire Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 7
Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141–10
6-2 Manual Fire Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141– 7
6-3 Automatic Fire Warning Systems . . . . . . . . . 1141– 7 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141–11

1998 Edition
1141–4 FIRE PROTECTION IN PLANNED BUILDING GROUPS

NFPA 1141 Authority Having Jurisdiction.* The organization, office, or


individual responsible for approving equipment, an installa-
tion, or a procedure.
Standard for
Automatic Fire Extinguishing System. Any system that is
Fire Protection in Planned Building Groups designed and installed to detect a fire and subsequently dis-
charge an extinguishing agent without human activation or
1998 Edition direction.
Basement. A story with more than 50 percent of its cubic
NOTICE: An asterisk (*) following the number or letter des- volume below the average adjacent ground level.
ignating a paragraph indicates that explanatory material on
the paragraph can be found in Appendix A. Curb Cut. Reduced curb height to facilitate vehicle passage
Information on referenced publications can be found in over or across a curb. Curb cut can be an abrupt reduction or
Chapter 10 and Appendixes B and C. a tapering reduction for the length of the curb on each side of
the means of access.
Chapter 1 General Dry Hydrant. A permanent piping system, normally a draft-
ing source, that provides access to a water source other than a
1-1 Scope. municipal-type water system.
1-1.1 This standard applies to planned building groups in sub- Dwelling. A single unit providing complete and indepen-
urban and rural areas that the authority having jurisdiction dent living facilities for one or more persons, including per-
determines would be impacted by one or more of the follow- manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking, and
ing during a fire: limited water supply, limited fire department sanitation.
resources, extended fire department response time, delayed Existing Condition. Any situation, circumstance, or physi-
alarms, limited access, hazardous vegetation, unusual terrain, cal makeup of any structure, premise, or process that was
or other unusual characteristics. ongoing or in effect prior to the adoption of this standard.
1-1.2* This standard does not apply to farms or to mobile Farms. Those properties that are used primarily for agricul-
home or recreational vehicle parks. tural purposes.
1-2* Purpose. Fire Department. The governmental or other organization
1-2.1 The purpose of this standard is to reduce the impact of that is responsible for providing fire protection services to an
a fire in a planned building group in suburban and rural areas area.
where there might be limited water supply, limited fire depart- Fire Flow. The flow rate of a water supply, measured at
ment resources, extended fire department response time, 20 psi (137.9 kPa) residual pressure, that is available for fire
delayed alarms, limited access, hazardous vegetation, unusual fighting.
terrain, or other unusual characteristics.
Fire Hazard. Any situation, process, material, or condition
1-2.2 This standard shall not be construed as prohibiting bet- that, on the basis of applicable data, can cause a fire or an
ter construction or planning features that will materially explosion or provide a ready fuel supply to augment the
improve fire protection. spread or intensity of the fire or explosion and that poses a
1-2.3 This standard does not set forth general fire protection threat to life or the property of others.
features or procedures addressed in other codes or standards. Fire Hydrant. A valved connection on a water supply system
It is anticipated that the authority having jurisdiction shall use having one or more outlets and that is used to supply hose and
recognized fire protection measures to meet local conditions. fire department pumpers with water.
1-2.4 When unusual local conditions exist, the authority hav- Fire Lane. A means of access or other passageway desig-
ing jurisdiction shall determine equivalent requirements that nated and identified to provide access for emergency appara-
provide a level of protection no less than would be afforded by tus where parking is not allowed.
full compliance with this standard.
Fire Protection. All measures taken to reduce the burden
1-2.5 Where a provision of any other standard, code, law, or of fire on the quality of life. Fire protection includes measures
regulation recognized by the authority having jurisdiction is in such as fire prevention, fire suppression, built-in fire protec-
conflict with this standard, the most restrictive provision shall tion systems, and planning and building codes.
apply.
Fire Protection System. Any fire alarm device or system or
fire extinguishing device or system, or their combination, that
Chapter 2 Definitions is designed and installed for detecting, controlling, or extin-
guishing a fire or otherwise alerting occupants, or the fire
2-1* Definitions. department, or both, that a fire has occurred.
Alternative. A system, condition, arrangement, material, or Floor Area, Gross. The area of a building under the roof,
equipment submitted for approval to the authority having multiplied by the number of floors, including the basement.
jurisdiction and the fire chief as a substitute for a code require- Ground Elevation, Adjacent. The reference plane repre-
ment. senting the average elevation of the finished ground level
Approved.* Acceptable to the authority having jurisdic- measured at a distance of 10 ft (3 m) from all exterior walls of
tion. the building.

