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Chapter 11

AC Steady-state Power
Electrical Power System

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Philippine Power Situation

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Philippine Power Situation

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AC Steady-state Power
 Given two signals: v (t ) = Vm cos(ωt + θ v )
i (t ) = I m cos(ωt + θ i )

 Using passive convention, the power at any


instant of time is,
p (t ) = v(t )i (t ) Instantaneous Power

 In phasor form: (peak values)


V= Vm ∠θ v
I= I m ∠θ i
 Complex Power: (peak values)
S = VI*/2 = (Vm I m ∠θ v − θ i ) / 2

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AC Steady-state Power
 Complex power (in terms of root mean square
- rms):
S =VrmsIrms*

Where:
Vrms= Vrms ∠θ v and Irms= I rms ∠θ i

 Note: X rms = Xm / 2

Thus:
S =VrmsIrms* = Vrms I rms ∠θ v − θ i

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AC Steady-state Power
 Thus complex power can be written as:

S = Vrms I rms ∠θ v − θ i
= Vrms I rms cos(θ v − θ i ) + jVrms I rms sin(θ v − θ i )
= P + jQ

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AC Steady-state Power
 Also can be expressed in terms of load
impedance:

 Z = V/I=Vrms/Irms = (Vrms ∠θ v − θ i ) / I rms


 Since Vrms= Z Irms

 Thus:

S = VrmsI*rms = I2rms Z = V2rms/Z*

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AC Steady-state Power
 Since Z=R+jX;

S = I2rms (R+jX) = P+jQ


where:
P = I2rms R
= known as average or real power and is measured in watts.
Q = I2rms X
= known as reactive or quadrature power and is measured in
volt-ampere-power (VAR).

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AC Steady-state Power
 Note that:

power factor (pf)= cos(θ v − θ i ) = cos θ

 θ = 0 or Q=0  for resistance load (unity pf).

 θ = −ve or Q<0  for capacitive loads (leading pf)

 θ = +ve or Q>0  for inductive loads (lagging pf).

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Complex Power (S) = Vrms I rms cos(θ v − θi ) + jVrms I rms sin(θ v − θi )
=P+jQ = VI*
=VrmsIrms
Apparent Power (S) =|S| = VrmsIrms ∠θ v − θ i
= P2 + Q2

Average (Real) = Re(S) = S cos (θ v − θ i )


Power (P) =I2rmsR
Reactive Power (Q) =Im(S) = S sin (θ v − θ i )
= I2rmsX
Power Factor (pf) =P/S = cos (θ v − θ i )
=cosine of the angle of load impedance or
=cosine of the phase difference between
voltage and current.

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AC Steady-state Power
 Power (a) and Impedance (b) Triangle:

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AC Steady-state Power
 Power Triangle:

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Power Factor Correction
 Power factor is particularly important in
high-power applications
 Inductive loads have a lagging power factor
 Capacitive loads have a leading power factor
 Many high-power devices are inductive
 a typical AC motor has a power factor of 0.9 lagging
 the total load on the national grid is 0.8-0.9 lagging
 this leads to major efficiencies
 power companies therefore penalize industrial users
who introduce a poor power factor
 The problem of poor power factor is
tackled by adding additional
components to bring the power factor
back closer to unity
 a capacitor of an appropriate size in parallel
with a lagging load can ‘cancel out’ the
inductive element
 this is power factor correction
 a capacitor can also be used in series but
this is less common (since this alters the
load voltage)
Maximum Power Transfer
 When looking at amplifiers, we noted that maximum
power transfer occurs in resistive systems when the
load resistance is equal to the output resistance
 this is an example of matching

 When the output of a circuit has a reactive element


maximum power transfer is achieved when the load
impedance is equal to the complex conjugate of the
output impedance this is the maximum power
transfer theorem
Maximum Power Transfer
 Thus if the output impedance Zo = R +
jX, maximum power transfer will occur
with a load ZL = R - jX
Maximum Power Transfer
 Maximum Average Power Absorbed

When ZL = Zth*, the rms load current


is VTh/2RL, and the maximum
average power delivered to the load
is

If the Thevenin voltage is expressed in terms of its maximum


amplitude rather than its rms amplitude, the equation becomes
AC Steady-state Power
 Example 1:
 Given: Vrms = 110∠85V
I rms = 0.4∠15 A

 Determine:
 The complex and apparent powers.
 The real and reactive powers.
 The power factor and the load impedance.

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AC Steady-state Power
 Example 2:
 Calculate the power
factor of the entire
circuit as seen by the
source.
 State whether the
power factor is
leading or lagging.
 What is:
 The apparent power.
 The real and reactive
powers.
 The complex power.

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 Example 3:
 A sinusoidal source supplies 10kVA reactive
power to load Z = 250∠ − 75. Determine:
 The pf.
 The apparent power delivered to the load.
 The peak voltage.

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