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BO S M

AB OLU
O TR E I
V

K AC II
O T
F S
QUEBEC CITY
CANADA
AUGUST 10-14

WORLD CONFERENCE ON TIMBER ENGINEERING

••under the aegis of••


WCTE 2014
August 10-14, 2014

CENTRE DES CONGRÈS DE QUÉBEC


1000, boulevard René-Lévesque Est, Quebec City
Toll-free: 888 679-4000

WCTE 2014 INTERNATIONAL PANEL OF REVIEWERS


Hamidah Abdullah Simon Aicher Shiro Aratake
Marco Ballerini Leander Bathon Frank Beall
Graeme Beattie Robert Beauregard Hans Blass
Andy Buchanan Carlito Calil Jr David Carradine
Ario Ceccotti Myriam Chaplain Kevin Cheung
Ying-Hei Chui Peggi Clouston Keith Crews
Christian Dagenais Richard Desjardins Dondald DeVisser
Alfredo Dias J. Daniel Dolan Ghasan Doudak
Bradford Douglas Michael Flach Massimo Fragiacomo
Andrea Frangi Steffen Franke Bettina Franke
Caroline Frenette Philippe Galimard Dominique Gauzin-Müller
Igor Gavric Ulf Arne Girhammar Rainer Goerlacher
Kiril Gramatikov Peer Haller Richard Harris
Joergen Jensen André Jorissen Fumio Kamiya
Erol Karacabeyli Stephen Kelley Abdy Kermani
Jochen Köhler Kohei Komatsu David Krestshumann
Ulrike Kuhlmann Petr Kuklik Frank Lam
Bob Leicester Adrian Leijten Peggy Lepper
Philip Line Joseph Loferski Robert Malczyk
Kjell A. Malo Mohammad Mohammad Thomas Morrison
David Moses Michael Newcombe Chun Ni
Weichiang Pang Moon Jae Park Marjan Popovski
Pierre Quenneville Patrick Racher Vlatka Rajcic
Douglas Rammer Alexander Salenikovich Carmen Sandhaas
Gerhard Schickhofer John «Buddy» Showalter Christophe Sigrist
Thomas Skaggs Ian Smith Iztok Sustersic
Thomas Tannert Will Teron Tomi Toratti
John van de Lindt Jacques White Gary Williams
Stefan Winter Motoi Yasumura Borjen Yeh

Copyright © 2014 World Conference on Timber Engineering


WCTE 2014
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Quebec City, Canada, August 10-14, 2014

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS
Edited by Alexander Salenikovich

Volume III
Posters

ISBN 978-0-86488-561-6
CONTENTS OF THIS BOOK
The Book of Abstracts consists of three volumes:
Volume I
Presentations Day 1: Monday, August 11
Presentations Day 2: Tuesday, August 12
Volume II
Presentations Day 3: Wednesday, August 13
Presentations Day 4: Thursday, August 14
Volume III
Posters
The electronic version of this book consists of three files representing the three volumes, easy to navigate using the table of
contents in the front pages or in the side bar of the Adobe viewer. All terms and authors’ names are searchable using ‘ctrl+f’
key combination. The page numbers in the table of contents are linked to the abstracts. The list of authors provided at the
end of each volume also indicates the page numbers linked to the abstracts associated with each name. Clicking on the text
of the abstract in Adobe viewer opens a PDF file of the abstract in a new window (not functional in Mac Preview).
PREAMBLE

Dear WCTE 2014 delegates,


The conference organising committee welcomes you to the 2014 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2014)
held August 10-14 in Quebec City, Canada, the birthplace of Canada’s wood industry. WCTE is the most prestigious
international event in timber engineering, engineered wood products and design of timber structures, which is held
biannually in different parts of the world and attracts researchers, engineers and architects, code consultants and building
officials, contractors and project managers, fabricators and suppliers from all continents. This conference is hosted by
FPInnovations, Université Laval and cecobois.
CONFERENCE MAIN THEME: RENAISSANCE OF TIMBER CONSTRUCTION
Timber construction has a rich history. We are re-discovering what our predecessors had accomplished and we are striving to
surpass their level of ingenuity by capitalizing on the past achievements and modern wood-based products and systems,
design tools and technology developed at the forefront of the research, design and construction communities.
TECHNICAL PROGRAM
The technical program is divided into the following six tracks:
1. Materials and products
2. Connections
3. Structural systems
4. Buildings and structures
5. Serviceability / Fire safety / Rehabilitation
6. Past, present and future

Track 1: Materials and products


This track is dedicated to the structural performance, grading and quality control of various building materials and products
including round and sawn timber, glued-laminated timber (glulam), cross-laminated timber (CLT), sandwich panels as well
as new structural products and shapes, including those made of hardwoods, palm trees and bamboo.

Track 2: Connections
This track is dedicated to various aspects of structural performance, modelling and design of connections, including
traditional dowel-type fasteners, self-drilling screws, glued-in rods, moment resisting connections, and innovative fastenings
for timber, CLT and composite systems. Long-term behaviour, fatigue and effects of moisture are also covered under this
track.

Track 3: Structural systems


This track covers a wide range of structural systems, such as traditional heavy timber frames and light-frame bracing, CLT
structures and various composite systems (timber-concrete, timber-steel, timber-glass, etc.) along with other innovative
assemblies for multi-storey and tall wood buildings. Of particular interest are the long-term performance and fatigue of
timber-concrete composites, advances in seismic design and code development, including progress in low damage seismic
design philosophy.

Track 4: Buildings and bridges


This track deals with the latest achievements in testing, modelling, design, assessment and upgrading of whole buildings,
specifically addressing multi-storey and tall buildings made of CLT, hybrid structures and other innovative systems,
including post-tension frames and 3D modules, with predominant focus on seismic and high wind designs. A special session
is reserved to spotlight the Canadian Guide on tall wood buildings including structural and serviceability design, fire safety,
prefabrication, quality assurance, etc. One full session is dedicated to design, construction and assessment of timber bridges.
Track 5: Serviceability / Fire safety / Rehabilitation
This track combines three different themes that have become deciding performance considerations in material specification
and structural design in code requirements for multi-storey and tall wood buildings as well as repair of existing constructions
around the world. Serviceability issues that are of specific interest to designers are short and long-term deflections, floor and
building vibrations, and noise transmission. The second theme focuses on fire resistance and fire protection of building
components, connections and systems. Issues of rehabilitation, recycling, and retrofitting of historic buildings and structures
are discussed in the third theme.

Track 6: Past, present and future


This track is of particular interest for architects and engineers developing principles of integrated design and construction in
the current and future projects. It focuses on the re-emergence of wood as a main stream building material in contemporary
architecture and its role in creating comfortable and healthy living environments showcasing whole building design
approaches, integrated design process, and case studies. It also showcases the latest architectural and engineering
achievements in timber design and construction, advances in design tools and teaching, as well as the industry strategies to
increase and improve wood use in modern constructions considering sustainability, environmentally responsible
construction, passive and net-zero energy house technologies, life cycle assessment, and multi-criteria evaluation.

HOW ABSTRACTS WERE SELECTED


Each abstract submission has been reviewed by two peers from the international scientific community (International panel of
reviewers) and then by the WCTE 2014 Steering Committee. Abstract acceptance was based upon quality, the potential
significance of the observations, and the rigor with which the scientific methods were applied. In addition, the Steering
Committee considered thematic balance in determining which abstracts would be presented orally during the conference.
The abstracts in this book have been compiled and processed from manuscripts provided by the authors.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We wish to thank the authors for their contributions. Sincere gratitude is owed to the members of WCTE 2014 Steering
Committee, International Advisory Committee and International Panel of Reviewers, especially for their encouragement and
time given to review the large number of abstracts. The financial support from the sponsors is gratefully acknowledged. We
also gratefully acknowledge the effort and dedication from the editorial staff, particularly Mss. Marie-Claude Thibault and
Marie Levesque of FPInnovations and Mr. Jean-Philippe Tremblay-Auclair of Université Laval.

Richard Desjardins Alexander Salenikovich Caroline Frenette


FPInnovations Université Laval cecobois
Conference Chair Technical Program Chair Local Events Coordinator
CONTENTS
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
ABS059
FULL FIELD MEASUREMENTS ON SMALL NOTCHED BEAMS BY GRID METHOD - APPLICA-
TION TO LATTICE ELEMENTS
Eric Fournely, Rostand Moutou Pitti, Evelyne Toussaint, Michel Grédiac 19

ABS102
A STUDY ON THE TRANSLUCENCY SEISMIC RETROFITTING WALL WITH THE PUNCHING
METAL SHEET
Katsuhiko Kohara, Mitsuo Fukumoto, Kazuyoshi Koumoto, Danhei Umeda, Shintaro Hagiwara, Mitsuaki
Kanazawa 21

ABS103
A STUDY ON VISCO-ELASTIC DAMPER EFFECT FOR RETROFITTING OF THE LARGE TIM-
BER STRUCTURE
Katsuhiko Kohara, Mitsuo Fukumoto, Kazuyoshi Koumoto, Takeshi Nomura 23

ABS105
DETERMINATION OF THE MODULUS OF ELASTICITY OF VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES ON THE
BASIS OF THE MEASUREMENT OF FREE VIBRATION PARAMETERS
Barbara Misztal 25

ABS114
DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF MEMBER IN ANCIENT TIMBER STRUCTURE BASED ON MODAL
STRAIN ENERGY METHOD
Xueliang Wang, Liang Jin, Haibo Li 27

ABS148
STRAIN-SOFTENING BEHAVIOR OF WOOD ESTIMATED IN SINGLE-EDGE NOTCHED BEND-
ING TEST
Koji Murata, Seiichiro Ukyo 29

ABS172
ANALYSIS OF THE PENETRATION OF ADHESIVES AT FINGER-JOINTS IN BEECH WOOD
Thomas Volkmer, Anna Schusser, Bettina Franke 31

ABS175
INVESTIGATION OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS WOOD FOR THE USE AS AN ENGINEERED
MATERIAL
Steffen Franke, João Marto 33

ABS194
END REINFORCEMENT OF WOOD MEMBER USING SHORTCUT CARBON FIBERS
Xiaojun Yang, Meng Gong, Ying Hei Chui, Zeli Que, Youfu Sun 35

ABS206
MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HISTORICAL BEAMS OF Picea abies WOOD. ASSESS-
MENT BY STATIC BENDING
Javier-Ramón Sotomayor-Castellanos 37

5
ABS247
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF UNIFORMLY PARTIAL COMPRESSION TESTS OF WOOD
Shuhei Mitsui, Aya Hori, Mayuka Uetsuji, Takeshi Kawachi, Kazuo Kondoh 39

ABS257
GLULAM REINFORCED USING PLATES OF DISTINCTIVE LENGTHS - EXPERIMENTATION
AND MODELLING
Gary Raftery 41

ABS309
TIMBER ENGINEERING AND CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED FOREST SPECIES FROM
THE CONGO BASIN: CONTRIBUTION OF MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
René Oum Lissouck, Régis Pommier, Louis Max Ayina Ohandja, Denys Breysse, Myriam Chaplain 43

ABS311
AN ENHANCED BEAM MODEL FOR GLUED LAMINATED STRUCTURES THAT TAKES MOIS-
TURE, MECHANO- SORPTION AND TIME EFFECTS INTO ACCOUNT
Sigurdur Ormarsson, Jan Roar Steinnes 45

ABS327
SEISMIC PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MUD WALLS CONSIDERING REGIONAL CHAR-
ACTERISTICS OF WALL CLAY
Naoki Utsunomiya, Mitsuhiro Miyamoto, Minoru Yamanaka, Manabu Matsushima 47

ABS346
RESULTS OF PENETRATION TESTS PERFORMED ON TIMBER GLT BEAMS
Lenka Melzerová, Michal Šejnoha 49

ABS423
LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING OF WOOD BEAMS: FEA-MODELLING AND SENSITIVITY
ANALYSIS
Qiuwu Xiao, Ghasan Doudak, Magdi Mohareb 51

ABS431
MIXED-MODE FRACTURE PROPERTIES CHARACTERIZATION FOR TIMBER STRUCTURES
THROUGH DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION AND FINITE ELEMENT METHOD COUPLING
PROCESS
Mamadou Méité, Frédéric Dubois, Octavian Pop, Joseph Absi, Jérôme Dopeux 53

ABS433
EMBEDDING BEHAVIOUR OF CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER PANELS MANUFACTURED FROM
SUGI
Nobuyoshi Yamaguchi, Shiro Nakajima, Yasuhiro Araki, Atsushi Miyatake, Naoto Ando 55

ABS450
INFLUENCE OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN MODAL TESTING ON EVALUATED ELASTIC
PROPERTIES OF TIMBER PANELS
Jan Niederwestberg, Jianhui Zhou, Ying Hei Chui 57

ABS469
ESTIMATION ON BEARING CAPACITY OF SHELF MADE FROM PLYWOOD SUBJECTED TO
DISTRIBUTED LOAD
Manabu Matsushima, Mitsuhiro Miyamoto, Naoki Utsunomiya 59

6
ABS476
CHARACTERIZATION OF EUCALYPTUS SP. TIES FOR USE IN BRAZILIAN RAILWAYS
Felipe Hideyoshi Icimoto, Fabiane Salles Ferro, Carlito Calil Júnior 61

ABS484
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SWELLING AND SHRINKING BEHAVIOUR OF ROUNDWOOD
TRUNKS
Josef Kögl, Georg Stecher, Conrad Brinkmeier, Michael Flach 63

ABS489
BENDING PERFORMANCE AND CREEP OF FLAT SQUARES WITHOUT PITH SAWN UP FROM
SUGI LARGE DIAMETER LOGS - EFFECTS OF LOADING DIRECTION -
Shiro Aratake, Akihiro Matsumoto, Atsushi Shiiba 65

ABS499
BENDING STRENGTH AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF SOUTHERN PINE COMPOSITE
LUMBER
Bonnie Z. Yang, R. Daniel Seale, Rubin Shmulsky 67

ABS504
WOOD CONSTRUCTION UNDER COLD CLIMATE
Xiaodong (Alice) Wang, Olle Hagman, Bror Sundqvist, Sigurdur Ormarsson, Hui Wan, Peter Niemz 69

ABS513
EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WOOD SURFACE OF BRAZIL-
IAN EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS USED FOR STRUCTURES AND FURNITURE
Alexandre Monteiro de Carvalho, Pablo Vieira dos Santos, Ananias Francisco Dias Junior, José Henrique
Pace, João Vicente de Figueiredo Latorraca 71

ABS560
DEVELOPMENT OF A PORTABLE HARDNESS TESTER FOR WOOD USING DISPLACEMENT
TRANSDUCER
Adriano Ballarin, Albert Assis, Hernando Lara Palma 73

ABS568
APPLICABILITY OF VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES IN GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER - PARAME-
TER STUDY ON DELAMINATION RESISTANCE AND SHEAR STRENGTH
Yuan Jiang, Jörg Schaffrath, Markus Knorz, Stefan Winter, Jan-Willem van de Kuilen 75

ABS597
IN-PLANE SHEAR TEST OF FULL SCALE CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER PANELS
Yasuhiro Araki, Shiro Nakajima, Yoshinobu Yamaguchi, Takafumi Nakagawa, Atsushi Miyatake,
Motoi Yasumura 77

ABS606
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON RESISTANT MECHANISM OF THICK PLYWOOD SUBJECTED
TO LATERAL LOADINGS
Akiko Ohtsuka, Naoto Fukawa, Takumi Ito, Wataru Kambe 79

ABS616
MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITE BAMBOO-GUADUA
PRODUCTS: PLASTIGUADUA
Hector F. Archila, Caori P. Takeuchi, David J. A. Trujillo 81

7
ABS617
INFLUENCE OF MICRO STRUCTURED SURFACE ON THE BOND QUALITY OF HARDWOOD
Martin Lehmann, Thomas Volkmer 83

ABS645
PROPERTIES OF STRENGTH AND ELASTICITY OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF ROUND
TIMBER OF AMARU FOR USE IN CIVIL CONSTRUCTION
Felipe Hideyoshi Icimoto, Amós Magalhães de Souza, Caio Victor Fernandes, Fabiane Salles Ferro, Carlito
Calil Júnior 85

ABS685
X-RAY CT TECHNIQUE FOR INVESTIGATING INNER DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF HISTORIC
WOODEN PROPERTIES
Chul-Ki Kim, Jung-Kwon Oh, HyungKun Kim, Jun-Jae Lee 87

ABS705
PROPERTIES OF CLEAR WOOD AND STRUCTURAL TIMBER OF PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII
FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN SPAIN
Eduard Correal-Mòdol, Marcel Vilches Casals 89

TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS
ABS048
MODELLING THE EFFECT OF GRAIN ORIENTATION ON THE LAG SCREW WITHDRAWAL
LOAD FOR TROPICAL HARDWOODS
Cláudio H. S. Del Menezzi, Henrique P. Farias, Milton L. Siqueira 91

ABS060
SELF TAPPING SCREWS WITHOUT PRE-DRILLING FOR BRAZILIAN REFORESTATION SPECIES
Carlito Calil Neto, Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr, Carlito Calil Júnior 93

ABS082
STUDY ON SINGLE SHEAR STRENGTH OF NAILED JOINTS SUBJECTED TO GRAIN DIREC-
TION
Kiyotaka Terui, Yoshimitsu Ohashi, Kohe Nomoto, Osamu Sumioka 95

ABS094
STUDY ON TIMBER FRAMED JOINTS USING DRIFT PINS AND UV-HARDENING FRP
Shinya Matsumoto, Shuhei Mitsui, Takaaki Ohkubo 97

ABS140
STUDY ON COMPRESSIVE STRAIN OF CLT WALL BOTTOM UNDER THE EXTREME VERTI-
CAL LOAD
Satoshi Oonishi, Hideyuki Nasu, Yasuteru Karube, Masahiro Inayama 99

ABS146
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF
WOODEN MORTISE-TENON JOINTS BEFORE AND AFTER REINFORCEMENT
Zheng Wei, Lu Weidong, Deng Daly, Gu Jinjie 101

8
ABS147
BOND BEHAVIOR OF GLUED-IN TIMBER JOINT WITH DEFORMED BAR EPOXIED IN GLU-
LAM
Zhibin Ling, Weiqing Liu, Huifeng Yang, Weidong Lu 103

ABS168
STUDY ON PREVENTION FOR BUCKLING OF COMBINED PILLAR WITH FIBER MATERIALS
OR SCREWS
Hirokazu Namiki, Hideyuki Nasu 105

ABS208
EDGE CONNECTIONS FOR CLT PLATES: IN-PLANE SHEAR TESTS ON HALF-LAPPED AND
SINGLE-SPLINE JOINTS
Masoud Sadeghi, Ian Smith 107

ABS250
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE DUCTILITY OF BOLTED CONNECTIONS LOADED PER-
PENDICULAR TO THE GRAIN
Wataru Kambe, Kei Tanaka, Kotaro Kawano, Takumi Nakahata, Masafumi Inoue 109

ABS256
DEVELOPMENT OF CONNECTING METHOD FOR TIMBER STRUCTURE USING EXPANDING
DENSIFIED WOOD - APPLICATION TO KEYED MORTISE AND TENON CONNECTION WITH
DENSIFIED WOOD
Masaya Kato, Akinori Iwasaki, Kei Tanaka, Masafumi Inoue 111

ABS337
ADHESIVELY BONDED TIMBER JOINTS - TO WHICH EXTENT DO DEFECTS MATTER?
Till Vallée, Simon Fecht, Cordula Grunwald, Thomas Tannert 113

ABS345
EVALUATION ON SHEAR PERFORMANCE OF WOOD-CONCRETE COMPOSITE ANCHORED
WITH STEEL REBAR
Yukyung Shin, Sang-Joon Lee, Kwang-Mo Kim, Moon-Jae Park 115

ABS359
PULL-OUT STRENGTH OF GLUED-IN ROD JOINT FROM LVL
Kazutoshi Ito, Wonwoo Lee, Changsuk Song, Kei Tanaka, Mikio Koshihara, Masafumi Inoue 117

ABS375
EVALUATE BEARING STRESS OF GLULAM USING DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION
Gi Young Jeong, Moon-Jae Park 119

ABS400
WOOD-BASED STRUCTURAL-USE PANEL DIAPHRAGMS AND SHEAR WALLS: PROBLEMS
DUE TO MOISTURE EXPOSURE AND RECOMMENDED REPAIRS
Agron E. Gjinolli, Dick Bower 121

ABS478
EFFECT OF WOOD DECAY ON SHEAR RESISTANCE OF DOWEL-TYPE JOINTS WITH STEEL
SIDE PLATES
Kei Sawata, Yutaro Sugano, Ryuya Takanashi, Takuro Hirai, Yoshihisa Sasaki 123

9
ABS492
DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS COMPOSITE JOINTS ON THE BASIS OF POLYMER MOR-
TAR WITH MATCHED PROPERTIES
Martin Kaestner, Markus Jahreis, Wolfram Haedicke, Karl Rautenstrauch 125

ABS502
REINFORCEMENT OF SHEAR FAILURE WITH LONG SCREW IN MOMENT-RESISTING JOINT
Makoto Nakatani, Hideki Morita, Takuro Mori 127

ABS526
EXPOSURE TEST OF SURFACE-TREATED STEEL PLATES ON PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOODS
Hiroki Ishiyama, Masao Nakajima, Takuro Mori, Yasunobu Noda, Takahiro Tsuchimoto 129

ABS578
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PULL-OUT STRENGTH OF A TENON AND MORTISE JOINT
Atsushi Tabuchi, Takamitsu Motoyoshi, Yoko Shiota 131

ABS583
A STUDY ON FAILURE MODE AND STRENGTH ESTIMATION OF TIMBER JOINT USING LAGSCREW-
BOLTS AND DRIFTPINS
Hiroyasu Sakata, Takumi Ohira, Yoshihiro Yamazaki, Hiromichi Ito, Azuma Fujishiro, Ryuki Odani 133

ABS586
DEVELOPMENT OF CLT SHEAR FRAME USING METAL PLATE INSERT CONNECTIONS
Akihisa Kitamori, Shoichi Nakashima, Hiroshi Isoda 135

ABS666
THE QUICK CONNECT MOMENT JOINT FOR PORTAL FRAME BUILDINGS: CASE STUDY
AND DISCUSSION OF DESIGN CHALLENGES AND CONSTRUCTION DETAILING
Felix Scheibmair, Pierre Quenneville 137

ABS679
DESIGN EQUATION FOR WITHDRAWAL RESISTANCE OF THREADED FASTENERS IN THE
CANADIAN TIMBER DESIGN CODE
Shawn Kennedy, Alexander Salenikovich, Williams Munoz, Mohammad Mohammad 139

ABS696
STUDY ON WOOD - STEEL PLATE CONNECTION WITH EPOXY RESIN AND SELF DRILLING
TAPPING SCREWS
Ryota Haba, Akihisa Kitamori, Takuro Mori, Hiroshi Isoda 141

ABS716
DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR EMBEDMENT STRENGTH OF WOOD FOR THREADED FASTENERS
IN THE CANADIAN TIMBER DESIGN CODE
Shawn Kennedy, Alexander Salenikovich, Williams Munoz, Mohammad Mohammad, Derek Sattler 143

TRACK 3: STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS


ABS087
BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF CONVENTIONAL TIMBER FRAME WALL UNDER SEISMIC ACTION :
APPLICATION OF N2 METHOD
Yassine Verdret, Carole Faye, Sidi Mohammed Elachachi 145

10
ABS108
STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF PORTAL FRAME CONSTRUCTED WITH JAPANESE CEDAR
GLULAM
Min-Chyuan Yeh, Yu-Li Lin, Shu-Yu Deng 147

ABS109
BUCKLING OF BLOCKHAUS WALLS UNDER IN-PLANE VERTICAL LOADS
Chiara Bedon, Massimo Fragiacomo, Claudio Amadio, Annalisa Battisti 149

ABS142
STUDY ON DAMPING EFFECT OF WOODEN BEARING SHEAR WALL
Rika Arai, Yuichiro Matsutani, Hideyuki Nasu, Hiroshi Kawase 151

ABS144
STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF BEARING SHEAR WALL WITH OPENING
Ryutaro Watanabe, Tatsuya Degura, Hideyuki Nasu 153

ABS231
LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF A BUILT-UP STUD FABRICATED WITH SMALL-DIAMETER
ROUND TIMBER
Guofang Wu, Enchun Zhu, Hejian Zhou, Jinglong Pan 155

ABS244
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CLT SHEAR WALL USING DRIFT PINNED JOINT
Shoichi Nakashima, Akihisa Kitamori, Kohei Komatsu, Zeli Que, Hiroshi Isoda 157

ABS246
STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WOODEN FRAMEWORK WITH JOINTED
COLUMN
Kota Iinuma, Masato Nakao 159

ABS270
MORPHOLOGICAL AND STABILITY RESEARCH FOR TREE-LIKE TIMBER STRUCTURES
Xiaowu Cheng, Jiannan Hao, Weiqing Liu, Weidong Lu 161

ABS273
THE ANALYSIS OF HORIZONTALLY OFFSET DIAPHRAGMS
R. Terry Malone 163

ABS288
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF GWB TO THE LATERAL PERFORMANCE
OF WOOD SHEARWALLS
Zhiyong Chen, Alex Nott, Ying Hei Chui, Ghasan Doudak, Chun Ni, Mohammad Mohammad 165

ABS314
LIGHT-FRAME WOOD STUD WALLS UNDER BLAST LOADING - AN ASSESSMENT OF THE
CANADIAN BLAST DESIGN STANDARD PROVISIONS
Daniel Lacroix, Ghasan Doudak 167

ABS329
STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF WOODEN STRUCTURES BY USING SUBSPACE SYS-
TEM IDENTIFICATION BASED ON SHAKING TABLE TESTS
Takenori Hida, Masayuki Nagano, Toshiaki Sato 169

11
ABS344
SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF WOODEN HOUSE WETTED BY RAINFALL OR SUBMERGING
IN WATER
Kei Tanaka, Mariko Hara, Toshihiro Kuwano, Ji-young Park, Takuro Mori, Masafumi Inoue 171

ABS355
EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF NOVEL STEEL-TIMBER-HYBRID SYS-
TEM
Pooja Bhat, Riasat Azim, Marjan Popovski, Thomas Tannert 173

ABS356
MECHANICAL PERFORMANCES OF TIMBER CONNECTIONS, IMPROVEMENT BY MECHAN-
ICAL PREPARATION OF THE INTERFACES: ITS APPLICATION TO STRUCTURAL MEMBER
Stéphane Girardon, Jean-François Bocquet, Laurent Bleron, Pascal Triboulot 175

ABS360
REINFORCEMENT OF THE SUPPORT AREAS OF GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER STRUCTURES
Damien Lathuilliere, Laurent Bleron, Jean-François Bocquet, François Varacca, Frédéric Dubois 177

ABS363
DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL POST-TENSIONED GLULAM TIMBER COMPOSITES
Emma McConnell, Daniel McPolin, Su Taylor 179

ABS372
DEVELOPMENT OF BIDIRECTIONAL RAHMEN STRUCTURE USING A WOOD BONDED COM-
POSITE PANELS
Hisamitsu Kajikawa, Haruhiko Ogawa, Noriko Muguruma, Yuka Okada, Hiroyuki Noguchi 181

ABS380
GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS AND MATERIALS OF TIMBER-
FRAMED HOUSES IN JAPAN
Chikako Tabata 183

ABS435
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF MORTAR FINISHING EXTERNAL
WALL
Masato Nakao, Yasushi Ono, Masaru Tahara, Masashi Miyamura, Terusato Inoue, Kazuya Koga 185

ABS441
HYBRID WOOD-MASONRY WALL TEST AND VERIFICATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL MOD-
ELLING APPROACH
Lina Zhou, Ying Hei Chui, Chun Ni 187

ABS463
LOAD DISTRIBUTION IN LATERAL LOAD RESISTING ELEMENTS OF TIMBER STRUCTURES
Zhiyong Chen, Ying Hei Chui, Mohammad Mohammad, Ghasan Doudak, Chun Ni 189

ABS472
DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY SHEAR WALL WITH THICK PLY-
WOOD SHEATHING FOR LARGE TIMBER CONSTRUCTION
Kenji Aoki, Ken-ichi Sugimoto, Fumio Kamiya 191

12
ABS512
A NEW CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM FOR CLT STRUCTURES
Andrea Polastri, Albino Angeli, Dal Ri Gianni 193

ABS532
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON LATERAL RESISTANCE OF TIMBER POST AND BEAM SYSTEMS
Haibei Xiong, Yingyang Liu 195

ABS570
TORSIONAL INTERACTION OF TWO-STORY TIMBER HOUSES WITH 3D ECCENTRICITY
Kento Suzuki, Hiroyasu Sakata, Yoshihiro Yamazaki 197

ABS610
DEVELOPMENT OF NUMERICAL ANALYSIS METHOD FOR JAPANESE TRADITIONAL WOOD
HOUSES CONSIDERING THE SLIDING BEHAVIOR OF COLUMN ENDS
Takafumi Nakagawa, Mikio Koshihara, Naohito Kawai, Yukio Saito, Yoshiyuki Suzuki 199

ABS654
CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT DESIGN OF WOODEN RESIDENCES
UTILIZING MEASUREMENT DATA TAKEN WITH SEISMOGRAPH FOR STANDALONE RESI-
DENCES WITH DAMAGE ASSESSMENT FUNCTIONALITY
Hisamitsu Kajikawa, Yuka Okada, Mikihiro Uematsu, Hiroyuki Noguchi 201

ABS655
STUB GIRDER FLOORING SYSTEM FOR TIMBER CONSTRUCTION
Reza Masoudnia, Pierre Quenneville 203

ABS670
STRUCTURAL DETAIL INVESTIGATION AND SEISMIC PERFORMANCE EVALUATION FOR
THREE-STORY TRADITIONAL WOODEN HOUSE IN KANAZAWA URBAN AREA
Tatsuru Suda 205

TRACK 4: BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES


ABS010
STRUCTRURAL PERFORMANCE OF HALF THROUGH ARCH TIMBER HIGHWAY BRIDGE
Hideyuki Honda, Yuuta Nakada 207

ABS062
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF A WOOD FRAME
BUILDING
Jianzhong Gu 209

ABS149
SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF CYLINDRICAL WOODEN WATER TANK IN VIBRATION TEST
Fukuji Iida, Kuniaki Yamagishi, Toku Nishimura, Masami Gotou 211

ABS150
TIMBER BRIDGES WITH ASPHALT SURFACING - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Florian Scharmacher, Andreas Müller, Maurice Brunner 213

13
ABS210
INFLUENCE OF ARRANGEMENTS OF WALLS AND OPENING ROOFS TO MAXIMUM SEISMIC
RESPONSE OF JAPANESE TRADITIONAL WOODEN HOUSE
Koji Yamada, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Yukio Saitoh 215

ABS212
THE STUDY AND PROPOSED APPLICATION OF THE MULTI-STOREY HYBRID TIMBER STRUC-
TURAL SYSTEM ON THE DESIGN FLEXIBILITY AND HAZARD PREVENTION
Mengting Tsai, Mikio Koshihara 217

ABS241
APPLICATION OF NON-LINEAR FINITE ELEMENT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS FOR TRADITIONAL
WOODEN STRUCTURE
Atsuo Takino, Atsushi Kunugi, Tomoki Ikeda, Yuji Miyamoto 219

ABS303
REPLACEMENT OF STEEL STRUCTURE FOR WOODEN STRUCTURE IN ENVIRONMENT EX-
POSED TO MARINE AGGRESSIVENESS
Alexandre Wahrhaftig, Ricardo Carvalho, João Dias, Luciana Bezerra 221

ABS338
BUILDING DAMAGES OF MODERN WOODEN ARCHITECTURES IN JAPAN BY THE 2011 OFF
THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE
Naoyuki Matsumoto, Kaori Fujita 223

ABS347
STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE FIRST VEHICULAR TIMBER BRIDGE
IN KOREA
Yukyung Shin, Kwang-Mo Kim, Sang-Joon Lee, Moon-Jae Park, Ji-Woon Yi, Hyun-Moo Goh 225

ABS407
STRUCTURAL EVALUATION OF TRADITIONAL TOWNHOSE WITH TIMBER THROUGH COL-
UMN IN JAPAN
Hiromi Sato, Mikio Koshihara, Tatsuya Miyake 227

ABS408
COLLAPSING ANALYSIS OF AN OLD TWO-STORY WOODEN-HOUSE AGAINST A STRONG
EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION
Tomiya Takatani 229

ABS447
STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES EVALUATION OF UNIQUE BOAT HOUSE USING OBLIQUE NUKI.
Part I: Structural Investigation
Noriko Takiyama, Yasuhiro Hayashi, Chiaki Watanabe, Yasuhiro Nambu, Sunao Kobayashi, Hiroto Yamamoto 231

ABS464
REDUCTION OF SAND PRESSURE TO THE PARTITION WALL USING LOGS IN FISH LADDER
Hideyuki Hirasawa, Jun Tonuma, Daisuke Takahashi, Tetsuya Sato 233

ABS501
SEISMIC DESIGN METHOD OF HYBRID STRUCTURE OF WOOD AND RC
Yoshihiro Yamazaki, Hiroyasu Sakata 235

14
ABS510
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF WOODEN SCHOOL BUILDING
Mitsuhiro Miyamoto, Naoki Utsunomiya 237

ABS577
A SEISMIC DESIGN OF 3-STORY BUILDING USING JAPANESE “SUGI” CLT PANELS
Kazuyuki Matsumoto, Tatsuya Miyake, Takeshi Haramiishi, Takahiro Tsuchimoto, Hiroshi Isoda, Naohito
Kawai, Motoi Yasumura 239

ABS599
QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION FOR INFLUENCE OF ECCENTRICITY TO DESIGN ASYMMET-
RIC HOUSING STRUCTURE WITH FLEXIBLE RIGIDITY AT FLOORS
Yoichi Mukai, Sanshiro Suzuki, Yoshiyuki Suzuki 241

ABS604
SHAKING TABLE TESTS OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE AND
TIMBER FRAME
Hiroshi Isoda, Manabu Nakagawa, Naohito Kawai, Mikio Koshihara, Yasuhiro Araki 243

ABS626
FULL-SCALE SHAKING TABLE TEST OF TRADITIONAL TIMBER STRUCTURE WITH GABLE
ROOF PLACED FREE ON FOUNDATION
Kyosuke Mukaibo, Yoshiyuki Suzuki 245

ABS628
RACKING PERFORMANCE OF SHEATHED SHEAR WALL FASTENED WITH NAILS AND SCREWS
TOGETHER
Yasunobu Noda, Masahiko Toda, Takuya Fujiwara 247

ABS636
SEISMIC ASSESSMENT OF WOODEN HOUSES FOR TEPHRA FALLS OF KIRISHIMA MOUN-
TAIN (SHINMOEDAKE) IN SOUTHERN KYUSYU, JAPAN
Takeshi Yamamoto, Kei Tanaka, Masafumi Inoue 249

ABS686
THE STRUCTURAL POTENTIAL OF BIDIRECTIONAL RAHMEN STRUCTURE USING A WOOD
BONDED COMPOSITE PANELS METHOD FOR MEDIUM- AND HIGH-HEIGHT STRUCTURES
Hisamitsu Kajikawa, Yoko Miyamoto, Hiroyuki Noguchi 251

ABS688
DISCRETE BRACING OF TIMBER BEAMS SUBJECTED TO GRAVITY LOADS
Anders Klasson, Roberto Crocetti, Eva Frühwald Hansson 253

ABS689
SEISMIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS FOR DAMPED TIMBER STRUCTURE BY SIMPLIFIED SPRING
MODEL
Kazuhiro Matsuda, Kazuhiko Kasai, Hiroyasu Sakata 255

ABS717
SEISMIC PROTECTION OF TIMBER PLATFORM FRAME BUILDING STRUCTURES WITH HYS-
TERETIC ENERGY DISSIPATORS. FEASIBILITY STUDY
Edgar Segués, Francisco López Almansa, Inmaculada R. Cantalapiedra 257

15
TRACK 5: SERVICEABILITY /FIRE SAFETY / REHABILITATION
ABS047
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE TEMPERATURE FIELD IN A WOOD-CONCRETE COM-
POSITE CROSS SECTION IN FIRE
Julio Cesar Molina, Carlito Calil Júnior 259

ABS136
PREDICTION OF FLAME SPREAD ALONG A WOODEN SURFACE OF WALL AGAINST LOCAL-
IZED FIRE
Koji Harada, Noriyuki Hirai, Yuji Hasemi, Kazuhiko Fujita, Masafumi Inoue 261

ABS137
INTERACTIVE VISUALISATION BETWEEN WOOD-MOISTURE RELATIONS AND MOISTURE-
INDUCED DEFORMATIONS
Rafael Novais Passarelli, Luis Carli 263

ABS139
ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE OF TIMBER AND TIMBER-CONCRETE COMPOSITE FLOORS
Marc Schluessel, Rijun Shrestha, Keith Crews 265

ABS260
ENHANCEMENT OF DEFLECTION SERVICEABILITY PERFORMANCE OF METAL WEB JOIST
TIMBER FLOORS USING STRONGBACKS
Binsheng Zhang, Abdy Kermani, Tony Fillingham, Martin Cullen, Tony Kilpatrick 267

ABS268
INTERMEDIATE-SCALE FURNACE TESTS FOR ENCAPSULATION MATERIALS FOR USE IN
PROTECTING STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
J.Z Su, G.D. Lougheed, N. Benichou, R. Berzin, P-S. Lafrance, P. Leroux 269

ABS320
INFLUENCE OF FIRE EXPOSURE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD
Chihiro Kaku, Yuji Hasemi, Noboru Yasui, Mizuho Yasukawa, Daisuke Kamikawa, Asami Suzuki, Naohisa
Kameyama, Tetsuro Ono, Mikio Koshihara, Hirofumi Nagao, Ichiro Hagiwara, Shuitsu Yusa 271

ABS365
ESTIMATION OF SHEAR STRENGTH OF NAIL DRIVEN INTO DECAYED WOOD
Takuro Mori, Kei Tanaka, Takumi Nakahata, Kotaro Kawano, Yoshiyuki Yanase, Hiroshi Kurisaki 273

ABS440
FIRE RESISTANCE OF TIMBER FRAMED FLOOR WITH ISOLATED CEILING ASSEMBLY
Joo-Saeng Park, Sang-Joon Lee, In-Hwan Yeo 275

ABS613
STIFFNESS OF SHEATHING-TO-FRAMING CONNECTIONS IN TIMBER SHEAR WALLS - IN
SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Ida Näslund, Helena Lidelöw 277

16
TRACK 6: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE
ABS020
FUZZY VENTILATION CONTROL FOR WOOD-BASED HOUSES IN TROPICAL CLIMATES
Carmen Riverol, Veronica Pilipovik 279

ABS037
CROSS LAMINATED ROUND-WOOD PANEL: DESIGN GUIDELINES IN THE STATE OF SÃO
PAULO
Rafael Passarelli, Akemi Ino 281

ABS090
TIMBER ARCHITECTURE EDUCATION USING ACTIVE LEARNING METHOD. SHORT-COURSE
CASE STUDY ON UNIVERSITY OF SÃO PAULO, FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE
Rafael Novais Passarelli 283

ABS096
SMALL SCALE MODELS, TIMBER CONSTRUCTION AND THE TEACHING OF ARCHITEC-
TURE: A BRAZILIAN EXPERIENCE
Ivan do Valle, Akemi Ino, Anaïs Guéguen 285

ABS099
THE CONTRIBUITION OF ZANINE CALDAS TO TIMBER CONSTRUCTION IN BRASILIA: FOUR
PROJECTS OF SELF-TAUGHT ARCHITECT
Ivan do Valle, Giselle M. C. Chain, Pedro dos Santos, Matheus Maramaldo 287

ABS285
COMPARISON OF CONSTRUCTION TYPES USING ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS - CASE
STUDY TIMBER PASSIVE HOUSE
Manja Kitek Kuzman, Milan Šernek, Petra Grošelj, Mirko Kariž 289

ABS328
SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF AGED AND DETERIORATED WOODEN JOINTS OF JAPANESE
TRADITIONAL TIMBER STRUCTURES
Yu Ooka, Kazuyuki Izuno, Hideaki Tanahashi, Yoshiyuki Suzuki 291

ABS361
HUT EMERGENCY EVACUATION IN THE EVENT OF A DISASTER OF USING THE WOODEN
PANEL
Akito Kikuchi, Hisamitsu Kajikawa 293

ABS496
ANALYSIS OF WESTERN WOODEN STRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY’S INFLUENCE ON YANGZHOU
WOODEN ARCHITECTURE IN MODERN TIMES
Zhang Jianxin, Liu Yan 295

ABS574
VERIFYING THE VALIDITY OF STUDYING AND ARCHIVING DESIGN LANGUAGE BASED ON
TIMBER STRUCTURES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF ADAPTATION TO ACTUAL CONSTRUC-
TION
Atsushi Tabuchi, Shinsuke Kawai, Shinsaku Munemoto 297

17
ABS590
TIMBER GRIDSHELLS: DESIGN METHODS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO A TEMPORARY
PAVILION
Dragos Naicu, Richard Harris, Chris Williams 299

ABS625
THE UNTAPPED POTENTIAL OF WOOD IN DEVELOPING ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIVING SPACES
Katja Vahtikari, Mark Hughes, Yrsa Cronhjort, Lauri Linkosalmi 301

ABS653
LOW-COST HOUSING WITH PREFAB WOOD-BAMBOO PANELS
Vladimir Rodríguez Trujillo, Gabriella de Angelis, Camila Burgos 303

ABS672
A NEW VERSION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES AT THE CERRADO’S EXCELLENCE CENTRE IN
BRASÍLIA, BRAZIL
Roberto Lecomte, Catharina Macedo, Ana Carolina Salviano 305

ABS719
THIS IS HARDCORE: CNC PROTOTYPES FOR TIMBER CORES - DESIGNING MULTI-STOREY
TIMBER BUILDINGS FROM THE INSIDE OUT
Alex Kaiser, Magnus Larsson, Ulf Arne Girhammar 307

ABS720
AGAINST THE GRAIN: REDEFINING THE LIVING UNIT - ADVANCED SLOTTING STRATE-
GIES FOR MULTI-STOREY TIMBER BUILDINGS
Alex Kaiser, Magnus Larsson, Ulf Arne Girhammar 309

LIST OF AUTHORS

18
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

FULL FIELD MEASUREMENTS ON SMALL NOTCHED BEAMS


BY GRID METHOD - APPLICATION TO LATTICE ELEMENTS

Eric Fournely1,2, Rostand Moutou Pitti1,2,3, Evelyne Toussaint1,2, Michel Grédiac1,2

ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the mechanical behavior of notched beams. Experiments are carried out with classic
loading device and LVDT measurements as well as with the grid method. Tests are conducted for various orientations of
annual rings of the wood. The evolution of the strain in the zone affected by shear and tension stresses is obtained. These
experimental results are compared to Eurocode formulae for notched beams. Obtained results are then interpreted in order to
take into account failure modes in a lattice beam with thin elements.