1998 Edition
MEANS OF ACCESS 1141–5

Height. As applied to a building, the vertical distance from Chapter 3 Plans


the adjacent ground elevation to the average elevation of the
roof of the highest story. 3-1* Plans. As a minimum, the authority having jurisdiction
shall require anyone proposing to develop a planned building
Jurisdiction. Any governmental unit or political division or group to submit preliminary, working, and as-built plans.
subdivision including but not limited to township, village, bor-
ough, parish, city, county, state, commonwealth, province, 3-1.1* Preliminary Plans. All preliminary plans, when sub-
freehold, district, or territory over which the governmental mitted, shall contain a site plan showing proposed water sup-
unit exercises power and authority. ply, roadway access, fire department access, and other items
pertinent to the specific project. The authority having jurisdic-
Labeled. Equipment or materials to which has been tion shall make recommendations to the submitter based on
attached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an orga- the preliminary plans to assist in developing the working
nization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction plans, which shall then be submitted to the authority having
and concerned with product evaluation, that maintains peri- jurisdiction for approval.
odic inspection of production of labeled equipment or mate-
rials, and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates 3-1.2 Working Plans. Working plans, drawn to scale and
compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a signed by a licensed architect or engineer, shall be accurate
specified manner. and shall illustrate the final design of items required by this
standard.
Listed.* Equipment, materials, or services included in a list
published by an organization that is acceptable to the author- 3-1.3 As-Built Plans. Drawings showing items listed in 3-1.1,
ity having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of prod- building floor plans, and fire protection systems, as built, shall
ucts or services, that maintains periodic inspection of be submitted to the fire department having jurisdiction upon
production of listed equipment or materials or periodic eval- completion of the project.
uation of services, and whose listing states that either the
equipment, material, or service meets identified standards or
has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. Chapter 4 Means of Access
Means of Access. The method by which entry or approach
4-1* General.
is made by emergency apparatus to, for example, roadways,
fire lanes, and parking lots. 4-1.1 Means of access for fire department apparatus shall con-
sist of roadways, fire lanes, parking lot lanes, or a combination
Municipal-Type Water Systems. A system having water thereof, and shall be provided to all structures.
pipes servicing hydrants and designed to furnish, over and
above domestic consumption, a minimum of 250 gpm (950 4-1.2 Access to the property of the planned building group
L/min) at 20 psi (137.9 kPa) residual pressure for a 2-hour shall be provided by a minimum of two distinctly separate
duration. routes of ingress and egress, each located as remotely from the
other as possible.
Planned Building Groups. Multiple structures constructed
on a parcel of land, excluding farmland, under the ownership, 4-2 Roadways.
control, or development by an individual, a corporation, a
partnership, or a firm. 4-2.1 Roadways shall be constructed of a hard, all-weather sur-
face designed to support adequately the heaviest piece of fire
Private Street. Any accessway normally intended for vehic- apparatus likely to be operated on the roadway.
ular use not dedicated as a public street.
4-2.2 Every dead-end roadway more than 300 ft (92 m) in
Public Street. A thoroughfare that has been dedicated for length shall be provided at the closed end with a turnaround
vehicular use by the public. having not less than a 120-ft (37-m) outside diameter of trav-
eled way.
Roadway. Any public or private street, including bridges.
4-2.3* Roadways shall have a minimum clearance of 12 ft
Shall. Indicates a mandatory requirement. (3.7 m) for each lane of travel, excluding shoulders and
parking. Provisions shall be made for factors that could
Should. Indicates a recommendation or that which is impinge on the minimum width, for example, drainage,
advised but not required. snow removal, parking, and utilities.
Standpipe.* A pipe and attendant hose valves and hose (if 4-2.4 Grades shall be not more than 10 percent.
provided) used for conveying water to various parts of a build-
ing for fire-fighting purposes. Exception: Steeper grades shall be permitted by the authority having
jurisdiction where mitigation measures can be agreed upon jointly by
Story. That portion of a building between the upper sur- the fire and road engineering departments.
face of the floor and the upper surface of the next floor or roof
above. 4-2.5 Grades shall be not less than 0.5 percent in order to pre-
vent pooling of water in a traveled way.
Structure. That which is built or constructed, an edifice or
building of any kind, or any piece of work artificially built up 4-2.6* Landscaping or other obstructions placed around
or composed of parts joined together in some definite man- structures shall be maintained in a manner that does not
ner. impair or impede accessibility for fire department operations.

1998 Edition
1141–6 FIRE PROTECTION IN PLANNED BUILDING GROUPS

4-2.7 Any secondary road intersecting with another road shall 4-4.6 The clear opening provided through gates shall be 2 ft
be sloped 1 to 3 percent down and away from the intersection (0.61 m) wider than the traveled way.
for a distance of 100 ft (30 m) from the intersection.
4-4.7 All gates shall be located a minimum of 30 ft (9.2 m)
4-2.8* At least 13 ft 6 in. (4.4 m) nominal vertical clearance from the public right-of-way and shall not open outward.
shall be provided and maintained over the full width of all
means of access. 4-4.8 Fire department personnel shall have ready access to
locking mechanisms on any gate restricting access to a fire
4-2.9 Turns in roadways shall maintain the minimum road lane.
width.
4-4.9* Appropriate no parking signs shall be posted in accor-
4-2.10* Turns in publicly owned or privately owned major dance with the instructions of the fire department having
feed roadways shall be constructed with a minimum radius of jurisdiction, and a method of enforcing such provisions shall
100 ft (30 m) to the centerline. be provided.
4-3 Parking Lots.
4-4.10 At least 13 ft 6 in. (4.1 m) nominal vertical clearance
4-3.1 The minimum lengths of parking lot stalls as measured shall be provided and maintained over the full width of a fire
from the end of the stall and the minimum aisle widths shall lane.
be as shown in Table 4-3.1.

