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ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION

1. All of the following are forms of adaptation through natural

selection except…

a. desert rats having kidneys that concentrate urine

b. fishes having gills best adapted for marine life

c. birds having wings for flight

d. human beings having fever when attacked by bacteria

2. Moisture and concentration of oxygen

a. are abiotic parts of an organism's environment.

b. have no effect on the physiology of an organism.

c. are biological conditions that impact an organism's survival.

d. do not vary in the environment.

3. In the process of biological magnification, toxins that are

harmful become more concentrated in the successive trophic levels of a food web. The pesticides dicholorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenols (PCBs) are well-known examples of this. Which of

the following organisms will receive the most concentration of these harmful substances in their body system?

a. snakes

c. zooplanktons

b. small fishes

d. fish-eating birds

4. Arrange the following events according to sequence during

a primary ecological succession.

I. Spruce-Hemlock forest

II. A rubble left behind by a retreating glacier

III. Alders form dense strands

IV. Accumulation of mosses and lichens

V. Formation of dwarf willows

a. I, II, III, IV, and V

b. V, IV, III, II, and I

c. I, III, II, IV, and V

d. II, IV, V, III, and I

5. Homologous structures are

a. similar in function but not in origin

b. similar in origin but not necessarily in function

c. completely dissimilar

d. found only in mammals

6. As the ocean became saltier, whales and fish independently

evolved mechanisms to maintain the concentration of salt in their bodies. This can be explained by

a. homologous evolution

b. analogous evolution

c. convergent evolution

d. parallel evolution

7. Which of the following was NOT a belief of Darwin’s?

a. Evolution of species occurs gradually and evenly over time.

b. There is a struggle for survival among organisms.

c. Genetic mutation and recombination are the driving forces

of evolution.

d. Those individuals with fitter variants will survive and

reproduce.

8. The proposed “primordial soup” was composed of organic

precursor molecules formed by interactions between all of the

following gases EXCEPT:

a. Oxygen

c. Nitrogen

b. Helium

d. Hydrogen

9. In an attempt to preserve its fishing industry, one country has recently announced that foreign ships will no longer be

permitted to sail within the 80 kms. of its coast. The only way this proposal will succeed is to increase the:

a. amount of plankton in which fish feed.

b. number of fish surviving to a sexual maturity.

c. average quantity of fish caught.

d. number of fish surviving in ground beyond the 80 km limit.

10. In many of the fresh water lakes of the world, considerable

number of closely related organisms occurs with no relatives

elsewhere. Which of the following best explains such species swarms?

a. Mimicry

b. Speciation

c. adaptive radiation

d. convergent evolution

11. Which of the following about the process of ecological

succession is true?

a. as the ecosystem matures, there is a decrease in biomass

b. ecological succession is carried out by abiotic factors in the

environment

c. a deciduous forest is a more stable community than a

recently abandoned field

d. the type of organism in a given area determines the nature

of the climax community

12. According to the modern theories of evolution, which of

the following factors would be LEAST effective in bringing about species change?

a. geographical isolation

b. genetic recombination

c. changing environments

d. asexual reproduction

13. The Philippine eagle lays a single egg once every two

years, which is then incubated by parents for 60 days. Which

of the following parameters of population change characterize the situation above?

a.

survivorship

c. age distribution

b.

biotic potential

d. carrying capacity

14. What is the major role of decomposers in an ecosystem?

a.

recycle nutrients

c. clean the environment

b.

make the soil fertile

d. act as pollutants

15. Which of the following of an example of interaction

between the biotic community and the physical environment?

a. the struggle between two male moose over a female

b. the death of cattle due to heavy snow on the grazing land

c. a change in the course of a river as a result of rockslide

d. the struggle between members of a flock of bird for suitable

nesting sites

16. Which of the following statements shows biological

magnification?

a. Many pesticides have spread throughout ecosystem and are

found in almost every organism.

b. Places near the polar regions are most affected by the

greenhouse effect.

c. Energy is significantly lost at each trophic level of a food

chain.

d. Top level carnivores may be most harmed by the toxic

environmental chemicals

17. Members of this kingdom live either as parasites on other

living things or as decomposers of dead matter.

a. animalia

b. plantae

c. protista

d. fungi

Diagram for Question Number 18 18. Bodies of water, K, L, M, & N form

Diagram for Question Number 18

18. Bodies of water, K, L, M, & N form a system of flowing

water which finally empties into the ocean. Which condition is

found in region K?

a. Relatively cool water & abundant planktons

b. Rapid flowing waters which result in the absence of

planktons

c. High carbon dioxide content of the water because of existing

stagnant conditions

d. Much organic material because of deposited sediment

19. When species of plant and animals are introduced into a new

habitat, they often become pests in their native habitat. The most probable reason for this is that in the new habitat, the species:

a. have a fewer natural enemies

b. learn to use different foods

c. have much lower mutation rate

d. develop better resistance to climate

20. Suppose that the plant life in a given ecosystem contained

1,000,000 units of energy. What would be the best estimate of

the unit amount of energy contained in the primary consumers?