KEYWORDS: Notched beam, Grid method, Experimental analysis

1 INTRODUCTION 123 studying the mechanical behaviour of notched beams using


another measurement technique: the grid method [4]. In
In wood material, shear and tension perpendicular to grain particular, the grid method enables one to obtain the
always induce brittle fracture if they are not controlled. evolution of the strain field in the zone affected by shear
This is particularly the case in the area of joints and even and tension stresses.
more when the beam elements are thin; these thin elements The wood specimens and the different orientations of the
can be found for example in lattice beams [1]. annual rings are presented in the first part of the paper. The
Standardized lattice timber beams appear as an efficient experimental procedure, the experimental device and the
solution for economical, ecological and mechanical grid technique are then recalled. The analytical approach
aspects. Many uses of this type of structure can be found in based on the notched effect proposed by Eurocode 5
the field of industrial buildings as well as in small and requirements [5] is applied in order to calculate the shear
collectives’ houses. This study focuses on the stress stress at the support levels. In the last section, experimental
distribution in notched beams specimens cut in chord results are compared with Eurocode formulation.
elements of a timber truss beam previously studied with
various connector or adhesives [2]. Thus, the orientation of
annual rings, the direction of the grain, the knot area ratio
2 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
are important parameters which drive the global
2.1 WOOD MATERIAL AND SPECIMENS
mechanical behaviour of theses beams.
In the literature, few authors have shown the influence of
the connections [1,3] on the global behaviour of structures
and especially timber structures. Digital image correlation
is employed in these cases. The present work is aimed at
1
Eric Fournely, Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal,
Institut Pascal, BP 20206, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand, France.
1
Rostand Moutou Pitti, Clermont Université, Université Blaise
Pascal, IP, BP 20206, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand, France. Email:
rostand.moutou.pitti@univ-bpclermont.fr
1
Evelyne Toussaint, Clermont Université, Université Blaise,
Pascal, IP, BP 20206, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand, France.
1
Michel Grédiac, Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal,
IP, BP 20206, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand, France.
2
CNRS, UMR 6602, Institut Pascal, F-63171 Aubière, France.
3
CENAREST, IRT, 3332, Libreville, Gabon Figure 1: notched beam specimens
.

19
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Figure 1 shows the four specimens considered for the tests.


Each specimen shows a specific orientation of annual
rings: spring and summer woods are easily recognisable in
this figure. The dimensions of the specimens are also given
in figure 1.

2.2 EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE


Figure 2 presents the experimental device employed during
the tests. The wood specimen in bending can be seen as
well as the load sensor and the supports of a classic testing
machine with maximum load of 200 kN.

Figure 3: Notched beam


1'%2+3$*4(5)+$
!""#$%&'()*'+$ / 1
1
1 " 1,1!i1,5 %
1 kn $1+ ' (2)
and kv = 0 # h &
!""#$%&'()*'+$
1 ) x 1 2,
1 h + ! (1( ! ) + 0,8! (! .
12 * h ! -
,-)#$

where An is the area of the notch member (figure 3) and KV


is a reduction factor introducing the notched effect [5].
./&&"-0%$ Note that for solid wood, we have: α =hef/h, and kn = 5.
4 CONCLUSIONS
Figure 2: Experimental device with grid This paper presents an experimental study on notched thin
beam with thin different configurations. Strength values
2.3 GRID METHOD AND EXPERIMENTAL obtained in this experimentation study are in a good
RESULTS agreement with EN1995.1.1 predictions. Grid method
analysis exhibits interesting results in order to give more
The grid method consists first in depositing a crossed grid
information on lattice beams with equivalent cross-section
(see figure 2) on the surface under investigation in order to
chord beams. This extension will be completed soon by a
track the slight change in the grid as loading increases. The
FEM analysis.
2D displacement and strain fields are deduced from the
images of the grid taken during the test. The grid is
deposited using the procedure described in [4]. The pitch REFERENCES
of the grid is equal here to 0.2 mm along both directions. [1] E. Fournely, R. Moutou Pitti, A. Bouchair. Behaviour
Processing images of the grid classically provides phase of timber lattice beam with semi-rigid joints:
and phase derivative change maps of this quasi-periodical analytical and experimental study. Pro Ligno, 8:19-41,
marking. These quantities are directly proportional to the 2012.
in-plane displacement and strain components, respectively [2] AFNOR, NF EN 408. Structures en bois, Bois de
[4]. structure et bois lamellé collé, détermination de
certaines propriétés physiques et mécaniques. Mars
3 COMPARISON WITH ANALYTICAL 2004, p. 32.
APPROACH [3] R.J. Leichti, R.A. Hyde, M.L. French M, S.G.
Camillos. The continuum of connection rigidity in
The standard dealing with the notch effect proposed by timber structures. Wood Fiber Sci., 32:1-19, 2000.
Eurocode [5] is applied in the current analytical approach [4] C. Badulescu, M. Grédiac, J-D. Mathias. (2009b)
(see figure 3). In this case, the shear stress calculated at the Investigation of the grid method for accurate in-plane
notched support is obtained using the effective height hef strain measurement, Measurement Science and
element as follows Technology, 20(9):1-17, 2009.
V [5] AFNOR, Eurocode 5. Conception et calcul des
! d = 1, 5* ! kV * fv,d with An = b * href (1) structures en bois – généralités, règles communes et
An règles pour les bâtiments, NF EN 1995-1.1, 2005.

20
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

A STUDY ON THE TRANSLUCENCY SEISMIC RETROFITTING


WALL WITH THE PUNCHING METAL SHEET

Katsuhiko Kohara1, Mitsuo Fukumoto2, Kazuyoshi Koumoto3, Danhei Umeda4,


Shintaro Hagiwara5 and Mitsuaki Kanazawa6

ABSTRACT: Our study team arranged punching metal utilized in various fields in the wall specifications of the house and
developed the bearing wall which improved specifications with the attachment means and the setting. This bearing wall can
realize lighting, the ventilation and high seismic performance. The performance of the general bearing wall is 5.2kN/m in
the plywood bearing wall and 3.2 kN/m in the brace bearing wall for timber structure. The performance of this translucency
seismic retrofitting wall with the punching metal sheet aims at higher than performance of the general bearing wall. The
seismic performance, lighting characteristics and ventilation characteristics of the existing building are raised by using this
bearing wall system. The performance of this bearing wall realized 5.8-7.8kN/m with standard specifications. Various
expression was enabled by the design by making an aperture shape of the punching variableness. Furthermore, the price of
the translucency seismic retrofitting wall with the punching metal sheet realized 1/2~1/10 in comparison with conventional
glass or resin.

KEYWORDS: Seismic Retrofitting Wall, Timber Architecture, Punching Metal Sheet

1 INTRODUCTION 123 earthquake or the southeast sea earthquake or south sea


earthquake is concerned about in the Tokai district;
“Revised Seismic Promotion Law” was established in inhabitants to the quake resistance of the building is highly
2006. It is an aim in that to assume 90% of earthquake concerned.
resistance rates by 2015. In “the legal training for all
authorized architects” of Japan Federation of Architects & The existing wooden construction architecture needs many
Building Engineers Associations, contents of the repair of structural elements by the earthquake-resistant repair.
the wooden building were included for the first time in Therefore it becomes necessary to choose the showable
2010. In “the earthquake-resistant diagnosis and structural element in earthquake proofing repairs a
reinforcement method of the 2012 revised edition” of the building. We developed the translucency bearing wall
Japan Building Disaster Prevention Association, there is using the punching metal sheet.
the method by the horizontal load bearing capacity
calculation in 2012. A school and a kindergarten are
added to the coverage as well as a house. In addition, the
evaluation method of the wall having a control on
vibration element is included, too. Do it with aftermath of
the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami caused by 2011
Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami generated on March 11,
2011, and a Japanese citizen to the quake resistance of the
building is interested. While the outbreak such as Tokai Figure 1: Image of bearing wall with punching metal sheet

1
Katsuhiko Kohara, Gifu Academy of Forest Science and Culture, 2 CONSTRUCTION METHOD
88 Sodai, Mino City, Gifu, Japan. Email: kohara@forest.ac.jp
2
Mitsuo Fukumoto, Timber Engineering and Design We show below the characteristic of the bearing wall. 1)
Organization / K, Japan This bearing wall enables lighting, the ventilation and
3
Kazuyoshi Koumoto, NPO WOOD AC, Japan enables opening-like space and earthquake-resistant
4
Danhei Umeda, Gifu Academy of Forest Science and Culture, Japan security brightly. 2) As for this bearing wall, finish is
5
Sintaro Hagiwara, H.K OFFICE, Japan unnecessary. The bearing wall is almost simple
6
Mitsuaki Kanazawa, ASAHI TOSTEM EXTERIOR
BUILDING MATERIALS CO., Japan

21
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
construction only for screw flagging down. 3) As for this 4 Allowable Strength of Loading Tests
bearing wall, the large demolition work at the time of the
existing wall removal is unnecessary with aspects The result of the static loading test is shown in table 1.
materials specifications from floor to a ceiling. 4) This The performance of this bearing wall realized 5.8-7.8kN/m
bearing wall assumes it the proof stress performance that is with standard specifications. The performance of the
higher than plywood for strut and structure. 5) This general bearing wall is 5.2kN/m in the plywood bearing
bearing wall can be equivalent to present situation wall and 3.2 kN/m in the brace bearing wall for timber
specifications of pillar size, a pillar module and the ceiling structure. The performance of this translucency seismic
height. retrofitting wall with the punching metal sheet aims at
higher than performance of the general bearing wall.
Square-shaped
30mm角 Hole 30mm
Beam The Spaces 50
between the Roof
Table 1: The structural performance of bearing wall A &C
and Ceilings Height of Wall Wall
Span of Section of
Ceilings Level Punching Metal Standard Standard
50

Pillars Pillars
Sheet Proof Stress Rigidity
φ30mm mm mm mm kN/m kN/rad/m
Column 50
Round Hole 1) 105 7.8 1010
A-1-1 2270
30mm A-1 600-910
2) 90 7.5 940
(A) 1) 105 7.5 970
A-1-2 1970-2269
50

The Wall with Exposed 2) 90 7.2 900


Punching Metal Sheet Timber Pillars Using 1) 105 7.6 1000
φ30mm A-2-1 2270
50 Corner PipeType 2) 90 7.3 930
t = 1.6 mm Round Hole A-2 911-1000
1) 105 7.4 960
30mm A-2-2 1970-2269
2) 90 7.0 890
Floor Level C-1-1 2300
1) 105 5.4 710
50

The Spaces Underfloor 25 Staggered 2) 90 4.6 540


C-1 600-910
Arrangement (C) C-1-2 2000-2299
1) 105 4.8 510
Groundsill 2) 90 4.0 390
The Wall with Sealed
Figure 2: Bearing wall with punching metal sheet and hole 1) 105 3.6 500
Pillars Type C-2-1 2300
2) 90 3.0 380
shapes of punching metal sheets C-2 911-1000
1) 105 3.1 360
C-2-2 2000-2299
2) 90 2.6 270
3 Overview of Specimens and Tests
The examination body specifications are three kinds of the 5 CONCLUSIONS
(A) the wall with exposed timber pillars using corner pipe Our study team arranged punching metal utilized in
type, the (B) the wall with exposed timber pillars using various fields in the wall specifications of the house and
wooden frame type and the (C) the wall with sealed pillars developed the bearing wall which improved specifications
type. They are shown in figure 3. The bearing wall does it with the attachment means and the setting. This bearing
with the examination body which does not complete aspect wall can realize lighting, the ventilation and high seismic
materials about a floor bottom and the in the ceiling. The performance.
static loading tests of these specimens are carried out.
+ ←→ -
P,δ Beam-Column: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Battledore Bolt
Actuator
100kN±300mm Specimen
In this paper our research group use a part of the data in
the 2009 - 2010 subsidies “development on a retrofitting
Sill- Column:
Hold-Down Metal
method using showable design” of The Ministry of Land,
Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. We especially wish
to express our thanks the students who have helped to
Figure 4: Outline of Static Loading Tests execute these experiments and data processing.

Figure 3: Three typical specimens of bearing wall with punching metal sheets; Type A, Type B and Type C

22
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

A STUDY ON VISCO-ELASTIC DAMPER EFFECT FOR


RETROFITTING OF THE LARGE TIMBER STRUCTURE

Katsuhiko Kohara1, Mitsuo Fukumoto2, Kazuyoshi Koumoto3,


and Takeshi Nomura4

ABSTRACT: Using a damper and the design tool which our study group developed, we carried out a seismic retrofitting of
the large wooden building. There is the large wooden construction building which does not reach the present earthquake-
resistant standard including shrines, temples architecture and the school building in Japan. We carried out the field work of
these buildings and grasped the state of the existing structural element. Using the design tool which we developed, we
predicted a response of the seismic retrofitting building by time history response analysis method. The maximum story
deformation angle was X direction of 1/94rad (39mm), Y direction of 1/109rad (33mm) in the first story. We predicted a
response of the damper retrofitting building by time history response analysis method. In the maximum story deformation
angle, it was with X direction of 1/115rad (32mm), Y direction of 1/126rad (29mm) in the first story when I installed 41
visco-elastic dampers "TRC-30W" of brace type in the retrofitting building. By the setting of the visco-elastic damper, we
were able to confirm a suppressant effect of the transformation of the buildings in X direction of 18%, Y direction of 13%.

KEYWORDS: Seismic Retrofitting, Timber Architecture, Visco-elastic Damper

1 INTRODUCTION 123 building is interested. While the outbreak such as Tokai


earthquake or the southeast sea earthquake or south sea
“Revised Seismic Promotion Law” was established in earthquake is concerned about in the Tokai district;
2006. It is an aim in that to assume 90% of earthquake inhabitants to the quake resistance of the building is highly
resistance rates by 2015. In “the legal training for all concerned. Our research team developed a brace type and
authorized architects” of Japan Federation of Architects & an angle brace type of the visco-elastic damper on seismic-
Building Engineers Associations, contents of the repair of response controlled structure for timber structure.[1][2] We
the wooden building were included for the first time in performed various dependence evaluations by the materials
2010. In “the earthquake-resistant diagnosis and examination of the styrene olefin-based visco-elastic body
reinforcement method of the 2012 revised edition” of the which we developed newly.[3] The existing large timber
Japan Building Disaster Prevention Association, there is structure needs many structural elements by the
the method by the horizontal load bearing capacity earthquake-resistant retrofitting. Therefore it becomes
calculation in 2012. A school and a kindergarten are necessary to choose the visco-elastic damper in earthquake
added to the coverage as well as a house. In addition, the proofing retrofitting.
evaluation method of the wall having a control on
vibration element is included, too. Do it with aftermath of
the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami caused by 2011
2 OVERVIEW OF FIELD WORK
Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami generated on March 11, We can appoint a modulus of elasticity or strength about
2011, and a Japanese citizen to the quake resistance of the the wood to install newly, but a modulus of elasticity and
strength of used existing wood are unidentified now.
Therefore, it is the situation that cannot carry out structure
1
Katsuhiko Kohara, Gifu Academy of Forest Science and Culture, inspection. As the object that it was important in an
88 Sodai, Mino City, Gifu, Japan. Email: kohara@forest.ac.jp existing part to remain in after repair, we inspected validity
2
Mitsuo Fukumoto, Timber Engineering and Design of clarification of the materials strength of the wood and
Organization / K, Japan
3 the structured model by a field work. We grasped the
Kazuyoshi Koumoto, NPO WOOD AC, Japan
4
Takeshi Nomura, TOKAI RUBBER INDUSTRIES,LTD., situation of the grounds, the basics, structural members,
Japan bearing walls, horizontal members and, the joints.

23
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
In the maximum story deformation angle, it was with X
direction of 1/115rad (32mm), Y direction of 1/126rad
(29mm) in the first story when I installed 41 visco-elastic
dampers "TRC-30W" of brace type in the retrofitting
building. By the setting of the visco-elastic damper, we
were able to confirm a suppressant effect of the
transformation of the buildings in X direction of 18%, Y
direction of 13%.
4 CONCLUSIONS
Using a damper and the design tool which we developed,
we carried out a seismic retrofitting of the large timber
building. We carried out the field work of these buildings
and grasped the state of the existing structural element. By
the setting of the damper, we were able to confirm a
suppressant effect of the transformation of the building.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Figure 1: Overview of field work
In this paper our research group use a part of the data in
3 RETROFITTING EVALUATION BY the 2013 subsidies of The Board of Education of the Ama-
VISCO-ELASTIC DAMPER cho government office in Oki-gun, Shimane. In this paper
our research group use a part of the data in the 2013
We inspected the retrofitting building and the building subsidies of TOKAI RUBBER INDUSTRIES,LTD.. We
which set up braces type control on vibration damper especially wish to express our thanks the students who
"TRC-30W" by time history response analysis method. have helped to execute these experiments and data
The input earthquake vibration was BCJ-L2. The processing.
maximum story deformation angle was X direction of
1/94rad (39mm), Y direction of 1/109rad (33mm) in the REFERENCES
first story. Furthermore, we predicted a response of the
damper retrofitting building by time history response [1] Takeshi Nomura, Satoshi Senda and Katsuhiko
analysis method. Kohara: Development of Visco-Elastic Structural
Control Dampers for Timber Houses - Part 1.
Dynamic Properties of Brace Type -. In: Summaries of
Technical Paper of Annual Meeting Architectural
Beam 105*105 Institute of Japan, 2009. in Japanese
[2] Satoshi Senda, Takeshi Nomura and Katsuhiko
Kohara: Development of Visco-Elastic Structural
Control Dampers for Timber Houses - Part 2.
Dynamic Properties of Structure Corner Type -. In:
Summaries of Technical Paper of Annual Meeting
Column 105*105 Architectural Institute of Japan, 2009. in Japanese
Ground Sill 105*105 [3] Katsuhiko Kohara, Takeshi Nomura and Kazuyoshi
Koumoto: A Development of the Visco-Elastic
Damper for Timber Structure and a Suggestion of the
Figure 2: The visco-elastic damper Technological Design Assistance System. In: 2nd
International Conference on Structural Health
Assessment of Timber Structures, Trento, Italy, 2013.
Story Drift in Y Direction [cm]
Story Drift in X Direction [cm]

Retrofitting Retrofitting
Damper Damper

Time [sec] Time [sec]

Figure 3: Layout of the visco-elastic damper and the results of time history response analysis method

24
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

DETERMINATION OF THE MODULUS OF ELASTICITYOF


VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES ON THE BASISOF THE
MEASUREMENT OF FREE VIBRATION PARAMETERS

Barbara Misztal1

ABSTRACT: The paper demonstrates how a simple, short and cheap dynamic testing can be used to calculate the
modulus of elasticity of planks made from oak, pine, spruce and larch wood.

KEYWORDS: dynamic, vibration frequency, damping, logarithmic damping decrement, modulus of elasticity,

1 INTRODUCTION 123 2 DESCRIPTION OF THE TESTING


The papers [2], [5] called attention to the option of The models of dry and wet planks, of the 10x40mm
the selection of wood to construct section, 1200 mm long, were prepared for the testing.
a structure on the basis of dynamic vibration. The author Before the experiment, the planks were weighed in the dry-
suggests measuring the free vibration parameters of air state. After the dynamic testing of dry planks, they were
elements made of wood in order to learn its properties soaked in water for 24 hours. After soaking, the planks
instead of the commonly used long-term testing. The were re-weighed, and their humidity by weight was
recognition of wood features in the dynamic testing yields calculated. The planks loaded bracket-wise, were put in
unique results. The choice of best planks basing on visual vibrating movement. The forcing load was applied at the
inspection used to date or the long-term testing is bracket end perpendicularly to the plane of the beam’s
insufficient. It is worth recommending short dynamic tests lower stiffness.
to select the wood necessary to build a structure, also to
The values obtained and calculated as the result of the
detect damaged elements in building facilities already
testing: the circular frequency of free vibration ω [˚] and
constructed.
the damping ρ [1/s] were used to calculate the actual
In her research work, the author deals with the stiffness and the longitudinal modulus of elasticity of the
analysis of the fitness of wood and wood-based materials tested beams. The results are listed in the tables.
for the construction of prestigious structures on the The relationships between the stiffness K, mass -
grounds of dynamic testing. This paper describes the m, vibration rate ω, and the damping ρ were specified.
examples of how to determine the stiffness of elements and Skipping the viscosity η, the local effective stiffness K ef
the modulus of longitudinal elasticity E out of various of the bar can be estimated from the formula:
wood species. The testing of the models out of the
following wood species: pine, spruce, larch and oak, and
K ef = mzα 2 (1)
the determination of their dynamic parameters were
3
described. The testing was performed on dry models and K ef l
after the 24-hour-long soaking in water. The aim of the E= (2)
testing was to determine the variations of the modulus of 3J
elasticity of various wood species due to the moisture.

3 CONCLUSIONS
1
On the grounds of the vibration parameters the
Barbara Misztal, Phd, Wrocław University of Technology, fitness of wood of the tested models can be classified for
Department of Architecture, ul. B. Prusa 53/55, 50-370 Wroclaw,
the application in the construction according to the listing:
Poland. Email: barbara.misztal@pwr.wroc.pl
pine, spruce, larch, oak wood. The least reduction in the
wood’s modulus of elasticity due to the moisture can be

25
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
adopted as a criterion of the wood fitness for a long-term
operation in construction.
On the grounds of the dynamic testing of elements
made out of dry and wet wood species, their physical
properties can be forecast, thus their fitness for the
application in construction.
The dynamic testing can be used for various
objectives, including, for instance, to select the planks for
the construction of a structure, especially building facilities
of prestige. The planks of a higher damping should be
rejected and those that show higher frequencies, a lower
damping and a lower logarithmic damping decrement
should be applied when a higher endurance of the structure
is required.

REFERENCES
[1] Banasiak M. Ćwiczenia laboratoryjne
z wytrzymałości materiałów. Praca zbiorowa. Warszawa
1985 PWN, Wydanie III zmienione
[2] Kowal Z., Dynamika nieważkiej belki na
podporach lepkosprężystych, Archiwum Inżynierii
Lądowej 1/1966 – tom XII, s. 29-42.
[3] Kowal Z., Sendkowski J., Walasek A.
Wykrywanie porównawczą metodą dynamiczną elementów
zarysowanych populacji belek strunobetonowych,
Politechnika Rzeszowska, Mechanika Z.5, Rzeszów 1983.
[4] Langer J., Dynamika budowli, PWR, Wrocław
1980.
[5] Misztal B. Comparison of the Vibration
Frequency and Damping of Beam Models Made of Dry
and Wet Pine Wood WCTE 2008 – Miyazaki, JAPAN –
June 2-5,2008.
[6] Misztal B. Kształtowanie kopuł z drewna
jednolitego ( Shaping Domes of solid Wood )
ISBN 978-83-7493-636-1, Copyright by Oficyna
Wydawnicza PWR., Wrocław 2012

26
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF MEMBER IN ANCIENT


TIMBER STRUCTURE BASED ON MODAL STRAIN ENERGY
METHOD

Xueliang Wang1, Liang Jin2, Haibo Li3

ABSTRACT: Chinese ancient timber structure has very high historical, cultural and artistic value. But long-term decay,
shrinkage cracks and other natural erosion make them severely damaged. Therefore scientific conservation of such ancient
timber structures has aroused an urgent concern. But when testing and maintaining in site, it’s difficult to detect the decay
inside structural member as well as damage on the roof and mortise-tenon joints. A damage identification method is
proposed to detect the damage location in ancient timber structure based on modal strain energy method in this paper.
Firstly an undamaged finite element model and a damaged one of an ancient timber structure are built respectively and
analyzed to obtain their first several natural frequencies, modes and element stiffness matrix of structural members.
Secondly the mode strain energy of every element of these two models are calculated and compared to qualitatively
determine possible damage elements and damage location. Finally the damage indicator MSECR of the possible damage
elements is calculated to judge the damage extent of the structural members. The results show that the damage on members
in the ancient timber structure can be identified effectively by the modal strain energy method, which provides a new
method to maintain and preserve the ancient building.

KEYWORDS: ancient timber structure, damage identification, structural member, modal strain energy method

1 BACKGROUND 123 experience on site. For some special location such as roof,
the mortise-tenon joint and other locations where manual
Chinese ancient timber structure is listed in the world's access could be difficult to achieve, the conventional
construction with its unique characteristics, which is a part methods are beyond their abilities. Therefore, the need of
of the cultural heritage of all human beings with high new method is to identify such damage on ancient timber
historical, cultural and artistic value. But due to the long structure and consequently evaluate the structural
history, the existing ancient timber structures were reliability.
damaged more or less. In order to protect these valuable
heritage better, it’s of great significance to identify the Since the 1970s, various technologies of damage
damage location and assess the damage extent of the localization were proposed. But most of these methods are
ancient timber structure with scientific methods, which for large bridge structures, their applications in the timber
also can provide theoretical basis for protecting and structure have not been reported till now. This paper
strengthening ancient timber structure. proposes the method which applies the Modal Strain
Energy Method to damage localization and evaluation of
Ancient timber structure has been studied from several the ancient timber structure.
points of view including structural mechanics, seismic
performance and strengthening methods. But all the works 2 METHOD
about damage detection have to be investigated by
Modal Strain Energy Method has high capability of
1
positioning local damage, and it is proposed to apply to
Xueliang Wang, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi ancient timber structures. The technique is as follows:
Road,Wuhan, China. Email: wxllhb@163.com
2
Liang Jin, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Firstly, an ancient timber structure is taken as a project
Wuhan, China. Email: whutjl@163.com background shown as in Figure. 1, the nonlinear finite
3
Haibo Li, Design & Research institute of Wuhan University of element model of mortise-tenon joint is simulated, and the
Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan, China. Email: lihaibo- finite element model of the timber structure is established
1973@163.com shown as in Figure 2.

27
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Finally, the damage extents of the elements are determined


by comparing the value of Modal Strain Energy Change
Ratio (MSECR), which is accurate to detect small damage
of structure.

3 RESULT
The MSECR of all the elements are calculated, and shown
as in Figure 3, the MSECR of the No. 70, 163, 166, 365
and 622 elements have sharp mutation which is in
accordance with the assuming damage locations, and the
MSECR of the adjacent elements also have some change,
but not obvious. It means the MSECR is an effective
Figure 1: Structural elevation damage index for damage identification. It can detect any
damage location in timber structure including column ends,
beam ends and centres, roof and the joint, even the damage
only induces the 5% stiffness loss. Result shows that the
Modal Strain Energy Change of the column bottom is
more obvious than the column top with the same damage
extent.

Figure 2: Model of the ancient timber structure

Secondly the dynamics characteristics of the structure


before and after damage are analyzed assuming some
damage locations in the structure shown as in Figure 2. the
elements corresponding to the damage location is shown as
in Table 1. Meanwhile the element stiffness matrix of the Figure 3: MSECR of all elements
original structure is obtained.

Table 1: Damage location 4 CONCLUSIONS


Element Specific Loss of This paper presented the damage identification method to
Number
No. location stiffness identify damage location and assess the damage extent in
Mortise-tenon ancient timber structure based on modal strain energy
1 622 15%
joint method. The proposed method is numerically validated and
Beam-end its validity for various multiple damage cases in an ancient
2 166 10%
in side span timber structure is investigated. An ancient timber lifted
Column-end beam structure as an engineering background was
3 163 5%
in side span simulated and analyzed to obtain the structural natural
Column-end frequencies and strain modes. Modal Strain Energy
4 70 5%
in midspan Change Ratio was used to identify damage location and
Column bottom assess the damage extent of the structure. The results
5 365 5%
in midspan indicate that the method is capable of identifying a
relatively low extent of damage such as 5% in the column
ends. This is especially useful for the ancient timber
Subsequently, Modal Strain Energy Change of all the structure, where some damages are difficult to detect by
elements in the structure are calculated and designated as conventional methods.
identification index to determine the damage locations of
structure according to the mutation of histogram.

28
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

STRAIN-SOFTENING BEHAVIOR OF WOOD ESTIMATED IN


SINGLE-EDGE NOTCHED BENDING TEST

Koji Murata1, Seiichiro Ukyo2

ABSTRACT: A single-edge notched bending test was performed to study the fracture of wood as quasi-brittle behavior
perpendicular to the grain. The crack progress was captured by video cameras, and the strain distribution in the fracture area
was obtained using a digital image correlation technique. The stress distributions on the fracture area were estimated by the
equilibrium of the bending moment. The stresses were redistributed repeatedly using the change in strain near the top of the
crack tip. A stress–strain curve with a strain-softening branch was obtained with the iteration method. For some specimens,
the neutral axis appeared near the top of the crack tip, so the strain-softening branch could not be obtained by the iteration
method.

KEYWORDS: quasi-brittle, strain-softening branch, single-edge notched bending

1 INTRODUCTION 123 with a small band saw (Figure 1). The final cut of 1 mm on
top of the starter notch was made using a razor blade.
The fracture behavior of wood perpendicular to a grain is Three specimens were made. The single-edge notched
thought to be quasi-brittle. Ukyo and Masuda [1] or bending (SENB) specimens were kept in the conditioning
Miyauchi and Murata [2] obtained stress–strain curves room (20 °C and 65% RH) for 2 weeks. Black ink was
with a strain–softening branch for wood by redistributing sprayed on the surface of the specimen for analysis using
the stress related to the strain distribution. Murata et al. [3] the digital image correlation technique (DIC).
estimated the width of fracture process zone of wood by
using a stress–strain curve with strain-softening branch.
However, the tensile test is unable to easily reproduce the
stable growth of a crack and does not often obtain the
strain-softening branch frequently. In this study, we
performed a single-edge notched bending test to observe
stable crack growth and tried to obtain the stress–strain
relationship with a strain-softening branch.

2 MATERIAL AND METHODS


2.1 SPECIMEN Figure 1: Specimen in single-edge notched bending test

Air–dried spruce wood (Picea sp.) specimens with 2.2 SENB TEST
dimensions of 40 mm × 40 mm × 15 mm were cut from a
single board. The density of the spruce material was The SENB test was performed using a material testing
approximately 390 kg/m-3. Two spruce support blocks (80 machine (Shimadzu AG-I/100kN) that measured the load
mm × 40 mm × 15 mm) were glued to the specimens. The and displacement at the center point. The crosshead moved
starter notch of 24 mm was cut along the fiber direction at rate of 1 mm/min, and the span of the supports was 160
mm. Fracture energy G was calculated by substituting load
P and displacement δ into the following equation [4],
1
Koji Murata, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho,
Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan. Email: murata@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp δ0
2
Seiichiro Ukyo, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, G = W A , W = mgδ 0 + ∫ Pdδ (1)
Japan 0

29
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

where A  is the cross-sectional area of the ligament, m  is  the function to estimate the neutral axis. Iterative stress
weight of the specimen, δ0   is   the deflection when the redistribution succeeded in producing a stress–strain curve
specimen falls, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. with a strain-softening branch. Figure 3 shows an example
During the bending test, the deformation of the center of of the curve. Sometimes, the neutral axis exited near the
the specimen was continuously recorded using two digital crack tip, and the strain-softening branch was not obtained.
video cameras (IMAGINSOURCE DMK41). The cameras
were positioned to capture the fracture processes on both
flat surfaces simultaneously. The strains on the surfaces
were calculated using in-house DIC software.

2.3 STRAIN-SOFTENING BEHAVIOR


A stress–strain curve with a strain-softening branch was
obtained by redistributing stress similarly to Ukyo and
Masuda [1] and Miyauchi and Murata [2]. In the previous
studies, the researchers assumed that the stresses were
initially distributed equally on the fracture plane. However,
in this study, the stresses were distributed unequally
because of the bending test. On the fracture plane in the
SENB test, the stresses were distributed based on the
Figure 2: Strain distributions on fracture area. The legend
bending moment as shown in Eq. (2):
indicates loads (N).

P L Ytop
⋅ = B ∫ σydy (2)
2 2 −Ybot

where L is the bending span, B is the specimen thickness, σ


is the stress, y is the distance from neutral axis, and Ybot
and Ytop indicate the distances to the crack tip and top of
the specimen, respectively. Since the stress concentration
exits near the crack tip, the stress value near the crack tip
was predicted to deviate from Eq. (2). First, the stresses
were distributed according to Eq. (2); then, the stresses
were calculated nonlinearly in a similar manner to the
previous study in order to resolve the concentration
problem. The neutral axis was determined according to the
strain distribution measured using DIC. The nonlinear
Figure 3: Stress–strain curve with a strain-softening branch.
redistribution of stress was performed using the master
curve, which is the relationship between the measured
strain and the estimated stress in the nearest element to the REFERENCES
crack tip.
[1] Ukyo S. and M. Masuda: Investigation on true stress–
strain relation in shear using the digital image
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION correlation method. Mokuzai Gakkaishi, 50(3):146–
150, 2004 (in Japanese).
3.1 SENB TEST [2] Miyauchi K. and K. Murata, K: Strain-softening
The load–displacement curve form the SENB test did not behavior of wood under tension perpendicular to the
show a rapid decrease in the load, so the crack progressed grain. Journal of Wood Science, 53(6):463–469, 2007.
stably. The maximum loads were 57.8, 51.3, and 53.2 N, [3] Murata K., H. Nagai and T. Nakano: Estimation of
and the fracture energies were 188, 178, and 176 J/m2, width of fracture process zone in spruce wood by
respectively. radial. Mechanics of Materials, 43(7):389–396, 2011.
[4] P.J. Gustafsson: Fracture perpendicular to grain—
3.2 STRAIN-SOFTENING BEHAVIOR structural applications. In: S. Thelandersson and H.J.
Larsen, editors, Timber Engineering, 1st ed., pages
Strains on the fracture plane are shown in Figure 2. The 114–115. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 2003.
strain near the crack tip was found to deviate from Eq. (2)
because of the stress concentration. Strain data excluding
the stress concentration area were fitted by a linear

30
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

ANALYSIS OF THE PENETRATION OF ADHESIVES AT


FINGER-JOINTS IN BEECH WOOD

Thomas Volkmer1, Anna Schusser2, Bettina Franke3

ABSTRACT: Using of hard wood for the production of glued laminated timber as a structural material, the penetrations of
different adhesives are investigated on finger joints. Finger joints are the key element for longitudinal assembling of the
lamellas as known for softwood. For reliable strengths of finger joints, the penetration of adhesives is an important
parameter, because the cell structure of hard wood is different to the ones of soft wood. The first results reached show that
the production parameters, like the application of adhesives, the open and closed time as well as the pressure and pressing
time influence the penetration of the adhesives as well as the reachable strength of finger joints.