Chapter 5 Location of Structures


Table 4-3.1 Parking Lot Stall Dimensions

Minimum Minimum 5-1 Means of Access.


Aisle Width Aisle Width 5-1.1 At least one approved means of access shall be provided
Minimum (one-way (two-way to each structure or other nonstructural fire hazard within the
Stall Lengths traffic flow) traffic flow) planned building group. For structures or other nonstructural
fire hazards exceeding two stories or 30 ft (9.2 m) in height
27.5 ft (8.2 m) for 45 above average adjacent ground level, not less than two
degree parking 16 ft (4.9 m) 24 ft (7.4 m) approved separate means of access shall be provided.
23.7 ft (6.6 m) for 60
degree parking 16 ft (4.9 m) 24 ft (7.4 m) 5-1.2 Structures exceeding 1000 ft2 (102.5 m 2) gross floor
area shall be required to be within 50 ft (15.4 m) of an
20.9 ft (6.2 m) for 75 approved means of access.
degree parking 23 ft (7.0 m) 24 ft (7.4 m)
18.5 ft (5.6 m) for 90 Exception No. 1: Structures shall be within 200 ft (60 m) of an ap-
degree parking 26 ft (8.0 m) 26 ft (8.0 m) proved means of access where the structure is less than 30 ft (9.2 m) in
height and protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in ac-
cordance with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler
Systems; NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys-
4-3.2 Parking lot lanes adjacent to any building shall provide
tems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes;
a travel lane with 16 ft (4.9 m) clear width if traffic flow is one- or NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in
way and 24 ft (7.4 m) clear width if traffic flow is two-way. Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height.
4-3.3 The minimum turning radius for parking lot lanes nec- Exception No. 2: Where any combination of private fire protection sys-
essary for fire department apparatus access shall be deter- tems, including but not limited to fire-resistive roofs, fire separation
mined by the authority having jurisdiction. walls, space separation, and automatic fire-extinguishing systems, is
4-4* Fire Lanes. provided and approved by the authority having jurisdiction as an ac-
ceptable alternative, waivers to the provisions of 5-1.2 shall be permit-
4-4.1 Fire lanes shall be provided as required by the fire ted.
department having jurisdiction and in keeping with the
requirements of this section. 5-1.3* Structures exceeding two stories or 30 ft (9.2 m) in
height above average adjacent ground level shall have at least
4-4.2 Fire lanes providing one-way travel shall be a minimum 25 percent of one side not more than 30 ft (9.2 m) from an
of 16 ft (4.9 m) in width. Fire lanes with two-way travel shall be approved means of access. At least 25 percent of one other
a minimum of 24 ft (7.4 m) in width. side shall be not more than 50 ft (15.4 m) from an approved
means of access. Both of these sides shall have a means of entry
4-4.3 Turns in fire lanes shall be constructed with a minimum
into the structure adjacent to the means of access.
radius of 25 ft (7.6 m) at the inside curb line and a minimum
radius of 50 ft (15.2 m) at the outside curb line. 5-2 Structure Separation. If two structures are part of the
4-4.4 Fire lanes connecting to roadways shall be provided with same planned building group and either of them exceeds two
curb cuts extending at least 2 ft (0.61 m) beyond each edge of stories or 30 ft (9.2 m) in height above average adjacent
the fire lane. ground level, they shall be separated from each other by at
least 50 ft (15.4 m) and shall be at least 25 ft (7.6 m) from a
4-4.5 The designation, design, and maintenance of fire lanes property line. All other structures shall be separated by at least
on private property shall be approved by the authority having 20 ft (6.1 m) from another structure and shall be at least 10 ft
jurisdiction. (3.0 m) from a property line.

1998 Edition
WATER SUPPLY 1141–7

Chapter 6 Fire Protection applicable NFPA code or standard or as required by the


authority having jurisdiction.
6-1 Automatic Fire Protection.
6-1.1 Automatic fire extinguishing systems shall be required Chapter 7 Water Supply
as set forth in the applicable NFPA code or standard for the
intended occupancy of the structures or as otherwise required 7-1 General.
by the authority having jurisdiction. All such systems shall be
installed in accordance with the applicable NFPA standard or 7-1.1 Water supply systems not publicly owned and installed
code for the type of fire extinguishing system installed. (See shall meet the minimum requirements of NFPA 24, Standard
Appendix B.) for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurte-
nances, where no recognized water supply distribution exists.
6-1.2 Any residential building containing more than two resi-
dential living units shall have an automatic sprinkler system 7-1.2 Private fire service mains and hydrants shall be installed
installed in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installa- to meet the requirements of NFPA 24, Standard for the Installa-
tion of Sprinkler Systems, or NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installa- tion of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances.
tion of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and 7-1.3 Where other fire-fighting water supply systems are estab-
Including Four Stories in Height, whichever is appropriate. lished by the authority having jurisdiction, they shall not be
6-1.3* If mounted on the building they serve, fire depart- less than the requirements of NFPA 1231, Standard on Water
ment connections for sprinkler systems shall be located not Supplies for Suburban and Rural Fire Fighting.
less than 100 ft (30.8 m) nor more than 200 ft (61.6 m) 7-1.4 Fire hydrants shall be marked in a uniform manner, as
from a fire hydrant. If such connections are located at least designated by the authority having jurisdiction.
100 ft (30.8 m) from the building they serve, they shall be
located not more than 50 ft (15.4 m) from a fire hydrant. 7-1.5 Fire hydrants located in parking areas shall be protected
The location of the fire department connection shall be by barriers that will prevent physical damage from vehicles
determined by the authority having jurisdiction. without obstructing hydrant operation.

