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1. Kenneth J.K., Joseph D.Z. Handbook of Fractures, 3 Edition. Pennsylvania. 2006.
5. American Academy of Orthopaedics Surgeons. 2011. Open Fractures. Available from
http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00582. Accessed January 30, 2013.

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American Academy of Orthopaedics Surgeons. 2011. Open Fractures. Available from


http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00582. Accessed January 30, 2013.

7. Salter 1999

15. Carter, A. Michael. Fraktur dan Dislokasi. Dalam: Price and Wilson, Patofisiologi
Konsep Klinik Proses-Proses Penyakit, edisi 6. Jakarta: EGC; 2006. p. 1187-91.

a. Solomon L, Varwick D, Nayagam S. Principle of fracture. In: Nayagam S, editor. Apley’s


system of orthopaedics and fractures 9th ed. United States: Crc Press;2010.p.672-88

Appley, G.A & Solomon, Louis. 2013. Ortopedi dan Fraktur Sistem Apley. Jakarta: Widya
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12. Rasjad, Chairuddin. Pengantar Ilmu Bedah Ortopedi,Cetakan Ke-V. Jakarta: Yarsif
Watampone, 2008. 332-334

1 Sloane E. Sistem Rangka. Veldman J editor. Anatomi dan Fisiologi untuk Pemula. Edisi
bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: EGC. 2003.

14. Nayagam S. Principles of fractures. In: Warwick D and Nayagam S (eds) Apley’s
System of Orthopaedics and Fractures, 9th edition. London: Hodder Arnold; 2010. p. 687-
732.
16. Marshall ST, Browner BD. Emergency Care of Musculoskeletal Injuries. In: Townsend
CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers B, Mattox K (eds) Sabiston textbook of surgery : the
biological basis of modern surgical practice, 19th ed. Canada: Elsevier Sauders; 2012. p.
482-504.

-Nanchahal J, Nayagam S, Khan U, Moran C, Barrett S, Sanderson F, et al. Standards for the
Management of Open Fractures of the Lower Limb. British Orthopaedic Association and
British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons, 2009.
18. Lakatos R. General Principles of Internal Fixation [Internet].
Emedicine.medscape.com. 2014 [cited 19 April 2015]. Available from:
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1269987-overview

20. Solomon L, Varwick D, Nayagam S. Principle Of Fracture. In : Nayagam S, Editor.


Apley’s System Of Orthopaedics And Fractures 9th Ed. United States : Crc
Press.2010.P.672-88.

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