KEYWORDS: Hard wood, Adhesives, Penetration, Finger joints

1 INTRODUCTION 1 the biggest part with 18 % is beech wood [3]. Therefor the
following research results presented concentrate on finger
Current research projects in Europe concentrate on the use joints from beech. Different adhesives and there
of hard wood as a construction material for timber penetration according to the various production
structures. On going research projects deal with the characteristics were investigated. Hard wood has another
production of glued laminated timber of ash, beech or oak, cell structural characteristics than soft wood. Due to
[1], [2]. Parallel to the necessary surface gluing, finger differences in the fibre structure and there assembling the
joints are an important element to produce the lamellas penetration of the adhesive can be different and leads to an
known from soft wood products. It enables the different composite of the adhesives with the wood, which
improvement of wood and the continuous assembly of again results in different reachable strength classes.
lamellas. The finger joints have also an influence on the
final strength of the structural timber elements, because the
mechanical properties of hard wood lead to higher strength
2 MATERIAL AND METHODS
classes than solid wood and the finger joints are more For the experimental test series, beech wood from
stressed. Consequently finger joints are a keypoint in the Switzerland, the Jura area, was used. The average moisture
production of structural timber and the quality must be content after conditioning was about 10 % in average. The
ensured. mean density was about 700 kg/m³. The test program
comprises finger joint lengths from 15 mm and 20 mm and
In Switzerland the hardwood stock has increased since
the adhesives Polyurethane (PUR), Melamine-urea-
1995. 31 % of the entire wood stock is hardwood, in which
formaldehyde (MUF) and Emulsion polymer isocyanate
(EPI). The production was done under both laboratory and
1
Thomas Volkmer, Bern University of Applied Sciences, manufactory conditions. The production follows the
Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering, Solothurnstrasse 102, regulations of the standard SN EN 385:2001, [4]. The main
2500 Biel, Switzerland. Email: thomas.volkmer@bfh.ch characteristics are summarized in Table 1.
2
Anna Schusser, Bern University of Applied Sciences, The analysis of the penetration behaviour was done with
Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering, Solothurnstrasse 102,
2500 Biel, Switzerland. Email: anna.schusser@bfh.ch
the lab microscope Leica DMLM. A mercury lamp EL
6000 with emission maximas between 350 and 600 nm
3
Bettina Franke, Bern University of Applied Sciences, was used for illumination. Before the analysis, the samples
Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering, Solothrunstrasse 102, were sanded in different steps in order to get an
2500 Biel, Switzerland. Email: bettina.franke@bfh.ch

31
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Table 1: Characteristic of test programme different. On the one side, the glue penetrated more than
Finger 500 µm whereas on the other site almost no penetration
Profile Production Adhesive length Angle could be observed. An accumulation of glue can be seen at
I-15-Profile Industry PUR+H2O 15 mm 5.6º the end of the fingers and from there, the penetration takes
I-15-Profile Laboratory MUF 15 mm 5.6º place into the longitudinal direction of the fibres. The
distribution of the glue in the microstructure shows some
I-15-Profile Laboratory EPI 15 mm 5.6º
specific patterns. Mainly the vessels are filed with the glue.
I-20-Profile Laboratory MUF 20 mm 6.0º Fibres containing glue can be seen only very close to the
I-20-Profile Laboratory EPI 20 mm 6.0º glue line. Very often the glue just covers the inner surface
I-20-Profile Laboratory PUR 20 mm 6.0º of the cell wall, but sometimes fills the whole lumen.
I-20-Profile Laboratory PUR+H2O 20 mm 6.0º
I-20-Profile Laboratory PUR+Primer 20 mm 6.0º 4 CONCLUSIONS
The penetration of glue in hardwoods like beech is defined
by the material properties, glue type and the gluing
process. From the material site, the density, the surface
tension and the microstructure dominate the wetting and
penetration. The composition and the viscosity of the
binder systems define the depth of penetration. The
geometry and the precision of the finger joints in
combination with the process parameter influence possible
accumulation at the end of the finger joints and the macro
distribution of the glue in the glue line.
There are still unsolved open questions concerning the
interaction between glue and wood. Especially, which
parameter is the most important one influencing the
Figure 1: Sketch of finger joint with microscopic macroscopic strength and durability of the bonding. So far
investigated directions marked there is no clear explanation available, how and to which
extend the penetration depths influence the macroscopic
properties.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The research project is proudly supported by the Federal
office for the environment of Switzerland and the industry
partners neue Holzbau AG, Purbond and Corbat Holding SA.
Many thanks also to Grecon Dimter Holzoptimierung Nord
GmbH & Co. KG (Hannover, Germany) for the use of
their production laboratory.

REFERENCES
[1] H.J. Blass, J. Denzler, M. Frese, P. Glos, P. Linsemann:
Biegefestigkeit von Brettschichtholz in Buche,
Publisher University of Karlsruhe, Germany, 2005.
[2] Information on http://www.grupo-gamiz.com/en/0202.html,
Figure 2: Penetration of PUR+H2O, 15 mm finger length,
industrial manufactory
13/02/2013.
[3] Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald Schnee
appropriate glossy surface. The images were acquired with und Landschaft. Schweizerisches Landesforstinventar.
a Zeiss camera and saved with the software ImageAccess. Ergebnisse der dritten Erhebung 2004 –2006.
Birmensdorf, 2010
[4] SN EN 385:2001: Keilzinkenverbindung im Bauholz
3 RESULTS – Leistungsanforderungen und Mindestanforderungen
In the most samples, the glue line is hardly visible and an die Herstellung. Schweizerischer Ingenieur- und
relative thin. The wood structure is strongly deformed Architektenverein, Zürich, 2001
which points out a certain pressure during the gluing.
Further the penetration into the two joining wood parts was

32
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

INVESTIGATION OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS WOOD FOR


THE USE AS AN ENGINEERED MATERIAL

Steffen Franke1, João Marto2

ABSTRACT: The paper presents results of the assessment of the suitability of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. for the use as
structural and non-structural glued laminated timber. Different sawing and drying methods were evaluated. It was concluded
that the best conjugation would be the application of the saw-dry-rip method with a vacuum drying. Furthermore
mechanical and gluing tests were performed to obtain the mechanical parameters and gluing suitability. The samples
presented negative results with respect to the delamination requirements, but were successful with the shear test
requirements. Finally, one method for the processing of Eucalyptus globulus wood for the use as an engineered material will
be proposed.

KEYWORDS: Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Sawing methods, Drying methods, Mechanical tests, Gluing tests

1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 SAWING AND DRYING


The eucalyptus genus is subject of increasing attention Eucalyptus globulus wood from 20 year-old trees from the
within the wood sector. The exceptional growth properties region of Leiria, Portugal, was processed. For producing
made some species of this genus a desirable raw material, the boards, two different sawing techniques (saw-dry-rip,
and Eucalyptus globulus is one of them. The aim of this see Figure 1, and tangential) as well as two different
work has been to assess the suitability of this species for drying methods (kiln and vacuum) were applied. The
the production of structural and non-structural glued quality obtained was then evaluated for each case.
laminated timber. The results from testing Eucalyptus globulus clearly show
Eucalyptus globulus will be described and an overview of that the saw-dry-rip method allows the production of
the characteristics and properties presented. A closer look boards with lower tendency for mechanical movement
is taken upon the particularities of this wood, which affect during and after the drying processes. An increased
the workability, such as growth stresses, spiral grain, thickness of the board combined with controlled air‐drying
collapse propensity and high mechanical instability. for a certain period of time allows a relaxation of the
A bibliographic review of the techniques and best practices growth stresses. After the ripping stage, the final boards
when dealing with Eucalyptus globulus wood is done. kept their position and presented less mechanical
Analysis and discussion were made on all stages of movement than the tangential method.
processing Eucalyptus globulus (silviculture, harvesting,
sawing, and drying), with a special emphasis on the
standard machinery currently used in the industry.

1
Steffen Franke, Prof. Dr., Professor for Timber Constructions,
Bern University of Applied Sciences, Architecture, Wood and
Civil Engineering, Solothurnstrasse 102, 2504 Biel, Switzerland.
Email: steffen.franke@bfh.ch
2
João Marto, Bern University of Applied Sciences, Architecture,
Wood and Civil Engineering, Solothurnstrasse 102, 2504 Biel,
Switzerland.
Figure 1: Saw-dry-rip method (Larson et al. 1983)

33
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

In the initial stages the drying rate is similar for both In order to assess the integrity and strength of the glue
methods (kiln and vacuum drying). A major difference lines, EN 386:2001 states that both testing standards, EN
occurs after the fibre saturation point (around 35% 391:2001 and EN 392:1995, must be conducted and
moisture content). After this point the water movement delaminations and shear tests were therefore performed.
occurs primarily by diffusion, which is intensified by the All sections from these first both structural and
vacuum, and thus the drying time can be significantly non‐structural tests failed the requirements regarding the
reduced. maximum percentage of delamination. However the shear
A high percentage of collapse and internal cracks as shown tests show that some sections, both structural and non-
in Figure 2 was observed after the vacuum drying, mainly structural, could meet at least some of the requirements.
in the boards produced with the tangential method. Here This is important, because depending on the type of
the higher initial moisture content together with the application, the glulam element might not be exposed to
unadjusted vacuum drying parameters were the major such severe moisture content changes.
cause.
4 CONCLUSIONS
After an evaluation of all the experimental data, one
process is suggested for efficiently producing Eucalyptus
globulus glulam. A saw‐dry‐rip sawing method followed
by a vacuum drying stage, with an improved schedule, and
a conditioning stage included in the drying, make it
possible to produce wood in a quality that meets the
requirements of raw material for glulam purposes.
Figure 2: Internal cracks in a tangential board after drying Regarding the gluing, the outcome was not completely
successful. However, other, new configurations could be
tested or likewise new adhesive types might be more
3 MECHANICAL AND GLUING TESTS appropriate for this species.

3.1 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


Mechanical tests were performed to determine the elastic This presented results are part of the master thesis of Mr. João
and mechanical properties (bending, tension, compression Marto. Many thanks to his effort and his family providing and
and shear) and for the characterization of the wood. The transporting the wood from Portugal to Switzerland.
standard EN 408:2010 was applied for the tests, and EN
384:2010 for the calculation of the characteristic values, REFERENCES
which are necessary for assigning the wood to a certain [1] European Committee for Standardization (CEN):
strength class as specified in EN 338:2009. EN 338:2009, Structural timber - Strength classes,
Since small, clear and defect‐free specimens for the tests Brussels, Belgium, 2009
were used, reduction factors must be applied to achieve a [2] European Committee for Standardization (CEN):
lower degree of confidence. Thereby the characteristic EN 384:2010, Structural timber – Determination of
values can be determined before assigning the wood to a characteristic values of mechanical properties and
strength class as specified in EN 338:2009. In a first densities, Brussels, Belgium, 2010
analysis the wood samples were assigned to the D50 [3] European Committee for Standardization (CEN):
strength class. It is important to note that the low number EN 386:2001, Glued laminated timber – Performance
of tested specimens led to high reduction factors which requirements and minimum production requirements,
significantly influenced some of the results. Brussels, Belgium, 2001
[4] European Committee for Standardization (CEN):
3.2 GLUING TEST RESULTS EN 391:2001, Glued laminated timber – Delamination
of the glue lines, Brussels, Belgium, 2001
Finally, gluing tests were performed with two different [5] European Committee for Standardization (CEN):
one-component PUR adhesives (both free from EN 392:1995, Glued laminated timber – Shear test of
formaldehyde and solvent). Structural and non-structural glue lines, Brussels, Belgium, 1995
glulam beams sections were prepared under different setup [6] European Committee for Standardization (CEN):
conditions: surfaces were either planed or sanded, pressing EN 408:2010, Timber structures – Structural timber and
times were 75 min or 150 min and a primer was applied to glued laminated timber – Determination of some physical
some sections. The suitability of the selected adhesives in and mechanical properties, Brussels, Belgium, 2010
combination with the particular setup conditions was [7] T. Larson, R. Erikson, H. Peterse: Saw-dry-rip
investigated and evaluated. processing – Taking the crook out of the stud game.
University of Minnesota, Minnesota, 1983

34
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

END REINFORCEMENT OF WOOD MEMBER USING SHORT-


CUT CARBON FIBERS

Xiaojun Yang1, Meng Gong2, Y. H. Chui3, Zeli Que4, Youfu Sun5

ABSTRACT: Short-cut carbon fibers were used to adhesively reinforce the end of a wood member. The test specimens
were fabricated with resin content of 250g/m2, pressing pressure of 0.10MPa and pressing time of 24 hours. In addition, the
dispersion degree of short-cut carbon fibers in adhesive was examined. It was found that the dispersion degree increased
with decreasing the fiber length. The tensile strength of short-cut carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) increased with
increasing fiber length. However, there was not statistically different in the tensile strength of CFRP made of 2mm, 3mm and
5mm long fibres. The tensile strength of wood member with reinforced end was twice higher or more than that of
unreinforced one. It could be suggested that the reinforcement technology of using short-cut carbon fibers was a feasible way
to improve the tensile strength of the end of a wood member.

KEYWORDS: Short-cut carbon fiber, Wood member end, Dispersion degree, Tensile strength

1 INTRODUCTION 123 end. Recently, carbon fibers have been used to reinforce
wood [2]. This study was aimed at exploring use of short-
The transverse tensile strength of wood is far lower than cut carbon fibers to reinforce the end of wood members.
the axial tensile strength [1], in particular near the end of a
wood member since there is less support. The overhang end
of a wood member is easy to crack and split, and propagate
2 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
inward over time, eventually causing failure of the whole
member. Therefore, reinforcement of a member end to 2.1 MATERIALS
increase its transverse tensile strength is of importance in The test material was pine (Pinus Spp.) in the wood group
design of a wood structure. of SPF (spruce-pine-fir), which had an air-dry density of
There are various methods for reinforcing the end of a 0.581 g/cm and an average moisture content of 13%.
3

wood member, such as metal plates, anti-cracking nails and Short-cut carbon fibers were kind of polyacrylonitrile of
rings [1]. In addition, coating such as paraffin wax and tensile modulus of elasticity of 2.4×105 MPa, tensile
resin is widely used to avoid absorbing moisture from the strength of 3450 MPa, and ultimate tensile strain of 1%.
The adhesive used was a two-component epoxy, which had
℃5000 mPa • s with a ratio
a mixed initial viscosity at 23 of
1 College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing Forest of 2:1. The cured adhesive layer had a tensile strength of
University, Longpan Road 159, 210037 Nanjing, China. 50MPa, modulus of elasticity of 2.0GPa, and extensibility
Email: yxj5460@163.com of 2.2%.
2 Wood Science & Technology Center, University of New
Brunswick, 1350 Regent St., E3C2G6 NB, Canada.
Email: mgong@unb.ca 2.2 DISPERSION DEGREE TEST
3 Wood Science & Technology Center, University of New The dispersion degree of short-cut carbon fibers in
Brunswick, 1350 Regent St., E3C2G6 NB, Canada. adhesive was assessed by flatting them in polyvinyl
Email: yhc@unb.ca
chloride film (PVC). The short-cut carbon fiber reinforced
4 College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing Forest
University, Longpan Road 159, 210037 Nanjing, China. plastic (CFRP) was obtained in 24 hours. CFRP was cut
Email: zelique@gmail.com into strips along the longitudinal and lateral directions,
5 College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing Forest respectively, to test its tensile strength values. The
University, Longpan Road 159, 210037 Nanjing, China. difference in strength between longitudinal and transverse
Email: sun@ailin.com.cn directions was used to reflect the dispersion degree.

35
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

2.3 PPREPARATION OF COMPOSITE AND condition. The fracture of a reinforced specimen did not
SPECIMENS appear near the pre-sawn cut, suggesting that the ultimate
tensile load was depended on wood material itself.
Short-cut carbon fibers were mixed with epoxy resin,
flatted on the surface of the end of a wood member. The
manufacturing parameters used were resin content of 250g/ 5000
Wood
m2, pressing pressure of 0.10MPa and pressing time of 24 S-Powder
hours. The dimensions of a specimen is illustrated in Figure 4000
J-Powder
S-2mm
1. J-2mm
S-3mm
J-3mm

Load / N
3000
S-5mm
J-5mm

2000

1000
Wood

0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5

Displacement / mm

Figure 2: The load-displacement curves of specimens


tested in tension
Figure 1: Diagram of a specimen of reinforced end using 3 CONCLUSIONS
short-cut carbon fibers (left) and experimental setup (right)
1) The smaller fiber length, the better dispersion degree of
2.4 TESTING short-cut carbon fibers in adhesive.
The experimental setup for tension test is showing in 2) The tensile strength of short-cut carbon fiber reinforced
Figure 1. The loading rate was 5 mm/min. plastic increased with the increasing fiber length. But there
was not statistically different in the tensile strength of
CFRP made of 2mm, 3mm and 5mm long fibres.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3) The tensile strength of wood member with reinforced
2
Table 1: Tensile strength values (N/mm ) of CFRP end was twice higher or more than that of unreinforced
Fiber length powder 2mm 3mm 5mm one. Carbon fibers in bonding layer play a critical role in
connection and shearing action in the end of a wood
Horizontal direction 35.15 43.36 44.08 47.59
member.
Vertical direction 34.23 45.09 46.57 42.38
Difference ratio 2.62% 3.99% 7.40% 12.29% 4) It was found that the short-cut carbon fibers
reinforcement technology developed could be a feasible
way to improve the tensile strength of the end of a wood
Table 1 shows that the tension strength of CFRP increased member.
with the increasing fiber length. The tensile strength of
CFRP made of carbon powder was obviously lower than
others. However, there was not statistically different in the ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
tensile strength of CFRP made of 2mm, 3mm and 5mm This project was supported by the priority academic
long fibres. The difference ratio increased with increasing program development of Jiangsu higher education
fiber length. institutions (PAPD) and the research fund of highest
Figure 2 illustrates the load-displacement curves of the academic qualification (GXL201314).
specimens tested in tension. The load increases linearly
with displacement first, and then drops rapidly after it REFERENCES
reaches the ultimate value, showing a brittle failure mode. [1] Lianbai Gu, Yachi Zhang.: Timber manufacturing
It was found that the fracture location of an unreinfoced technology China Forestry Press, 2011.
wood specimen occurred near the end of a pre-sawn cut. It [2] Teng J. G., Chen J. F.: FRP strengthened RC
was also discovered that the specimen of reinforced end structures. China Architecture & Building Press,
appeared near the hole of metal connection. In addition, the 2004.
ultimate tensile loads of specimens were almost equal
regardless of the fiber length and the end reinforcement
36
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HISTORICAL BEAMS


OF Picea abies WOOD. ASSESSMENT BY STATIC BENDING

Javier-Ramón Sotomayor-Castellanos1

ABSTRACT: Five historical full-size structural beams of Picea abies wood were tested in static bending. The static
bending tests were useful to assess the modulus of elasticity and the modulus of rupture in full-size historical beams,
according to the European Standard EN 408. The beams were classified as indicated by the European Standard EN 384 and
their stiffness properties. The results show a similar behavior in beams 1 and 5, and in beams 2 and 3. Only beam 4
presented a different response. The methodology developed in this investigation can be applied to the assessment of other
old wood structures if the prudent adjustments of the particular study are considered.

KEYWORDS: Modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, old wood constructions

The specimens were simply supported. The span distance


1 INTRODUCTION 123 between the support points was 3000 mm, 11.3 times the
depth of the specimens. The distance between the load
The wood that shapes historical buildings has a remarkable points was 1000 mm and the specimen overhang was 250
quality; even so the technological condition of the wood mm. The displacement rate was of 2 mm/min (Figure 1).
suffers from the influence of time, weather and working
conditions. This frequently found scenario reduces the P P
magnitude of the nominal properties of the element, / /
1000 2 1000 2 1000
compared to its actual mechanical characteristics.
The procedures and configuration of static bending tests
are well established for timber and full-size wood elements y
[2,3]. However, it is challenging to apply this approach
directly in the context of the structural analysis of old 1500 1500
wood structures. It is necessary to have reliable
information of the mechanical properties of wood currently 250 250
used in historical buildings.
This paper presents the modulus of elasticity and the Figure 1: Static bending test configuration. Magnitudes
modulus of rupture in static bending of historical beams of in millimeters.
Picea abies wood. The beams had an antiquity estimated
of 100 years performing as structural elements of the The bending load was recorded with a load cell which had
wooden roof of the Prague Masaryk Railway Station, a capacity of 300 kN (Rukov Rumbuk®). The deformation
Czech Republic. of the beams was measured in the middle of the bending
span with two potentiometers placed each one in the
2 METHODOLOGY central point of the opposite edgewise direction of the
beam, (Figure 1). Data were acquired and treated using a
Five historical full-size structural beams of Picea abies dynamic switch board Dewe-5000 (TRADMARK data
wood were tested. The procedure of the static bending tests logger system©).
adapted the protocol recommended by [2].
The modulus of elasticity (MOE) and the Modulus of
1 rupture (MOR) of the beams were computed with the
Javier Ramón Sotomayor Castellanos, Universidad Michoacana
formulae proposed by the European Standard EN 384 [3].
de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, 58130.
Morelia, México. Email: madera999@yahoo.com

37
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

3 RESULTS The values of the modulus of rupture (MOR) showed in


Table 1 represent the mechanical strength. According to
Table 1 shows the results for the five beams studied. the European Standard EN 384 [4] and their stiffness
properties, the beams were classified as follows: beam 1:
Table 1: Values of moisture content, density, modulus of
C24; beams 2 and 3: C16; beam 4: C14; and beam 5: C22.
elasticity and modulus of rupture from the five historical
beams settings
Beam MC (%) ρH (kg/m3) MOE (MPa) MOR (MPa)
5 CONCLUSIONS
1 13.14 448 11,505 32.37 The beams presented the attributes currently found in
2 11.08 414 8,516 33.94
3 11.79 449 8,940 31.42
historical wood structural elements: heterogeneity of the
4 11.41 366 7,557 16.66 wood tissues, misalignment of the geometry respecting the
5 12.16 433 10,402 31.47 orthotropic axis of wood, presence of cracks and knots,
Mean 11.92 422 9,384 29.18 and traces of weathering. Besides this, the beams were
SD 0.80 34.37 1,570 7.07
mechanically tested with satisfactory results.
COV(%) 6.67 8.15 16.70 24.23
The static bending tests were useful to the evaluation of the
Figures 2 and 3 show the load-deformation diagrams from modulus of elasticity and the modulus of rupture in full-
the static bending tests. size beams of Picea abies wood. The methodology
developed in this investigation can be applied to the
assessment of other old wood structures if the prudent
adjustments of the particular study are considered.
The computed values of the modulus of elasticity and the
modulus of rupture had the usual peculiarities that other
wood mechanical characteristics present: anisotropic
nature, variability among specimens, and different figures
depending of the experimental configuration or technique
applied. Considering the particularities of each test and the
directions for which every modulus was computed, they
can be used as a reference to assess and model historical
wood structures.

Figure 2: Load-deformation diagram for beams 2, 3 and 4


REFERENCES
[1] G. Bonamini and M. Noferi. On-site inspections of
timbers members for the assessment of their condition
and performance. In: Bertolini C, Marzi T, Seip E,
Touliatos P (Editors) Interaction between Science,
Technology and Architecture in Timber Construction.
Proceedings of Culture 2000 Project: Greek,
Norwegian and Italian Actions. Elsevier. France,
2004.

[2] European Standard EN 408 (2003). Timber structures.


Structural timber and glued laminated timber.
Determination of some physical and mechanical
properties. European Committee for Standardization.
Brussels, 2003.
Figure 3: Load-deformation diagram for beams 1 and 5
[3] European Standard EN 384 (2004) Structural timber–
Determination of characteristic values of mechanical
4 DISCUSSION properties and density. European Committee for
The data presented in Table 1 suggests that the beams can Standardization. Brussels, 2004.
be grouped in relation to their modulus of elasticity and
their behavior in the static bending tests: beams 1 and 5 [4] European Standard EN 338 (1997) Structural timber.
have similar behavior as well as beams 2 and 3, in a Grading. Requirements for visual strength grading
comparable way. Only beam 4 presented a different standards. European Committee for Standardization.
response. Brussels, 1997.

38
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF UNIFORMLY PARTIAL


COMPRESSION TESTS OF WOOD

Shuhei Mitsui1, Aya Hori2, Mayuka Uetsuji3, Takeshi Kawachi4 and Kazuo Kondoh5

ABSTRACT: In analyses of timber frame structures, joints of timber members are generally idealized to the semi-rigid
springs. It is one of the most essential subjects how to establish the characteristics of the springs appropriately. In this paper,
2D-isoparametric finite element analyses of specimen of uniform partial compression test are conducted in order to trace
and examine wooden behaviour of compressive strain inclined to the grain. Some numerical tests are performed and
influence and effect of the material constants and the size of specimen on the wooden behaviour are shown and discussed.
According to the results, close relationship between the shape and the strength or the stiffness of the specimen is confirmed.
Also it is cleared that the slightly strain hardening increases the tangent stiffness of the specimen drastically.

KEYWORDS: Compressive strain inclined to the grain, Isoparametric finite element, Elasto-plastic analysis

1 INTRODUCTION 123 2 OUTLINE OF NUMERICAL TESTS


It is clear that evaluating characteristics of structures by Figure 1 shows the outline of the analysis object. It is
using finite element method is important in structural specimen of uniform partial compression test defined by
design of buildings. However, it is difficult to estimate JIS Z 2101 (Methods of test for woods) [4]. In this test, the
structural property of timber structures by numerical specimen is compressed partially on the upper side surface
analysis until now. There are 2 main causes of the above; using the steel plate. In the numerical tests shown in this
firstly, wood is anisotropic material and vary widely in its paper, material constants and size of the specimen are
material property. Secondly, mechanical characteristics of varied. The specimen which has size as shown in Figure 1
joint in timber structures have not clarified enough. is called “standard specimen” in this paper.
Joints of timber members are generally idealized to the Lp Steel plate
semi-rigid springs in structural design of timber frame Lp
Le Wood specimen
structures. Thus it is one of the most essential subjects how x
to establish the characteristics of the springs appropriately.
The method called as “the theory of compressive strain z
inclined to the grain” [1] is the most common way in Japan D
for calculating the spring’s property and is commonly used
in designing timber structures. However, the method has y
some problems regarding to evaluate plastic property of
the spring or to apply to arbitrary type of timber joints. B L
B
In order to overcome the above problem, present authors L
have proposed new constitutive model for orthotropic L=45, D=30, B=15, Lp=15 (Unit: mm)
materials such like wooden materials [2] and shown results
of some numerical tests [3]. In this paper, result of elasto- Figure 1: Analysis object (Standard specimen)
plastic analysis of uniform partial compression test is Analytical model of the standard specimen is shown in
shown and effects of material constants and size of Figure 2. Numerical test has done considering symmetric
specimen are discussed. property of analytical condition. New 9-nodes
isoparametric element, having the option functions on
1
Shuhei Mitsui, Kure National College of Technology, 2-2-11 nodes is employed and the number of elements is 360 and
Aga-minami, Kure, Japan. Email: mitsui@kure-nct.ac.jp degree of freedom is 2851. Also, contact and/or separation
2
Aya Hori, Fujita Corporation, Japan phenomenon between the specimen and the support plate is
3
Mayuka Uetsuji, Hioshima University, Japan
4
Takeshi Kawachi, Shimizu Corporation, Japan
considered on the bottom of the specimen. For more details
5
Kazuo Kondoh, Hioshima University, Japan of the analytical method, see Reference [2,3,5].

39
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
Lp In the present numerical tests, tangent modulus and size of
Prescribed displacement the specimens are varied in order to examine their
is applied in compressed area influence on wooden behaviour. Figure 3 shows the
influence of size of the specimen on stress-strain curve. In
the figure, apparent stress is defined by value which
dividing compressive force by square measure of
compressed area. On the other hand, apparent strain is
D defined by value which dividing forced displacement by
x height of the specimen: D. Also, Le is additional length
calculated by subtract width of compressed area: Lp from
z length of the specimen: L. Le/D = 0 means that the
specimen is subjected to compressive stress all over the top
of it. It is confirmed by numerical tests that if Le is not
L equal to zero, strength and stiffness of specimen increase
Figure 2: Mesh division of standard specimen as well as well-known experimental facts.

The wood species of the specimen is assumed to be 4 CONCLUSIONS


Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and its material In this paper, the results of numerical test of uniform
constants are set as shown in Table 1 refer to Reference [6]. partial compression test are shown. According to the
Direction of compression is set along to radial axis of results, relationship between the shape and the strength or
wood, so z direction in Figure 2 correspond to longitudinal the stiffness of the specimen is confirmed. Also it is
axis of wood and x direction correspond to radial axis. cleared from the result of another numerical test that if
Values of yield stresses are decided refer to Reference [7] strain hardening is there even slightly, tangent stiffness of
by using ratios among mechanical properties of wood the specimen drastically increase.
which have provided by retrospective experimental study.
REFERENCES
Table 1: Material Constants
[1] Architectural Institute of Japan: Fundamental theory
Direction of timber engineering. Maruzen, 97-103, 2010. (In
Properties
or plane Japanese)
Young’s modulus L 7350 [2] For example, Mitsui, S., Hori, A., Kawachi, T. and
(N/mm2) R 590 Kondoh, K.: Finite element analysis of wooden
Shear modulus behaviour of compressive strain inclined to the grain
LR 637 (part-7) yield criteria and strain hardening rule for
(N/mm2)
orthotropic materials using non-dimensional stress.
Poisson’s ratio LR 0.40 Proceedings of annual research meeting Chugoku
L 24.75 Chapter, Architectural Institute of Japan: 34, 2011.
Yield stress [3] Mitsui, S., Minami, Y., Kawachi, T. and Kondoh, K.:
2 R 2.80
(N/mm ) Finite element analysis of wooden behaviour of
LR 6.40
compressive strain inclined to the grain (Part-1)
outline of the present approach and some numerical
3 RESULTS AND CONSIDERATIONS analyses of uniform partial compression test. Journal
Apparent Stress (N/mm2) of Structural Engineering, 56B: 359-369, 2010.
[4] Japanese Industrial Standards Committee: JIS Z 2101
Methods of test for woods: Japanese industrial
Le/D=1.0-5.0 standard, 2009.
Le/D=0.5
[5] Kondoh, K., Mitsui, S., Tanaka, A., Minami, Y. and
Kawachi, T.: Development of isoparametric finite
Le/D=0.25
elements with the option functions on nodes. AIJ
journal of technology and design: 16(33), 479-482,
Le/D=0.0 2010.
[6] Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute:
Handbook of wood industry, 135, Maruzen, 2004. (In
Japanese)
[7] Mitsui, S., Minami, Y., Kawachi, T. and Kondoh, K.:
Finite element analysis of wooden behaviour of
compressive strain inclined to the grain (part-6)
formulation in elasto-plastic region. Proceedings of
Apparent Strain annual research meeting Chugoku Chapter,
Figure 3: Influence of specimen size on stress-strain curve Architectural Institute of Japan: 33, 2010.

40
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

GLULAM REINFORCED USING PLATES OF DISTINCTIVE


LENGTHS – EXPERIMENTATION AND MODELLING

Gary Raftery1,

ABSTRACT: This paper describes the development of a novel low-grade glued laminated timber (glulam) beam reinforced
in flexure using fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plates of distinctive lengths which are anchored by a sacrificial lamination.
The development of such a hybrid section can improve the cost-competiveness of reinforced timber as the length of the
expensive FRP plate is reduced. The performance of beams reinforced using three different plate lengths is experimentally
assessed. In comparison to unreinforced sections the partial length reinforced beams exhibit enhanced stiffness and
improvements in ductility and ultimate moment capacity which are comparable with full length reinforced sections. The
length of the plates was seen to influence the results. The experimental results are compared with predictions from a
numerical model which utilises anisotropic plasticity theory as well as constitutive relationships developed from mechanical
testing of the timber. The predicted behaviour agrees strongly with the experimental findings for load-deflection, stiffness,
ultimate moment capacity, strain profile behaviour and strain measurements along the length of the reinforcing plates. The
model is a useful tool for further optimisation.

KEYWORDS: Low grade timber, FRP plates, Distinctive lengths, Mechanical performance, Strengthening

1 INTRODUCTION 123 lengths were examined; the mean theoretical cut-off length
of 1760mm from the midspan and two other lengths, one
In recent times, with increasing emphasis being placed on which was 240mm longer at either end (2240mm) and
sustainability considerable attention is being directed another 120mm shorter at either end (1520mm). Three
towards the development of new products and systems replicates for each beam phase were manufactured using
involving the use of wood. Low-grade fast grown mechanically stress graded spruce laminations and all
laminated timber can be significantly enhanced by the beams were initially tested for flexural stiffness in their
addition of reasonable percentages of reinforcement. One unreinforced state. The FRP reinforcement comprised a
class of materials which is suitable as the reinforcement is 2.8mm thick plate. The sacrificial lamination comprised a
that of FRPs because of their high strength to weight and 25mm thick wood layer which was bonded below the
good corrosion resistant properties. The use of FRP plate reinforcement. Strain gauages were placed throughout the
reinforcement can be easily incorporated into the glulam depth of the beams as well as along the reinforcement plate
manufacturing process. Furthermore the cost on the beams as indicated in Table 1 and as shown in
competiveness of a hybrid beam using low-grade material Figure 1. All beam types were tested to failure in
can be improved by the use of partial length plates. accordance with EN 408.

2 EXPERIMENTAL TESTING Table 1: Test programme


The test programme as detailed in Table 1 comprised nine Reference Reinforcement Length FRP Gauges Timber Gauges
FRP partially reinforced beams in which the reinforcement (mm)
was concentrated in the zone of maximum bending A-1 1520 Yes Yes
moment. Each of the beams comprised five laminations A-2 1520 Yes No
prior to the bonding of reinforcement giving a depth of A-3 1520 Yes No
190mm and had a span of 3420mm. Three reinforcement B-1 1760 Yes Yes
B-2 1760 Yes Yes
1 B-3 1760 Yes No
Gary Raftery, Department of Civil and Environmental
C-1 2240 Yes Yes
Engineering, The University of Auckland, New Zealand/Civil
C-2 2240 Yes No
Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
C-3 2240 Yes No

41
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Figure 1: Typical reinforced beam with plate of distinctive length showing strain gauge arrangement along reinforcement

3 FINITE ELEMENT MODEL


A nonlinear two-dimensional finite element model was
developed to simulate the behaviour of the experimentally
tested beams which were loaded in four-point bending. A
symmetrical boundary condition was employed to improve
computational time. A linear elastic, perfectly plastic
material model was utilised for the behaviour of the timber
parallel to grain in compression while a linear elastic
brittle material model is employed for timber in tension.
The elements used were 8-noded second-order plane stress
elements having plasticity and large deflection capabilities.
A mesh discretisation study was carried out to determine a Figure 2: Predicted and experimental determined load-
suitable element size. Failure in the model was based on deflection behaviour of reinforced using plate of distinctive
the maximum stress criterion whereby the model was
programmed to deactivate elements when the tension
stresses in the longitudinal direction, at a displacement 5 CONCLUSIONS
step, reached the critical tension failure strengths of the
timber laminations. Simulations were undertaken for ● Low-grade glulam reinforced using partial length plates
unreinforced beams, reinforced beams with failures are associated with gains in stiffness, increase ductility and
associated with in-grade strength (Reinforced 1) and improved ultimate moment capacity in comparison to
failure associated with clear wood strength (Reinforced 2). unreinforced sections.
● The length of plate selected influenced the enhancements
achieved in the hybrid beam.
4 RESULTS
● No plate debonding was experienced during testing. All
The beams tested in the programme were associated with failures replicated full length reinforced beams where the
enhanced stiffness, ductility and ultimate moment capacity. sacrificial lamination fractured at a defect.
The length of the plate influenced the results. Strains ● The experimentally recorded strain readings showed that
towards the end of the reinforcing plates were at a higher the sacrificial lamination assisted in lowering the risk of
level in beams reinforced using shortened length plates. premature delamination of the reinforcement plate.
The use of longer length plates improved utilisation of the ● Predictions from the numerical model showed strong
compressive characteristics of the timber. The finite agreement with the experimental results for load deflection
element model accurately predicted the strain profile behaviour, stiffness, ultimate moment capacity, strain
behaviour, strain measurements along the partial length profile behaviour as well as strain reading along the length
plates and load deflection behaviour of the reinforced of the plate.
beams as can be seen in Figure 2.

42
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

TIMBER ENGINEERING AND CONSERVATION OF


ENDANGERED FOREST SPECIES FROM THE CONGO BASIN:
CONTRIBUTION OF MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

René Oum Lissouck1, Régis Pommier2, Louis Max Ayina Ohandja3, Denys
Breysse4, Myriam Chaplain4

ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to identify the similarity of the Congo Basin timber aiming at a glulam use. The
mechanical strength and physical properties of tropical timber species are analysed. The Boolean approach allows defining
6 homogeneous clusters. The fuzzy approach yields more clusters in number. Findings may help the development of
engineered tropical wood products (ETWP), namely glulam, while conserving endangered forest species and promoting a
sustainable management of the Congo Basin forest.

KEYWORDS: Similarity, glulam, Boolean approach, fuzzy approach, endangered forest species, sustainable
management. Congo Basin

1 INTRODUCTION 123 radial shrinkage (εr), X7 = tangential shrinkage (εt), X8=


saturation fiber point (SFP). We also examine the
The Congo basin is the second largest tropical forest in the possibility of replacing εr, εt and PSF by the ratios εr/SFP
world. As a result of decades of selective and intensive (X9) and εt/SFP (X10). The selected variables are correlated
logging, many high valued timber species are now with the mechanical performance of glulam and the
considered as endangered and listed on the IUCN database. physical behavior of glue joints.
The development of Engineered Tropical Wood Products
(ETWP), namely glulam, is a solution to diversify the 2.2 EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS
harvest on the timber resource. It may also allow reducing
important timber losses in volume during processing The D’Agostino-Pearson test [2] is carried out to ensure
operations. In this paper, we investigate the proximity of the normality of distributions. The Box-Cox [3]
76 tropical woods from the Congo basin. Our aim is to transformations are unsed in the case of non-normal
identify forest species, which are technologically closed to distribution. The Dixon test is carried out for univariate
endangered ones and could be used as efficient substitutes. outlier detection. The Garett test [4] is realized in order to
sort multivariate outliers. A correlation analysis and a
2 MATERIALS AND METHODS principal components analysis are achieved thanks to
MINITAB.
The selection is based on a technological database of 76
species of a potential interest for industry. The database is 2.3 BOOLEAN APPROACH OF
published by CIRAD [1]. TECHNOLOGICAL PROXIMITY

2.1 TECHNOLOGICAL VARIABLES The timber species are described by the mean value of
each variable. The Euclidian distance is used. The number
Each timber species is represented with the following of clusters is evaluated thanks to the Ward aggregation
variables : X1 = density; X2= modulus of elasticity (MOE), distance [6]. The Ward hierarchical clustering based on the
X3= ultimate axial resistance in compression (Rcomp); mean value of each property is realized. Each species can
X4= mechanical strength (MOR), X5=hardness (hard), X6 = belong to only one cluster. The substitution of endangered
species is identified in each cluster.
1
René Oum Lissouck, CNRS, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33400
2
Régis Pommier, University of Bordeaux 1, France 2.4 FUZZY APPROACH OF TECHNOLOGICAL
3
Louis Max Ayina Ohandja, The University of Yaounde 1, PROXIMITY
Cameroon
4
University of Bordeaux 1, France In this approach, we simulated the effect of wood
properties’ variability on technological clustering. This

43
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

effect is characterized by the degree to which every timber Table 1: Examples of fuzzy clusters
species belongs to the 6 clusters. The “fuzzy belonging” Fuzzy clusters Forest species
property is quantified thanks to 131 Monte-Carlo Hybrid (G4)/Hybrid (G5)/ -Awoura (Julbernardia
simulations. The uncertain character of all wood properties Peripheral (G3) pellegriniana)
is considered. The post-processing consisted in analyzing -Doussie (afzelia pachyloba)
the stability of the clustering for each species. Centre (G3)/ -Ebiara (Berlinia bracteosa)
Hybrid/(G4)/Peripheral (G2)/ -Tchitola (Oxystigma
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION oxyphyllum)
3.1 BOOLEAN APPROACH
Heart (G6) -Eveuss (Klainedoxa
gabonensis)
Six optimal groups were defined and numbered
-Alep (Desbordesia
according to their increasing technological performance glaucescens)
(Fig.1).
The fuzzy substitution of endangered species is identified
2,0 koto
by considering 4 proximity levels to archetypal individuals
1,5
zingana CLUSTERS
2
: “strongly close”, “close”, “slightly close” and “low
w enge
3
1
close”. For instance, bomanga (brachystegia laurentii) is
1,0 aielé ekoune
akossika 6
5
close to kosipo (entandrophragma candollei) and low close to
Second Component

moabi

fromager
ilomba abura kekele lati
lotofa
4 tola (gossweilerodendron balsamiferum). Kosipo and tola are
ekaba
0,5 kondroti
tiama igaganga bilinga
dabema afrormosia mukulungu endangered.
nieuk
emien landamakore
faro andoung
gombeizombe
ako frake ebiara
ay ous ov oga onzabili tchitola ey ong bodioa
aw oura alep
0,0 dibetou iroko bubinga ev euss
framire bete
bomanga ozigo limbali tali

-0,5
acajou
tola
olon aningre
sipo
naga sapelli
kanda
mov ingui
okan azobé
4 CONCLUSIONS
kosipo bosse pao rosa
oboto
essia kotibe
iatandza
padouk
longhi
Tropical timbers of the Congo basin can be technologically
-1,0
doussié difou clustered into 6 homogeneous groups. Inside a same group,
niov e

-1,5
two series of glulam may have closed mechanical and
-5,0 -2,5 0,0 2,5 5,0 physical properties. The Boolean approach ensures a
First Component
timber species can just belong to one group. Thus, it is
Figure 1: Clusters and species proximity representation possible to attach directly to each endangered species one
or many substitutes inside a group. The fuzzy approach
Results show that azobe (lophira alata), an endangered allows defining degrees of belonging to a group and
species (“Vulnerable A1cd” [2]) of the group 6, can be presents a more refined and progressive picture of species
technologically replaced by alep (Desbordesia substitution by considering the uncertain character of
glaucescens). These major trends of substitution are properties.
confirmed by ITTO [6].