6-2 Manual Fire Protection. 7-1.6 Fire hydrants shall be located within 3 ft (0.9 m) of the
curb line of the means of access unless the authority having
6-2.1* All structures four or more stories or over 50 ft (15.4 m) jurisdiction determines another location is more acceptable
in height above adjacent ground elevation with intermediate for fire department use.
stories or balconies shall be equipped with a standpipe system
in accordance with the provisions of NFPA 14, Standard for the 7-1.7* Threads on fire hydrant outlets shall be American
Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems. If mounted on the side National Fire Hose Connection Screw Threads and shall be
equipped with thread adapters where local fire department
of the building they serve, fire department connections for
standpipe systems shall be located not less than 100 ft (30.8 m) thread is different.
nor more than 200 ft (61.6 m) from a fire hydrant. If such con- 7-1.8* Water sources shall be located such that the high-
nections are located at least 100 ft (30.8 m) from the building est required fire flow, but in no case less than 250 gpm
they serve, they shall be located not more than 50 ft (15.4 m) (950 L/min), can be established and maintained within a
from a fire hydrant. The location of the fire department stand- time period approved by the authority having jurisdiction.
pipe connection shall be determined by the authority having
jurisdiction. 7-2 During Construction Phase.
7-2.1 When the infrastructure is being installed, and prior to
Exception: This section shall not apply to industrial process structures the location and construction of buildings or portions thereof,
where the life or property of others is not imperiled by fire or explosion. the water supply for fire protection, either temporary or per-
6-2.2* Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in accor- manent and acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction,
dance with NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers. In shall be made available prior to delivery of combustible mate-
addition, in buildings containing more than two dwelling rials.
units, a portable fire extinguisher, accessible from an exit and 7-2.2 When the infrastructure is being installed, and prior to
having a minimum rating of 2-A:10-B:C, shall be provided in the location and construction of buildings or portions
each dwelling unit. thereof, fire hydrants shall be installed at a spacing not to
6-3 Automatic Fire Warning Systems. exceed 660 ft (200 m) of vehicle travel distance. Where build-
ings are proposed, the authority having jurisdiction shall
6-3.1 For residential structures containing fewer than six liv- require additional hydrants and closer spacing where build-
ing units, an approved single-station smoke detector(s) or an ing size, use, construction, and lack of built-in fire protection
approved automatic detection system shall be installed in each mandate.
dwelling unit in accordance with the applicable provisions of
7-2.3 Prior to the construction of buildings or portions
NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code®.
thereof, all site plans shall be reviewed. At this time the author-
6-3.2 For all other structures exceeding 1000 ft2 (102.5 m 2) ity having jurisdiction shall review the fire flow required and
gross floor area, an approved fire warning or alarm system designate spacing of hydrants according to the following
shall be installed in accordance with the applicable NFPA schedule:
code or standard for the intended occupancy of the structure. (a) There shall be at least one hydrant within 300 ft (92 m) of
Such systems shall retransmit an alarm. Alarms or warning sys- any building at a location acceptable to the authority hav-
tems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the ing jurisdiction.

1998 Edition
1141–8 FIRE PROTECTION IN PLANNED BUILDING GROUPS

(b) No portion of the exterior walls of the building shall be 8-4 Vehicle Storage. Vehicle storage areas shall be separated
more than 200 ft (61.6 m) from a hydrant, where vehicu- from living areas by walls and ceilings constructed to provide
lar access is provided. a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
(c) Additional hydrants shall be provided to meet the 8-5 Roof Coverings.
remaining fire flow, if necessary.
(d) In areas of one- and two-family dwellings, hydrants shall 8-5.1* Only listed fire-retardant roof covering assemblies shall
be located a maximum of 660 ft (200 m) vehicle travel dis- be used.
tance apart. 8-5.2 Roof coverings shall be a Class C listed or better fire-
retardant roofing assembly.
Exception: Where conditions are such that items (a) through (d) are
impractical to achieve, the authority having jurisdiction shall consider
reasonable substitutions meeting the intent of this section, provided ad- Chapter 9 Fire Protection During Construction
equate fire protection is maintained.
7-3 Areas with Municipal-Type Water Systems. 9-1* General Requirements.