a. 900,000

b. 100,000

c. 10,000

d. 1,000

21. The finches on the Galapagos Island were similar in form

except for variations of their beaks. Darwin observed that

these variations were useful for:

a. attracting a mate

b. building nests

d. defending territory

c. gathering food

22. Over the course of vertebrate evolution, the position of the

chief control centers has shifted from the…

a. Hindbrain to Midbrain

b. Midbrain to Forebrain

c. Cerebrum to Cerebellum

d. Hindbrain to Forebrain

23. The climate with the shortest growing season would be

located in the

a. taiga

b. tropical rain forest

c. deciduous forest

d. savannah

24. Salmon return to their specific home stream to spawn. This

is an example of

a. pheromones

b. a reflex

c. imprinting

25. If two animals mate and produce viable, fertile offspring

under natural conditions, we can conclude that

a. they both have diploid somatic cells

b. they are both from the same species

c. for any given gene, they both have the same allele

d. their blood types are compatible

26. Which of the following statements regarding evolution is

true?

a. Certain phenotypes are more fit in certain environments

than others.

b. Natural selection creates new alleles.

c. Genotype, not phenotype, influences fitness.

d. Mutations always affect the fitness of an organism.

27. In a climax community, which of the following will be

observed?

a. The nitrogen cycle ceases to be important for primary

producers.

b. There are no changes in seasonal population in sizes in the

community.

c. Predatory-prey relationships between trophic levels in the

food web remain constant from one generation to the next.

d. There is no loss of energy from one trophic level to the

next.

28. A population of horses is split into two populations by a

new riverbed that forms after a flood. After many generations, the river changes course and the populations mix again. Which of the following indicates that the two populations have formed two separate species?

a. The populations refuse to cross the dry riverbed to

interbreed.

b. The populations mix and mate and offspring are produced,

although they are sterile.

c. One population has twice as many horses with white spots

as the other.

d. Both populations are primary consumers.

29. Scientists study a pond and found water skimmers and

minnows. Fifteen years later, the pond had filled in, resulting in swampy land; frogs and snakes were prevalent. This is a result of

a. Predation

b. Succession

c. Speciation

d. Natural disaster

30. Introduced species

a. Can disrupt the balance of the natural species with which

they become associated with

b. Often fail to colonize the new area

c. Can become common enough to become part of the natural

species

d. Often become sterile due to not being able to adapt.

31. A volcanic eruption deposits a thick layer of ash over a

wide area, obliterating the old landscape. In a field beyond the

affected zone, a dandelion flower grows and releases its wind- borne seeds, some of which land on the ash. Most do not grow, but two of the dandelion seeds sprout and produce a new crop of seeds.

Which of these predictions is LEAST likely to be correct about the years following the dandelions growing on the volcanic ash?

a. The dandelion population will eventually reach carrying

capacity and stabilize

b. The dandelions may soon be joined in the devastated area

by lichen and mosses.

c. Decomposers will move in shortly, and the ash will be

transformed into fertile soil.

d. A graph of the number of dandelion individuals over the

next 10 years would show an exponential curve.

32. A culture of algae is inoculated with small numbers of two

different species of protozoan ciliates, Protozoans A and C,

that feed on the algae. Protozoan A replicates asexually once every hour and Protozoan C replicates asexually once every 1.5 hours under this conditions, as long as the algae is not limiting. Which of the following is MOST likely to be observed?

a. The protozoans will evolve to have a mutualistic

relationship.

b. Both populations of protozoans will increase in size initially,

but then protozoan C will die off from the culture

c. The algae will rapidly evolve to avoid predation

d. The algae will die off from the culture due to overfeeding.

33. If two animals mate and produce viable, fertile offspring

under natural conditions, we can conclude that

a. they both have diploid somatic cells

b. they are both from the same species

c. for any given gene, they both have the same allele

d. their blood types are compatible

34. Jewel beetles can breed only in recently-burned wood.

36. The structure of the age pyramid below shows that this

population is

a. stable, because there are plenty of individuals in each age

group

b. growing, because there are large number of adults, who can

reproduce

c. growing, because there are few immature individuals, who

take up more than the share of resources

d. declining, because mortality is below replacement rate

d. declining, because mortality is below replacement rate 37. Damselflies and dragonflies can live in the

37. Damselflies and dragonflies can live in the same ecosystem

because

a. They occupy different niches.

b. They are commensal.

c. They are both insects.

d. Dragonflies have stronger wing muscles than damselflies.