3.2 FUZZY APPROACH


REFERENCES
We defined four types of timber species in a given cluster [1] CIRAD. Tropix 7.0 : Synthèse des Caractéristiques
technologiques de 245 essences tropicales
(Fig.2)
(Technological Characteristics of 245 tropical
species). 2011.
[2] d’Agostino, B., R, Belanger, A., J. d’Agostino, B., R.,
Jr. 1990. A suggestion for using powerful and
informative tests of normality. The American
statistician. Vol.44.
[3] Sakia, R. M. 1992. The Box-Cox Transformation
Technique: A Review. The Statistician. Vol. 41, No. 2
pp. 169-178
[4] Garett. R.G. 1989. The chi-square plot: A tool for
multivariate outlier recognition. Journal of
Geochemical exploration. Vol. 32. 319-341.
Figure 2: degrees of belonging and intra-typology of timber [5] SHARMA S. 1996. Applied multivariate techniques.
species in a cluster John Wiley & Sons. Inc.
[6] International Tropical Timber Organisation. 2001.
The result of this approach is the definition of 39 fuzzy
Tropical Timber database.
clusters of wood essences. Some examples of such clusters
are presented in the table 1. Archetypal individuals of each
group (heart or centre) are identified.

44
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

AN ENHANCED BEAM MODEL FOR GLUED LAMINATED


STRUCTURES THAT TAKES MOISTURE, MECHANO-
SORPTION AND TIME EFFECTS INTO ACCOUNT

Sigurdur Ormarsson1, Jan Roar Steinnes2

ABSTRACT: There is a need of more advanced analysis for studying how the long-term behaviour of glued laminated
timber structures is affected by creep and by cyclic variations in climate. A beam theory is presented able to simulate the
overall hygro-mechanical and visco-elastic behaviour of (inhomogeneous) glulam structures. Two frame structures
subjected to both mechanical and cyclic environmental loading are analysed to illustrate the advantages the model involved
can provide. The results indicate clearly both the (discontinuous) inhomogeneity of the glulam products and the variable
moisture-load action that occurs to have a significant effect on deformations, section forces and stress distributions within
the frame structures that were studied.

KEYWORDS: Wood, moisture-related stresses, mechano-sorption, creep, FE-simulation, beam element

1 INTRODUCTION 123 2 MOISTURE VARIATION IN TIMBER


Wood is a non-isotropic and inhomogeneous material STRUCTURES
concerning both modulus of elasticity and shrinkage In the Nordic countries, RH values typically vary from
properties. It is also a hygroscopic and moisture-sensitive about 90% in the winter to about 65% in the summer each
material. In stress calculations associated with timber year. When a timber structure is exposed to natural
designs even of ordinary types, these matters are often not climatic variations, the question arises of the extent to
dealt with properly, primarily because of the stress which moisture changes and moisture gradients will be
distributions encountered in inhomogeneous glulam generated in the wood material. In order to gain insight
structures exposed to mechanical actions of different sorts, into this, a transient moisture flow simulation was
together with the climatic conditions that are present, being performed for a glued laminated cross section having
extremely difficult to predict by any simple means. dimensions 100x300 mm; see Fig. 1.
Accordingly, advanced numerical simulations are often
needed in studying cyclic climate related stresses in glulam
structures. An incremental beam model able to predict the
stress history as a whole at an arbitrary location within the
beam is employed. The model and the extended beam
theory associated with it, dealing with the elastic, the
shrinkage, the mechano-sorption and the visco-elastic Figure 1: Moisture-content profiles for a timber cross
behaviour of the material involved, were implemented here section having dimensions of 100x300 mm.
in the finite element program CALFEM (2004). For a more
detailed account then provided here of the theory and of In timber structures exposed to moisture gradients such as
the implementation procedure employed, see [1] and [2]. shown in Fig.1 considerable stresses both longitudinal and
perpendicular to the grain direction will occur.
1
Sigurdur Ormarsson, Department of Civil Engineering, 3 NUMERICAL EXAMPLES
Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, A rather simple beam-column structure was employed for
Denmark, Email: sor@byg.dtu.dk
2
Jan Roar Steinnes, Norcunsult AS, Vestfjordgaten 4, 1338
studying how different parameters affect the hygro-
Sandvika, Norway mechanical long-term deformations and stresses that
develop. Figure 2 shows the structure in question.

45
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Figure 5: Structural geometry and mechanical and


moisture loading acting on the upper chord.
The structure is subjected here to both mechanical and
climate loading. Figure 6 shows displacement and stress
Figure 2: The geometry of the structure, variations found in curves both for separate moisture and snow loads and for
the E-modulus and in the moisture content over the beam combinations of these.
cross section, and moisture history on the upper surface.
The figures that follows illustrates how the presence of a
dominant mechanical load q, together with a cyclically
varying moisture load shown in Fig. 2, affects the
deformations and the stresses in the structure. Figures 3
and 4 show how the displacement varies along the beam
and how the normal stress varies over a cross section.
Figure 6: Deformation of the arch structure and stress
profiles for the centre cross section of the upper chord.
Figure 6 (left) shows the structure in a deformed state, the
largest deflection being in the centre of the structure. For
pure moisture loading, the centre of the structure was
found to bend upwards by about 23 mm. When the snow
load acted alone, there was a maximum downward
deflection of 151 mm. The figure also shows there to be
Figure 3: Deflections of the beam A-B-C. normal stress variations in the cross section in the centre of
the upper chord where the moisture loading has a relatively
The deflection increases markedly over time due both to
strong effect on the normal stress that develops. The
creep and to the mechano-sorption phenomenon. The
changes in moisture content have an unfavourable effect
maximum degree of deflection occurs during the summers,
on the strongest stresses found in the cross section, the
its increasing from 1.6 to 2.9 mm during years 1-50.
compression stress increasing from about 7 to 10 MPa at
the top edge of the upper chord.
4 CONCLUSIONS
The major conclusion to be drawn on the basis of the
simulation results is that the moisture loading (either cyclic
or constant) had a strong effect on the deformations and
the stresses found in the timber structures that were
studied. A final conclusion that can be drawn is that
climate loading should best be treated as a separate load
case in connection with future design codes for timber
structures that are exposed to natural variations in climate.
Figure 4: Variations in stress over the cross section at
point B for (a) pure climate loading and (b) combined REFERENCES
mechanical and climate loading during the summertime.
[1] Ormarsson S, Dahlblom O.: Finite element modelling
It can be clearly seen in Fig. 4 that the stresses caused by of moisture related and visco-elastic deformations in
the combination of mechanical and climate loading vary timber beams. Engineering Structures 49:182-189,
markedly, both over a given year and over time, whereas 2013.
the moisture-related stresses are practically independent of [2] Steinnes J. R.: Finite element modelling of a special
time. The second numerical example is a large arch designed beam element for simulation of lateral
structure shown in Fig. 5. It is composed of two slightly buckling driven by mechanical and moisture related
curved beams, there being a number of vertical columns stresses. Master thesis, Technical University of
connecting the upper and the bottom chords. Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, 2014.

46
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

SEISMIC PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MUD WALLS


CONSIDERING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WALL CLAY

Naoki Utsunomiya1, Mitsuhiro Miyamoto2, Minoru Yamanaka3 and Manabu Matsushima4

ABSTRACT: Mud walls resist the lateral force during an earthquake by compressive or shear strength of wall clay. So the
seismic performance of mud walls is decided by the mechanical characteristics of wall clay. In this study, the objective is to
clarify the mechanical characteristics of wall clay, which is used for mud walls in each region of Japan, based on the results
of material tests and to evaluate the seismic performance of mud walls considering the regional characteristics of wall clay.

KEYWORDS: Mud wall, Soil mechanics, Cohesion, Angle of internal friction, Unconfined compression test

1 INTRODUCTION 123 which varies according to each region of Japan. In this


study, the objective is to clarify the mechanical
Mud walls consist of wooden frame, lattice substratum characteristics of wall clay, which is used for mud walls in
made of bamboo etc. and viscous soil mixed with straw. each region of Japan, based on the results of material tests
Mud walls resist the lateral force during an earthquake by and to evaluate the seismic performance of mud walls
compressive or shear strength of wall clay. So the seismic considering the regional characteristics of wall clay.
performance of mud walls is decided by the mechanical
characteristics of wall clay. We have conducted the study
on the estimation of relationship between lateral loading
2 EVALUATION METHOD
and deformation of mud walls. We have proposed the To examine the mechanical characteristics of wall clay
mechanical model to estimate the relationship between such as cohesion and angle of internal friction, wall clay is
lateral loading and deformation of mud walls with initial extracted from 17 places. We performed unconfined
failure in shear, considering the mechanical characteristics compression tests with the circle test pieces of wall clay.
of wall clay such as cohesion and angle of internal friction. The dimension of test pieces is 125mm in diameter and
Compared with full-scale test results, the accuracy of 250mm in height. From the results of material tests, the
estimation results is examined. In Japan, there is no relationship between lateral loading and deformation of
description of the concrete mechanical characteristics of mud walls is estimated based on the reference [1]. From
wall clay in the regulation about the seismic performance the results of estimation, unit multiplier of each mud wall
evaluation or material preparation of mud walls. So the is calculated based on the reference [2]. In addition, the
seismic performance of mud walls are evaluated without deformation angle when it is 0.8 times the maximum load
considering the mechanical characteristics of wall clay Pmax is defined as ultimate deformation angle. From the
relationship between unit multiplier and ultimate
1
Naoki Utsunomiya, Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Residential deformation angle, the seismic performance of mud walls
Environment, Shikoku Polytechnic College, Gungecho 3202, is evaluated. Table 1 shows the evaluation rank of mud
Marugame City, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan. Dr. Eng. Email: walls. Unit multiplier of mud walls with 55 mm in
utsunomiya@shikoku-pc.ac.jp thickness is defined as 0.5 in Japan. So the classification
2
Mitsuhiro Miyamoto, Research Assoc., Dept. of Safety Systems
for unit multiplier is defined by 0.5 and 1.0. The
Construction Eng., Kagawa Univ., Hayashicho 2217-20,
Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan, Dr. Eng. Email:
classification for ultimate deformation angle is defined by
miyamoto@eng.kagawa-u.ac.jp 1/20 rad considering the large deformation of mud walls.
3
Minoru Yamanaka, Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Safety Systems
Construction Eng., Kagawa Univ., Hayashicho 2217-20,
3 STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF
Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan, Dr. Eng. Email: WALL CLAY
yamanaka@eng.kagawa-u.ac.jp
4
Manabu Matsushima, Prof., Dept. of Safety Systems Figure 1 shows the relationship between compressive
Construction Eng., Kagawa Univ., Hayashicho 2217-20, stress and strain from the results of unconfined
Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan, Dr. Eng. Email: compression tests. As the maximum compressive stress
matusima@eng.kagawa-u.ac.jp increases, the compressive stress decreases rapidly after

47
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

the maximum compressive stress. So the deformation 0.18 to 0.49 and angle of internal friction is from 4 to 17.
capacity deteriorates. Figure 2 shows the relationship So the range of these mechanical characteristics is suitable
between maximum compressive stress and cohesion. The for wall clay of mud walls. It is possible that wall clay in
maximum compressive stress increases as the cohesion the range of rank B is changed into rank A by increasing
increases; they are proportional. It is found that the the thickness of mud walls.
mechanical characteristics of wall clay is different
according to its extraction place. REFERENCES
4 EVALUTION RESULT [1] Utsunomiya N., Miyamoto M., Yamanaka M. and
Matsushima M., “Proposal of Mechanical Model for
Figure 3 shows the samples of estimated relationship
Estimation of Relationship between Strength and
between lateral loading and deformation of full-scale mud
Deformation of Mud Wall Based on Soil Mechanics”,
walls. It is found that this relationship is influenced by the
Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering,
curve form shown in Figure 1. Figure 4 shows the
AIJ, Vol.78 No.684, pp.363-368, February, 2013. (in
relationship between unit multiplier and ultimate
Japanese)
deformation angle calculated by the relationship between
[2] Editorial committee for technical manual, “Technical
lateral loading and deformation of mud walls in each
Manual for Unit Multiplier of Mud Walls, Timber
region of Japan. The ultimate deformation angles of Fukui
Grille Walls and Wooden Siding Walls”, Japan
1, Fukui 2, Aichi, Kagawa 2, Hyogo and Kumamoto are
Housing and Wood Technology Center, pp.83-91,
over 1/10 rad. 9 places are rank B, 5 places are rank C, 1
February, 2004. (in Japanese)
place is rank D and 1 place is rank E, respectively. It is
found that unit multiplier and deformation capacity of mud
walls are different according to the extraction place of wall
clay. Figure 5 shows the mechanical characteristics of wall
clay for each extraction place. The mechanical
characteristics of rank B is as follows; cohesion is from

1.2 1.2
FUKUI 2 KUMAMOTO
GIFU
Compressive Stress σc (N/mm2)
Compressive Stress σ (N/mm2)

HIROSHIMA
1.0 1.0
KUMAMOTO SAITAMA AICHI
HYOGO
Table1: Definition of evaluation rank 0.8 0.8 YAMAGUCHI 1
GIFU KYOTO
TOKUSHIMA
Ultimate shear 0.6 0.6 YAMAGUCHI 2 SAGA
KAGAWA 2
Unit multiplier N deformation angle R u MIYAZAKI KAGAWA 1
0.4 0.4 FUKUI 1
KOCHI
1/20 > R u 1/20 ≦ R u FUKUI 2
0.2 0.2
1.0 < N A
C
0.5 ≦ N ≦ 1.0 B 0.0 0.0
0.5 > N E D 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60
Compressive Strain εc Cohesion c (N/mm2)
Figure 1: Relationship between Figure 2: Relationship between
compressive strain and compressive compressive stress and cohesion
stress

12 1.5 45
KUMAMOTO GIFU FUKUI 2 Rank C Rank A RankB
40
Angle of internal friction φ ( °)

10 RankC
35 KOCHI RankD
HIROSHIMA
Estimate load P (kN)

HIROSHIMA RankE
Unit multiplier N

8 1.0 KYOTO 30
YAMAGUCHI 1 Rank B MIYAZAKI
YAMAGUCHI 1
GIFU HYOGO 25
SAITAMA
6 TOKUSHIMA
SAITAMA

KAGAWA 2, KUMAMOTO
20 YAMAGUCHI 2
YAMAGUCHI 2
KAGAWA 1 GIFU
4 0.5 KOCHI
15 TOKUSHIMA
FUKUI 1 KAGAWA 1
MIYAZAKI SAGA, AICHI 10 HYOGO KUMAMOTO
2 FUKUI 1
KYOTO
FUKUI 2 5 FUKUI 2
Rank E Rank D KAGAWA 2 SAGA AICHI
0 0.0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60
Shear deformation angle γ (×10-3 rad) Ultimate shear deformation angle Ru (×10-3rad) Cohesion c (N/mm2)

Figure 3: Relationship between Figure 4: Relationship between unit Figure 5: Relationship between angle
estimated lateral load and deformation multiplier and ultimate deformation of internal friction and cohesion
angle angle

48
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

RESULTS OF PENETRATION TESTS PERFORMED ON


TIMBER GLT BEAMS

Lenka Melzerová1, Michal Šejnoha2

ABSTRACT: The paper concentrates on the determination of local elastic moduli of timber in the fiber direction. To that
end a single commercially produced glued timber beam was subjected to 3600 penetration measurements. The beam was
first covered by a regular grid of monitoring points at which the depth of indentation was measured. The pin was shot into
the wood with a given energy (Pilodin 6J). We expect the measured elastic moduli to serve as an input for advanced finite
element simulations on the bases of stochastic analysis. In such a case the local measured moduli represent in a given
segment of each lamella an ensemble of data characterized by a selected probability distribution. These distributions are
then employed in the LHS based stochastic simulation to provide probability distribution of the maximum deflection for a
given load level. Apart from that it appears meaningful to compare independently the probability distributions of the elastic
moduli for segments of the lamella (these may considerably differ owing to the specifics of the production of structures
made from glued lamella timber) with statistical data from the whole beam. Based on the measured data the correlation
matrix relating statistical dependence of individual segments can be estimated thus improving the quality of the stochastic
model.

KEYWORDS: Modulus of Elasticity, Non-destructive Tests, Glued Laminated Timber

1 INTRODUCTION 123 representative beam to directly acquire the needed moduli


E to be used in simulations.
The behaviour of glued lamella timber (GLT) beams
loaded in bending is predominantly covered by the
modulus of elasticity measured in the direction of fibers.
2 STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF
However, for GLT beams this value is not constant. LOCAL MODULI OF ELASTICITY
Individual segments of layered and glued lamellas are The selected beam was manufactured from eighteen
during manufacturing mutually connected by saw joints. segments having a random length. The modulus E was
The elastic modulus for two adjacent segments produced statistically evaluated for each segment. An average value
from the same type of wood but having different quality was used for the first computational model assuming
may considerably differ. It is therefore reasonable to constant moduli in individual segments [2]. The second
consider a different modulus for each segment usually as model considers apart from the mean value also the
an average value for a given region. More reliable results calculated standard deviation thus adopting the Gaussian
are expected when accepting a random nature of the probability distribution for all moduli E. The resulting
material directly in numerical simulations. The analysis distributions appear in Figure 1. The averages of E range
then typically involves finite element method (FEM) from the minimum value of 10,84 (GPa) in segment No. 13
combined with the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) to the maximum value of 13,59 (GPa) found in segment
method. Both approaches with constant segment moduli or 10. The aver all average from all measurements is 11,79
with variable moduli represented by suitable statistical (GPa). Even if using the calculated averages of E only the
distributions are in principal independent of the number of differences between the maximum and minimum values
local measurements. Nevertheless, their significant from segment to segment are relatively large
qualitative difference is evident. In the present study, 3600 (approximately one quarter of the average value). Such
penetration measurements were performed for a differences thus should not be disregarded in numerical
simulations.
1 Lenka Melzerová, CTU in Prague, Thákurova 7, Prague 6,

Czech Republic. Email: melzerov@fsv.cvut.cz


2 Michal Šejnoha, CTU in Prague, Czech Republic

49
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
statistical dependence can be reflected in our case by
0.7
S1
S2
18x18 correlation matrix.
S3
0.6 S4
S5
S6
4 CONCLUSIONS
S7
0.5 S8
S9 A lamella glued timber beams were subject of
S10

0.4
S11
S12
investigation. Considerable attention was accorded to the
Density

S13
S14
determination of local moduli of elasticity in the fiber
S15
0.3
S16 direction. The adopted method is non-destructive and well
S17
S18
SUM
suitable for the present class of timber beams allowing also
0.2
for a simultaneous measurement of moisture important
0.1 particularly for exterior beams. The numerical analysis
adopted two computational models, the deterministic one
6 8 10 12
E (GPa)
14 16 18 and the stochastic one based on the LHS simulation
method [5]. The resulting comparison promoting
Figure 1: Probability density functions of the elastic importance of properly accounting for timber variability in
modulus E for 18 regions, ensemble of all measurements its local properties was performed on the basis of
(SUM) and distributions with the maximum (S10) and maximum deflection only. Nevertheless, other quantities
minimum (S13) mean values are highlighted such as local stresses and strains can also be investigated
both experimentally and numerically [3].
3 COMPUTATIONAL MODELS OF GLT
BEAMS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The considered beam was subjected to a four-point This outcome has been achieved with the financial support
bending test. The maximum deflection at the center of the of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the
beam together with the local moduli measured at selected Czech Republic, project No. LD12023 advanced methods
points using strain gauges were recorded. The loading was for design, strengthening and evaluation of glued
represented by two concentrated forces applied at one third laminated timber.
of the beam span equal to 4,2m. Based on the previously
performed extensive experimental study on twenty GLT REFERENCES
beams the maximum load level the beam can reliably
sustain was set equal to 24 (kN) for each force [4]. This [1] L. Melzerová, P. Kuklík and M. Šejnoha: Variable
loading scheme was adopted for both computational Local Moduli of Elasticity as Inputs to FEM-based
models. The two models were compared on the basis of Models of Beams made from Glued Laminated
central beam deflection. Unlike the second computational Timber. Technische Mechanik, 32 (2-5): 425-434,
model, the first model considers constant moduli only and 2012.
as such it is essentially deterministic providing only a [2] L. Melzerová and P. Kuklík: Statistical Research of
single value of the deflection equal to 18,9 mm. In the Mechanical Properties of Glued Laminated Timber
more advance (stochastic) model, which draws on the Beams. Metallurgy, 49 (2): 376-380. 2010.
application of LHS simulation method, the actual [3] L. Melzerová and P. Kuklík: Variability of Strength
deflection depends on the selected probability distribution for Beams from the Glued Laminated Timber. In:
function and number of simulations to acquire its statistical Experimentální Analýza Napětí 2010, 257-260, 2010.
parameters [1]. The analysis was performed for both [4] L. Melzerová and P. Kuklík: Non-destructive Tests of
Normal (Gaussian) and Log-normal probability Modulus of Elasticity for the GLT Beam. In:
distributions. The results provided by the two distributions Proceedings of the 50th Annual Conference on
are, however, almost negligible. Thus only the results Experimental Stress Analysis, 271-276, 2012.
pertinent to the Gaussian distribution are presented. The [5] L. Melzerová, P. Kuklík and M. Šejnoha:
mean value was found equal to 18,22 mm and the standard Specification of FEM Models of Glued Laminated
deviation equal to 0,644. In comparison to the Timber with Variable Local Modulus of Elasticity. In:
deterministic model the average deflection is by 0,7mm World Conference on Timber Engineering, 208-213,
smaller, which is a significant accuracy improvement. 2012.
Even higher proportional improvement can be expected for
extreme loading close to the beam failure. This, however,
goes beyond the present scope. The stochastic
computational model may further exploit the knowledge of
correlation between moduli corresponding to individual
segments. The manufacturing process typically adopts
wood from the same source. It is therefore expectable that
segment properties will not be entirely independent. This

50
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING OF WOOD BEAMS:


FEA-MODELLING AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
Qiuwu Xiao1, Ghasan Doudak 2, Magdi Mohareb3

ABSTRACT: A finite element model was developed for glue-laminated wood beams modelled as an orthotropic material
and comparisons with the classical solution as well as experimental results were made. The model was able to capture the
buckling response and capacity of such cases and was extended to assess the influence of orthotropic constitutive properties
on the lateral torsional buckling capacity of wooden beams.

KEYWORDS: Lateral torsional buckling, timber beam, orthotropic material, finite element

width, by 600mm in depth and 5000mm in span. The


1 INTRODUCTION 123 dimensions were selected specifically to ensure that elastic
lateral torsional buckling takes place and are thus
Lateral torsional buckling (LTB) is a failure mode that independent of the strength properties of the beam material.
occurs when the member is bent about the major axis of The beams were assumed to be simply supported,
the cross-section where simultaneous lateral displacement restrained laterally and torsionaly at both ends without
and twist take place suddenly. For large span unsupported intermediate lateral bracing along the beam span. Linear
members, the resistance based on LTB may be less than elastic Eigen value finite element analysis were conducted
that based on material failure. Theoretically, the lateral for various scenarios of loading, including; a) concentrated
buckling resistance of a beam with a rectangular cross- load applied at mid-span, b) equal end moments inducing
section is given by uniform moments c) uniformly distributed load. The C3D8
eight-noded brick element was used from the Abaqus

M cr  Cb EI y GJ (1) library of elements to model the problem with three
Lu degrees of freedom were used [2]. The element dimensions
where Cb is equivalent moment gradient factor, Lu is were 10mm in width and depth and 20mm in length;
unbraced length, E is modulus of elasticity, Iy moment of therefore, there were 8 elements along the width, 60
inertia about weak axis, G is shear modulus, J is torsion elements along the depth and 250 element along the span
constant. The current study aims to obtain critical moment of the beam.
for glue-laminated beams through experimental testing and A comparison between the results of the FE model and the
finite element modelling. classical lateral torsional buckling solution is presented in
Table 1. Model input for the finite element model were
2 MATERIAL DESCRIPTION based on published values taken from CSA Standards O86-
09 Engineering design in wood [3] and the Wood
Wood can be considered as an orthotropic material. For the Handbook [4].
purpose of modelling, mechanical property along the
grains and perpendicular to the grains are obtained through Table 1: Comparison of FE model and Classical Equation
testing following the ASTM D198-09 Standard [1].
Uniformly
Constant Concentrated
distributed
3 MODEL DESCRIPTION AND moment
load
loadat center
mlVALIDATION AGAINST CLASSICAL Classical
mlLTB SOLUTION LTB 67.85kNm 76.67kNm 91.60kNm
A finite element model was developed to investigate the solution
lateral torsional buckling capacity of Pine lodgepole glue- FE
67.91kNm 76.60kNm 90.86kNm
laminated beams, the beams cross-sections were 80mm in model
FEA/Cl
1 1.001 0.999 0.992
Qiuwu Xiao, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa assical
,Canada. Email: qxiao062@uottawa.ca
2 Ghasan Doudak, University of Ottawa, Canada
3 Magdi Mohareb, University of Ottawa, Canada

51
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

The FE model was able to predict the capacity of the keeping other parameters unchanged. The ratio between
beams as determined by the well accepted classical the resulting critical moment and that based on the
solution. Figure 1 shows the buckled configuration for a reference case are shown in Table 3. The results show that
beam subjected to uniformly distributed load as predicted the critical moments are affected by the modulus of
by the FE model. elasticity EL along the longitudinal direction, and the shear
modulus GT along transverse. In contrast, the modulus of
elasticity ET, Poisson’s ratio ƲT along transverse, Poisson’s
ratio ƲRT and shear modulus GRT about radial and
tangential axes have a negligible effect on critical moment.

Table 3: Proportions of critical moments based on the


reference case and those based on changing the input
value of the constitutive parameter
Mcr by 1.5 times Mcr by 0.5 times
Parameter of parameter/(Mcr of parameter/(Mcr
varied reference) reference)
Figure 1: ABAQUS model of LTB
EL 1.2430 0.6964

4 COMPARAISON OF FE MODEL WITH GT 1.2022 0.7343


LTB EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ET 1.0012 0.9980
ƲT 1.0004 0.9998
To verify the accuracy of linear elastic Eigen value finite
element analysis, a comparison was made between ƲRT 1.0003 0.9999
experimental programs and the numerical analysis. Shown GRT 1.0053 0.9884
here is an example from a testing program by Hooly and
Madsen’s test [5]. It can be seen that the model is able to
capture the beam behaviour under different loading
configurations. 6 CONCLUSIONS
A finite element model was developed for glue-laminated
Table 2: Comparison of FE model and Experiment results wood beams modelled as orthotropic material.
Test Test results FE model Comparisons were made with the classical solution for
FE model/test lateral torsional buckling as well as experimental results.
number (kNm) results(kNm)
1 0.542 0.559 1.031 The model was able to capture the buckling response and
capacity of such cases and was extended to assess the
2 0.514 0.551 1.072 influence of orthotropic constitutive properties on the
3 0.466 0.443 0.951 lateral torsional buckling capacity of wooden beams.

4 0.508 0.457 0.900 REFERENCES


Comparison between the model and results from an [1] ASTM Designation D198-09 Standard: Standard Test
experimental program conducted at the University of Methods of Static Tests of Lumber in Structural Sizes,
Ottawa’s structural lab will also be presented in the full 2009.
length paper. [2] ABAQUS: ABAQUS analysis user’s manual (Version
6.11), 2011.
5 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS RESULTS [3] Canadian Standards Association: CSA Standards O86-
mlAND CONCLUSION 09, Engineering design in wood, 2010.
The effect of the various mechanical properties on the [4] Forest Product Society: Wood Handbook, Wood as an
critical moment was systematically investigated by varying Engineering Material, Page5-1, 2010.
the magnitude of the constitutive parameters of the [5] Hooley, R. F. and Madsen, B. Lateral Buckling of
orthotropic material model. Glued Laminated Beams. Journal of Structural
Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 90, No. ST3. June
Presented here, as an example, is the case for uniform 1964.
moment. Based on the reference parameters (Young
modulus in the longitudinal direction EL=10300MPa, shear
modulus in the transverse direction GT=473.8MPa) for
Pine lodgepole glue-laminated beam, the critical moment
was 67.91kNm. The magnitude of the input constitutive
parameters were changed by a factor of 1.5 and 0.5 while

52
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

MIXED-MODE FRACTURE PROPERTIES


CHARACTERIZATION FOR TIMBER STRUCTURES
THROUGH DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION AND FINITE
ELEMENT METHOD COUPLING PROCESS

Mamadou Méité1, Frédéric Dubois2, Octavian Pop2, Joseph Absi2, Jérôme


Dopeux3

123
ABSTRACT:  

This paper develops a new method based on a strong


coupling between experimental full-fields information of
Digital Images Correlation (DIC) and numerical modeling
by Finite Element Method (FEM) to analyse in another
way, fracture problems in Timber structure subjected to
complex loading of mixed-mode in service conditions.
To better apprehend wood material fracture behavior,
cracked specimens were made of Douglas fir and undergo
complex loading in tension for different mixity ratio β
Figure 1: Experimental test
(for instance β = 0° ,15°, 45° ,L ,90° ) involving the crack
to be therefore likely under mixed-mode (I+II) loading at Because DIC technique is used for full-fields displacement
the crack tip (Fig.1). measurement on specimen’s surface, and for this technique
to work well, a grey scale random pattern is needed on the
wood specimen surface. Then, both LVDT sensor and
loading cell record the specimen behavior, while
successive images of the sample surface before and after
the deformation were recorded at each time step using a
high resolution digital CCD camera. The CCD camera is
rotated to make its coordinates axis to be coincided to the
one of the crack tip in order to appropriately measure the
displacement fields in opening and in shear modes as can
be shown in fig.1.
1 Correla Software developed by PEM team of Pprim of
Mamadou Méite, ENISE, 58, rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint
Etienne, France. Email: mamadou.meite@enise.fr University of Poitiers was used to select study zone
2
Frédéric Dubois, Group Studies of heterogeneous Materials, subdivided into subsets of 32 by 32 pixels to make
Civil Engineering and Durability, University of Limoges, 19300 displacement fields analysis for each mixity ratio β .
Egletons, France. Email: frederic.dubois@unilim.fr Because of experimental noises making the displacement
2
Octavian Pop, Group Studies of heterogeneous Materials, Civil data obtained from an experiment to include measurement
Engineering and Durability, University of Limoges, 19300 error, it is very difficult to accurately analyze stress and
Egletons, France. Email: ion-octavian.pop@unilim.fr
2 strain fields from raw displacement data. In addition, real
Joseph Absi, Group Studies of heterogeneous Materials, Civil
deformation fields of the crack tip and its location, and the
Engineering and Durability, University of Limoges, I.U.T allée
andré Maurois 87065 Limoges cedex, France. Email: crack face are also difficult to be precisely obtained from
joseph.absi@unilim.fr DIC. Thus, in these conditions, crack tip parameters
3
Jérôme Dopeux, PFT Bois-Construction du Limousin19300 predicted from experimental raw displacement data are
Egletons, France. Email: jerome.dopeux@unilim.fr inaccurate. As a consequence, optimization procedure is
achieved to circumvent those difficulties. So, this

53
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

optimization process consists in substituting the measured real SIFs for each fracture mode (mode I and II) separation
field by an analytical field whose parameters are optimized is accomplished by the M θ integral.
with respect to the experimental fields into a residual To do that, it can be observed that the M θ integral is
minimization algorithm. Indeed, Kolosov-Muskhelishvili’s strongly proportional to material mechanical properties.
mixed-mode analytical field’s solution also call Williams Thus, an arbitrary elastic law behavior is chosen to observe
series described in the mathematical series has been chosen both M θ integral and the SIFs evolutions. Results show
to capture displacement fields of any point located near that SIFs for mode I and II are still being unchanged
and far from the crack tip by developing series expansion. whatever the orthotropie law behavior used. That mean
Crack tip coordinates are precisely localized for each that, SIFs are non dependant to material orthotropie
mixity ratio β using the Newton-Raphson iterative behavior and then, the SIFs values are less influenced by
algorithm based on the nonlinear least square method. In the orthotropie ratio.
addition, rigid body motion terms, included into Finally, when combining crack opening intensity factors
experiment, are also determined. obtained from experimental of DIC to stress intensity
Now, crack tip parameters are analyzed through the factors determined from static approach of numerical
optimized field instead of raw field. This optimized field is modeling, one can identified in the same time, the exact
one of the Williams series solution used to obtain the best material orthotropie mechanical properties needed to
fit experimental displacement field. accurately predict fracture property such as the energy
Hence, by this first step, mixed-mode crack opening release rate in each loading configuration.
intensity factors are characterized through a new
expression obtained from the kinematic approach of DIC.
This expression is proportional to the first coefficients of
Williams’s series expansion for each fracture mode.
In the second step, numerical model based on the Finite
Element Method is used to modeling the experimental tests
into complex loading configuration. Real boundary
conditions and loading values apply to samples are well
used. The synchronization process in experimental tests
allows determining those loading values. Hence, the
numerical modeling can be shown in fig.2.

Arcan fixtures

Cracked specimen

90° C90

Crack

C0

Figure 2: Numerical modeling

Different mixity ratio β are obtained into complex


loading area comprised between 0° (mode I pure) and 90°
(mode II pure) and its corresponding boundary conditions
are comprised between C0 and C90 . The load is applied to
the specimens by means of Arcan Fixtures.
The crack tip parameters to compute in this numerical
model are Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs). This
computation of SIFs is achieved by using mixed-mode
integral invariant concept, namely the M θ integral. Thus

54
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

EMBEDDING BEHAVIOUR OF CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER


PANELS MANUFACTURED FROM SUGI

Nobuyoshi Yamaguchi1, Shiro Nakajima2, Yasuhiro Araki3, Atsushi Miyatake4,


Naoto Ando5

ABSTRACT: Rocking of narrow wall panels/columns causes embedding forces on the floor panels during earthquakes. In
plain/out of plain compression tests and out of plain embedding tests of CLT panels were conducted. Compression and
embedding strengths of in plain/out of plain strengths of Sugi CLT panels were obtained. These strengths of CLT panels
with /without edge-glues were compared. Out of plain embedding strength loaded at the corner of CLT panels was fairly
less than the normal embedding strength, and it was around the middle of the normal embedding and compression strengths.

KEYWORDS: Strength, Compression, Embedding, Embedding position, Edge-glue, In plain, Out of plain

1 INTRODUCTION 123 x300 x150mm and 125 x925 x150mm specimens were cut
off from them. Average MOE of the laminas was 6.0Gpa,
Seismic design is required to CLT buildings in Japan. and the average MOR of them were supposed to be 30MPa.
Embedding performance of joints is significant to maintain Average density of them was 0.41g/cm3, average moisture
ductility of timber structures during earthquakes. CLT wall contents in air-condition was 14.4% by moisture meters.
panels are installed on the CLT floor panels, and narrow The laminas were glued with aqueous polymer isocyanate
wall panels and columns make rocking on the floor panels adhesive (API). Both of CLT panels with and without
during earthquakes. Both edges of the wall panels apply edge-glue were prepared.
embedding forces on the floor panels. Tension behaviour
of the joints between wall and floor panels is dominated by 2.2 EXPERIMENTS
those of connecters, etc. Compression behaviour of the
joints depends on the embedding behaviour of in plain/out 2.2.1 Compression test
of plain CLT panels of walls and floors. In plain/out of Compressions were applied for both of in plain/out of plain
plain compressions, out of plain embedding and rotational of CLT specimens (150 x 150 x 150mm). Loading areas
embedding performance of CLT panes are required to be were full area of the specimens (150 x 150mm). Loading
clarified. In plain/out of plain compression tests and out of directions of the specimens were strong and weak axes of
plain embedding tests of CLT panels are conducted. the CLT specimens. Specimens have three longitudinal and
Effects of edge-glue of CLT panels are also analysed. two transvers laminas (3L+2T) in case of strong axis
loading, and have two longitudinal and three transverse
2 METHOD laminas (2L+3T) in case of weak axis loading. Loading
plate and base plate of metals were greater than the size of
specimens.
2.1 SPECIMENS
300 x150 x3000 mm CLT panels of SUGI with 5 ply 2.2.2 Embedding test
Metal plates of 150 x 150 x 20mm were used for applying
laminas were prepared. 150(W) x150(L) x150(H) mm, 300
embedding forces for out of plain directions of the CLT
specimens. Figure 1 indicates embedding positions and
1
Nobuyoshi Yamaguchi, Building Research Institute,1 Tachihara, specimens. CLT specimens of 125 x925 x150mm were
Tsukuba, Ibaraki-pref., Japan. Email:yamaguch@kenken.go.jp used for embedding-6H (normal embedding) test, which
2
Shiro Nakajima, Building Research Institute, Japan means length of specimens is greater than six times of the
3
Yasuhiro Araki, Building Research Institute, Japan height (H) of the specimens. 300 x300 x150mm specimens
4
Atsushi Miyatake, Forestry and Forest Products Research were used for out of plain embedding tests of centre
Institute, Japan
5 embedding and corner embedding.
Naoto Ando, University of Tokyo, Japan

55
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
Figure 2 shows out of plain compression strengths of 150
x150 x150mm CLT specimens with/without edge-glues.
Both strengths of with/without edge-glues were close at
20mm displacement.
(a) embedding-6H (b) centre (c) corner
Figure 1: Embedding position and specimen 3.2.2 Embedding position and strength
Figure 3 (a) and (b) indicate embedding and compression
strengths of with/without edge-glues. Both of figures show
2.2.3 Apparatus and measuring method test results in case of out of plain embedding tests loaded
Both of compression and embedding tests were conducted at the centre or the corner of 300 x300 x150mm specimens.
using universal loading apparatus. Rate of loadings were Compression strengths of 150 x150 x150mm specimens
almost constant, and periods of the loading until the with/without edge-glues are also shown in Figure 3 (a) and
maximum loads or 20mm displacement were several (b). Figure 3(a) includes embedding strengths of
minutes. Loads applied for specimens and displacements embedding-6H (normal embedding strength) without edge-
of loading table were measured. The maximum loads or glue. Embedding strengths loaded at the corner of CLT
loads at 20mm displacement were evaluated as strengths. panel were fairly less than the normal embedding strength,
and it was around the middle of the normal embedding and
compression strengths of them. Table 2 summarizes out of
3 RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS plain embedding strengths of -6H, -centre, -corner and
compression strengths of CLT specimens.
3.1 IN PLAIN STRENGTH
3.1.1 Compression Table 2: Embedding and Compression strength
Table 1 summarises in plain compression strengths of 150
x150 x150mm specimens. CLT(3L+2T) specimen of three Strength (N/mm2) Ratio
Test Edge-glue Edge-glue
longitudinal and two transvers laminas is stronger than that without with without with
of CLT(3T+2L). Longitudinal (L) and transvers (T) Embedding-6H 9.05 - 2.34 -
compression strengths of laminas calculated from Embedding-Centre 6.78 7.61 1.75 1.80
measured strengths of CLTs are shown in Table 1. Embedding-Corner 6.14 5.60 1.59 1.32
Calculated transvers strengths of laminas were almost one Compression 3.87 4.23 1 1
tenth of longitudinal strengths of them.