7-3.1 For a required fire flow exceeding 1500 gpm (5700 9-1.1 Protection shall not be less than that required by the fire
L/min), the water supply system shall be capable of deliver- department having jurisdiction.
ing that fire flow for at least 2 hours at 20 psi (137.9 kPa). 9-1.2 Fire department vehicular access to all structures under
For all other required fire flows, the water supply system construction shall be provided at all times. In areas where
shall be capable of delivering the required fire flow for at ground surfaces are soft or likely to become soft, hard all-
least 1 hour at 20 psi (137.9 kPa). weather surface access roads shall be provided.
7-3.2 Fire hydrants shall be supplied by not less than a 6-in. 9-1.3 Trash and debris shall be removed from the construc-
(15-cm) diameter main installed on a looped system or by not tion site as often as necessary to maintain the site in a fire-safe
less than an 8-in. (20-cm) diameter main if the system is not manner.
looped or the fire hydrant is installed on a dead-end main
exceeding 300 ft (92 m) in length. 9-1.4 Flammable or combustible liquids shall be stored, han-
dled, or used on the construction site in accordance with the
7-3.3 Dead-end mains shall not exceed 600 ft (184 m) in applicable provisions of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible
length for main sizes under 10 in. (25 cm) in diameter. Liquids Code; NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gases Code; and
NFPA 395, Standard for the Storage of Flammable and Combustible
7-4 Acceptance. The contractor or installer of water supply
Liquids at Farms and Isolated Sites.
systems in planned building groups shall demonstrate by
actual test that the capacity of the water supply system will 9-1.5 At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating
meet fire protection design requirements. Such tests shall be of at least 4-A:30-B:C shall be within a travel distance of 75 ft
certified by the fire department and other authorities having (23 m) or less to any point of a structure under construc-
jurisdiction. tion. Personnel normally on the construction site shall be
instructed in the use of the fire extinguishers provided.

Chapter 8 Structural Requirements


Chapter 10 Referenced Publications
8-1* Building Code. Construction of each structure shall
comply with the building code requirements of the jurisdic- 10-1 The following documents or portions thereof are refer-
tion. enced within this standard as mandatory requirements and
shall be considered part of the requirements of this standard.
8-2 Planned Building Groups Adjacent to Wildland Fuels. The edition indicated for each referenced mandatory docu-
8-2.1 Vents. Vents shall be screened with a corrosion-resis- ment is the current edition as of the date of the NFPA issuance
tant, noncombustible wire mesh not more than 1/4 in. of this standard. Some of these mandatory documents might
(0.64 cm) nominal in size. also be referenced in this standard for specific informational
purposes and, therefore, are also listed in Appendices B and C.
8-2.2 Overhanging Projections. Porches, decks, patios, balco-
nies, and similar undersides of overhangs shall be constructed 10-1.1 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Associa-
of heavy timber, as defined by local building codes, 1-hour tion, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-
fire-resistive material, or noncombustible construction. 9101.
NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, 1998 edi-
8-2.3 Overhanging Buildings. The underside of overhanging tion.
buildings shall be constructed with material of heavy timber, NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems,
as defined by local building codes, 1-hour fire-resistive mate- 1996 edition.
rial, or noncombustible construction. NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in
One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, 1996
8-2.4 Exterior Vertical Walls. Exterior vertical wall coverings
edition.
shall be constructed of at least 1/2-in. (1.3-cm) nominal
NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in
sheathing or equivalent material.
Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height,
8-3 Common Walls. Common walls between dwelling or 1996 edition.
commercial units shall be constructed to provide a fire resis- NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose
tance rating of not less than 1 hour. Systems, 1996 edition.

1998 Edition
APPENDIX A 1141–9

NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service owner or his or her designated agent assumes the role of the
Mains and Their Appurtenances, 1995 edition. authority having jurisdiction; at government installations, the
NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 1996 edi- commanding officer or departmental official may be the
tion. authority having jurisdiction.
NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gases Code, 1998 edition. A-2-1 Listed. The means for identifying listed equipment
NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code ®, 1996 edition. may vary for each organization concerned with product evalu-
NFPA 395, Standard for the Storage of Flammable and Combus- ation; some organizations do not recognize equipment as
tible Liquids at Farms and Isolated Sites, 1993 edition. listed unless it is also labeled. The authority having jurisdiction
NFPA 1231, Standard on Water Supplies for Suburban and should utilize the system employed by the listing organization
Rural Fire Fighting, 1993 edition. to identify a listed product.
A-2-1 Standpipe. See NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of
Standpipe and Hose Systems.
Appendix A Explanatory Material
A-3-1 Additional plans, such as fuel hazard abatement, might
Appendix A is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA docu- be required to address hazards specific to the area or project.
ment but is included for informational purposes only. This appendix
contains explanatory material, numbered to correspond with the appli- A-3-1.1 Reviewing plans and finding cooperative solutions to
cable text paragraphs. problems during the planning stage tend to eliminate many
major difficulties, misunderstandings, and economic waste.
A-1-1.2 For requirements on mobile home parks, see NFPA
501A, Standard for Fire Safety Criteria for Manufactured Home A-4-1 This section applies to roads constructed within the con-
Installations, Sites, and Communities. For requirements on recre- fines of private property whether they be dedicated or not.
ational vehicle parks, see NFPA 501D, Standard for Recreational A-4-2.3 Road widths should be sufficient for travel and the
Vehicle Parks and Campgrounds. passage of other vehicles and should allow for safety when fire
A-1-2 The requirements of this standard can be used for devel- personnel are operating from parked vehicles in the vicinity of
opments having distinguishing features similar to planned the fire scene.
building groups including but not limited to subdivisions, rec- A-4-2.6 These obstructions include those obscuring or inter-
reation camps, and farms. fering with fire department connections to sprinkler or stand-
A-2-1 Words defined in this standard are intended for use pipe systems or both.
only with the sections of this standard. Definitions set forth in A-4-2.8 Vertical clearances of less than 14 ft 6 in. (4.5 m) can
any document referenced by this standard shall be the accept- prohibit or severely slow the response of certain types or
able definitions for use of that document only. Words not spe- makes of fire apparatus.
cifically defined in this standard or other referenced
documents shall be interpreted as being the ordinary usage of A-4-2.10 Turns in roads of this width should be designed and
the word as set forth in Webster’s Third New International Dictio- constructed as indicated, or fire apparatus might have to ride
nary of the English Language, Unabridged, as published by the G up on the curb. Turns with a radius less than mandated here
& C Merriam Company, Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1966. can prohibit or seriously impede apparatus response.