38. Which of the following is/are an example(s) of a

scavenger?

I. II. Vulture

Fungi

III. Hyena

What type of dispersal pattern would most likely be seen in jewel beetles?

a. I only

c. II only

a. random

b. I and II only

d. II and III only

b. mixed

c. clumped

d. cannot tell from information given

39. Which of the following is/are likely to result in more PO 4 3-

being available to primary producers?

I. Burying beetles find a mouse carcass and lay eggs near it

35.

Gypsy moths were brought to the United States about 150

after burial.

III. Thick moss mats develop on bare rock to serve as

years ago, in a misguided attempt to produce silk more cheaply. A few gypsy moth caterpillars were accidentally released in Massachusetts, and within 20 years they had

II. In a forest, an elk is killed and partially eaten by wolves.

anchorage for larger plants.

infested local woodlands. Their descendants have since

a. I only

c. III only

munched their way through forests across most of the country.

b. I and II only

d. I and III only

Which factors listed below did NOT contribute to the success of gypsy moths in their new environment?

a. Gypsy moths have no indigenous predators

b. Gypsy moths evolved over time to be successful in their new

environment

c. Gypsy moths found an ample supply of food in native

deciduous forests.

d. Trees have no natural defences against gypsy moths.

40. Which of the following is NOT true of energy flow through

ecosystems?

a. Energy is conserved and stays in an ecosystem, to be used

by organisms again and again.

b. Solar radiation is the original energy source for the vast

majority of organisms on Earth.

c. Energy flow is one-way, from autotrophs to progressively

higher trophic levels.

d. Energy flow is inefficient; a lot is lost in each transfer from

one organism to another.

41. The environment of paramecia can be changed by the

gradual addition of salt to the pond water in which they live,

such that they can live at salt concentrations which would kill other paramecia and die if they are put back in the pond water. This phenomenon is called:

a. evolution

b. tropism

c. adaptation

d. taxis

42. You and your friend carved your initial 5 feet above the

ground on a tree in a campus. The tree is now 40 feet tall. When you come back for your 25 th reunion, the tree will be 100 feet tall. How many feet high above the ground should you look for your initials?

a. 5

b. 40

c. 60

d. 100

43. Which biome has the highest annual rainfall?

a. tundra

b. taiga

c. desert

d. rain forest

44. Fast rate of population growth and widespread malnutrition

are common in India and the Philippines. This proves that…

a. Malnutrition is an effect of fast population growth

b. Extreme poverty among people results in malnutrition

c. Malnutrition is characteristic of developing countries

d. When population increase, food supply decrease

45. In an area of 50 hectares, the tamaraw population was 40.

Two months later in the same area, the population was halved. Which of the following is LEAST likely to account for the rapid population size?

a. The tamaraw stopped breeding.

b. Predators become more numerous.

c. Emigration had occurred.

d. A new disease-causing organism was brought into the

community.

46. Which of the following graphs accurately illustrates the change in the biomass of anaerobic organism in aquatic system that changes from oligotrophic to eutrophic?

a. Time Biomass Biomass
a.
Time
Biomass Biomass
b. Time Biomass
b.
Time
Biomass

c.

Time Biomass
Time
Biomass
d. Time Biomass
d.
Time
Biomass

47. The members of the given species are rarely, if ever,

uniformly distributed throughout their range. Instead, their collected into smaller groups called populations. Which of the

following best explains this phenomenon?

a. Members of species cannot tolerate overcrowding.

b. The physical factors in the environment upon which they

depend are themselves not uniformly distributed.

c. The environment can support more organisms if they are

grouped into populations.

 

Parts per million DDT Residues

Water

0.0005

Plankton

0.04000

Heron (feeds on small animals)

3.57000

Herring gull (scavenger)

6.00000

Fish hawk (asprey egg)

13.00000

Merganser (fish-eating duck)

22.80000

48. The table above shows the concentration of DDT in a given

food chain. It illustrates the phenomenon of:

a. Eutrophication

b. Biological magnification

c. Biodegradability

d. Microbiological decomposition

49. A long enduring steady-state community is known as

a. a climax community

c. an ecosystem

b. a barren community

d. a prairie

50. A certain brand of pesticide was used to eliminate the fly in

a dairy farm. Graph A shows the result of the first spraying while Graph B shows the result of the second spraying after 2 weeks. What is the possible explanation for the results shown in the two graphs?

20 15 10 5 0 Before After Population (in hundreds)
20
15
10
5
0
Before
After
Population
(in hundreds)

Group A

5 0 Before After Population (in hundreds) Group A a. The environment favored reproduction of flies

a. The environment favored reproduction of flies

b. The pesticide used was not effective

c. Flies developed resistance to the pesticide

d. Flies were sensitive to the pesticide