Table 1: Compression in plain

Strength(N/mm2) Ratio
Member Edge-glue Edge-glue
without with without with
CLT(3L+2T) 16.97 19.24 1.00 1.00
CLT(3T+2L) 12.48 13.94 0.74 0.72
Lamina L 25.95 29.84 1.00 1.00
Lamina T 3.50 3.34 0.13 0.11
(a):without edge-glue (b):with edge-glue
3.2 OUT OF PLAIN STRENGTH
Figure 3: Embedding and compression strength
3.2.1 Compression

4 CONCLUSIONS
Compression and embedding strengths of in plain/out of
plain Sugi CLT panels were obtained. These strengths of
CLT panels with/without edge-glue were compared. Out of
plain embedding strength loaded at the corner of CLT
panels was fairly less than the normal embedding strengths,
and it was around the middle of the normal embedding and
compression strengths. Position of the embedding on CLT
panels affected their out of plain embedding strengths.

Figure 2: Compression with and without edge-glue

56
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

INFLUENCE OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN MODAL


TESTING ON EVALUATED ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF
TIMBER PANELS

Jan Niederwestberg1, Jianhui Zhou2, Ying Hei Chui3

ABSTRACT: Cross laminated timber (CLT) has the potential to play a major role in timber construction as floor and wall
systems. In order to meet specific design needs and to make the use of CLT more effective, property evaluation of
individual CLT panels is desirable. Static tests are time-consuming and therefore costly, and for massive products such as
CLT practically impossible to implement. Modal testing offers a fast and more practical tool for the property evaluation of
CLT and timber panels in general. This paper presents a comparison of different boundary conditions in modal testing in
terms of accuracy, calculation effort and practicality. Single-layer timber panels as well as scaled CLT panels were
fabricated. Three elastic properties of the panels were evaluated using modal testing methods with different boundary
conditions (BCs). The results were compared with results from static test.

KEYWORDS: Cross laminated timber, Modal testing, Boundary conditions, Elastic properties

1 INTRODUCTION 123 makes static tests time-consuming and therefore costly.


Static test methods also have an inherent risk of causing
Cross laminated timber (CLT) is an engineered wood structural damage within the panel during testing.
product made from layers of timber pieces. Due to the Moreover for massive panels, it is practically difficult to
layered glue-up with alternating grain directions of test the full-size panels from production lines, using static
adjacent layers, CLT forms a stiff and strong orthotropic test methods. Modal testing methods show potential to be
plate structure. The stiff structure shows high potential in adopted for non-destructive evaluation of elastic properties
shear wall and flooring applications, domains that are of CLT. In modal testing, the structure is exposed to a
dominated by reinforced concrete in large structures. CLT controlled excitation and the natural frequencies are
has the potential to replace reinforced concrete in these measured. The natural frequencies and their order within a
applications up to a certain point. Unlike reinforced response spectrum are influenced by the dimensions and
concrete elements, which are designed based on the the density of the structure as well as the boundary
structural needs, CLT elastic properties used for design conditions (BCs) and the elastic properties of the structure.
purposes are based on the build-up of the panels and on Therefore the elastic constants of a structure can be
assumed elastic constants of the component material. The evaluated if its dimensions, density, the BCs and the
elastic properties of individual CLT panels can be response spectrum are known.
evaluated by static tests. From these static test methods
only one elastic constant can be evaluated at a time, which While modal testing appears to be a more efficient test
method compared with static test, especially for massive
1
Jan Niederwestberg, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental panels, research is still required before the model test can
Management, University of New Brunswick, 28 Dineen Drive, be adopted widely. One technical challenge is the choice of
Fredericton, NB, Canada. E3B 5A3, Email: j.nwb@unb.ca boundary condition. As mentioned before, BCs affect the
2
Jianhui Zhou, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental natural frequencies and the response spectrum of a
Management, University of New Brunswick, 28 Dineen Drive, structure. Also, some BCs offer close-form solutions for
Fredericton, NB, Canada, E3B 5A3. Email: jh.zhou@unb.ca
3 the property evaluation while others require the use of
Ying Hei Chui, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental
Management, University of New Brunswick, 28 Dineen Drive, cumbersome iterative numerical procedures. Furthermore,
Fredericton, NB, Canada, E3B 5A3. Email: yhc@unb.ca different BCs show different levels of practicality. The

57
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

objective of this study is to compare modal testing ASTM test procedure [6]. The elastic properties evaluated
methods with different BCs in terms of accuracy of in static tests were used as reference values in the
evaluated elastic properties, calculation effort and comparison of those measured using modal test method
practicality. under different BCs. As a control mechanism static tests
were performed on the CLT panels with BCs SSSS. In an
2 METHODOLOGY iterative process the elastic properties in a finite element
model were adjusted successively until experimental and
2.1 SPECIMEN DESCRIPTION AND GENERAL analytical deformation matched.
PROCEDURE
3 RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
Single-layer panels have been produced from conditioned
(moisture content 13%) spruce laminates. The single-layer At the time of the submission of this abstract, single-layer
panel elastic constants, namely the modulus of elasticity modal tests with BCs SFFF, FFFF, SFSF have been
parallel to the grain (E11), the modulus of elasticity conducted and the elastic properties have been evaluated.
perpendicular to the grain (E22) and the in-plane shear Modal tests with BCs SSSS are in progress. E11 and E22 of
modulus (G12), have been evaluated using different test the single-layer panels have been evaluated in static tests.
methods. The single-layers were face-glued to form 3- and It is expected that results from the modal and static test of
5-layer CLT panels after the single-layer panel tests were the all single-layers and CLT panels will be included in the
completed. The elastic constants (E11, E22 and G12) of the final paper.
CLT panels were evaluated using the same test methods as
for the single-layer panels. The results of the different test ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
methods were compared with each other.
This research was supported through funding by Natural
2.2 MODAL TESTING METHOD Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
(NSERC) to the Strategic Network on Innovative Wood
The elastic properties of the single-layer panels and the Products and Building Systems. The authors would like to
CLT panels were evaluated using modal testing methods thank Dr. Lin Hu, FPInnovations for her technical
with different BCs. In the method by Sobue and Katoh [1] guidance.
the layer is simply supported on one edge while the other
edges have free BCs (SFFF). The three elastic constants, REFERENCES
E11, E22 and G12, were calculated based on three natural
frequencies and simple equations. The method by Larsson [1] Sobue N., Katoh A.: Simultaneous Determination of
[2] is based on free-free BCs (FFFF) and has no closed Orthotropic Elastic Constants of Standard Full-Size
form solution. Here E11, E22 and G12 were determined in an Plywoods by Vibration Method. Japan Wood Research
iterative process using finite element analysis. In the Society, 1992. Internet resource.
process, the three elastic constants were adjusted [2] Larsson, D.: Using Modal Analysis for Estimation of
successively until experimental and analytical natural Anisotropic Material Constants. Journal of
frequencies matched. Further modal test with BCs of two Engineering Mechanics. 123:222-229, 1997
simply supported opposite edges and the other edges free [3] Leissa. A. W.: Vibration of plates. U.S. National
(SFSF) were undertaken. Tests were performed for the two Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington,
directions, span parallel- and perpendicular to the grain. D.C., 1969.
Based on Leissa [3], natural frequencies were determined [4] Hearmon, R. F. S.: The Fundamental Frequency of
and the elastic constants E11 and E22 were evaluated. G12 Vibration of Rectangular Wood and Plywood Plates.
cannot be determined with these BCs. In addition modal Proceedings of the Physical Society. 58(1):78, 1946.
tests with BCs of all four edges simply supported (SSSS) [5] ASTM: Standard Test Methods of Static Tests of
were performed. For SSSS BCs a closed form solution Lumber in Structural Sizes. Designation D198. West
exists. For these BCs the three elastic constants, E11, E22 Conshohocken, Pa: ASTM International, 2010
and G12, can be calculated directly with three [6] ASTM: Standard Test Method for Shear Modulus of
experimentally determined natural frequencies as stated in Wood-Based Structural Panels. Designation D3044.
Leissa [3] and Hearmon [4]. West Conshohocken, Pa: ASTM International, 2006

2.3 STATIC TESTING METHODS


Static tests have been performed to evaluate the elastic
constants (E11, E22 and G12) of the single-layer panels and
the CLT panels. The elastic constants E11 and E22 were
evaluated by single-span three-point bending tests based
on ASTM test procedure [5]. The test procedure for the
evaluation of the in-plane shear modulus G12 was based on

58
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

ESTIMATION ON BEARING CAPACITY OF SHELF MADE


FROM PLYWOOD SUBJECTED TO DISTRIBUTED LOAD

Manabu Matsushima1, Mitsuhiro Miyamoto 2, Naoki Utsunomiya3

ABSTRACT: This document provides the method to estimate the bending capacity of shelf made of plywood. The section
of shelf consists of two materials, such as thin surface material (MDF material) and the block material inside. The block
material consists of wood pieces with long and narrow width and the each piece is jointed in longish side with glue. In this
study, the material properties are obtained by inverse analysis using the results of bending tests. It is proposed that the
method to estimate the bending capacity of shelf.

KEYWORDS: Plywood Shelf, Bending Capacity, Inverse Analysis, Composite Structure

1 INTRODUCTION 123 The test parameter is the thickness of block material. The
thickness 15mm, 20mm and 27mm are prepared. Four
The target plywood shelf subjected to distributed load specimens are prepared at each thickness in experiment.
consists of the thin surface material (MDF material) and Figure 2 shows the relationship between load and
the block material inside. The bending capacity of single displacement of experiment. Red circle indicates the yield
MDF material is pretty smaller than the one of point of bearing capacity. Yield point is obtained using
composition material made of MDF material and block general yield method. According to the results of
material. The block material consists of wood pieces with experiments, the thickness of block material increases with
long and narrow width. Each piece are jointed in longish the bearing capacity of plywood. Uncertainty of bearing
side with glue, but not jointed in narrow side. The weak capacity increases with the increasing of thickness of
points exist in joints between pieces. Since the stress specimen.
transfers to the whole from the weak points of block
material through glue between MDF material and block
material, the bearing capacity of composition material is
pretty larger than the one of single block material.
The method to estimate the bending capacity is described
in this paper. The equivalent material property is obtained
by inverse analysis using the results of bending tests of
plywood material. The bearing capacity of plywood
material obtained using the equivalent material property
obtained by inverse analysis coincide with the results of Figure 1: Loading tests of plywood material
experiments with small error. 7000 27mm

6000 Yield Point


2 BENDING TESTS 5000

The bending tests are carried out as shown in Figure 1.


Load P(N)

4000 20mm
Block material inside is failed at first and the surface 3000
material (MDF material) is failed after that. The bending
2000
capacity is governed by the failure of block material inside. 15mm
1000
Elastic Stiffness Ke
1
Manabu Matsushima, Kagawa University, 2217-20, Hayashi, 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Takamatsu, Japan. Email: matusima@eng.kagawa-u,ac.jp Displacement δ(mm)
2
Mitsuhiro Miyamoto, Kagawa University, Japan
3 Naoki Utsunomiya, Shikoku Polytechnic College, Japan Figure 2: Results of experiment

59
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
8000

Block material

Yield bearing capacity Py(N)


7000
6000
6000

4000 Mean Value:6049.6N/mm2


5000

Young’s Modulus E(N/mm2)


S.D.:566.3N/mm2
4000 MDF material C.O.V.:0.09
2000

3000
0
10 15 22 平均値:3024.8N/mm2
2000
Thickness of block material h(mm) 標準偏差:283.2N/mm2
1000 変動係数:0.09
Figure 3: Uncertainty of bearing capacity
0
15mm 20mm 27mm
Thickness of plywood H(mm)
3 INVERSE ANALYSIS
Figure 4: Young’s modulus obtained by inverse analysis
Equivalent material property is obtained using inverse
analysis from the results of experiment in order to consider 35

Yield Stress of Block material σBy


the glue strength between block material and MDF 30
material. The flowchart of inverse analysis in order to 24.38 25.44 25.74
25
obtain the material property shows in Figure 4. The

(N/mm2)
equivalent material property EB, EM and σB are obtained 20

by inverse analysis using the results of bending test and 15


Mean value:25.19N/mm2

theorical analysis. Young modulus ratio EM/EB assumes to 10


S.D. :0.71N/mm2

be 0.5 from investigating the failure mode of experiments. C.O.V.:0.03

Since failure is governed by the strength of block material, 5

the yield stress of MDF material needs not to obtain in 0


15mm 20mm 27mm
order to estimate the capacity of shelf. Material property is
obtained to compare the result of bending tests Pye, Ke to Thickness of plywood H(mm)

Theorical elastic stiffness Kc, Moment of equivalent inertia Figure 5: Yield stress of block material obtained by
of section Ie. Figure 5 shows young’s modulus obtained by inverse analysis
inverse analysis. Young’s modulus of block material and
15

MDF material indicate 6049.6N/mm2 and 3024.8N/mm2 10000


9000
respectively as mean value. C.O.V of estimation indicates
8000
10% and under as shown in Figure. Yield stress of block
7000
material indicates 25.19N/mm2. Error of estimation Py=5840N
Load P(N)

6000 H=27mm
indicates small, too. 5000Kc= 1609N/mm
Figure 6 shows the comparison with estimation and 4000 Py=3221N
experiment. Dark line indicates the load-displacement of 3000
Kc= 605N/mm
H=20mm
Py=1862N
experiments. Black circle indicates the yield point of 2000
H=15mm
experiment. Load-displacement estimated using material 1000

property obtained by inverse analysis coincides with the 0


0 2 4
Kc= 233N/mm
6 8 10 12 14 16
results of experiments with small error. DIsplacement δ(mm)

Figure 6: Comparison with estimation and experiment


Experiment Material property
Young’s modulus ratio
Yield Stress of
Yield Capacity Pye Block material
σBy
3 CONCLUSIONS
The method to estimate the bending capacity is described
Young’s modulus Moment of equivalent
Elastic Stiffness Ke
EB,EM inertia of section Ie in this paper. The equivalent material property is obtained
by inverse analysis using the results of bending tests of
Computed elastic stiffness plywood material. The bearing capacity of plywood
KC material obtained using the equivalent material property
obtained by inverse analysis coincide with the results of
Figure 4: Inverse analysis method experiments with small error.

60
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

CHARACTERIZATION OF EUCALYPTUS SP. TIES FOR USE


IN BRAZILIAN RAILWAYS

Felipe Hideyoshi Icimoto1, Fabiane Salles Ferro 2, Carlito Calil Júnior3

ABSTRACT: In 2012 the Brazilian federal government announced a package of concessions with the private sector for
construction of 10,000 km of railways. Among the woods already used to sleepers in Brazil are: maçaranduba, ipe,
jacarandá and aroeira. Due to the shortage of these traditional species, arose the need to use new materials and other woods
to serve this demand, such as the Eucalyptus wood of planted forests. In 1904 the extinct Paulista Railroads Company began
the growing of Eucalyptus developed by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade with the aim of supply the need of firewood, poles
and sleepers to this company. The aim of this study was the characterization of sleepers of five species of the genus
Eucalyptus for use in Brazilian railroads, comparing the results with the values established by ABNT NBR 7511/2013:
Wooden Sleepers - Requirements and test methods. The results obtained from species studied show that the of Eucalyptus
paniculata has reached the values for class I, the species Eucalyptus cloeziana, urophilla and grandis have reached values
for class II and Eucalyptus rostrata has not reached minimum strength for use as railway sleepers.

KEYWORDS: Wood sleepers, Planted forests species, Eucalyptus sp.

1 INTRODUCTION 123 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS


In 2012 the Brazilian federal government announced an The experimental program included the evaluation of the
investments plan in logistics with the private sector to the performance of sawn wood sleepers using Eucalyptus
value of R$133 billion; this package of concessions cloeziana (EC), grandis (EG), paniculata (EP), rostrata
included the construction of 10,000 km of railways. [1]. (ER) and urophilla (EU), with dimensions corresponding
Between the woods already used to sleepers in Brazil are: to metric gauge sleeper: 2000 mm x 160 mm x 220 mm.
maçaranduba, ipê, jacarandá and aroeira. Due to the The sleepers were characterized following the
shortage of these traditional species, arose the need to use methodology of ABNT NBR 7511/2013: Wooden Sleepers
new materials and other woods to serve this demand, such - Requirements and test methods. The mechanical
as the wood of Eucalyptus planted forests. In 1904 the properties investigated were: Modulus of Elasticity (MOE)
extinct Paulista Railroads Company began the growing of and Modulus of Rupture (MOR), Rail Seat Compression
Eucalyptus developed by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade (fc90,p), Single Tie Lateral Push (Ra0), Screw Pullout (Ra90)
with the aim of supply the need of firewood, poles and and Janka Hardness (fH0). The results were compared with
sleepers this company [2]. In 2008 the length of the the values of this standard.
Brazilian railway network was 28.538 km [3]. The aim of
this study was the characterization of sleepers than five 3 RESULTS
species of the genus Eucalyptus for use in Brazilian
railroads, comparing the results with the values established The standard ABNT NBR 7511/2013: Wooden Sleepers -
by ABNT NBR 7511/2013: Wooden Sleepers - Requirements and test methods establishes two grades for
Requirements and test methods [4]. resistance to wooden sleepers. A Table 1 shows the results
obtained to mechanical properties investigated and the
standard values.

1
Felipe Hideyoshi Icimoto, University of São Paulo, Av.
Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brasil
Email: icimoto@usp.br
2
Fabiane Salles Ferro, University of São Paulo, Brasil
3
Carlito Calil Júnior, University of São Paulo, Brasil

61
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Table 1: Results obtained and their standard values [2] ANDRADE, E.N. (1961). The eucalyptus tree. 2.ed.
Investigated properties History. São Paulo. p. 49-64. (in Portuguese).
MOE MOR fc90,p Ra0 Ra90 fH0 [3] CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
MPa MPa MPa kN kN MPa (CIA). (2013). Country comparison: railways.
EC 12608 124 6,4 14 89 87 Available in:
EG 10000 96 6,4 18 47 72 <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-
EP 18193 118 6,4 13 80 98 factbook/rankorder/ 2121rank.html#top>. Access in:
ER 9370 66 6,4 13 46 47 18 may 2013.
EU 11726 107 6,4 16 69 71 [4] BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION OF TECHNICAL
NBR GI 13000 50 5 10 30 40 STANDARD. (2013). NBR 7511: Wood sleepers –
7511 GII 10000 40 4 8 25 35 Requirements and tests methods. Rio de Janeiro. (in
Portuguese).
The species EP reached standard values for grade I. The
sleepers with others tested Eucalyptus species reached the
standard values for grade I in practically all properties
except the flexural modulus of elasticity (MOE).

As we can observe in table 1 MOE is the limiting


mechanical property for most of the species tested reached
the grade I established by ABNT NBR 7511/2013:
Wooden Sleepers - Requirements and test methods.

4 CONCLUSIONS
The sleepers made by the Eucalyptus paniculata species
reach the standard values established for grade I.
The Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis e
Eucalyptus urophilla species reached values for grade II to
sleepers. The sleepers made by the Eucalyptus rostrata did
not reach the minimum strength for use as railway
sleepers.
The property modulus of elasticity (MOE) is the limiting
property for the tested Eucalyptus species reached the
grade I established by ABNT NBR 7511/2013: Wooden
Sleepers - Requirements and test methods.
The sleepers visual analysis also showed the importance to
first make the visual characterization of the wood before
the mechanical tests.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors express their gratitude to CNPq for providing
Scholarship, the Interdisciplinary Program of Materials
Science and Engineering and the Laboratory of Wood and
Wooden Structures USP São Carlos that made possible the
development of this study.

REFERENCES
[1] PORTAL BRASIL. Concessions of highways and
railways will result in investments of R$ 133 billion.
[S.l.], 2013. Available in:
<http://www.brasil.gov.br/noticias/arquivos/2012/08/1
5/concessoes-de-rodovias-e-ferrovias-resultarao-em-
investimentos-de-r-133-bi>. Access in: 05 sep. 2012.
(in Portuguese).

62
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SWELLING AND SHRINKING


BEHAVIOUR OF ROUNDWOOD TRUNKS

Josef Kögl1, Georg Stecher2, Conrad Brinkmeier3, Michael Flach4

ABSTRACT: Wood is nature´s versatile building material. It has minimal environmental pollution and a range of excellent
technical properties. Therefore it is obvious to use wood for the construction of wind power plants in order to improve their
sustainability and profitability.
The idea is to use locally grown roundwood-trunks for the wind tower construction without using long distance transport. In
this case the roundwood is exposed to harsh weather with alternating moisture and temperature conditions. To reduce cracks
caused by shrinking some manipulations like relief grooves can be applied on the roundwood-trunks. Also the structural
connections can be affected due to swelling and shrinking behaviour of roundwood. To develop suitable connections for
service class 3 constraints from swelling and shrinking have to be avoided. For this reason a numerical calculation model is
set up to estimate the swelling and shrinking behaviour of roundwood and roundwood connections.
This paper presents numerical simulations with the finite element method (FEM) to estimate the stress in roundwood-cross-
sections caused by shrinking. First a roundwood-cross-section without machining (reference) is calculated and checked for
plausibility. Then three machined roundwood-cross-sections are calculated and compared with the reference.

KEYWORDS: round-wood, swelling, shrinking, finite element method, numerical simulation, relief groove, cracks

company “Technik Wille”, the small wind power plant


1 INTRODUCTION 1234 manufacturer “Silent Future Tech” and the University of
The International Engineering Office “BERNARD Innsbruck. The project is funded by the Austrian Research
Ingenieure” launched a research project to develop wind Promotion Agency (FFG) powered by climate and energy
power plant towers of round-wood-trunks. The aim is to funds.
use the locally grown logs for the wind tower construction The project consists of the following three work packages:
without long distance transport. Moreover, wood is a
renewable material that offers high strength with low • WP1: development of a suitable connection system
weight and together with short transport distances wood • WP2: computational calculations and simulations
provide an optimal CO2 balance. • WP3: experimental investigations.
By using wood in outdoor area (service class 3) large
differences of moisture can occur. These differences This paper describes the computational simulations of the
induce stress that often results in cracks. shrinking behaviour of roundwood which is part of WP2.
The focus in this paper will be on the numerical simulation The development of the connection system and the
of stresses in the cross-section of round wood caused by experimental investigations cannot be shown in this article
alternating moisture contents. Three machined round- due to patent rights.
wood-cross-sections are calculated and compared with the 3 NUMERICAL SETUP
reference.
To investigate the swelling and shrinking behaviour of
2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION round wood, numerical investigations with the FE program
The research project “HOLZWIND” is a Cooperation of “RFEM” are carried out. The analysis is performed on a
the company “BERNARD Ingenieure”, the technology rotationally symmetric system with 30 cm diameter. The
nodes of the FE model are fixed with in plane displaceable
1 supports. The plane strain condition is approximated by
Josef Kögl, Innsbruck University, Technikerstraße 13,
Innsbruck, Austria. Email: josef.koegl@uibk.ac.at
setting the Poisson's ratio to zero. The swelling and
2
Georg Stecher, Innsbruck University, Austria shrinking behaviour are simulated using a temperature
3
Conrad Brinkmeier, FS1-Fiedler-Stöffler ZT-GmbH, Austria change in the cross section by adapting the temperature
4 expansion coefficient to the differential shrinkage rate. The
Michael Flach, Innsbruck University, Austria

63
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
analysis is performed with orthotropic, linear elastic
elements, i.e. using the expansion coefficient and elastic
modul for radial and tangential direction. To approximate
realistic moisture fluctuation a moisture reduction of 4% in
the sapwood and 1% in the heartwood is applied.
A total of four numerical investigations are carried out (see
Figure 1). First, the roundwood-cross-section is simulated
without any machining (reference). Then a relief groove is
applied to the centre of the roundwood-cross-section. Next
four relief grooves in the sapwood are applied. At last the
heartwood is removed totally.

Figure 4:Stress
Stress in tangential
in tangential direction (one relief groove)
di ection
Figure 1: The reference (left) and the three machined logs
achined
In Figure 5 four relief grooves are applied. The results
4 RESULTS illustrate the reduction of the tensile stress in the outer
The pictures bellow shows the stress in tangential parts of the cross-section.
direction. The yellow areas are tension stress the blue areas
are pressure stress.

Figure 5: Stress tangential


in tangential direction (four relief grooves)
di ection

A complete comparison of the three different machined


Figure 2: Stress in tangential direction
(refer (reference)
nce)
roundwoods with the reference will be made in the final
paper.
In Figure 3 the tensile stress in the outer parts and - to
reach equilibrium condition - the compression stress in the 5 CONCLUSIONS
inner parts of the roundwood can be seen. With appropriate machining of roundwood, the cracking
caused by shrinkage tensile stress can be reduced
significantly. But not all machining reduce the tensile
stress in the same dimensions. More detailed conclusions
will be made in the final paper.

Figure 3: Stress along a centrically(refe


cut ence)
(reference)
In Figure 4 one relief groove is applied. The stress in the
outer parts decreased significantly compared to the
reference.

64
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

BENDING PERFORMANCE AND CREEP OF FLAT SQUARES


WITHOUT PITH SAWN UP FROM SUGI LARGE DIAMETER
LOGS – EFFECTS OF LOADING DIRECTION-

Shiro Aratake1, Akihiro Matsumoto2,Atsushi Shiiba1

ABSTRACT: For the purpose of examining the performance as a structural material of flat squares without pith sawn up
from sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D.Don) large diameter logs, effects of loading direction on bending performance and
creep behaviour were investigated. Two flat squares without pith were sawn up from one log as specimens (34 pairs in total).
The sawing direction to gain long sides was from pith to face side so that the one narrow side mainly contains juvenile parts
while the other side mainly contains mature parts. As a result, the values of bending strength and Young’s modulus in
bending when the specimens were loaded from the core side were much higher than those when they were loaded from the
face side. On the other hand, the behaviour of bending creep when the specimens were loaded from the face side was more
stable than that when they were loaded from the core side.

KEYWORDS: Sugi, Large diameter logs, Flat squares, Bending performance, Bending creep

1 INTRODUCTION 123 used as a beam required to have sufficient bending strength


and less creep deflection in particular. In order to get
In the situation that sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D.Don) relevant information, effect of loading directions on
has been one of the leading species as a construction bending performance and creep behaviour was investigated
material in Japan, number of log with the tip end diameter by using two flat squares without pith obtained from one
of higher than 30cm (so called “Taikeizai” in Japan) has log as specimens.
been increasing recently. This means plural members with
no pith can be obtained from one log, which must be a
reasonable sawing method in terms of efficiency. However,
2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
there has been a sort of stereotype among relevant Logs used for the experiment were grown in Miyazaki,
industries, saying the lumber without pith has less Japan (30 for the bending test and 4 for the creep test). The
mechanical performance than lumber with pith. This must length was 4 meter and the range of tip end diameter was
be serious hindrance to promote sugi as structural members. 39.4-44.2cm for the bending test, while 51.5-59.1cm for
From this background, authors have been investigating the creep test, and those of density and moduli of elasticity
performances of several types of lumber without pith sawn due to longitudinal vibration were 0.454-0.834 g/cm3, 5.4-
up from sugi large diameter logs. As a result, the obtained 7.7kN/mm2 for the bending test and 0.642-0.696 g/cm3,
data showed this kind of lumber is strong enough to be a 3.85-4.88kN/mm2 for the creep test respectively.
structural member, satisfying the characteristic value First, two flat squares without pith, of which sawing
stipulated by Notification No.1452 of the Ministry of direction to gain long sides was from pith to face side,
Construction in Japan. As issue left unfinished, in case of 4 were sawn up from all logs as specimens (68 in total). Half
square timbers obtained from one log, values of bending of them were sawn parallel to the edge of logs (taper rule
performance when the specimens were loaded from the sawing), while the rest were sawn by either taper rule
face side were much lower than those when they were sawing or centre rule sawing. The dimensions of them
loaded from the core side[1]. This could be a critical factor were 12×17cm for the bending test, while12×23cm for
when flat squares are sawn up with the similar method and the creep test.
After sawing, specimens (except for 4 creep test
1
Shiro Aratake, Miyazaki Prefectural Wood Utilization Research specimens) were dried by 2-week kiln-drying treatment
Center, 21-2 Hanaguri Miyakonojo-shi, Miyazaki, 885-0037,
with the initial dry bulb temperature of 80℃ (wet bulb
Japan. Email: t690825990@yahoo.co.jp
2
Akihiro Matsumoto, Miyazaki Prefecture Central Agriculture depression: 5℃) and the final bulb temperature of 100℃
And Forestry Promotion Bureau, Japan (wet bulb depression: 25℃). Then the bending test for 60
3
Atsushi Shiiba , Miyazaki Prefectural Wood Utilization
Research Center, Japan.

65
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
dried specimens, and the creep test for 4 dried and 4 green lumber sawn by taper rule sawing contains less juvenile
specimens were conducted with 4-point loading conditions. wood than the lumber sawn by centre rule sawing, the
In order to confirm the effects of loading direction on influence on the mechanical properties could be negligible.
bending performance and creep behaviour, one of the two
specimens obtained from one log were loaded from the 3.2 CREEP BEHAVIOUR
face side while the other one was loaded from the core side. Figure 1 shows the changes of relative creep and moisture
content of specimens sawn by taper rule sawing (load was
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 685kg and loading directions were face to core side or core
to face side). In the case of green lumber in this figure, the
3.1 BENDING PERFORMANCE deflection loaded from the face side rapidly increases when
Table 1 shows the comparisons of specimens’ properties the moisture content reaches around fibre saturation point.
and results of bending test between two different loading On the other hand, the deflection loaded from the core side
directions. From this table, modulus of rupture (MOR) and increases when the moisture content (MC) reaches about
that of elasticity (MOE) when the specimens were loaded 16-17%, which is extremely lower value than that. Then,
from the core side are much higher than those when they when both MCs reach around air dried condition (12-13%),
were loaded from the face side (approx. 16-20 per cent tendencies become nearly opposite with each other.
difference). In the case of face side loading, juvenile wood In the case of dried lumber in this figure, the deflection of
tends to occupy most of the tensile side and tends to have face side loading after initial rapid increase decreases from
spike knots there. Those traits must have caused the around 200 to 400 hours, while that of core side loading
difference of properties between two loading conditions. increases during the period. Mainly for it, the deflection of
However, since most of the values of MOR were over the face side loading is clearly lower than that of core side
characteristic value for bending (22.2N/mm2) stipulated by loading. This tendency is almost the same as that of green
Notification No.1452 of the Ministry of Construction in lumber after MC reaches around air dried condition
Japan regardless of loading directions, there must be few mentioned above. It seems that there had been some
practical problems to use this kind of lumber as a structural influence of difference shrinkage anisotropy due to drying
member. as it is hard to explain this tendency by only creep and
mechanosorptive behaviour. In any event, when this sort of
Table 1: Specimens’ properties and results of bending test member is used as a beam, it should be better to place the
in terms of loading directions face side top in terms of long term deflection.
MC Denscity MOR MOE
Loading Sample (%) (g/cm 3 ) (N/mm 2 ) (kN/mm 2 )
direction size Before After Before After After
2.0 Dried lumber 2.0 Green lumber
Relative creep (mm)

After drying core side loading


drying drying drying drying drying 1.8 core side loading 1.8
Avg. 126.3 12.4 0.67 0.35 28.4 5.3
1.6 1.6
Face to Max 169.6 19.4 0.79 0.40 36.6 7.6
15 Face side loading
core side Min 66.3 8.3 0.48 0.31 22.7 4.3 1.4 1.4
CV 20.1 24.2 12.3 7.16 15.4 15.4
Avg. 123.0 13.3 0.67 0.36 34.2 6.2 1.2 1.2
Face side loading
Core to Max 172.8 18.7 0.83 0.40 41.8 8.2 1.0 1.0
15
face side Min 80.1 8.4 0.51 0.32 21.1 4.3 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 100 200 300 400 500 600
CV 20.4 25.8 14.0 6.00 16.9 16.5 105 105
5/18 8/26 12/4 3/14 6/22 5/18 8/26 12/4 3/14 6/22
Moisture content (%)

90 90
MC: Moisture content measured by oven drying method, core side loading
75 75
MOR: modulus of rupture in bending, MOE: modulus of core side loading
60 60
elasticity in bending 45 Face side loading 45 Face side loading
30 30
Table 2 shows the comparisons of specimens’ properties 15 15
and results of bending test between two different sawing 0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 100 200 300 400 500 600
methods. From this table, there are few differences of
Time (days)
MOR and MOE between the specimens sawn by taper rule
Figure 1: Changes of relative creep and moisture content
sawing and centre rule one. Though it seems that the
of specimens loaded from opposite sides. Note: Moisture
content was measured by a radio-frequency type moisture
Table 2: Specimens’ properties and results of bending test
meter, Specimens were sawn by taper rule sawing.
in terms of sawing methods
MC Denscity MOR MOE
Sawing Sample (%)
3
(g/cm ) (N/mm 2) (kN/mm 2 ) REFERENCES
methods size Before After Before After After
After drying
drying drying drying drying drying
Avg. 101.7 10.9 0.62 0.36 34.3 5.8
[1] Aratake S, Shiiba A, Morita H, Oda H and Matsumoto
Centre A: Bending performance of square lumber without
Max 145.1 18.4 0.81 0.42 53.4 7.3
rule 15
sawing
Min 43.1 8.0 0.47 0.31 25.3 4.6 pith sawn up from sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) large
CV 35.5 28.0 14.3 8.52 19.1 11.3
Avg. 103.3 11.1 0.61 0.36 32.9 5.5 diameter logs(in Japanese). In: Abstracts of the 42th
Taper
rule 15
Max 153.6 19.4 0.84 0.42 47.8 6.5 annual meeting of the Japan Wood Research Society,
Min 40.0 8.0 0.46 0.30 18.7 3.7 p 92, 2012
sawing
CV 36.0 30.0 15.8 7.83 19.8 13.3

66
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

BENDING STRENGTH AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF


SOUTHERN PINE COMPOSITE LUMBER

Z. Bonnie Yang1, R. Daniel Seale2, Rubin Shmulsky3

The objective of this study, therefore, is to design,


manufacture and determine the mechanical performance of
1 BACKGROUND a series of composite lumber products, which have
Attempts to reinforce wood and wood-based materials such relatively low raw material and manufacturing costs.
as lumber, plywood, and particleboard have been Three-dimensional finite element analysis method will be
successfully developed in the laboratory in order to applied to investigate the bending strength of the
improve product performance. Alternative materials such composite lumber products, thus to direct further design. It
as steel, aluminum, or fiberglass-reinforced with polymers is believed that these products could be technically and
(FRP) are often used as reinforcements (Fiorelli, 2003). economically feasible products for use in applications such
However, the relatively high costs of these reinforced as floor joists, treated decks, headers, beams or light
materials have limited their commercial construction use. commercial/multi-occupant housing structures where wood
Reinforced wood/non-wood hybrid materials are generally I-joists may not be favorable due to fire codes.
expensive to fabricate, the relative cost of the reinforcing
materials is high, the manufacturing steps required by the 2 EXPERIMENTAL TEST METHODS
manufacturing process are complicated, and the 2.1 MATERIALS
construction of industrial facilities are expensive. The research specimens for experimental test were
constructed from different grades of solid-sawn southern
Unlike reinforced wood hybrid composites, engineered pine (SP) lumber. High-grade SP lumber, used as the
wood composites are widely used. They offer stiffer and tensile reinforcement material (chord lumber) was glued to
stronger properties and/or sizes then solid-sawn lumber. the visually graded No. 3 grade SP dimension lumber
These highly engineered materials include laminated (control lumber). The moisture content of chord lumber is
veneer lumber, glue laminated timber (glulam), parallel 12% (COV: 8%) and of control lumber is 13% (COV:
strand lumber, and oriented strand lumber. The 19%).
requirement for high-grade raw material of these lumber
products translates into high performance products with
Four groups of SP specimens, with 28 pieces of lumber in
better allowable size, and typically superior strength and
each group, were investigated. There are three groups of
stiffness as compared to the constituent raw material.
lumber that had reinforcement attached to base lumber, and
a group of control lumber. The three types of tension chord
The principals behind reinforcing lumber are technically
were: MSR solid 2.0E full length; MSR solid 2.0E finger-
and economically sound and thus there are market
jointed at mid-length, and No. 1 visual grade finger-jointed
opportunities if relatively low cost products can be made
at mid-length. These different tension materials were used
from lower grades of lumber. One such area would be for
as the reinforcement piece that was attached to the base
residential construction where the design loads and spans
lumber on the tensile edge.
are both well known and generally limited to that available
from solid-sawn dimension lumber. Solid sawn 38x236mm
and 38x287mm lumber is widely used for residential floor 2.2 MANUFACTURING PROCESS
joists and rafters; the lumbers used in these beams are Liquid phenol resorcinol formaldehyde and resin hardener
primarily visually graded (US Census Bureau 2012). The in powder form were used to adhere the base and
visual grading process allows for larger center knots than reinforcement lumber. Redundant clamps at 318mm
edge knots but for this application the increase in allowable spacing were used to ensure adequate and uniform pressure
center knots is likely not accurate given that defects located between the tension chord and base lumber. The clamps
near the neutral axis have relatively low importance in were loaded to 690 Pa pressure using a torque wrench; 30
bending (SPIB). minutes after the initial clamp the glue clamps were re-
1
Z. Bonnie Yang, Mississippi State University, PO Box 9820,
torqued to 690 Pa to account for possible pressure
MS State Univ. MS 39762-9820 Email: byang@cfr.msstate.edu relaxation per the guidance of the adhesive system.
2
R. Daniel Seale, Mississippi State University, USA Following clamping the material was allowed to cure at
3 approximately 20° Celsius for 24 hours.
Rubin Shmulsky, Mississippi State University, USA

67
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

3 EXPERIMENTAL TESTING RESULTS compare with whole piece reinforcement, finger joint
reinforcement could lower the flexure strength of end
All specimens were tested in four-point bending, with a products.
span to depth ratio of 17 to 1 following ASTM D 198-08.
3.1 MOE AND MOR VALUES Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test, at a 5% level of
Modulus of elastic (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR, significance, was conducted to characterize the MOR
also flexure strength) were calculated based on equations values within the composite lumber groups, and between
from ASTM 198. Statistic results of MOE and MOR composite lumber groups and control. The test result of
values are listed in Table 1. MOR indicated that there is a significant difference (p-
value = 0.0068) between the mean of three composite
Table 1: Summery statistics of MOE and MOR lumber groups. Consequently, it is concluded that there
Specimen Mean COV Mean was a significant difference between MOR values of
(%) Increase composite lumber with three different reinforcement
Rate lumbers. MOR values of all composite lumber and control
No. 3 Control 9.6 24 -- lumber were also significantly different (p-value = 0.0018)
MOE MSR Solid 12.4 15 30% than each other.
(GPa) MSR FJ 11.9 15 25%
No. 1 FJ 12.6 15 32% 4 CONCLUSIONS
No.3 Control 35.9 46 -- The experimental test results indicate that No.3 lumber,
MOR MSR Solid 47.6 21 33% which has relatively low value and low design values, can
(MPa) MSR FJ 39.9 20 10% be up graded into a higher strength and stiffness product
No. 1 FJ 43.3 18 21% with relatively low technology. With the higher-grade
lumber reinforcements, the COV value of composite
lumber decreased and the 5th percentile values were
3.2 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS substantially greater than the control lumber.
Mean MOE values of all TCL increased, compared with
the control chord lumber. Mean increase for MOE of the The results suggest that composite lumber manufactured
TCL as compared to the control lumber is on the order of with finger-jointed lumber had comparable properties to
25~32%. The MOE results of MSR finger-jointed those manufactured with non-finger jointed lumber. This
reinforcement and No. 1 finger-jointed reinforcement were finding indicates that it would be more economical to use
similar, and decreased only at about 5% compared with finger-jointed tensile chord in order to reduce raw material
MSR whole piece reinforcement. This indicates that the costs. Additionally, the No. 1 finger-jointed reinforcement
finger-jointed lumber reinforcement received comparable material performed comparably to the MSR material.
MOE values compared with whole piece lumber Given that No.1 lumber is more readily available and
reinforcement. relatively cheaper than MSR material, it would likely be
more economical to produce composite lumber that uses
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), at a 5% level of No. 1 lumber as the raw materials for the tensile chord than
significance, was conducted to characterize the MOE than MSR lumber.
differences within the composite lumber groups, and
between the composite lumber groups and control. The test Further study is required to investigate the most
result indicated that there is no statistically significant economical method for this relatively low manufacturing
difference (p-value = 0.3993) between the mean of three cost composite lumber material. Three-dimensional, linear
composite lumber groups. Consequently, it is concluded elastic, orthotropic finite element model will be built using
that there is no significant difference on MOE value of Abaqus software, to investigate the bending strength
composite lumber with all three different reinforcement distribution along the beam length and provided a
lumbers. MOE values of all composite lumber were similar comparable result to experimental findings. It is hope that
and significantly (p-value = 7.109 x 10-8) higher than the with the model, bending strength of composite lumber with
control chord lumber. different sizes and manufacture methods will be well
evaluated and compared.
The results of MOR shown that with reinforcement lumber,
composite lumber has better strength performance
compared with the control lumber. Composite lumber with
MSR full-length lumber reinforcement received the highest
strength increase rate (32.6%), compared with composite
lumber with MSR Solid 2.0E finger joint lumber
reinforcements (9.5%) and composite lumber with No. 1
finger joint reinforcements (20.7%). It is indicated that,

68
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

WOOD CONSTRUCTION UNDER COLD CLIMATE


Part one: Impact of cold temperatures on the shear strength of different adhesives
glued wood joints of Norway spruce and Scots pine

Xiaodong (Alice) Wang1, Olle Hagman1, Bror Sundqvist2, Sigurdur Ormarsson3, Hui Wan4,
Peter Niemz5

ABSTRACT: As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the
integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application,
especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) joints (150mm x
20mm x 10mm) were bonded with seven commercially available resins (PUR, PVAc, EPI, MF, MUF1, PRF and MUF2)
and tested at six temperatures (20, -20, -30, -40, -50 and -60 °C), respectively. Generally, for both species, temperature
changes significantly affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR
resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a
similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins was sensitive to temperature change.
MUF, PRF and PVAc resins demonstrated different characters with Norway spruce and Scot pine. At room temperature, all
types of adhesive showed relative stability, in terms of shear strength variation. While at low temperature, the shear strength
varied considerably. More specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301
and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species.