A-2-1 Approved. The National Fire Protection Association A-4-4 A fire lane can be a subsurface construction of hard
does not approve, inspect, or certify any installations, proce- material that is adequately designed to support the heaviest
dures, equipment, or materials; nor does it approve or evalu- piece of fire apparatus likely to be driven on it and then cov-
ate testing laboratories. In determining the acceptability of ered with no more than 3 in. (7.6 cm) of soil, sod, or both.
installations, procedures, equipment, or materials, the author- When a subsurface fire lane is constructed, it should be iden-
ity having jurisdiction may base acceptance on compliance tified in a manner acceptable to the fire department.
with NFPA or other appropriate standards. In the absence of A-4-4.9 The local law enforcement officers should be given
such standards, said authority may require evidence of proper written legal authority to enforce parking regulations, or prop-
installation, procedure, or use. The authority having jurisdic- erty management should be prepared to enforce these regula-
tion may also refer to the listings or labeling practices of an tions with their own personnel, including the towing of
organization that is concerned with product evaluations and is vehicles as necessary.
thus in a position to determine compliance with appropriate
standards for the current production of listed items. A-5-1.3 For tall buildings, it might be necessary to position
apparatus on two or more sides of the building for effective
A-2-1 Authority Having Jurisdiction. The phrase “authority fire-fighting and rescue operations. Ground ladders can be
having jurisdiction” is used in NFPA documents in a broad used effectively on short buildings. Tall buildings normally
manner, since jurisdictions and approval agencies vary, as do require the use of aerial ladders. Preferably, access should be
their responsibilities. Where public safety is primary, the provided at the front and rear of the structure.
authority having jurisdiction may be a federal, state, local, or
other regional department or individual such as a fire chief; A-6-1.3 The authority having jurisdiction should consider the
fire marshal; chief of a fire prevention bureau, labor depart- hydrant-to-building proximity in determining the location of
ment, or health department; building official; electrical the fire department connection pursuant to enforcement of
inspector; or others having statutory authority. For insurance this section. Hydrants should not be located closer than 50 ft
purposes, an insurance inspection department, rating bureau, (15.4 m) to the building being protected by the sprinkler sys-
or other insurance company representative may be the author- tem. This can be accomplished by locating the fire depart-
ity having jurisdiction. In many circumstances, the property ment connection away from the building.

