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# Chapter 11

Electrical Power System

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Philippine Power Situation

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Philippine Power Situation

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 Given two signals: v (t ) = Vm cos(ωt + θ v )
i (t ) = I m cos(ωt + θ i )

##  Using passive convention, the power at any

instant of time is,
p (t ) = v(t )i (t ) Instantaneous Power

##  In phasor form: (peak values)

V= Vm ∠θ v
I= I m ∠θ i
 Complex Power: (peak values)
S = VI*/2 = (Vm I m ∠θ v − θ i ) / 2

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 Complex power (in terms of root mean square
- rms):
S =VrmsIrms*

Where:
Vrms= Vrms ∠θ v and Irms= I rms ∠θ i

 Note: X rms = Xm / 2

Thus:
S =VrmsIrms* = Vrms I rms ∠θ v − θ i

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 Thus complex power can be written as:

S = Vrms I rms ∠θ v − θ i
= Vrms I rms cos(θ v − θ i ) + jVrms I rms sin(θ v − θ i )
= P + jQ

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 Also can be expressed in terms of load
impedance:

##  Z = V/I=Vrms/Irms = (Vrms ∠θ v − θ i ) / I rms

 Since Vrms= Z Irms

 Thus:

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 Since Z=R+jX;

## S = I2rms (R+jX) = P+jQ

where:
P = I2rms R
= known as average or real power and is measured in watts.
Q = I2rms X
= known as reactive or quadrature power and is measured in
volt-ampere-power (VAR).

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 Note that:

##  θ = +ve or Q>0  for inductive loads (lagging pf).

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Complex Power (S) = Vrms I rms cos(θ v − θi ) + jVrms I rms sin(θ v − θi )
=P+jQ = VI*
=VrmsIrms
Apparent Power (S) =|S| = VrmsIrms ∠θ v − θ i
= P2 + Q2

## Average (Real) = Re(S) = S cos (θ v − θ i )

Power (P) =I2rmsR
Reactive Power (Q) =Im(S) = S sin (θ v − θ i )
= I2rmsX
Power Factor (pf) =P/S = cos (θ v − θ i )
=cosine of the angle of load impedance or
=cosine of the phase difference between
voltage and current.

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 Power (a) and Impedance (b) Triangle:

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 Power Triangle:

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Power Factor Correction
 Power factor is particularly important in
high-power applications
 Inductive loads have a lagging power factor
 Many high-power devices are inductive
 a typical AC motor has a power factor of 0.9 lagging
 the total load on the national grid is 0.8-0.9 lagging
 this leads to major efficiencies
 power companies therefore penalize industrial users
who introduce a poor power factor
 The problem of poor power factor is
components to bring the power factor
back closer to unity
 a capacitor of an appropriate size in parallel
with a lagging load can ‘cancel out’ the
inductive element
 this is power factor correction
 a capacitor can also be used in series but
this is less common (since this alters the
Maximum Power Transfer
 When looking at amplifiers, we noted that maximum
power transfer occurs in resistive systems when the
load resistance is equal to the output resistance
 this is an example of matching

##  When the output of a circuit has a reactive element

maximum power transfer is achieved when the load
impedance is equal to the complex conjugate of the
output impedance this is the maximum power
transfer theorem
Maximum Power Transfer
 Thus if the output impedance Zo = R +
jX, maximum power transfer will occur
with a load ZL = R - jX
Maximum Power Transfer
 Maximum Average Power Absorbed

## When ZL = Zth*, the rms load current

is VTh/2RL, and the maximum
average power delivered to the load
is

## If the Thevenin voltage is expressed in terms of its maximum

amplitude rather than its rms amplitude, the equation becomes
 Example 1:
 Given: Vrms = 110∠85V
I rms = 0.4∠15 A

 Determine:
 The complex and apparent powers.
 The real and reactive powers.
 The power factor and the load impedance.

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 Example 2:
 Calculate the power
factor of the entire
circuit as seen by the
source.
 State whether the
power factor is
 What is:
 The apparent power.
 The real and reactive
powers.
 The complex power.

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