KEYWORDS: Engineered Wood Products, Glueline Stability, Cold Climate, Shear Strength.

1 INTRODUCTION 123 bondlines to temperature changes will affect the integrity


of a wood structure. The knowledge of the integrity is
The building industry is increasingly using engineered important in the regions and countries like Scandinavia,
wood products such as glued-laminated timber (glulam), Greenland, Alps, Canada, Alaska, Russia, Mongolia, North
laminated veneer lumber (LVL), structural-composite China and North Japan. Wood constructions in these areas
lumber (SCL), and cross laminated timber (CLT). are frequently exposed to low temperatures for quite a long
Engineered wood applications in bridges are also common time period each year. In addition to that, thermal effects
in Europe and North America. With no doubt, adhesive are usually not considered in the design and service life of
qualities and the bondline integrity are the key parts of wood constructions. Different properties between wood
these engineered wood products and play an important role and adhesives, such as thermal properties may lead to
in the performance of these products. The response of performance problems when the wooden construction is
exposed to large temperature changes. Relatively, the
1
Xiaodong (Alice) Wang, Luleå University of Technology, performance of bondlines at elevated temperatures is quite
Forskargatan 1, SE-931 87 Skellefteå, Sweden. Email: well documented. Not much information is available on
alice.wang@ltu.se the stability of bondlines at low temperatures and
1
Olle Hagman, Luleå University of Technology, Forskargatan 1, especially under extremely cold conditions.
SE-931 87 Skellefteå, Sweden. Email: olle.hagman@ltu.se
2
Bror Sundqvist, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, SP The objective of the whole project is to determine how
Wood Technology, Skeria 2, SE-931 77 Skellefteå, Sweden. engineered wood product reacts when exposed to
3
Sigurdur Ormarsson, Department of Civil Engineering, temperatures from 20 to -60°C. But in this paper (Part I - it
Technical University of Denmark, Denmark. is the first step of the whole project), the shear strength of
4
Hui Wan, Forest Products Department, Mississippi State Norway spruce and Scots pine wood joints bonded with
University, USA.
5
Peter Niemz, Department of Civil Engineering, ETH zurich,
seven commercially available adhesives was tested at the
Switzerland. selected temperatures, according to EN 302-1 (2011).
5
Peter Niemz, Department of Civil Engineering, ETH zurich,
Switzerland.

69
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

2 MATERIALS AND METHODS for low temperature application was more challenging than
for normal temperatures.
2.1 MATERIALS
The wood components used for the tests in this study were
Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus
sylvestris) with the average density of 450 and 470 kg/m3
and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of 12%. The
growth ring angle (angle between growth rings and glued
surface of the specimen) of the wood was between 30 and (1)
90°. The seven different commercially available adhesives
from different producers were chosen. They are:
• One-component polyurethane resin (PUR)
• Poly(vinyl acetate) resin (PVAc)
• Emulsion-polymer-isocyanate resin (EPI)
• Melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF)
• Melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin (MUF1)
• Phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde resin (PRF) (2)
• Melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin (MUF2) Figure 2: Bondline shear strength of tested wood
specimens with different types of glues at different
2.2 METHODS temperatures (1) Norway spruce (2) Scots pine
The shear strength tests were conducted according to EN
302-1. To investigate the influence of the temperatures on 4 CONCLUSIONS
shear strength, 15 specimens of each test set were
Following conclusions can be drawn:
tempered in a special climate chamber (Vötsch
industrietechnik vcv7120-5) (at the Department of Civil 1. Generally, for both species, temperature changes
Engineering at Technical University of Denmark) for significantly affected shear strength of wood joints. As
twelve hours at -20, -30, -40, -50 and -60°C, respectively. temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased.
The tests were executed on a universal testing machine in
2. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all
the climate chamber (Figure 1) at the designed
temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature
temperature. The tests were performed in a position-
changes in similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear
controlled model with a feed speed of 2 mm/min. After the
strength of wood joints with EPI resins was sensitive to
shear strength test, the wood failure percentage of each
temperature change. MUF, PRF and PVAc resins
tested specimen was estimated visually in a graded scale of
demonstrated different characters with Norway spruce
5%-steps, as recommended in EN 302-1.
and Scots pine.
3. At room temperature, all types of adhesive showed
relative stability, in terms of shear strength variation.
While at low temperature, the shear strength varied
considerably. More specimens need to be tested in
further work to more completely present the issue.
More formulations should be tested to represent those
entire classes of wood adhesives.
4. Since the data created through the experiment mostly
did not meet the shear strength requirement of EN 301
Figure 1: Climate chamber, shear test machine and test and EN 302, especially at low temperatures. It suggests
specimens that the influence of diminished shear strength of
bondlines at low temperature on load carrying capacity
3 RESULTS of glulam should be studied to develop new design
methods of products.
Presented in Figure 2 are the shear strength of Norway
spruce and Scots pine bondlines and control samples at
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
different temperatures. The general trend was that as
temperature decreased, the shear strength of wood joints The authors are grateful for the technical support from Mr.
with and without adhesives decreased. Shear strength Per Anders Fjellström and Mr. Urban Häggström at SP
variations also changed with temperature. Compared to Wood Technology, Skellefteå, Sweden, and the
20°C, the shear strength tested at -30°C had greater technicians at the Department of Civil Engineering,
variation, indicating that a good quality control of bondline Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.

70
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


AND WOOD SURFACE OF BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS
GRANDIS USED FOR STRUCTURES AND FURNITURE

Alexandre Monteiro de Carvalho1, Pablo Vieira dos Santos2, Ananias Francisco


Dias Junior3, José Henrique Pace4, João Vicente de Figueiredo Latorraca5,

ABSTRACT: The present study had as objective to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on physical properties and surface
finish quality of Eucalyptus grandis wood, which has been used in Brazil for structural use in construction, furniture and
other segment. The samples has been treated with heat processes under different conditions of time and temperature
(160°C/2 hours, 180°C/2 hours, 180°C/4 hours, 200°C/2 hours and 215°C/4 hours) . Tests were made of dimensional
instability, surface evaluation and testing of the samples after surface finishing using two kinds of varnishes.

KEYWORDS: wood machinability, wood roughness, wood surface finishing.

1 INTRODUCTION 123 samples that constituted the specimens for the tests, being
twelve from each tree sampled.
The heat treated wood is obtained by the thermo
degradation of a part of its constituents, generally in the 2.1 HEAT TREATMENT
absence of oxygen. The process may be considered a The heat treatment of the wood samples involved two
controlled pyrolysis, stopped before the level of different steps, outdoor conventional drying in a covered
exothermic reactions that occur near 280°C. place for about three months, and heat thermal process,
The present study had as objective to evaluate the effect of performed in a laboratory kiln at temperatures of 160oC,
heat treatment on physical properties and surface finish 180oC, 200oC and 215oC, and time periods of 2 and 4
quality, roughness and adhesion of varnish in heat treated hours.
samples of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden.
2.2 TESTS
2 MATERIAL AND METHODS The specimens for evaluation of the physical properties
The trees used in this study were sampled in commercial were made after the heat treatment observing the
plantations of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in the description of the ABNT NBR 7190:1997 [1] standard.
region of Piraí, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with about The machining tests were conducted based on ASTM D
twenty-three years old. Were felled six trees with a 1667-87. [2] Were performed planning test, sanding,
minimum diameter of 30 cm and varying heights. drilling, rip and cleavage by nails.
From the wood of the trees were produced small pieces of An example of the test specimen is shown in Figure 1.
300mm x 125mm x 25mm. Were produced sixty small

1
Alexandre Monteiro de Carvalho, Forest Products Department,
Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, km 07,
Seropédica/RJ, Brazil, Email: amcarvalho.ufrrj@gmail.com
2
Pablo Vieira dos Santos, Rural Federal University of Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil
3
Ananias Francisco Dias Junior, Rural Federal University of Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil Figure 1: Specimen of the machinability tests. Dp =
4 planing; Fd = boring for hinge; Fc = boring for peg; Rg =
José Henrique Pace, Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil tear; Fp = nail insertion; Lx = sanding.
5
João Vicente de Figueiredo Latorraca, Rural Federal University
of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

71
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

After the tests, were conducted a visual qualification of the Table 2. Averages of the roughness parameter (Ra) in
specimens and assigning grades 1 to 5. Later the Eucalyptus grandis
machinability tests, proceeded up the readings of the Ra [µm]
roughness of the parts with a needle roughness meter Temperature regular direction (grain) opposite direction (grain)
Controle 9,00 b 24,00 b
system. In the roughness test was evaluated the Ra 160°/4h 14,91 a 25,66 b
parameter - Equation 1. 180°/2h 11,99 a 18,19 a
180°/4h 12,75 a 8,33 d
200°/2h 14,75 a 19,03a
Equation 1 215°/4h 10,49 b 35,44 c
Means followed by the same letter do not differ statistically from each other, according to the Tukey test at 5% probability.
being: Ra = average roughness; Yi = Profile deviations
The results of the adhesion test of nitrocellulose-based
Were conducted testes of surface finish based on NBR varnish and polyurethane are shown in Table 3.
11003 (2009) - Paint - Determination of adhesion [3]
Brazilian normative document. Were applied and assessed Table 3. Evaluation of approved pieces in the test of
adherence with varnish to the nitrocellulose base and
two types of varnishes based on polyurethane (PU) and
poliuteran.
nitrocellulose.
Heat treatment % approved parts
temperature and time Treatment 1 Treatment 2
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Controle 100 100
160°C - 4h 90 95
Table 1 shows the results of the physical properties.
180°C - 2h 100 100
Table 1. Medium Values of equilibrium humidity, apparent 180°C - 4h 100 100
density, basic density and volumetric variation for the 200°C - 2h 100 100

appraised treatments 215°C - 4h 90 95

Treatment
Equilibrium
humidity (%)
Apparent density
(g/cm3)
Basic density
(g/cm3)
∆ Volumetric
(%)
4 CONCLUSIONS
Reference 14,76 (3,10) a 0,58 (12,19) ab 0,45 (10,33) bc 12,62 (9,73) ab
The equilibrium moisture content and dimensional stability
were directly influenced by the severity of heat treatment,
160/2 13,09 (1,66) ab 0,47 (7,03) bde 0,42 (2,09) c 11,16 (14,55) abcd
showing that this procedure interfered heavily in
180/2 10,02 (18,35) de 0,52 (2,72) abcde 0,46 (2,80) bc 10,10 (10,76) abcd hygroscopicity and increase stability of the studied
180/4 9,76 (5,96) e 0,50 (6,65) bcde 0,44 (5,48) bc 12,22 (38,88) abc
samples;
200/2 9,60 (4,93) ef 0,47 (4,42) e 0,42 (3,11) c 11,30 (14,12) abcd In the machinability tests, the sanding test and the tear tests
215/4 8,25 (15,06) fg 0,59 (4,32) a 0,54 (12,14) a 9,23 (18,79) bcd
at higher temperatures had higher percentages of approval,
* Values in parentheses refer to the coefficients of variation. Means followed by the same letter do not differ statistically
however in the nails tests high temperatures showed poorer
from each other, according to the Tukey test at 5% probability. results;
In the planning test the notes awarded for defects (torn The heat treatment showed no significant effects on the
grain and fuzzy grain) for non-heat treated wood and for adhesion of coatings evaluated in the study.
the heat treated wood (at different temperatures and time),
in favor or against the grain were less than 3, noting that ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
the Eucalyptus grandis wood showed good performance
against this operation. The authors thank Carlos Chagas Research Foundation of
the State of Rio de Janeiro and UFRRJ for financial aid
In the sanding test can observe a regular behavior with through scholarships awarded.
respect to the control samples (without heat treatment), in
which 80% of the pieces exhibited Note 3, occurring REFERENCES
defects such as grain fluffy and striping.
[1] Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. Projeto de
In the test of tearing and drill the holes of 6 mm was better Estruturas de Madeira: NBR 7190. Rio de Janeiro,
than 10 mm which in turn was better than 8 mm. In the test ABNT, 1997. 107p.
for splitting nails, unlike some tests, it was observed that [2] American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM
the heat treatment procedure has a detrimental effect, D-1666-87: Standard Method for Conducting
higher temperatures decreased ability of the timber to Machining Tests of Wood and Wood Base Materials
accept nails. (reapproved 1994). Philaldelphia, 1995. P. 226 - 245.
[3] Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. NBR
In Table 2 are arranged the averages of Ra obtained in the 11003 - Tintas - determinação aderência. Rio de
tests of Eucalyptus grandis specimens. janeiro, ABNT, 1990. 9p.

72
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

DEVELOPMENT OF A PORTABLE HARDNESS TESTER FOR


WOOD USING DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER

Adriano Ballarin1, Albert Assis2, Hernando Lara Palma3

ABSTRACT: Hardness is largely used in material specifications. Specifically for timber, Janka hardness is traditionally
performed. More recently, international studies have reported the use of Brinell hardness for timber quality assessment in
field conditions, especially due to the lower magnitude of the involved force. Two generation of portable equipment with
these purposes were already developed by the Research Group on Forest Products from FCA/UNESP, Brazil for dynamic
evaluation of hardness. This paper presents results obtained in the development of the third generation of this equipment,
which uses displacement transducer in order to automate the indentation evaluation in wood. Functional tests of the
equipment were carried out using seven species of Eucalyptus. Results already obtained revealed strong correlation to Janka
hardness and confirmed the potential of the equipment in the classification of wood.

KEYWORDS: Janka Hardness, Brinell Hardness, portable equipment, displacement transducer

This paper presents results obtained in the development of


1 INTRODUCTION 1 the third generation of this equipment – DPM 3 - which
uses displacement transducer in order to automate the
Hardness is largely used in material specifications. Among indentation evaluation in wood.
the major strength properties of wood, hardness reveals its
potentialities (good correlation to other mechanical
2 MATERIAL AND METHODS
properties and quickness of results) and can be used as a
non-destructive tool in the characterization of species from The Portable Hardness Tester - DPM-3 (Figure 1) –
reforestation [1,2]. patents pending - is an electro-mechanical equipment
whose operating principle is similar to Brinell hardness
For evaluation of hardness in wood, considering its
test, i.e., a cap with spherical format and known diameter
viscoelastic properties, especially its resilience, and its low
is indented into wood using a known energy. In this case,
elastic modulus to yield stress ratio (E/Y) perpendicular to
energy mobilized to promote indentation is obtained by the
the grain, one can easily note greater appropriation of
free fall of a mass and the hardness value is determined by
Janka hardness when compared to Brinell hardness.
the relationship between the energy used and the area of
Despite the major appropriation of Janka hardness to wood
the spherical surface that will be printed on the material
measurements several researchers have suggested Brinell
evaluated (indentation) according to the expression:
method for the evaluation of hardness in wood [3,4] in
field condition, considering the lower magnitude of the
E
forces involved in the indentation and the additional H (1)
difficulty to control, the depth of the metal sphere  .D.h
indentation required on Janka hardness method.
where H is hardness strength (kJ.m-2), E is the energy resulted
Two generation of portable equipment with these purposes
from the fall of the mass (kJ), D is the diameter of the metal
were developed by the Research Group on Forest Products
sphere (m) and h is the deep of the indentation (m).
- FCA/UNESP, Brazil for dynamic evaluation of hardness
in wood - Portable Hardness Tester for wood - DPM. The measurement of the indentation is made by a
displacement transducer connected to an electronic circuit
responsible for signal processing, calculation and
1
Adriano Ballarin, Agronomic Sciences College, Sao Paulo State immediate display of hardness. Seven species of
University, P.O. Box 237, Botucatu-SP, Brazil. Email: eucalyptus were used to perform the experimental tests.
awballarin@fca.unesp.br
2 Sixteen specimens (5cm x 5cm x 15cm) for each species
Albert Assis, Grad. Student, Sao Paulo State University, Brazil
3
Hernando Lara Palma, Sao Paulo State University, Brazil
were obtained, totalizing 112 specimens.

73
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

rational function [f(x) = k.x-1] that governs Brinell


hardness and particularly the hardness H (Equation 1). In
fact, for higher levels of hardness (lower indentations
levels, in other words) minor variations in the indentation
promote large variations in the hardness value.

Figure 1: Portable Hardness Tester – DPM 3

The Janka hardness tests were performed in the direction Figure 2: Hardness Janka versus Hardness H – DPM3
perpendicular to the grain of wood on a universal testing
machine EMIC, model DL 30000, following Brazilian 4 CONCLUSIONS
Standards. Hardness H was estimated alternatively by the
Portable Hardness Tester – DPM3 using Equation 1. The following main conclusions can be pointed:
• The Portable Hardness Tester – DPM3 promoted fast,
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION easy and reliable readings of the indentation, as well as
evaluation of hardness H;
Using the displacement transducer, the Portable Hardness
• Classical problems of Brinell hardness of the “sinking in”
Tester DPM-3 promoted fast and easy readings, revealing phenomenon and the recovery of indented area were solved
consistent values of indentation. Immediately after the by the equipment using under loading measurement of the
indentation, the value of hardness H (Equation 1) provided indentation (and not of the indented area);
by the software was displayed. • Hardness H measured from the equipment revealed
The indentation was determined under load (and not on moderate to strong association to conventional Janka
unloading), avoiding the influence of the recovery. Hardness (R2=0.86).
Furthermore, by measuring the indentation instead of the
indented area, the DPM3 avoided “sinking in” phenomenon REFERENCES
effects. Both, recovery and “sinking in” effects were
reported by Doyle and Walker [5] as limitations of the [1] INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO do MEIO AMBIENTE e
conventional Brinell hardness tests for wood. dos RECURSOS RENOVÁVEIS. Amostragem e
propriedades físico-mecanicas de madeiras
Table 1 presents descriptive statistics of the measurements amazônicas. Brasília: IBAMA, 1993, Coleção Meio
of Janka and Portable Hardness Tester – DPM3 hardness. Ambiente – Serie estudo floresta, nº 1.
It is observed lower coefficient of variation (CV) of the [2] R. A. Colenci. Qualificação mecânica de madeiras
results obtained from the Portable Hardness Tester (17.83). para uso como dormente ferroviário. Botucatu,
Table 1: Descriptive Statistic of hardness measurements UNESP, 2002, 90 p. Dissertação (Mestrado em
Agronomia – Energia na Agricultura) – FCA/UNESP
Descrip. Hardness Janka H – DPM 3 – Brazil, 2002 (in portuguese).
Stat. (MPa) (kJ.m-²) [3] R. A. Colenci. Desenvolvimento de equipamento para
avaliação em campo da dureza de madeiras para
Mean 68.53 41.69
dormente ferroviário. Botucatu, UNESP, 2006, 83 p.
Sd 24.34 7.43 Tese (Doutorado em Agronomia – Energia na
CV 35.53 17.83 Agricultura) – FCA/UNESP – Brazil, 2006 (in
N 112 112
portuguese).
[4] I. Bektas, M.H. Alma, N. As. Determination of the
The determination coefficient (R2) in Figure 2 expressed relationships between Brinell and Janka hardness of
moderate to strong association between hardness H eastern beech (Fagus orientalis LIPSKY). Forest
(DPM3) and conventional hardness Janka. Products Journal, 51(11/12):.84-87, 2001.
[5] Doyle, J.; Walker, J.C.F. Indentation hardness of
Figure 2 shows a greater dispersion of the results for wood. Wood and Fiber Science. 17(3): 369-376.
higher levels of hardness, that may be attributed to the 1985.
74
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

APPLICABILITY OF VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES IN GLUED


LAMINATED TIMBER - PARAMETER STUDY ON
DELAMINATION RESISTANCE AND SHEAR STRENGTH

Yuan Jiang1, Jörg Schaffrath2, Markus Knorz2, Stefan Winter2, Jan-Willem van
de Kuilen2

ABSTRACT: In a current research project the gluability of various soft- und hardwood species and their applicability in
glued laminated timber are investigated. The influence of the processing parameters on the delamination resistance and
shear strength of the glue lines are presented in this work.

KEYWORDS: gluability of soft- and hardwood, glued laminated timber, shear strength, delamination test

1 BACKGROUND 123 structural elements made of glued laminated timber (GLT)


are often caused by delaminated glue lines [4, 5, 6].
Our forests are severely affected by ongoing climate
change. In Germany, many forests which mainly consist of Today, in Central Europe GLT is almost exclusively made
uniformly structured stands of conifers such as pine and of spruce or pine [7, 8]. However, in the recent past,
spruce suffer from calamities like storms, fire and insects research and industry have shown increasing interest in
(e.g. [1]). Under this circumstance, the forest conversion using hardwoods such as beech. At present, for the first
has become an important topic in German forestry. The time a building with GLT made from beech as structural
forest conversion programmes aim at turning the element is built in Germany. In Switzerland, where
monocultures into species-rich, adaptable and climate building regulations are less restrictive, more experience
tolerant mixed forests [2]. For instance, according to the with GLT made of hardwoods such as ash and beech has
results of the second national forest inventory, the share of been gained in the last decades.
broadleaved trees has increased noticeably [3]. Therefore, The bonding forces, which are necessary for the integrity
the raw material supply from the forest is expected to of a glue line, act in the interface within a distance that
change in the near future. varies from nanometers to micrometers. The parameters
To adapt and respond to these changes, the woodworking that may have significant influence on the bonding strength
industry on one hand needs to adjust their production. On and durability of adhesive joints are numerous and depend
the other hand, industry could take advantage of those on the type of wood, adhesive and processing conditions.
changes by developing new and improved wooden
products. Moreover, bonding of wood species with higher 2 METHODS
strength and/or durability will lead to benefits for
A current research project “Bonding of various wood
engineered wood products. In this context, the bonding
technology is a key factor for the production of engineered species and studies about their applicability in glued
wood products. laminated timber” focuses on the gluability of five
different soft- and hardwoods. Systematic examinations
However, experience shows that bonding of timber without are carried out with the wood species ash, beech, Douglas
sufficient technical knowledge and accuracy can lead to fir, larch and, as reference, spruce. Furthermore, three
serious damages. Investigations after the collapse of the rather newly developed adhesive systems (EPI, MUF and
Bad Reichenhall ice rink in 2006 showed that damages in PUR) and one established system (PRF) are investigated.
First of all, in different test series various physical and
1
Yuan Jiang, Technische Universität München, Chair of Timber chemical properties of the wood species are analyzed in
Structures and Building Construction, Arcisstr. 21, D-80333 combination with the four selected adhesives. The data
München, Germany. Email: yuan.jiang@tum.de achieved on a laboratory scale have been used as an input
2
Jörg Schaffrath, Markus Knorz, Stefan Winter, Jan-Willem van for the parameter studies regarding delamination behavior
de Kuilen, Technische Universität München and shear strength.

75
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

To perform the parameter studies, for each selected Furthermore, with the knowledge of the best performing
combination of wood/adhesive, four test beams are processing conditions, the applicability of the wood
produced with varying processing parameters. Processing species in glued laminated timber will be verified by long-
parameters, e.g. surface preparation, surface aging and term testing. Thereby, larger test beams under load will be
closed assembly time, were chosen based on the results of subjected to various climate conditions.
the test series mentioned above. The dimensions of the test
beams are in accordance with EN 302-2 [9]. From each 3 CONCLUSIONS
test beam, two specimens for delamination tests according
to EN 391, Method A [9], six specimens for shear tests Within this current research study, detailed information
according to EN 392 [10] and two specimens for about the possibilities of surface gluing of various
microscopic analysis are taken (see Figure 1). promising wood species shall be investigated. The study
will contribute to an increased knowledge of bond
durability in combination with the wood species referred
to. Furthermore, deeper insight into the influence of
processing conditions on the quality of the glue lines will
be provided.

REFERENCES
[1] P. Elsasser, H. Englert and J. Hamilton: Landscape
benefits of a forest conversion programme in North
East Germany: results of a choice experiment. Annals
of forest research, 53(1): 37-50, 2010.
[2] Bayerische Staatsregierung: Klimaprogramm Bayern
2020. Minderung von Treibhausgasen, Anpassung an
den Klimawandel, Forschung und Entwicklung, 2007.
[3] Bundeswaldinventur 2, viewed June 10 2009,
http://www.bundeswaldinventur.de.
[4] H. J. Blaß and M. Frese: Schadensanalyse,
Schadensursachen und Bewertung der Standsicherheit
Figure 1: Geometry of test beams (in mm) bestehender Holzkonstruktionen, Forschungsbericht
der Universität Karlsruhe, Lehrstuhl für
Not only the percentage of delamination (see Figure 2) or Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen, 2007.
the breaking load, but also the quality of the glue line, [5] P. Dietsch, S. Winter: Assessment of the Structural
which is examined by means of microscopy, are taken as Reliability of all wide span Timber Structures under
indicators for the reliability of a bonded joint. This yields the Responsibility of the City of Munich. In: 33rd
valuable information about the influence of various IABSE Symposium Proceedings, Bangkok, Thailand,
processing conditions on the delamination resistance and September 9-11, 2009.
shear strength of the glue lines. [6] A. Wolfrum, S. Winter: Evaluierung geschädigter
Hallentragwerke aus Holz. Ergebnisbericht für
Holzabsatzfonds - Absatzförderungsfonds der
deutschen Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, unpublished.
[7] H. Mack: Der europäische Markt für Brettschichtholz
(BSH), In: Wiener Leimholz Symposium, 2006.
[8] D. Ohnesorge, M. Henning, and G. Becker:
Bedeutung von Laubholz bei der
Brettschichtholzherstellung. Holztechnologie 50:47-
49, 2009.
[9] EN 302-2:2004-07, Adhesives for load-bearing timber
structures - Test methods - Part 2: Determination of
resistance to delamination; German version
EN 302-2:2004.
[10] EN 391:2001-04, Glued laminated timber -
Delamination test of glue lines; German version
EN 391:2001.
[11] EN 392:1995-04, Glued laminated timber - Shear test
Figure 2: Device of shear tests glue lines; German version EN 392:1995.

76
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

IN-PLANE SHEAR TEST OF FULL SCALE


CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER PANELS

Yasuhiro Araki1, Shiro Nakajima 2, Yoshinobu Yamaguchi3, Takafumi


Nakagawa4, Atsushi Miyatake5, Motoi Yasumura6

ABSTRACT: The in-plane shear specimens of full scale CLT panels are tested. From the test results, about the
failure behaviour, if there is finger joint near the shear plane, cracks are tended to progress along the joint was
confirmed. About the maximum shear unit stress was about 3N/mm2, and shear stiffness was about 600GPa
calculated as the total cross section effective.

KEYWORDS: Cross laminated timber made of Japanese cedar, Full scale in-plane shear wall test, Shear unit stress

1 INTRODUCTION 123 With the progress of the deformation, constricted part was
sheared, and cracks were generated on the lamina of all
CLT is composed of longitudinal layers and cross layers. specimens. Moreover, if there are finger joints near the
When the CLT is used as shear wall, it is important to shear area, it was confirmed that the crack progresses
understand the in-plane shear performance in order to along the finger joint (Photo 1).
control the structural performance of wall and joints and
the collapse mechanism. Therefore, the in-plane shear 3.2 SHEAR STIFFNESS / SHEAR UNIT STRENGTH
specimens of full scale CLT panels are tested. Figure 2 shows the shear unit stress and shear resistance
angle relationship of the specimens. Table 2 shows the two
2 SPECIMEN AND LOADING PLAN kind of maximum shear unit stress and the three kind of
shear modulus calculated by the test results. From the
For the purpose of understanding the in-plane shear Table 2, τmax1 was about 2.8 to 3.4 N/mm2, G1 was about
performance of the full scale CLT panel, the specimens 450 to 750 N/mm2. Regardless of the differences in the
were set to the shape of “H” as shown in Figure 1. The direction of the outermost layer lamina, thickness of the
specification of the test specimen is shown in Table 1. The lamina and the number of layers, τmax1 and Gst was similar
parameters of the test specimen are as follows; in any specimen.
(ⅰ) The thickness and the layers of the panel,
(ⅱ) the direction of the lamina of outermost layer 4 CONCLUSIONS
(ⅲ) modulus of elasticity (MOE). (1) About the failure behaviour, if there is finger joint
(ⅳ) Shape of the constricted part near the shear plane, cracks are tended to progress
In order to apply shear force to the specimens, specimens along the joint.
were loaded by the testing device which refers to the test (2) Regardless of the differences in the direction of the
equipment RC columns. outermost layer lamina, thickness of the lamina and
the number of layers, τ and G from the total cross-
sectional area was similar in any specimen. τmax1 is
3 TEST RESULTS about 3N/mm2, Gst is about 1000N/mm2.
3.1 FAILURE BEHAVIOR (3) The maximum shear load of full scale CLT panel is
roughly predictable from the shear strength of the
1
Yasuhiro Araki, Building Research Institute,1 Tachihara, lamina.
Tsukuba, Ibaraki-pref., Japan. Email:araki@kenken.go.jp
2
Shiro Nakajima, Building Research Institute, Japan Note
3
Yoshinobu Yamaguchi, Building Research Institute, Japan This study was conducted as part of the research subject of
4
Takafumi Nakagawa, NILLIM, Japan Building Research Institute in Japan and a part of the
5
Atsushi Miyatake, FFPRI, Japan project on 'Technology development for circulatory food
6
Motoi Yasumura, Shizuoka University, Japan

77
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Table 1: Parameter of Specimens


Direction of Outermost Layer Size of shear area MOE of lamina Number of
Thickness
(To the pressing force direction) (Height×Width:mm) (kN/mm2) specimen
Type1 30mm×3 layer perpendicular 900×1000 (layer1,3,5) 6.0-8.0 2
Type2 27mm×5 layer perpendicular 900×1000 (layer 2,4) 3.0-6.0 2
Type3 25mm×5 layer perpendicular 612×816 1
(layer1,5) 7.42-11.91
Type4 25mm×5 layer parallel 612×816 1
(layer2,3,4) 3.1-6.0
Type5 25mm×5 layer perpendicular 612×1224 1

Figure 1: Test Specimens (Type1) Photo 1: Failure behaviour of the specimen(Type1)

Table 2: Maximum shear load, maximum shear unit stress, Shear modulus * Type5 : Load limit of the test device
Pmax tgross tnet τmax1 G1 τmax2 G2 Gst Pmaxcalc Pmax
(kN) (mm) (mm) (N/mm2) (Mpa) (N/mm2) (Mpa) (Mpa) (kN) / Pmaxcalc
Type1-1 267 90 30 2.97 447 8.90 1341 1006 309 0.86
Type1-2 255 90 30 2.83 513 8.50 1539 998 309 0.83
Type2-1 456 135 54 3.38 611 8.44 1528 802 463 0.98
Type2-2 427 135 54 3.16 669 7.91 1673 1064 463 0.92
Type3 314 125 50 3.08 607 7.70 1518 906 350 0.90
Type4 298 125 50 2.92 637 7.30 1593 917 350 0.85
Type5 456* 125 50 2.98* 748 7.45 1870 892 525 0.87*

4
3.5
production systems responsive to climate change'
supported by Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and
3 Fisheries, Japan.
(N/mm2)

2.5
2 REFERENCES
1.5 [1] Brandner R, Bogensperger T and Schikhofer G, In
plane Shear Strength of Cross Laminated Timber
1
(CLT): Test Configuration, Quantification and
0.5 influencing Parameters (2013), CIB-W 18/ 46 - 12 - 2,
0 Vancouver, Canada
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 [2] M. Flaig, H. J. Blaß, Shear strength and shear stiffness
γ(rad.) of CLT-beams loaded in plane: Test Configuration,
Quantification and influencing Parameters (2013),
Type1-1 Type1-2 Type2-1 Type2-2
CIB-W 18/ 46 - 12 - 3, Vancouver, Canada
Type3 Type4 Type5
Figure 2: Shear unit stress and strain relationship

78
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON RESISTANT MECHANISM


OF THICK PLYWOOD SUBJECTED TO LATERAL LOADINGS

Akiko Ohtsuka1, Naoto Fukawa2, Takumi Ito3, Wataru Kambe4

ABSTRACT: Authors have proposed the plywood panel - steel composite member. The composite member is consisted
that the steel member is sandwiched with two sheets of plywood. The vertical loading test has conducted as the pilot test
study, and the composite effects against to lateral buckling have been observed experimentally. The next, the seismic
resistant mechanism and performance of this composite system are investigated. However, the fundamental studies for
plywood subjected to lateral loads have not been reported. So in this paper, it aims to clarify the resistant mechanism and
performance of thick plywood subjected to lateral load.