1998 Edition
1141–10 FIRE PROTECTION IN PLANNED BUILDING GROUPS

A-6-2.1 The authority having jurisdiction should consider the and are thus not considered part of the requirements of this
hydrant-to-building proximity in determining the location of standard unless also listed in Chapter 10. The edition indicat-
the fire department connection pursuant to enforcement of ed here for each reference is the current edition as of the date
this section. Hydrants should not be located closer than 50 ft of the NFPA issuance of this standard.
(15.4 m) to the building being protected by a standpipe sys-
tem. This can be accomplished by locating the fire depart- C-1.1 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Associa-
ment connection away from the building. tion, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-
9101.
A-6-2.2 This requirement can be met by providing one multi- NFPA 1, Fire Prevention Code, 1997 edition.
purpose dry chemical fire extinguisher or one Class A and one NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Centrifugal Fire
Class B:C fire extinguisher. The reasoning behind the require- Pumps, 1996 edition.
ment to locate these extinguishers in the dwelling unit is to NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection,
prevent theft. 1996 edition.
A-7-1.7 See NFPA 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections. NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equip-
ment, 1997 edition.
A-7-1.8 The department should strive to establish 250 gpm NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 1996 edition.
(950 L/min) within 5 minutes of arrival of the first piece of NFPA 80A, Recommended Practice for Protection of Buildings
apparatus and attempt to establish and maintain the required from Exterior Fire Exposures, 1996 edition.
fire flow within 15 minutes of arrival. (See NFPA 1231, Standard NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and Waste and Linen Han-
on Water Supplies for Suburban and Rural Fire Fighting.) dling Systems and Equipment, 1994 edition.
A-8-1 In areas not governed by building codes, NFPA codes or NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning
standards as they apply for the intended occupancy of the and Ventilating Systems, 1996 edition.
structure should be considered the minimum requirements. NFPA 90B, Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating
and Air Conditioning Systems, 1996 edition.
A-8-5.1 Fire-retardant roof covering assemblies are A, B, or C
Class. (See NFPA 203, Guide on Roof Coverings and Roof Deck Con- NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®, 1997 edition.
structions, for definitions.) The specific class should be consistent NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid
with the fire threat as determined by the authority having juris- Fuel-Burning Appliances, 1996 edition.
diction. NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction, 1995
edition.
A-9-1 For additional fire protection considerations during NFPA 299, Standard for Protection of Life and Property from
construction, refer to NFPA 241, Standard for Safeguarding Con- Wildfire, 1997 edition.
struction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations. NFPA 600, Standard on Industrial Fire Brigades, 1996 edition.
NFPA 601, Standard for Security Services in Fire Loss Prevention,
1996 edition.
Appendix B Referenced Publications NFPA 780, Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection
Systems, 1997 edition.
B-1 The following documents or portions thereof are refer- NFPA 1221, Standard for the Installation, Maintenance, and
enced within this standard for informational purposes only Use of Public Fire Service Communication Systems, 1994 edition.
and are thus not considered part of the requirements of this NFPA Inspection Manual, 7th edition, NFPA, MYM-1M-94.
standard unless also listed in Chapter 10. The edition indicat-
Fire Protection Handbook, 18th edition, NFPA, MY-FPH1791.
ed here for each reference is the current edition as of the date
Brannigan, Francis L., Building Construction for the Fire Ser-
of the NFPA issuance of this standard.
vice, Montgomery College, Rockville, MD, NFPA MY-BCFS-3.
B-1.1 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Associa- Kimball, Warren Y., Fire Attack I, Jamestown, RI, 1966.
tion, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269- Kimball, Warren Y., Fire Attack II, Jamestown, RI, 1966.
9101.
NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose C-1.2 Other Publications and Information Sources.
Systems, 1996 edition. American Institute of Architects Research Corp., 1735 New
NFPA 203, Guide on Roof Coverings and Roof Deck Construc- York Ave., Washington, DC 20006.
tions, 1995 edition. American Insurance Service Group, 85 John St., New York,
NFPA 241, Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, NY 10038.
and Demolition Operations, 1996 edition. American Water Works Association, 6666 W. Quincy Ave.,
NFPA 501A, Standard for Fire Safety Criteria for Manufactured Denver, CO 80235.
Home Installation, Sites, and Communities, 1997 edition. Building Officials and Code Administrators International,
NFPA 501D, Standard for Recreational Vehicle Parks and Camp- 4051 W. Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795.
grounds, 1996 edition. Fire Marshals Association of North America, c/o NFPA, 1
NFPA 1231, Standard on Water Supplies for Suburban and Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101.
Rural Fire Fighting, 1993 edition. Fire Suppression Rating Schedule, Insurance Services
NFPA 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections, 1998 edition. Office, World Trade Center, New York, NY 10048-1199.
International Conference of Building Officials, 5360 S.
Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, CA 90601.
Appendix C Bibliographical and Information Sources Managing Fire Services, International City/County Manag-
ers’ Association, 777 N. Capitol St., Washington, DC 20002.
C-1 The following documents or portions thereof are refer- Southern Building Code International Congress, 900
enced within this standard for informational purposes only Montclair Rd., South Birmingham, AL 35213.

1998 Edition
INDEX 1141–11

Index

1998 National Fire Protection Association. All Rights Reserved.

The copyright in this index is separate and distinct from the copyright in the document which it indexes. The licensing provisions set forth for the
document are not applicable to this index. This index may not be reproduced in whole or in part by any means without the express written per-
mission of the National Fire Protection Association, Inc.

-A- Sprinkler systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1.3, A-4-2.6, A-6-1.3


Standpipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2.1, A-4-2.6, A-6-2.1
Access, means of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see Means of access Fire extinguishing systems . . see Automatic fire extinguishing systems
Adjacent ground elevation (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Fire flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1.8, 7-2.3, 7-3.1, A-7-1.8
Aerial ladders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5-1.3 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Alarm systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 Fire hazards
Alarms, delayed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1.1, 1-2.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Alternative (definition). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3-1
Approved (definition). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1, A-2-1 Nonstructural. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.1
As-built plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1.3 Vegetation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1.1, 1-2.1
Authority having jurisdiction (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1, A-2-1
Fire hydrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1.3, 6-2.1, A-6-1.3, A-6-2.1
Automatic fire extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1.2, 6-1, A-6-1.3; During construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2.2
see also Sprinkler systems
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Dry (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Automatic fire warning systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1.5 to 7-1.6, 7-2.2 to 7-2.3
-B- Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1.4
Municipal-type water systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3.2
Balconies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.2 In parking areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1.5
Basements (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1.2
Building codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-1, A-8-1 Threads on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1.7, A-7-1.7
Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see Structures Fire lanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1.1, 4-4, A-4-4
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
-C- Fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chap. 6, A-6-1.3, A-6-2.1 to A-6-2.2
During construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chap. 9, A-9-1
Common walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Construction Fire protection systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.2; see also Automatic fire
Fire protection during . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chap. 9, A-9-1 extinguishing systems; Manual fire protection;
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chap. 8, A-8-1, A-8-5.1 Sprinkler systems; Standpipes; Water supply
Water supply during . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 Automatic fire warning systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Curb cuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.4 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1.3
Fire separation walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.2
-D- Fire warning systems, automatic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Fire-resistive construction materials
Debris. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1.3 Overhanging buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.3
Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.2 Overhanging projections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.2
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chap. 2, A-2-1 Roofs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1.2
Detectors and detection systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 Vehicle storage areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
Dry hydrants (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 Fire-retardant roof coverings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5, A-8-5.1
Dwellings (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 Flammable and combustible liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1.4
Floor area, gross. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.2, 6-3.2
-E- Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Entry, means of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.3 Floor plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1.3
Existing conditions (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Fuel hazard abatement plans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3-1
Exterior vertical walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.4
Extinguishers, portable fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-2.2, 9-1.5, A-6-2.2 -G-
Extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . see Automatic fire extinguishing
systems Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.7 to 4-4.8
Gross floor area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.2, 6-3.2
-F- Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Ground elevation, adjacent (definition). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Farms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1.2, A-1-2 Ground ladders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5-1.3
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Fire department -H-
Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see Means of access
Construction phase, requirements for . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1.1 to 9-1.2 Height, building
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Extended response time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1.1, 1-2.1 Manual fire protection based on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2.1, A-6-2.1
Limited resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1.1, 1-2.1 Means of access based on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.1 to 5-1.3, A-5-1.3
Fire department connections Structure separation based on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Fire hydrant outlet threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1.7, A-7-1.7 Hydrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Fire hydrants