KEYWORDS: Plywood, Composite structure, Lateral loading test, Bolt connection

1 INTRODUCTION 123 2 SUMMARY OF RESISTANT


In recent years, in the field of wood industry, especially in MECHANISM UNDER LATERAL
Japan, it is required that planed raw materials switch from LOADING
import materials to domestic lumber and development of Authors have proposed the hybrid structural system as
new usage suitable for domestic lumber is strongly shown in Figure 1, and it consists of steel members and
demanded. To promote and increase the demand of two sheets of thick plywood. It is assumed that the
domestic cedars, the various types of products or buildings. resistant mechanism of plywood in this structure under the
Authors suggested the sandwich panel[1] that consists of lateral loads is shown in Figure 2. That is, the bearing
steel members and plywood as shown in Figure 1. It is pressure is introduced around the bolt joint after the inner
desired that the combined effect of plywood and steel steel members are deformed. And it is predicted that the
member contribute the seismic resistant performance of compression and tensile stress field in the diagonal
this system. And then, it is assumed that the resistant direction, so called as braced mechanism, will be occurred.
mechanism of plywood in this hybrid structural system is
shown in Figure 2. However, the experimental studies on
resistant mechanism and performance of plywood itself plywood
subjected to lateral loadings have not been reported. In this
research, the resistant mechanism and structural
performance of thick plywood subjected to lateral loadings bolt-hole
are examined.

plywood

1
AkikoOhtsuka, Dept. of Architecture, Faculty of Eng., Tokyo bolt
steel frame
University of Science, 6-3-1,Niijuku, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo,
Japan, 125-8585, Email:ohtsuka.akiko@gmail.com
1
Naoto Fukawa, Dept. of Architecture, Faculty of Eng., Tokyo
University of Science, Japan, Email:na.a.dombm@gmail.com Figure 1: Proposed composite member[1]
2
Takumi Ito, Dept. of Architecture, Faculty of Eng., Tokyo
University of Science, Japan, Email: t-ito@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp
4
Wataru Kambe, Dept. of Arch. And Env. Design, Kanto
GakuinUniversity, Japan, Email: wkambe@kanto-gakuin.ac.jp

79
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Steel
Lateral load

Steel (jig)

Bolt

Plywood h H
Bolt

Plywood
Figure 2: The load-proof mechanism under lateral load

3 OUTLINE OF LATERAL LOADING


TESTS
Herein, the resistant mechanism and performance of
plywood subjected to lateral loads are investigated b
experimentally. So then, the test setup is shown in Fig.3.
B
The inner steel members are considered as rigid herein,
and the steel column is set as jig with pin-supported. The
plywood is fastened with high-tension bolts. Figure 3: Setup diagram of lateral loading test
In this paper, the bolt layout, the relation of the h – b, are
considered as the important parameters. In addition, the Table 1: Test parameters
effects of the thickness of plywood and clearance are
thickness of Plywood t=24(mm)
investigated. And the height H and width B of plywood are
layout of bolts b=0.2~0.5b
unified. The test parameters are summarized Table 1.
During lateral loading test, the lateral load and h=0.2~0.5h
displacement are measured. And also, to observe the Clearance 1~10(mm)
resistant mechanism of the stress field in the diagonal
direction, the strain gauges are arranged.
From the test results, the inelastic behaviour during lateral
loading is observed and the effects of each parameter are REFERENCES
studied. Furthermore, the strength and rigidity are
[1] Ito T, Kambe W, Kondo S, Takahasi S(2012), An
compared with each parameter.
experimental study on compression resistant
mechanism of sandwiched panel of structural
4 CONCLUSIONS playwood and steel member,Journal of Structural and
Construction Engineering, Journal of architecture and
In this paper, the lateral loading test on the thick plywood building science.No18-40,pp.941-946, October 2012
is conducted to clarify the resistant mechanisms and (in Japanese).
structural performance. [2] Wataru Kambe, Sumiya Takahashi, Takumi Ito and
From the experiments, the inelastic behaviour during Kenji Aoki (2013), An experimental study on
lateral loading is found. It helped that the resistant compression resistant performance with thick plywood
mechanism and structural performance of thick plywood sheathing as an axial member, Trans. of AIJ, Vol.78,
subjected to lateral loadings are clarified. And the inelastic No.684, pp.355-362 (in Japanese).
behaviour during lateral loading is observed and the effects [3] BS EN383: Determination of embedment strength and
from the strength and rigidity are compared. It is assumed foundation values for dowel type fasteners,2007.
that the resistant mechanism of plywood and the role of
[4] Architectural Inst. of Japan:Quality of wood
plywood in this structure under the lateral loads are
clarified. structure design standard, commentary - permissible
stress degree, permission proof stress design law --
p.233,2006.12.

80
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF


COMPOSITE BAMBOO-GUADUA PRODUCTS:
PLASTIGUADUA

Hector F. Archila1, Caori P. Takeuchi2, David J. A. Trujillo3

ABSTRACT: The bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth (Guadua) were subjected to different fibre extraction
processes, bleached and used in combination with a set range of polymers to form composite materials. Polyester and epoxy
resins, natural latex and other synthetic binders were used as matrixes. The extracted short and long fibres, veneers and
woven mats were used as reinforcement for the composites. Experimental work was undertaken on different fibre
treatments, concentrations and orientations to form flat sheets. With the aim of assessing the physical and mechanical
properties of these sheets, two configurations were chosen: Plastiguadua L and Plastiguadua P. The former was a laminated
material with a 1:1 ratio by weight of thin veneers of Guadua and thermoset polyester resin. The latter had a 2:3 ratio by
weight of short fibre bundles and resin content respectively. For the mechanical characterization, bending, tensile and
impact-Izod tests were undertaken. Rockwell hardness, UV, condensation and water absorption were carried out to assess
their physical properties.

KEYWORDS: Bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth, composite materials, mechanical properties.

1 INTRODUCTION 123 development and seeking standardization [4]. However,


either during traditional construction with round culms or
Bamboo resources have been recently listed as Non Wood manufacturing of engineered Guadua products with
Forest Products (NWFP) and wood substitute at FAO’s rectangular strips, about 40% of the material is discarded
(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) due to natural defects and irregularities in diameter,
last Forest Resource Assessment 2010 [1]. Bamboo’s self- thickness or length [4]. When possible part of the
renewability, high biomass production and fast growth rate remaining material is used to power furnaces, but usually it
offer key environmental advantages together with a high becomes waste. Therefore, Guadua features such as its
carbon sequestration above and below ground –which has high fibre content and high tensile strength are not fully
been compared to that of fast growing trees- [2]. Among exploited.
other bamboos Guadua angustifolia Kunth (Guadua) a
species endemic to South and Central America has the A research project at the National University of Colombia
highest tonnage of carbon fixed per hectare, per year with (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) explored different
the lowest rotation period [3]. Guadua is widely used for alternatives for converting the discarded Guadua material
construction and the utilization of round culms for one and (DG) into by-products with improved characteristics.
two storey buildings have been standardized under Composite materials techniques were used to exploit
building codes in countries such as Colombia and Peru. Guadua’s fibrous content which mixed with bonding
Engineered bamboo and Guadua products such as glue agents provided embedment and protection against weather
laminated beams and cross laminated panels are also under and bio-deterioration, humidity and insects attack. The
project explored different alternatives for combining DG
1
with synthetic resins (polyester resin and epoxy resins),
Hector Fabio Archila-Santos, Department of Architecture and polystyrene, polyurethane, and latex trough different
Civil Engineering, University of Bath, BA2 7AY, Bath, United manufacturing processes. Flat sheets were developed and
Kingdom. Email: H.F.Archila.Santos@bath.ac.uk
2
Caori Patricia Takeuchi-Tam, Universidad Nacional de
physical and mechanical properties of some of them were
Colombia, Avenida Carrera 30 N° 45-03 Edificio 453 (Aulas de characterized.
Ingeniería) Of. 406-301, Bogotá D.C., Colombia. Overall, the research project showcased a range of by-
E-mail: cptakeuchit@unal.edu.co
3 products manufactured by mixing DG with polymers and
David Jorge Alexander Trujillo, Civil Engineering, Architecture
and Building (CAB) Faculty of Engineering and Computing,
assessed its performance. The project focused on a holistic
Coventry University, Priory Street, CV1 5FB, Coventry, United approach to the use and manufacture of bamboo products
Kingdom. Email: David.Trujillo@coventry.ac.uk as wood substitutes.

81
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

2 EXPERIMENTAL WORK 3 CONCLUSIONS


The composite materials developed were labelled as The versatility of the material was demonstrated
Plastiguadua followed by a letter that indicates the process throughout the development of multiple Guadua
used for the configuration of the composite. Although, a composites (Plastiguadua). Material that usually is
wide range of composites were developed, just two were considered waste product was converted into by-products
used for testing. Plastiguadua L is a fibre reinforced with improved physical and mechanical properties.
laminate that used veneer-like fibres embedded on However, high energy was embedded on the extraction of
polyester resin. Plastiguadua P used short fibre bundles fibre bundles and veneers for manufacturing Plastiguadua
mixed with polyester resin. Both were manufactured as flat P and L, respectively. Furthermore, particularly high
sheets to facilitate the production of testing samples. amounts of polymer resins were used due to the
Although the absorption of moisture by the fibres is complicated manoeuvrability of the coarse extracted fibres.
minimized in the composite by polymer encapsulation [5], Thus, further chemical processing will be required to
chemical modification with NaOH (sodium hydroxide) soften the fibre bundles and facilitate the impregnation of
was undertaken to reduce moisture uptake. the fibres with the resin.
Samples were cured at room temperature for a period of 20 It is also concluded that new ways of using the material
days and conditioned prior to test at 27o C ± 2o C and 70 ± need to be investigated. More appropriated manufacturing
5 % relative humidity in a conditioning room. NTC and technologies with lower embodied energy that make a
ASTM standards were used for the assessment of the more efficient use of the whole material are required if
mechanical and physical properties of both Plastiguadua L Guadua is to become a mainstream and substitute product
and P. to timber. Technologies such as acetylation, and
densification used on timber to modify the cell structure
Table 1: Mechanical and physical testing programme. and improve its physical and mechanical properties could
Test Samples be applied to Guadua and bamboos in general. These can
Plastiguadua P contribute to tackle common issues associated with the use
Bending (two point) of bamboo such as bio-deterioration, natural irregularity
Plastiguadua L
Plastiguadua P and short life span.
Tensile
Plastiguadua L
Plastiguadua P ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Izod-impact
Plastiguadua L The first author is grateful to Amphibia Group Ltd for
Plastiguadua P providing financial support to the research project and the
Rockwell hardness
Plastiguadua L National University of Colombia (Universidad Nacional de
Raw material and Colombia) where the project was set.
UV and condensation
Plastiguadua L and P
Water absortion Plastiguadua P REFERENCES
Table 1 list the test undertaken on each of the samples and [1] FAO-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Figure 1 shows bending samples after testing. Nations. Global forest resources assessment 2010,
Country report, China, Rome, Italy, 2010.
[2] Y. Lou, Y. Li, K. Buckingham, H. Giles, G. Zhou,
Bamboo and Climate Change Mitigation Bamboo: a
comparative analysis of carbon sequestration.
Technical Report No. 32. INBAR, China, 2010.
[3] H. F. Archila- Santos, M. P. Ansell, P. Walker, Low
carbon construction using Guadua Bamboo in
Colombia. Key Engineering Materials, 517, 127, 2012
[4] H. F. Archila- Santos, M. P. Ansell, P. Walker, Elastic
properties of thermo-hydro-mechanically modified
bamboo (Guadua angustifolia Kunth) measured in
tension. Accepted to Key Engineering Materials,
2013.
[5] R. M. Rowell, A.R. Sanadi, D.F. Caulfield, and R.E.
Jacobson. Utilization of Natural Fibers in Plastic
Composites: Problems and opportunities.
Lignocellulosic - Plastics Composites. University of
Wisconsin, Madison, E.U., 1997.
Figure 1: Two point bending test samples.

82
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

INFLUENCE OF MICRO STRUCTURED SURFACE ON THE


BOND QUALITY OF HARDWOOD

Martin Lehmann1, Thomas Volkmer2

ABSTRACT: The state of the art requires a closed waiting time of about one hour for the beech glulam production. This
has a negative influence on the production costs. Micro structured surfaces showed good performance in combination with
coatings. The authors have performed tension-shear and delaminating test in order to investigate the influence of micro
structured surfaces on the bond quality of hardwoods. The results are very promising and show clearly improved delaminat-
ing resistance for all tested adhesive. No closed waiting time was needed to achieve satisfying results using MUF in combi-
nation with beech.

KEYWORDS: hardwood glulam, micro structured, bond quality, planing

1 INTRODUCTION 12 investigate the relationship between important surface


parameters on the adhesion strength between glued hard-
In central Europe especially in Switzerland spruce timber woods.
(Picea Abies) is a limited resource and due to the fact that
in non-alpine region hardwoods are native the availability
of beech timber (Fagus Silvatica) increases dramatically
2 STATE OF THE ART
on the marked. Currently beech wood is only rarely used Schmid et al. [1] presented a bonding process based on
for structural proposes. This is mainly due to the low bio- MUF adhesive and a closed waiting time of about 1 hour
logical resistance, the low dimensional stability and the for structural glulam. The long closed waiting time is nec-
difficulty to produce adhesively bonded timber products essary to achieve satisfying results in the delaminating
such as glulam or CLT. This is mainly due to bond quality tests following the high temperature process as stated in
issues. However its mechanical properties are superior to EN 302-2. Based on the research carried out by the “Karls-
many other species. Furthermore its recourses are not used ruher Institut für Technologie” and “Holzforschung Mün-
efficiently and a large quantity is used as wood fuel. chen” an approval for the German construction marked
The micro structuring of wood surfaces is not new, but so was issued in 2009. The approval recommends the use of
far it was only applied in the field of hand craft to influ- EN 391 process C as production control and therefore
ence the roughness of wood surfaces (Lohmann 2003). limits the use of beech glulam to climate class I which
During the last decade a cutter block was developed to use means indoor applications only. A few other hardwood
this method on an industrial scale (European patent EP species such as oak (Querkus) and chestnut (Castanea) did
07405340, 30.11.2007) and at the moment this technology also get an approval lately. However even the use of glu-
is utilized for soft wood as a pre-treatment for coating. lam produced using such durable specis is limited to cli-
Using this procedure the wood cells on the surface gets mate class I. In Switzerland ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is
less destroyed compared to the traditional planing and used to produce high strength glulam up to the class GL48.
sanding. This influence the sorption and wetting behaviour However no research is published about the process pa-
and results in a better adhesion of the coating on the wood. rameter. The producer undertook quite a comprehensive
Based on this idea the presented research was started to study on the production parameter in order to achieve the
needed strength. However the results are not published and
1
classified as industrial secret.
Martin Lehmann, Bern University of Applied Sciences, Archi-
tecture, Wood and Civil Engineering, Solothurnstrasse 102 CH-
2504 Biel, Email: martin.lehmann@bfh.ch 3 MATERIAL AND METHODS
2
Thomas Volkmer, Bern University of Applied Sciences, Archi- In a first phase of the research three different species,
tecture, Wood and Civil Engineering, Solothurnstrasse 102 CH- beech (fagus sylvatica), ash (fraxinus exscesior) and spruce
2504 Biel, Email: thomas.volkmer@bfh.ch (picea abies) were tested with standard planed surface and

83
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

planed using the knew knife resulting in a micro structured


surface. Furthermore three adhesive types melamine urea
formaldehyde (MUF), one component polyurethane (PUR)
and emulsions polymer isycionate (EPI) were investigated.
All three adhesives are classified as adhesive for structural
purposes along EN 301 and can be used for glulam produc-
tion using spruce. In this phase tension shear tests along
EN 302-1 were carried out. Due to the production facilities
for micro structured surfaces the thickness of the boards
used for the specimens production was 20 mm instead of 5
mm. Numerous microscopic investigations were undertak-
en in order to classify the micro structured surface and
compare it with a standard planed surface. Finally the
wettability of the different surfaces was investigated using Figure 1: Overview of the tension-shear test results of
contact angle measurements. In this phase always both the series produced using PUR adhesive
surfaces of the adhesive line were micro structured. The results of the delaminating tests clearly show a posi-
In a second phase delaminating tests following the EN tive influence of the micro structured surface on the bond
302-2 standard were carried out. Again due to the produc- quality of all tested adhesive types. The best performance
tion facilities the dimension of the single lamella had to be was achieved for MUF if only one of the two surfaces was
altered to 20mm by 70mm. Considering the literature a micro structured. Most specimens of these series had no to
positive influence on the results can be expected. However only little delamination and passed the requirements of EN
in order to ensure comparability control specimen using 301 without any problems. However the series with a long
lamellas with the same dimension and ordinary planed closed waiting time did fail if the high temperature process
surfaces were produced and tested. In this phase only was applied. The control specimens with MUF showed a
beech was used. Two different adhesives types (PUR and negative influence of a closed waiting time on the perfor-
MUF) were investigated. Adhesive lines with both surfaces mance. The same tendency was detected for the specimens
micro structured and such with only one surface micro with micro structured surfaces. For PUR the delamination
structured and one planed using standard knives were test- was significantly reduced with micro structured surfaces.
ed. The closed opening time was varied for the MUF in The best results were achieved if both surfaces were micro
order to investigate the influence and clarify if the micro structured. However the percentage was still fare above of
structured surface allows avoiding the closed waiting time the requirements.
and therefore a more economical production of beech glu-
lam. 5 CONCLUSIONS
The results clearly show that a micro structured surface has
4 RESULTS positive influence on the bond quality of beech. If only one
The analyses of the micro structured surface using micro- of the two surfaces is micro structured and MUF adhesive
scopes showed that the structure has a depth of about 40 is used it seams that no closed waiting time is needed in
µm which is more or less the thickness of a human hair. order to pass the requirements of the delaminating test. For
PUR it seems that the micro structured surface is not
The tension-shear tests results do not show a significant enough to avoid the use of a primer in combination with
influence of the micro structured surface on the maximal hardwoods. As this was only a primary study the results
shear stress. In addition to the failure stress the location of have to be confirmed with larger series.
the failure was also analysed. It was distinguished between
three different failure locus: Adhesive failure, timber fail-
ure and mixed failure. Within the specimens produced
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
using MUF only one adhesive failure did occur in the se- The authors like to acknowledge the engineering students,
ries beech control. Otherwise the micro structured surface B. Favre, M. Föhn, T Mathis and S. Rittmann for their
seems to have no significant influence on the location of contribution to the research in the frame of student pro-
the failure. For the series produced using EPI a clear ten- jects. Furthermore the authors acknowledge Kälin und Co
dency towards higher mixed failure is visible for the hard- AG for the support and the free delivery of the timber.
wood specimens with micro structured surface. For the
beech specimens produced using PUR a significant influ- REFERENCES
ence of the micro structured surface on the failure location
[1] M. Schmidt, P. Glos and G Wegener: Verklebung
could be detected. 85% of the control specimens failed due
von Buchenholz für tragende Holzbauteile. Eur. J.
to adhesive failure. No adhesive failure did occur with in
Wood Prod., 68:43–57, 2010
the specimens with micro structured surfaces and 76.5%
had timber failure. [2] U. Lohmann: Holzlexikon, DRW Verlag, 2003

84
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

PROPERTIES OF STRENGTH AND ELASTICITY OF


STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF ROUND TIMBER OF AMARU
FOR USE IN CIVIL CONSTRUCTION

Felipe Hideyoshi Icimoto1, Amós Magalhães de Souza2, Caio Victor Fernandes3,


Fabiane Salles Ferro4 Carlito Calil Júnior5

ABSTRACT: The use of timber structural elements in Brazil has grown over the past few years due to researches
conducted in order to make it more competitive compared to other materials used in structural function, such as steel and
concrete. Considering the need to find alternative economically-viable materials that meet the requirements of sustainable
construction, the constructions with round timber, used in civil construction, rural buildings, bridges, pedestrian bridges,
fendering and electricity transmission line poles appear as an option to this major challenge to reconcile aspects of social,
economic and environmental. The strength of round timber, its low weight, low power consumption for processing, its
availability and easiness in handling make it become a material highly competitive and sustainable. This study aims to
determine the properties of strength and elasticity in bending, compression parallel to grain, tension parallel to grain, shear,
moisture and density in round timber structural elements of the clone of Eucalyptus called AMARU developed by a
Brazilian company, based in the recent review of the Brazilian Standard of the timber in force NBR7190/1997 - Design of
timber structures – that proposes the methodology of mechanical tests of structural elements. The values obtained are the
basis for engineers and architects to design structures using AMARU wood specie.

KEYWORDS: Round timber, Eucalyptus Amaru species, Mechanical properties, reforestation species, Eucalyptus sp.

1 INTRODUCTION 123 processing, its availability and easiness in handling make it


become a material highly competitive and sustainable [2].
The use of timber structural elements in Brazil has grown Considering the growing demand of this product, the
over the past few years due to researches conducted in Brazilian company Plantar developed a Eucalyptus clone
order to make it more competitive compared to other named AMARU, aiming the building industry,
materials used in structural function, such as steel and agribusiness, landscaping, furniture and high decoration,
concrete. In 2011, the area occupied by planted Eucalyptus with characteristics of low incidence of fractures, low
and Pinus in Brazil was 6,515,844 ha, being 75% tortuosity and high mechanical strength [3]. The recent
Eucalyptus and 25% Pinus [1]. Considering the need to review of the Brazilian Standard of the timber in force
find alternative economically-viable materials that meet NBR7190/1997 - Design of timber structures - proposes
the requirements of sustainable construction, the the methodology of mechanical tests of structural elements
constructions with round timber, used in civil construction, [4]. This study aims to determine the properties of strength
rural buildings, bridges, pedestrian bridges, fendering and and elasticity in bending, compression parallel to grain,
electricity transmission line poles appear as an option to tension parallel to grain, shear, moisture and density in
this major challenge to reconcile aspects of social, round timber structural elements of the clone of Eucalyptus
economic and environmental. The strength of round named AMARU developed by a Brazilian company, based
timber, its low weight, low power consumption for in the new standard with the purpose of proposing the
values of the features of this specie for calculating timber
1
Felipe Hideyoshi Icimoto, University of São Paulo, Av. structures using this material.
Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brasil
Email:icimoto@usp.br
2
2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
Amós Magalhães de Souza, University of São Paulo, Brasil
3
Caio Victor Fernandes, Paulista State University, Brasil The experimental program consists of the characterization
4 of 40 units of Eucalyptus clone with dimensions of
Fabiane Salles Ferro, University of São Paulo, Brasil
5
Carlito Calil Júnior, University of São Paulo, Brasil diameter 130 mm and length 2500 mm. The mechanical

85
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

tests were based on the test method for visual and Department, School of Engineering of São Carlos. (in
mechanical grading for timber structural elements Portuguese).
proposed for the NBR 7190/2012 – Design of timber [3] PLANTAR GROUP (Brazil). Produtos Florestais
structures. The moisture and density tests were based in (amaru). Available in:
NBR7190/1997 – Design of timber structures. <http://www.plantar.com.br/negocios/produtos-
florestais/?&lang=pt>. Access in: 01 jun 2013. (in
Portuguese).
3 RESULTS [4] BRAZILIAN STANDARD TECHNICAL
The table 1 shows the average results obtained for the ASSOCIATION. (1997). NBR7190/1997 – Design of
properties of strength and stiffness in bending (MOR e timber structures. Rio de Janeiro. (in Portuguese).
MOE),strength and stiffness in the compression parallel [5] BRAZILIAN STANDARD TECHNICAL
the grain (fc0 e Ec0), shear strength (fv), moisture (%), ASSOCIATION. (draft 2012). NBR7190/2012 –
density (ρ) and number of samples (S). Design of timber structures. Rio de Janeiro. (in
Portuguese).
Table 1: Physical and mechanical properties of AMARU.
Standard CV
Properties Average S
deviation (%)
ρap (kg/m³) 770 39 5 40
MOE 11565 1603 14 40
Ec0 17931 9854 55 40
MOR (MPa) 68 12 17 57
fc0 34 5 14 57
fv 6 2 35 65

4 CONCLUSIONS
Aiming the utilization of renewable materials from an
environmental perspective, the initiative of Plantar
company is very well regarded and of great value to the
future of wood in construction. The use of round timber
that consumes less energy in its production compared with
sawn wood brings guarantee of the species at the purchase.
Planting a clone brings homogeneity and reliability for use
of this species. The values are the basis for engineers and
architects to design structures using AMARU wood specie.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors express their gratitude to CNPq for providing
scholarship, the Interdisciplinary Program of Science and
Materials Engineering and the Laboratory of Wood and
Wooden Structures USP São Carlos that made possible the
development of this study.

REFERENCES
[1] BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION OF PRODUCERS OF
PLANTED FORESTS. (2012) Statistical Yearbook of
ABRAF 2012 year base 2011. Brasilia: STCP Design
Engineering. (in Portuguese).
[2] CALIL JUNIOR, C.; BRITO, L. D. (2010). Manual of
design and construction with round timber of wood of
reforestation. 1.ed. São Carlos: Structures Engineering

86
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

X-RAY CT TECHNIQUE FOR INVESTIGATING INNER DENSITY


DISTRIBUTION OF HISTORIC WOODEN PROPERTIES

Chul-Ki Kim1, Jung-Kwon Oh2, HyungKun Kim3, Jun-Jae Lee4

ABSTRACT: For investigating inner density distribution of historic wooden properties, portable x-ray apparatus were used
to reconstruct density CT image. Soft x-ray from portable x-ray apparatus was also used to apply in the site of a historic
wooden members. From the results of soft x-ray attenuation characteristic, of which mass attenuation coefficient decreased
as penetrating depth in wood increased, normal radiographs were convert to density radiographs. And it was confirmed that
accuracy of density CT image using converted density radiographs was improved when estimated density from the density
CT image was compared with real air-dry density. The root mean squared error (RMSE) for an entire small specimens
which were made to know real air-dry density of a round timber was 41 kg/m3. And the RMSE for the midsection, exterior
of the round timber was 12, 54 kg/m3, respectively.

KEYWORDS: Mass attenuation coefficient, portable x-ray apparatus, Soft x-ray, Attenuation, Density x-ray CT image

1 INTRODUCTION 123 ray attenuation in wood have been done for several
decades. However, the behavior of attenuation for soft x-
Historic wooden properties which had been deteriorated by ray is different from hard x-ray which had been used
wood-ratting, termite, ultraviolet ray and moisture became previous study. Attenuation of soft x-ray is governed by
social problem in Korea. Because not only historic value penetrating depth of object as well as its density, because
but their structural stability could be destroyed by soft x-ray from portable apparatus is continuous
deterioration which was developed surface or inner part of wavelength x-ray. The longer wavelength part tends to be
wood. attenuated by scattering rather than absorption, and in
Non-destructive testing and evaluation using acoustics has thinker object, attenuation is more likely to be affected by
been attempted to investigate inner state of wood. scattering.
Although they could be detected successfully a size of
deterioration or location of that, those acoustic techniques
are not enough to investigate wooden properties. Because
2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
those techniques could be damaged to generate stress wave 2.1 MATERIALS
or ultrasonic at historical wooden properties.
From the reason, soft x-ray for CT image was used to Two sets of specimens were prepared in this study; the first
investigate inner state of wood in this study. Compared set was for determination of mass attenuation coefficient,
and the second set was for validation of reconstructed CT
with those acoustic techniques, x-ray has higher resolution
image. 4 clear wood species (cedar, larch, pitch pine and
and it has advantage with contactless way when evaluating
red pine) were prepared for the first set, and Table 1 shows
inner state of wood. Moreover, it could be investigated
the size, density and moisture content. The species for the
inner density distribution of historic wooden member.
To evaluate inner state of wood, behavior of attenuation second set was pitch pine round wood, and its air-dry
for soft x-ray according to penetrating depth in wood and density and moisture content were 430 kg/m3 and 12 %,
respectively.
verification of CT image for inner density distribution was
also presented. To verify wood density, researches about x- Table 1: Details of clear wood for soft x-ray attenuation
1 Chul-Ki Kim, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Size (mm) Density (kg/m3) MC
Species
Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Korea. Email: aries8924@hanmail.net T R L Aver. S.D. (%)
2 Jung-Kwon Oh, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life
Cedar 31.51 33.37 328.07 40.66
Sciences, Seoul National University, Korea Larch 32.87 38.58 460.93 74.70
3 HyungKun Kim, Seoul National University, Korea 80.00 12
4 Jun-Jae Lee, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life
Pitch pine 31.50 33.58 505.11 26.63
Sciences, Seoul National University, Korea
Red pine 32.90 39.95 410.11 37.13

87
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

Portable x-ray apparatus with x-ray tube (K-4) and digital coefficient decreased as penetrating depth in wood
detector (NX 06) were used to determine of mass increased, as shown in Figure 2. It means that quantity of
attenuation coefficient and to reconstruct CT image. Those transmitted soft x-ray increased as penetrating depth in
portable x-ray apparatus were set up at CT installation wood increased. From these results, it thought that it is
which have been made for laboratory scale test. necessary to make the equation of mass attenuation
coefficient according to penetrating depth in wood
2.2 METHODS
as   0.214ln(t )  0.7251 . The coefficient of determination
Based on an experience of inspection on heritage building, (R2) of the equation was 0.98.
the intensity of soft x-ray was chosen as 37 kV and 2 mA.
Digital detector was exposed to radiation during 5 seconds.
2.2.1 Mass attenuation coefficient with penetrating
depth
As penetrating depth of clear wood was changed,
transmitted intensity of soft x-ray was measured to find
characteristic attenuation. It was reported that the intensity
of transmitted x-ray decreases exponentially according to
Beer’s law. Although soft x-ray which was used in this
study has continuous wavelength distribution, Beer’s law
was used to derive mass attenuation coefficient of soft x-
ray. Figure 2: Mass attenuation coefficient according to
penetrating depth
2.2.2 Reconstruction of density CT image and
verification of its accuracy 3.2 VERIFICATION OF DENSITY CT IMAGE
To reconstruct CT image, 180 radiographs were taken as ACCURACY
round wood were turned every 2 degrees on the CT
installation. Using the mass attenuation coefficient Two kinds of density CT image were reconstructed as
according to penetrating depth in round wood, 180 shown in Figure 1b and c. In density CT image using
radiographs were converted into density radiographs. After constant mass attenuation coefficient, air-dry density in
that, density CT image was reconstructed by filtered back midsection of specimen was underestimated while the
projection (FBP) algorithm using 180 density radiographs. density of exterior parts was overestimated. In case of
The round wood was cut into disk with 24 mm height. As using the equation of mass attenuation coefficient, RMSE
shown in Figure 1a, the disk was cut into 30 small for estimating air-dry density was 41 kg/m3. This value
specimens once again to measure air-dry density by was much smaller than using constant mass attenuation
dimension method. Estimated values of density in coefficient. It also confirmed that Figure 3 shows.
reconstructed CT image were compared with air-dry
density of 30 small specimens to verify accuracy of CT
image.

(a) (b) (c)


Figure 3: Comparison between air-dry density and
Figure 1: Location of small specimens measured by estimated value in each density CT image
dimension method in top of disk (a) and reconstructed
density CT image using constant mass attenuation 4 CONCLUSION
coefficient (0.1844) (b) and equation of mass attenuation
coefficient (c) The present study aimed at investigating the effects
penetrating depth on attenuation of soft x-ray to
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION reconstruct density CT image and apply x-ray CT
technique in field. Although digital detector couldn’t
3.1 CHARACTERISTIC ABSORPTION OF SOFT
measure attenuation of soft x-ray passing short penetrating
X-RAY
depth in exterior part of specimen, the CT technique using
Mass attenuation coefficient for the whole penetrating soft x-ray could be further developed to be used in field.
depth was 0.1844, but it seemed that mass attenuation

88
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

PROPERTIES OF CLEAR WOOD AND STRUCTURAL TIMBER


OF PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII FROM THE
MEDITERRANEAN SPAIN

Eduard Correal-Mòdol1, Marcel Vilches Casals2

ABSTRACT: Douglas fir is originary from the western coast of North America and provides an excellent structural timber.
This is the main reason why it has been spread worldwide. Some plantations were introduced in North-Eastern Spain. This
study characterizes the properties of the clear wood and the timber of this new provenance with Mediterranean climate. The
tests were done according the standards series UNE 56 and the UNE-EN 14081-1:2006+A1:2011. The clear wood has no
significantly different properties from other provenances. The visually graded timber according the Spanish standard for
coniferous reaches C30 when ME-1, C22 if ME-2 and C27 when is graded as MEG.

KEYWORDS: Pseudotsuga menziesii, Clear wood, Structural timber, Wood properties characterization, Strength class

1 INTRODUCTION 123 The Douglas fir is little durable and little permeable, but is
dimensionally stable, has a high bending and compression
Pseudotsuga menziesii is a conifer of the family pinaceae strength, is very stiff, and has a medium resistance to
which is commonly known as Douglas fir, Oregon pine, or shock loads. It is the main world source of wood for
Douglas spruce. Native specie from North America its plywood and is used to produce veneers, decorative panels
original distribution is concentrated along the west coast of and plywood. Beams with large section are used in heavy
the continent from Canada to Mexico and also in the States construction, as well as interior and exterior carpentry,
of New York and western Pennsylvania. Nowadays it is edge-glued panels, work bays and harbours, marine pillars,
found worldwide in countries with humid and fresh ships, mining, railway sleepers, boots, packaging and pulp.
climates: Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, the
Netherlands, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, New
Zealand, eastern Australia and Chile among others. It Is On the UNE-EN 1912:2012 (AENOR, 2012) the Douglas
expected that the expansion will continue. The reasons are fir timber has been assigned a wide range of strength
the high productivity of the species and the good quality of classes among C14 and C35 depending on the grading
the timber (Kleinschmit & Bastien, 1992). In Catalonia the criteria applied. The goal of this study is to characterize the
distribution of Douglas fir is concentrated in the mountains physical, mechanical and structural properties of the
with humid and fresh climate of the Montseny and Douglas fir that are grown in the Mediterranean area of
Guilleries . Usually it is found in private woods where the Spain according to the Spanish standards.
species has been introduced to improve the performance
and quality of the local timbers.

1 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS


Eduard Correal Mòdol, Wood Catalan Institute (INCAFUST),
H2 PCiTAL, Lleida. Spain. The timber was from the Montseny Massif, a mountain of
Email: eduard.correal@incafust.org 1712 m high located at 60 km at the north from Barcelona
2
Marcel Vilches Casals, Wood Catalan Institute (INCAFUST), that is part of the Catalan Pre-Coastal Range. The annual
H2 PCiTAL, Lleida. Spain.
growth goes from 3 to 10 mm/year with an average near to
Email: marcel.vilches@incafust.org
6 mm/year. The annual growth of the trees was sometimes

89
TRACK 1: MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

irregular and varies from 3 to 10 mm/year with an average Table 2: Physical and mechanical clear wood properties
by 6 mm/year.
Property x Sn-1 P5
Density (kg/m3) 524.79 49.86 446.05
Shrinkage (%) 8.63 1.94 5.40
The material was characterized at two scales so to make a
Shrinkage coefficient (%) 0.34 0.06 0.23
comprehensive study: clear wood and structural timber.
Higroscopicity (kg/m3) 0.0035 0.0004 0.0029
Clear wood test samples were made according to UNE
Hardness (mm-1) 3.96 0.99 2.50
56528:1978 (AENOR, 1978) and afterwards conditioned at
Axial compressive strength
20ºC and 65% of relative air humidity until they reached 480.51 65.77 361.95
(kg/cm2)
12% of moisture content. The properties analyzed are
Bending strength (kg/cm2) 912.51 169.23 619.43
described in the Table 1.

Table 3: MOR, MOE and density for visual graded timber


Table 1: Clear wood properties studied
Property ME-1 ME-2 MEG
Clear wood Test samples Beams tested 115 128 133
UNE norms
properties mm n x 63.14 43.49 56.84
MOR
Density 56531:1977 20×20×30 75 2 Sn-1 13.40 11.88 15.66
(N/mm )
Shrinkage 56533:1977 20×20×40 75 P5 42.34 28.90 35.02
Hygroscopicity 56532:1977 20×20×40 75 x 12,011.85 10,342.38 11,647.75
Hardness 56534:1977 20×20×40 75 MOE
2 Sn-1 1,909.70 1,982.65 2,130.16
(N/mm )
Compression strength 56535:1977 20×20×60 75 P5 9,009.57 7,046.48 8,408.34
Bending strength 56537:1979 20×20×300 75 x 505.65 473.28 502.28
Density
S 35.97 32.03 50.18
(kg/m3) n-1

500 beams were tested. In the Spanish visual grading P5 448.27 421.15 423.87
standards for coniferous timber, the beams are classified
whether their thickness is greater or less than 70 mm. The
Table 4: Characteristic values according to UNE-EN
first batch had 300 test samples of 50×100×2000 mm and 384:2010
was graded according to the ME-1 and the ME-2 criteria of
the UNE 56544:2011. The second and the third batch had Property ME-1 ME-2 MEG
100 beams each, their sections were 75×120×2500 mm and MOR (N/mm2) 33.46 23.12 29.02
75×100×2000 mm, and they were classified following the MOE (N/mm2) 12,925.40 10,755.09 12,452.08
MEG criteria. Density (kg/m3) 448.27 421.15 427.08
Strength class C30 C22 C27

The bending tests were done according to UNE-EN


408:2011. The experiment design and the characteristic 4 CONCLUSIONS
values calculation followed the norm UNE-EN 384:2010. The properties of the clear wood of the Douglas fir grown
The strength class was assigned in agreement of the UNE- in el Montseny are not significantly different to other
EN 338:2010 standard. provenances. The structural timber classified according to
the UNE 56544:2011 has low rejection moreover the
strength modulus (MOR) is balanced with the stiffness
3 RESULTS (MOE) and the density. ME-1 is assigned C30, ME-2 C22,
and MEG C27.
The results are shown below both for clear wood (Table 2)
and the structural timber (Tables 3 and 4). The clear wood
of the Spanish Mediterranean area showed average values
on density and bending strength, low values on shrinkage REFERENCES
and compression strength, and average high figures on the
hardness. [1] AENOR: UNE 56540:1978. Madrid, 1978.
[2] AENOR: UNE 56544:2007. Madrid, 2007.
[3] AENOR: UNE-EN 14081-1:2006+A1. Madrid, 2006.
In the 300 beams batch 57 samples were rejected. In the [4] AENOR: UNE-EN 338:2010. Madrid, 2010.
batch with beams of 2500 mm length 39 out of 100 were [5] AENOR: UNE-EN 384:2010. Madrid, 2010.
not suitable for MEG quality. In the other batch of 100 [6] AENOR: UNE-EN 408:2011+A1 2012. Madrid, 2011.
beams only 28 beams were discarded. [7] Kleinschmit, J.; Bastien, J. Ch.: IUFRO’s role in
Douglas-Fir (Pseudotsuga Menziesii ) Franco tree
improvement. Silvae genetica, 41(3): 161-173, 1992.

90
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

MODELLING THE EFFECT OF GRAIN ORIENTATION ON


THE LAG SCREW WITHDRAWAL LOAD FOR TROPICAL
HARDWOODS

Cláudio H. S. Del Menezzi1, Henrique P. Farias2, Milton L. Siqueira3

ABSTRACT: This paper aimed at studying the effect of the wood grain orientation on the lag screw withdrawal loading for
two heavy tropical hardwoods: Dipteryx odorata (cumaru) and Pouteria oblanceolata (tuturubá). Five wood grain angles
(0º, 22.5º, 45º, 67.5º and 90º) were studied and the experimental results were modelled according to four well-known
equations: Hankinson, Karlsen, Keylwerth and Sine. It was found that load capacity was consistently reduced from
perpendicular (90º) to parallel (0º) to the grain. The exponents η varied from 1.81 to 1.89 (Hankinson), 1.40-1.58 (Karlsen),
2.15-2.35 (Sine) and 2.15-2.36 (Keylwerth). It was found that Hankinson equation led to the lowest difference between
predicted and observed values for both hardwoods, followed by Karlsen´s and Keylwerth´s equation, while Sine equation
did not present reliable results. Additionally, it was found that experimental values were consistently higher than those
obtained through Hankinson model, which was considered an advantage in the point of view of the structural safety.

KEYWORDS: Dipteryx odorata, Hankinson equation, Lag screw, Pouteria oblanceolata.