1998 Edition
1141–12 FIRE PROTECTION IN PLANNED BUILDING GROUPS

-I- Fire lanes connecting to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.4


Turnarounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2.2
Industrial process structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2.1 Turns in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2.9 to 4-2.10, A-4-2.10
Information sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. C Roof coverings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-5, A-8-5.1
Roofs, fire-resistive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.2
-J-
-S-
Jurisdiction (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Scope of standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
-L- Separation
Fire separation walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.2
Labeled (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.2, 5-2
Ladders, use of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A-5-1.3
Vehicle storage areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
Landscaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2.6, A-4-2.6
Shall (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Listed (definition). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1, A-2-1
Should (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
-M- Site plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1.1, 7-2.3
Smoke detectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3.1
Mains Sprinkler systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.2, 6-1.2
Municipal-type water systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-3.2 to 7-3.3 Fire department connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1.3, A-4-2.6, A-6-1.3
Private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1.1 to 7-1.2 Standpipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2.1, A-6-2.1
Manual fire protection . . . . 6-2, 9-1.5, A-6-2.1 to A-6-2.2; see also Standpipes Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1, A-2-1
Means of access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1.1, 3-1.3, Chap. 4, A-4-1, A-4-2.3, Fire department connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2.1, A-4-2.6, A-6-2.1
A-4-2.6, A-4-2.8, A-4-2.10, A-4-4, A-4-4.9; see also Roadways Stories, building
During construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1.2 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Manual fire protection based on number of . . . . . . . . 6-2.1, A-6-2.1
Hydrant location and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1.6 Means of access based on number of . . . . . . . . . 5-1.1, 5-1.3, A-5-1.3
To individual structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1, A-5-1.3 Structure separation based on number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1.1, 1-2.1 Streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see also Roadways
Means of entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.3 Private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A-4-1
Mobile home parks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1.2, A-1-1.2 Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Municipal-type water systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3 Public (definition). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Structures
Construction requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chap. 8, A-8-1, A-8-5.1
-N- Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Industrial process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2.1
No parking signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4.9, A-4-4.9 Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chap. 5, A-5-1.3
Noncombustible construction Means of access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1, A-5-1.3
Overhanging buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.3
Obstructions around . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2.6, A-4-2.6
Overhanging projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.2
Overhanging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.3
Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
-O-

Obstructions around structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2.6, A-4-2.6 -T-


Overhanging buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.3
Terrain, unusual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1.1, 1-2.1
Overhanging projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.2
Trash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1.3
-P-
-V-
Parking lots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Hydrants in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1.5 Vehicle storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
Lanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1.1, 4-3.2 to 4-3.3 Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.1
Patios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.2 Vertical walls, exterior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.4
Planned building groups (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
-W-
Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chap. 3, 7-2.3, A-3-1
Porches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.2
Walls
Preliminary plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1.1, 7-2.3, A-3-1.1 Common . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Private fire service mains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1.1 to 7-1.2 Fire separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1.2
Private streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4-1; see also Roadways Vehicle storage areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Vertical exterior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.4
Projections, overhanging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.2
Warning systems, automatic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Public streets (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1; see also Roadways
Water supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1.1, 3-1.3, Chap. 7, A-7-1.7 to A-7-1.8
Purpose of standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2, A-1-2 Acceptance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
During construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
-R-
Fire flow, required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see Fire flow
Recreational vehicle parks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1.2, A-1-1.2 Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1.1, 1-2.1
Referenced publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chap. 10, App. B, App. C Municipal-type water systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Roadways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1.1, 3-1.3, 4-1.1, 4-2 Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
During construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1.2 Wildland fuels, building groups adjacent to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Working plans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1.1 to 3-1.2

1998 Edition C-E