1 INTRODUCTION 123 In the above mentioned example, firstly the lag screw
penetrates perpendicularly the top chord and then
The effect grain orientation on strength of wood is obliquely the bottom chord. In this situation the critical
relatively well studied. It is known that mechanical issue is to know the load required to withdrawal the lag
properties are significantly affected by the grain screw in the bottom chord. In this context, the paper aimed
orientation and usually there is a reduction of strength at modelling the effect of slope of grain on the withdrawal
values from parallel (0º grain angle) to perpendicular load of lag screws in two tropical hardwoods.
direction (90º). The most common equation to describe this
behaviour is the Hankinson equation, proposed almost one
century ago. Nevertheless, there are other equations that
2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
have been proposed, for instance Karlsen and Keylwerth. Lumber material from Dipteryx odorata (cumarú; ρ: 1014
The utilization of screws as connectors in a wood structure kg/m3) and Pouteria oblanceolata (tuturubá; ρ: 935 kg/m3)
is quite common since there are several types, dimensions were obtained in a local trade company and small samples
and functional abilities. Lag screw is a type of mechanical were taken to be anatomically identified. Afterwards, 35
fastening which can be used where is not possible or is specimens measuring 51 mm x 110 mm x 10 mm (width x
even undesirable goes through the full width of the wood length x thickness) were cut for each species.
member [1]. An example of this situation is the connection The mechanical test was conducted according to [4]
between top and bottom chords of the first node of a Howe procedures to determine the maximum screw withdrawal
truss. When using this type of connector, a key factor to be load. The steel lag screw presented the following
known is the perpendicular withdrawal load, which is characteristics: 9.5 mm diameter, 100 mm length and 56
primarily affected by screw diameter, screw threaded mm threaded length. A 7.6mm-diameter hole was pre-
length and wood density, as can be seen in the equation drilled before the insertion of the lag screw. For both
presented by [2-3]. species, five slopes of grain were tested: 90º
(perpendicular), 67.5º, 45º, 22.5º and 0º (parallel) and for
1
Cláudio Del Menezzi, Dept. Forest Engineering, University of each one 7 specimens were tested, totalizing 70 specimens.
Brasília, Brazil. Email: cmenezzi@unb.br The observed values were employed to determine the
2
Henrique Farias, Dept. Forest Engineering, University of
exponents η of the equations 1, 2, 3 and 4, which are
Brasília, Brazil
3
Milton Siqueira, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, University of
known as Hankinson´s equation, Karlsen´s, Keylwerth´s
Brasília, Brazil. and Sine [5], respectively.

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TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

The exponent for Keylwerth´s equation was also primarily


f w0 º f w90 º
f wθ = (1) proposed as being 2, and the results found here are slightly
f w0 º Sen θ + f w90 º Cosηθ
η higher. Contrarily, the exponents found for Karlsen´s
equation were significantly lower than that proposed: η=3.
It is also clear that for both wood species that the
f w0 º
f wθ = confidence interval (CI) range and the standard error (SE)
⎛ f w0 º ⎞ (2) of the exponents are much lower for Hankinson´s in
1 + ⎜⎜ − 1⎟⎟ Senηθ comparison with the two other equations. The mean value
⎝ f w90 º ⎠
of coefficient of determination (R2) was also higher for
Hankinson´s equation.
f w0 º
f wθ =
⎛ f ⎞ f (3) 26000
⎜⎜ Cosηθ − w0 º Senηθ ⎟⎟Cos 2θ + w0 º Senη 2θ Experimental
⎝ f w 90 º ⎠ f w 45 º 24000 Hankinson
22000
f wθ = f w0 º − ( f w0 º − f w90 º ) Senηθ (4)

Load (N)
20000

where θ = angle, fw0 = screw withdrawal load at 0º, fw45 = 18000


screw withdrawal load at 45º, fw90 = screw withdrawal load 16000
f w0º ⋅ f w90º
at 90º. 14000 f wθ =
f w0º ⋅ Sen1.891θ + f w90º ⋅ Cos1.891θ
3 RESULTS 12000
0 22,5 45 67,5 90
Table 1 presents the maximum withdrawal load for both Angle θ
wood species according to the slope of grain. It can be seen
that contrarily from that found for others wood strength Figure 1: Variation of the screw withdrawal load according
properties, increasing values are observed from 0º to grain angle and the respective Hankinson equation fitted
(parallel) to 90º (perpendicular). for tuturubá wood.

Table 1: Mean value and standard deviation of the


withdrawal load (N) according to the grain orientation. Figure 1 shows graphically the data variation and expected
values according to the Hankinson´s equation. Most of the
Species 90º 67.5º 45º 22.5º 0º experimental data is above the line’s equation leading to a
Cumaru 24113 21995 17548 13055 13644 certain level underestimation, which is positive in the
(2.53) (7.93) (17.92) (4.97) (13.61) structural safety point of view.
Tuturubá 22659 21672 19625 20819 15894
(5.62) (3.67) (4.71) (8.56) (6.36) 4 CONCLUSIONS
The exponents η calculated for the models are presented in Four equations were studied and it was found that
Table 2. It can be seen that exponents for the Hankinson´s Hankinson´s equation best explained the data variation
using exponents close to 2. The results for Karlsen and
equations were quite close to that proposed (η=2) for both
Keylwerth´s equations were also significant, but the
wood species. Sine model did not present reliable data.
residues were higher. Sine equation did not yield a reliable
Table 2: η exponents parameters estimates for the models model.
and wood species tested.
REFERENCES
Model Parameter Cumaru Tuturubá
Hankinson η 1.812 1.891 [1] B. Madsen: Structural Behavior of Timer. Timber
95% CI η 1.694-1.931 1.825-1.957 Engineering Ltd New York, 1992.
SE 0.058 0.032 [2] Forest Products Laboratoty: Wood Handbook – Wood
R2 0.721 0.802 as Engineering Material USDA/FS, 2010.
Karlsen η 1.404 1.579 [3] T. E. McLain: Design axial withdrawal strength from
95% CI η 0.776-2.031 0.864-2.294 wood: I. wood screws and lag screws. For. Prod. J.,
SE 0.308 0.351 47(5): 77-84, 1997.
R2 0.748 0.735 [4] American Society for Testing and Materials: Standard
Keylwerth η 2.354 2.155 test methods for mechanical fasteners in wood. ASTM
95% CI η 1.381-3.328 1.224-3.086 D1761, 2006.
SE 0.479 0.457 [5] N. B. Logsdon, Z. Finger, J. M. H. Jesus: Influência
R2 0.752 0.737 do ângulo entre o esforço aplicado e a direção das
fibras da madeira sobre o módulo de elasticidade.
Sine η 2.362 2.155
Floresta, 40: 837-848, 2010.

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SELF TAPPING SCREWS WITHOUT PRE-DRILLING FOR


BRAZILIAN REFORESTATION SPECIES

Carlito Calil Neto1, Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr2, Carlito Calil Junior3.

ABSTRACT: Wood is a renewable source of structural material with high relative strength/weight, low energy production,
which kidnaps and stores carbon in its production. The large use of wood is due to its special qualities as raw material for
other products manufactured in residential construction or major works such as bridges, has been widely used in roofing for
industrial and commercial buildings. Commercially there are limitations on the length of the wood, resulting from the
extraction of tree trunks, thus requiring the adoption of binding elements is the use of self-tapping screws efforts required by
side and which can be axial, shear, tensile or compression. Whereas in Brazil does not yet exist and the promising future of
the product, this paper aims to study the behavior of self-tapping screws together with Brazilian reforestation species of
Pinus Oocarpa, Lyptus (softwood and hardwood). Besides the technical and scientific literature in the area, performance
analysis will be carried out based on the normative documents: Brazilian Standard NBR 7190:1997; European EN 26891-
1983, EN 28970-1991 and EN 1995:2004; North American ASTM D1761-2006, ISO 261:1998, ISO 262:1998; Chilean
NCH 1198 to 2006 and the German DIN 1052:2004.

KEYWORDS: screw, self-tapping; pre drilling; structural.

1 INTRODUCTION 123 Self-tapping screws are inserted into timber pieces by rotation
imposed by a screw or nut, depending on head shape.
According to Negrão and Faria (2009), self-tapping screws
for wood or engineered wood products are manufactured in One advantage of bolts in relation to nails is the connection
a wide variety of types and sizes. The most common reversibility. The screws can be removed and reapplied, with
structural applications are the hexagonal (coach screws or virtually no loss of resilience. There are several
lag screws) although they may also embed or round head. classification standard screws, but are the ISO with higher
Current uses are in fixing appliances indirect support acceptance worldwide. ISO 261:1998 - ISO General Plan
(joist-hangers), in conjunction with nails. The smooth numbers all the dimensions in the plan production for
portion of the screw corresponds to approximately 40% of general applications. ISO 262:1998 - "General purpose
its total length. Although they are produced in a variety of metric screw threads - Selected sizes of screws, bolts and
materials, depending on the particular characteristics nuts" sets, from the full range of dimensions, a subset of
desired, are more common in stainless steel or common production and specifications preferred. In addition to the
steel with zinc anti-corrosion. The hex screws are designed diameter, thread pitch is another parameter which
specifically to structural applications with diameters characterizes screw type. For some diameters, manufactures
ranging from 8 mm to 20 mm and lengths up to 300 mm. provide screws with different pitch than normal.
The rest are used to secure the secondary elements or non-
structural, reaching its diameter in the range of 4 to 8 mm. 2 OBJECTIVE
Nominal diameter of the screw corresponds to the plain
The main objective of this work is to establish the
defined by the shank or the outer edge of the thread.
proposed criteria of resistance and application of self-
tapping screws type without pre-drilling with reforestation
species Pinus oocarpa and Lyptus ® and thus create the
necessary support for their use based national assessments
1
Calil Neto, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Email: proposed by national researchers, and the International
netousp@gmail.com Codes: Brazilian NBR7190: 1997; European EN 26891-
2
Rocco Lahr, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil 1983, EN 28970-1991 and MS 1995:2004; American
3
Calil Junior, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

93
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

ASTM D1761-2006, ISO 261:1998, ISO 262: 1998; For comparison will be also evaluated the bond strength
Chilean NCh 1198-2006 and German DIN 1052:2004 according to American and European standards which call
the bond strength as being, or rupture, or displacement
3 MAIN TEXT between elements of 15 mm, the lowest being adopted.
The torx type (tapping screws) self-tapping screws are To do this analysis two tests types with self-tapping
manufactured with slender stems, small diameter, large screws, screws inclined at 45 degrees and perpendiculars
and varying lengths for each diameter. Blass and second to the grain. Its going to be tested six specimens for each
Bejtka (2001), the maximum dimensions of these screws test, a total of 36 specimens of each species as represented
are found to diameter of 12 mm and length 600 mm. The
steel used in pins manufacture is high flow resistance and
breakage. They can be found total or partial threaded along
the length, and also for various types of spikes hurricane.
The screw model VGZ Rothoblaas Company is different
from other models screw tapping screw. This type of screw
is made of high strength steel and special waxing surface
to reduce friction during the screw which ensures more
efficient connections. Its own head screwdriver Torx
screwdriver is suitable for use for a better grip. At its tip
end has a fillet with fine tip, like a drill, not requiring pre
hurricane and also decreasing the rupture chips. This screw
is available in different lengths for the same diameter,
facilitating its use in fixing any structural element of wood.
Figure 2: Screw 45 / 90 degrees
Experimental research is a critical phase once allows direct
observation of the phenomena under study and is an 4 CONCLUSIONS
indispensable tool for the verification of all the theoretical
models used to represent a particular behaviour. Conclusions should briefly state the author’s viewpoint
over the problem and the most important propositions.
Study of physical model is therefore a necessary step for They can also include the perspectives for new
identifying the behaviour of systems in numerical analysis developments as well as for new applications from the
theory. This is of even greater significance in view of the results.
considerable anisotropy of wood structures of the material.
Experimental research conducted in this thesis aims REFERENCES
analyze a connection made with self-tapping screws, which [1] ROTHOBLASS 2012 , Corso fixing safe house,
ensures high rigidity and excellent ductility. This research Couso Progettazione Connessioni: Cortaccia, Italia.
was conducted by performing shear tests and seeking the 2012. 234p.
best available connectors. [2] ALBINO A. Indagine Sperimentale su elementi lignei
For the development of this work will be used: species a comportamento ultimo duttile o pseudoduttile.
from planted forests: Pinus oocarpa (conifer) and Lyptus Defesa de mestrado. Universita degli studi di Trento,
(hardwood) and two diameters self-tapping screws that 247p, 2004. Orientador Prof. Dr. Maurizio Piazza.
require no pre hurricane, commercial model VGZ 9 mm
and 11 mm (diameter) and 200 mm (length) of Rothoblaas.

Figure 1: Screw type

94
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

STUDY ON SINGLE SHEAR STRENGTH OF NAILED JOINTS


SUBJECTED TO GRAIN DIRECTION

Kiyotaka Terui 1, Yoshimitsu Ohashi2, Kohe Nomoto3, Osamu Sumioka4

ABSTRACT: To produce the equation for estimating the shear strength of the wooden horizontal diaphragm considering
the influence of the fibrous direction of the beams and plywood on nailed Joints, were collected data make single shear
tests of the nail joints. In the single-shear examination of the nail which made the fibrous direction of a beam or plywood
the parameter, it was able to be shown clearly that the single shear capacity of a nail has a difference by a fibrous direction.
It was possible to create a model of the multi-linear with the load-displacement relationship obtained in the experiment.

KEYWORDS: Single shear tests, Fibrous direction, Wooden horizontal diaphragm

in consideration of individual specificity of the quality of


1 INTRODUCTION 123 material. Moreover, plywood also cut out the specimen of
19 patterns from one piece of plywood
This study is intended to produce the estimate equation
of the shear strength of wooden horizontal diaphragm
using the single shear tests on nailed Joints considering the 6 15
fibrous direction. Since the single shear tests on nailed 7 16 14
Joints as a parameter to fibrous direction beam and 8 13
plywood was performed in a series of studies, it reports. 9
10. 11 12 Fibrous
direction of the
3 beam
4 2
2 SPECIMENS 5 1
Sliding direction of nail are the parallel direction, the right- Fibrous
Fibrous
direction of the
angled direction, and the direction of 45 degrees for the plywood direction of the
beam
fibrous direction of a beam and plywood. The parameters
of the specimen in the single shear tests on nailed Joints
are 19 patterns varying in a combination of sliding
direction of nail and fibrous direction of plywood and 19
.
fibrous direction of the beam in wooden horizontal
diaphragm as shown in figure 1. The relations of the 18
position of beam and plywood in the single shear tests on 17 Fibrous
direction of the
nailed Joints imitated the relations of the position beam beam
and plywood of the floor posture. The distance of the nail
and the edge of plywood in specimens is 15 mm. The beam
Fibrous
of the specimen cut out 19 patterns from the same material Fibrous direction of the
direction of the beam
plywood
1
Kiyotaka Terui, Polus R & D Center of Life-Style Inc.,
SAITAMA, JAPAN. Email: 01452terui-sz@polus.co.jp
2
Yoshimitsu Ohashi , Tokyo City University, TOKYO, JAPAN. Figure 1: The 19 patterns in the sliding direction of the nail
Email: ohashi-y@tcu.ac.jp
3
Kohe Nomoto, Polus R & D Center of Life-Style Inc.,
SAITAMA, JAPAN. Email: 04385nomoto-mf@polus.co.jp
4
Osamu Sumioka, Polus R & D Center of Life-Style Inc.,
SAITAMA, JAPAN. Email: 03958sumioka-vj@polus.co.jp

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TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

3 THE METHOD OF AN EXPERIMENT


The method of an experiment is shown in Figure 2.
Specimen of the experiment is the shape that the sliding
direction of the nail turns to the direction of the load given
with a testing machine. Specimens of the experiment fixed
a beam to the table of the testing machine and connected
plywood to the crosshead of the testing machine. Plywood
is not fixed in the direction which is at a right angle to the
load given with a testing machine.

The load-displacement relationship of experimental result


Loading Loading

Plywood

Plywood
Displacement
transducer

Beam
Beam
Displacement
The load-displacement relationship of Multi-linear model
transducer

Figure 3: The load-displacement relationship


Figure 2: Test set-up of experimental result and Multi-linear model

4 THE RESULT OF THE EXPERIMENT 5 CONCLUSIONS


As for the result of the experiment, the difference in the It could be modeled by the multi-linear performance of the
fibrous direction of a beam and plywood showed that the shear of the nail joints by a combination of different
performance of the Single Shear Tests on nailed Joints had
fibrous direction of the beam and plywood. The estimate
a difference. In addition, it was revealed that some patterns
could gather the experimental result of 19 patterns. The equation of the shear strength of wooden horizontal
load-displacement relationship obtained from the diaphragm is built from now on using a model of the
experiment was able to model multi-linear as shown in multi-linear obtained.
figure 3.

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TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

STUDY ON TIMBER FRAMED JOINTS USING DRIFT PINS


AND UV-HARDENING FRP

Shinya Matsumoto1, Shuhei Mitsui2, Takaaki Ohkubo3

ABSTRACT: The joints are very important structural element in timber framed structures. The purpose of this study is to
develop the high-strength and high-ductility beam-column joint for timber structure. In this study, steel plate fastened with
drift pins and paste the ultraviolet-ray hardening Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) on the surface of the member section. The
wood is the anisotropic material of which the strength characteristic greatly differs according to the direction of the fiber.
The strength of the fiber direction is high, but the strength of the fiber orthogonal direction is low. Also, the splitting failure
is caused in the fiber orthogonal direction, and there is a case in which strength and toughness extremely lower. It is
necessary to consider the weak point of such woody material for the case in which the wood is used as a structural element
for timber framed structure. It is very important to be ensured the earthquake-proof safety of the building, and prevent a
building collapse for the great earthquake. This study reinforces weak point on the strength of woody material by using the
ultraviolet-ray hardening FRP. Then, timber framed joint of the high-strength and high ductility is developed as a structural
element. In this study, the verification experiment is carried out for the joint element specimens of the large section wood.

KEYWORDS: Composite material, Column beam joints, UV-hardening, FRP

1 INTRODUCTION 123 building, and prevent a building collapse for the great
earthquake. This study reinforces weak point on the
The wood is the anisotropic material of which the strength strength of woody material by using the ultraviolet-ray
characteristic greatly differs for the direction of the fiber. hardening FRP. It is a basic research with the aim of
Though the strength of the fiber direction is high, the further upgrading of past earthquake-proof technology.
strength is low for the fiber orthogonal direction. Also,
the splitting failure is caused in the fiber orthogonal This study reinforces weak point on the strength of woody
direction, and there is a case in which strength and material by using the ultraviolet-ray hardening FRP. Then,
toughness extremely lower. It is necessary to consider the timber framed joint of the high-strength and high ductility
weak point of such woody material for the case in which is developed as a structural element. In this study, the
the wood is used as a structural element for timber framed verification experiment is carried out for the joint element
structure. specimens of the large section wood.
Recently, the development of engineered wood such as the
structural glued laminated wood advances. The market is
supplied with the lumbering of which the quality is high as
2 OUTLINE OF EXPERIMENTS
an industrial product. The technology which artificially Figure 1-3 shows specimens of joint element for loading
controls the material dispersion is widely used. However, test. In this figure, Model A is column base model, and
they also worry about the possibility of causing fracture Model B is symmetry column-beam joint model. Model C
event in the design by the large earthquakes etc. It is very is asymmetry column-beam joint model. The loading was
important to be ensured the earthquake-proof safety of the made to be the positive and negative repeated-load, and the
rotation angle of the joint was made to be 1/500, 1/350,
1
Shinya Matsumoto, Kinki University, 1 Takaya-Umenobe, 1/250, 1/175, 1/120, 1/85, 1/60, 1/45, 1/30, 1/20, and final
Higashihiroshima, Japan. Email: matsumoto@hiro.kindai.ac.jp cycle for ultimate.
2
Shuhei Mitsui, Kure National College of Technology, 2-2-11,
Agaminami, Kure, Japan. Email: mitsui@kure-nct.ac.jp
3
Takaaki Ohkubo, 1-4-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima,
Japan. Email: ohkubotk@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

97
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

① ②

:工場施工 Prefabrication
Figure 1: Model A (Column base)

① ②

Photo 1: Ultimate situation for Model A (Non-FRP/FRP)

③ ④

Prefabrication
:工場施工 :現場施工
Site fabrication Photo 2: Ultimate situation for Model B (Non-FRP/FRP)
Figure 2: Model B (Symmetry column-beam joint)

① ②

③ ④

Photo 3: Ultimate situation for Model C (Non-FRP/FRP)

3 CONCLUSIONS
Prefabrication
In this study, we proposed the joint for wooden frame
:工場施工 :現場施工 Site fabrication
structure using UV-hardening FRP. The characteristics of
the reinforcing effect to FRP are shows by the timber
Figure 3: Model C (Asymmetry column-beam joint) framed joints loading tests. As a result, improvement for
maximum strength and ductility was confirmed by FRP.
Table 1 shows the characteristic values for loading test. In
this table, upper are values for FRP non-reinforced model, ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
and lower are values for FRP reinforced model. These
values show the improvement for maximum strength and This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI 23686080.
ductility by FRP.
Table 1 Characteristic values for loading test REFERENCES
[1] Julio F. Davalos, Youngchan Kim, Ever J. Barbero : A
Characteristic values Model A Model B Model C layerwise beam element for analysis of frames with
Yield rotation angle 0.007 0.014 0.019 laminated sections and flexible joints, Finite Elements
θy (rad) 0.007 0.014 0.012 in Anslysis and Design 19, pp.181-194, 1995
Ultimate moment 89.2 91.1 70.4 [2] Architectural Institute of Japan : Design Manual for
Mu (kNm) 105.2 110 96.9 Engineered Timber Joints. Maruzen, 2009.(In
2/3Mu 59.5 60.7 47.0 Japanese)
(kNm) 70.1 73.2 64.6
[3] Shinya Matsumoto, Takaaki Ohkubo, Yasuaki
Stiffness 8132 4340 2452
Watanabe, Etsuo Kajita, Development of The High-
K (kNm/rad) 10052 5180 5308
Upper : FRP non-reinforced, Lower : FRP reinforced
strength and High-ductility Timber Framed Joints
using Drift Pins and Fiber Reinforced Plastics, WCTE
The ultimate situations for each model are shown in Photo World Conference on Timber Engineering 2012,
1-3. pp.223-226, 2012.7

98
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STUDY ON COMPRESSIVE STRAIN OF CLT WALL


BOTTOM UNDER THE EXTREME VERTICAL LOAD
Satoshi Oonishi1, Hideyuki Nasu2, Yasuteru Karube3, Masahiro Inayama4

ABSTRACT: High-rise building made of CLT increases significantly its own weight. Therefore, the collapse of the wall
bottom is concerned. Main purpose of this study is to verify the effect of the reinforcement with screws for avoiding the
collapse of the CLT wall bottom by extreme vertical load. Test pieces of CLT wall bottom were reinforced by screws. As a
result, we got better structural result with screw reinforcement than without screw. From these experimental results, the
reinforcement of CLT wall bottom using screw at perpendicular angle to the fiber direction is effective in workability
because it does not need seat-dig hole.

KEYWORDS: CLT, Collapsed wall bottom, Extreme vertical load, Screw for wood, WCTE 2014

1 INTRODUCTION 123 The experiment of the small test pieces was conducted in
100t Amsler testing machine using two displacement
CLT buildings can be expected to improve structural gauges. Then we produced test pieces that were assumed
performance and the sound insulation, also promote the the wall bottom made of CLT (Fig. 2). From the results of
use of domestic timber. However, significant weight the pre-experiment, we decided the reinforcement position
increase of the building gives rise to extreme vertical load, of the test pieces of CLT wall bottom. We have developed
there is a concern that the collapse of the wall bottom takes special screws for reinforcement (Fig. 3). Feature of the
place. We have discussed and verified the effects of screw screw is that it has a large flat head as a portion in contact
reinforcement from differences in behaviour of the with the concrete foundation. This is because of reducing
collapse of the wall bottom by extreme vertical load. the damage and protecting the concrete foundation from
2 EXPERIMENTAL SUMMARY destruction. The experiment of the CLT wall bottom test
pieces was conducted in 200t Amsler testing machine. We
The experiment was done on test pieces of a total 26 got experimental results by using two displacement gauges
bodies of 16 types including test pieces of CLT wall and data logger.
bottom and small test pieces. As the pre-experiment, we
did a compression experiment on small test pieces. The Vertical fiber 100% Vertical fiber 62% Vertical fiber 0%
parameters in this experiment were the amount of vertical
fiber, the presence or absence of reinforcement, and the
difference in the fiber direction of the reinforcing portion
of the test pieces (fig. 1). We used the driver drill and
impact driver for examining the difference of the internal
destruction of the wood due to the difference of the tool. Figure 1: Test pieces due to the difference in
200 the vertical fibre content.
7
25φ Normal
8

Reinforcement screws and fibre is perpendicular

Figure 3: Original developed large head screw


for reinforcement Useing the driver drill Useing the impact driver
Reinforcement screws and fibre is parallel
1
Graduate school, Nippon Institute of Technology, 4-1
Gakuendai, Miyashiro-machi, Saitama Pref., 345-8501, JAPAN.
Email: satosioonisi.nit.architecture@gmail.com
2
Prof. Dr. Engineer, Nippon Institute of Technology, JAPAN.
3 Useing the driver drill Useing the impact driver
Graduate school, Univ. of Tokyo, JAPAN.
4
Prof. Dr. Engineer, Univ. of Tokyo, JAPAN. Figure 2: Test pieces of CLT wall bottom

99
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Test pieces of CLT wall bottom were reinforced by


screws. As a result, we got better structural result with
The results of the small test pieces are shown in Fig. 4-5 screw reinforcement than without screw, in the three points
and Table 1. “V” means the “Vertical”. Number after the v such as initial stiffness, maximum strength and energy
indicates the percentage of vertical fibers. “D” means the absorbing capacity. Reinforcement with the screws is
driver drill. “I” means the impact driver. The results of considered that the buckling of the parallel portion fiber
CLT wall bottom are shown in Fig. 6-7 and Table 2. “Pe” was suppressed. Test pieces reinforced with screws along
means the perpendicular relationship of the screw and fiber. the fiber were inferior than test pieces without
“Pa” means the parallel relationship of the screw and fiber. reinforcement in the point of initial stiffness and energy
absorbing capacity. We considered as follows. The
4 CONCLUSIONS buckling we have carried out lowered initial stiffness. The
force transmitted to the inside through the screws became
Small test pieces reinforced with the screws did not occur the power to split the fibers of the wood (split force) and
buckling at the bottom. We considered reinforcement was reduced the energy absorbing capacity. From these
effect of screws has appeared (Fig.8). experimental results, the reinforcement of CLT wall
↓Compression↓ ↓Compression↓ bottom using screw at perpendicular angle to the fiber
direction is effective in workability because it does not
need seat-dig hole.
Without reinforcement There reinforcement
5 BIBLIOGRAPHY OR REFERENCES
Hideyuki Nasu, Keiichi Tsubouchi, Anders Gustafsson,
Hiroyuki Noguchi:Experimental Study for Big Screw Joint
Figure 8: Difference of collapse due to reinforcement
with Cross Laminated Panel, Part 1 Summary and
Reinforcement position requires a free end dimensions
Experiment 1, 梗概集 C-1 分冊, pp. 383-384,2008.9
enough. Otherwise, performance is not exhibited enough.

Figure 4: Small test pieces destruction property Figure 6: CLT wall bottom test pieces destruction property

Figure 5: Small test pieces Load – displacement curve Figure 7: CLT wall bottom test pieces Load – displacement
curve
Table 1: Experimental results of small test pieces Table 2: Experimental results of CLT wall bottom test pieces
Displacement Initial Maximum Displacement at Energy absorbing
Initial Maximum Test pieces
Test pieces at maximum Energy absorbing capacity stiffness load maximum load capacity
stiffness load name
name load (kN・mm) (kN/mm) (kN) (mm) (kN・mm)
(kN/mm) (kN) (mm) 0-0-0-1 336.32 1065.00 4.60 5939.56
V-100 181.27 127.10 1.74 563.19 0-0-0-2 262.90 1098.34 5.13 4774.66
V-100-D 185.55 134.10 2.79 1730.21 0-0-0-3 354.37 1155.22 4.13 5379.43
V-100-I 233.91 138.83 1.26 169.53 200-Pe-D-1 415.50 1168.95 3.94 4656.28
V-0 5.46 9.25 4.31 119.31 200-Pe-D-2 330.86 1070.89 4.95 5407.21
V-0-D 3.16 15.95 15.38 191.64 200-Pe-D-3 341.26 1182.68 5.39 6360.49
V-0-I 5.17 12.57 18.69 194.05 200-Pa-D-1 414.77 1184.64 4.57 4289.02
V-62 112.83 89.86 1.78 350.90 200-Pa-D-2 306.10 1100.31 4.86 5204.82
V-62-Pe-D 109.29 75.43 1.70 260.20 200-Pa-D-3 416.11 1190.53 4.22 5465.93
V-62-Pe-I 100.78 71.31 1.81 225.83 200-Pe-I-1 378.97 1117.96 4.16 5838.95
V-62-Pa-D 88.93 68.76 1.49 445.59 200-Pe-I-2 417.90 1225.83 5.25 5513.47
V-62-Pa-I 73.94 71.10 1.69 137.07 200-Pe-I-3 300.13 1092.46 5.10 6423.96
200-Pa-I-1 323.59 1198.37 5.68 6492.88
200-Pa-I-2 276.92 1139.53 5.22 5563.33
200-Pa-I-3 289.31 1161.11 4.74 5492.34

100
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS


ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF WOODEN MORTISE-TENON
JOINTS BEFORE AND AFTER REINFORCEMENT

Zheng Wei 1, Lu Weidong 2, Deng Daly 3, Gu Jinjie 4

ABSTRACT: Firstly, the test for six mortise-tenon joints under pseudo-static load is made to study the seismic
performances of the joints. Then, the specimens used in the test are reinforced by cramp, carbon fiber, steel pegs, U-flat iron
angle bar, angle steel and curved soft steel plate, respectively. The comparisons between the seismic performance
parameters of specimens before and after reinforcement are carried out. The test results demonstrate that the seismic
performance level of a joint after reinforcement can reach that of the specimen before damaged, but the reinforcement effect
of the joints reinforced by angle steel and curved soft steel plate is more obvious. For the case using the curved soft steel
plate, the finite element software ABAQUS is used to simulate the seismic performance of the joints. The parameterized
analyses have been made, which provide a theoretical basis for the reinforcement design of joints

KEYWORDS: Mortise-tenon joints, Seismic performance, Pseudo-static tests, Parameterized analyses

1 INTRODUCTION 123 The results could provide the theoretical basis for the
design method of reinforcement on mortise-tenon joints.
From the failure modes of Chinese traditional wooden
frame buildings in various earthquakes, it can be seen that
the main seismic damages consist of the destruction of
2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
supporting members and walls, the failure of joints, the
destruction of roof and the global tilt of buildings [1]. 2.1 PSEUDO STATIC TEST OF MORTISE-TENON
Among them, mortise-tenon joint is the most common and JOINTS
the joint has the greatest damages,such as tenon drawing, 6 mortise-tenon joints in accordance with the prototypes
tenon folding and damage of mortise. based on the type timber frame in Southwest China were
At present, the traditional reinforcements are still tested and numbered J1~J6 ( figure 1 ) . Then, the
commonly used for the mortise-tenon joints, such as iron specimens in the subsequent tests were reinforced by
castings reinforcement, nails reinforcement, bolts cramp, carbon fiber, steel pegs, U-flat iron angle bar, angle
reinforcement and so on [2, 3]. They completely depend on steel and curved soft steel plate respectively, which are
construction experience, and mostly aim at improving the numbered from J1-R to J6-R.
stiffness of joints and structure integrity without energy
dissipation and plastic deformation.
In this paper, traditional typical mortise-tenon joints before
and after reinforcements would be tested and analyzed
under the pseudo-static load in order to investigate the
seismic performance of mortise-tenon joint. Among them,
the most effective reinforcement would be simulated with
finite element software ABAQUS for parametric analysis.

Figure 1: Mortise-tenon joint


1
Zheng Wei, Nanjing University of Technology, 30 Puzhu South
Street, Nanjing, China. Email: zw077927@163.com 3 TEST RESULTS
2
Lu Weidong , Nanjing University of Technology, China
3
Deng Daly, Nanjing University of Technology, China Severe pinching phenomenon is observed in the hysteretic
4
Gu Jinjie, Nanjing University of Technology, China curves of mortise-tenon joints before reinforcement. It

101
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

means that there is an obvious slippage between mortise 5 CONCLUSIONS


and tenon. The superior seismic performance of
timberwork exactly depends on its energy dissipation. Through pseudo-static load tests on mortise-tenon joints
Through the tests of 6 mortise-tenon joints with different and finite element analysis on steel curved plates
reinforcement methods, it is observed that their seismic reinforcement, some conclusions can be obtained. Pinching
performances are better than those before reinforcement. phenomenon with the Z shape is obvious in the mortise-
tenon joints before reinforcement what means the slippage
Among these reinforcement methods used, specimens between mortise-tenon. The hysteretic curves have no
reinforced with angle steel (J5-R) and steel curved plate obvious descending stage. Comparing to the traditional
(J6-R) are more effective than the others. They have bigger reinforcement methods, mortise-tenon joints reinforced
initial bending stiffness and their hysteretic loops is full. with angle steel and steel curved plate have the bigger
Moreover their accumulated energy dissipations increase a initial bending stiffness. ethods have good effects on
lot, comparing to those before reinforcement. Therefore, reinforcement. Considering the final effect and easy
the angle steel and steel curved plate reinforcements are construction of reinforcement, steel curved plate
two of the best strengthening methods for mortise-tenon reinforcement is thought to be one of the best methods,
joints. which is the most effective method when the curvature
radius takes as 400mm and the plates are arranged at the
4 ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON double sides of the joint.
Considering the final strengthening effect and easy
construction of reinforcements for mortise-tenon joints, ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
steel curved plate reinforcement is one of the best methods.
In the following study, the finite element simulations were This study was financially supported by Technology Pillar
made with software ABAQUS [4]. Program of China (Grant NO. 2009BAJ28B02 and NO.
2011BAJ08B04). Their support is sincerely appreciated by
Hysteresis curves, envelope curves, energy dissipation and the writers.
displacement ductility ratio of joints before and after steel
curved plate reinforcement were compared. The results REFERENCES
indicated that steel curved plate reinforcement is an
effective strengthening method to mortise-tenon joint. [1] Xie Qifang: Experiment Study and Theory Analysis
on Strengthening for Chinese Ancient Timber
The effect of steel curved plate reinforcement was
Buildings. Department of Civil Engineering, Xi'an
seriously affected by the quantity and length of the steel
University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an,
curved plate, because energy dissipation of this
2007.
reinforcement greatly depended on the plastic deformation
[2] Daly Deng: Experimental Study on Seismic
of the plates. For optimizing the effect of steel curved plate
Performance and Reinforcement Performance of
reinforcement, parametric analysis was made in detail.
Damaged Wooden Structures. Department of Civil
Reinforcement effects on single side and double side of
Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology,
joint were compared when the curvature radius was
Nanjing, 2011.
400mm. Then the different curvature radius conditions:
[3] KE Jipeng: Study on the Seismic Capacity and the
200mm, 400mm and 600mm were considered. The results
Reinforced Method of Ancient Buildings. Department
of parametric analysis are given in Table1.
of Civil Engineering, Beijing University of
Technology, Beijing, 2004.
[4] Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen: ABAQUS Theory
Manual. Berkeley California, 2000

Table 1: Parameterized analysis results of mortise-tenon joint

Type Load capacity(kN·m) Energy dissipation(kJ) Ductility ratio


Before reinforcement 13.44 4.03 2.68
Reinforcing on single side 28.03 8.61 3.54
Reinforcing on double side 42.32 17.63 3.74
r=200mm 35.63 7.31 2.56
r=400mm 28.03 8.61 3.54
r=600mm 24.72 12.45 3.79

102
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

BOND BEHAVIOR OF GLUED-IN TIMBER JOINT WITH


DEFORMED BAR EPOXIED IN GLULAM

Zhibin Ling1, Weiqing Liu2, Huifeng Yang3, Weidong Lu4

ABSTRACT: This paper describes the test program of glued-in deformed bar timber joint conducted in pull-pull
configuration, which aims to investigate the bond behavior of glued-in deformed bar systems in glulam. The varying
parameter are bar slenderness ratio and glue-line thickness. In order to obtain the bond stress distribution along the
anchorage length, special deformed bar with strain gauges attached internally were designed. Test results show that both the
bar slenderness ratio and glue-line thickness have obvious influence on withdrawal strength and bond behavior of glued-in
deformed bar joint. Failure modes of specimens are also analyzed in this paper. Ductile failure modes of glued-in rod timber
joint could be realized with reasonable design.

KEYWORDS: Glued-in rod joint, Deformed bar, Bond behavior, Withdrawal strength, Pull-Pull tests

1 INTRODUCTION 123 The adhesive used in the joint was two-component epoxy
resin.
Glued-in rod technology began to be used in timber
structures since the 1970s. At the beginning, glued-in rod 2.2 DESIGN OF SPECIMENS
was used as to prevent premature failures due to tension
perpendicular to the grain in glulam timber elements [1]. Figure1 shows the design and configuration of the tested
Glued-in rod was also used in repairing the existing timber specimens. All the specimens were designed with one end
structures which have been decayed by insects and natural (the supporting end) more resistant than the other end (the
erosions [2]. Currently, glued-in rod timber joint are tested end). For the supporting end, the anchorage length lc
widely used in modern timber structures due to its equals to 1.2la, and the bar diameter Dr equals to 1.25dr.
lightweight, high loading capacity and high joint stiffness. In order to obtain the bond stress distribution along
In addition, glued-in rod timber joints can offer great anchorage length, attached strain gauges internally
aesthetic appearance and fire-resistance ability [3-7]. deformed bars were designed. The details of layout of
strain gauges were shown in Figure2.
2 TEST PROGRAM Tested end Supporting end

2.1 MATERIALS grain


a

dr Dr
Timber blocks were cut from glued laminated timber made
a la lb lc
of 30mm thickness North America Douglas fir lamellas l
glued together with resorcinol resin adhesive. Bars glued
in timber were HRB335 grade deformed bars with ultimate Figure 1: Pull-pull specimen
strength fu=556N/mm2 and yield strength fy=362 N/mm2.
Opened bar
Strain gauges
interval(13-30mm) Folded bar
1
Zhibin Ling, Southeast University, P. R. China. Email:
lzb-10410055@163.com
2
Corresponding author: Weiqing Liu, Nanjing Tech University, Strain gauge
P. O. Box 8020-32, Nanjing211816, P. R. China. Email: outgoing line
Filled with silica gel
wqliu@njut.edu.cn Groove(2mm×4mm) (4mm×4mm)
3
Huifeng Yang, Nanjing Tech University, P. R. China. Email:
yhfbloon@163.com Figure 2: Layout of strain gauges
4
Weidong Lu, Nanjing Tech University, P. R. China. Email:
concrete@163.com

103
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

2.3 TEST SETUP AND MEASUREMENTS thickness especially at the double end of along the
anchorage length. Appropriately increasing of glue-line
All specimens were tested on a universal testing machine
thickness is beneficial to the decreasing of peak value of
with 1000kN capacity. The rate of loading was set as
bond stress.
2.0mm/min and was kept constant during the whole
process of loading based on Broughton and Hutchinson
[8]. The main recorded data were the load, the relative slip 4 CONCLUSIONS
between timber and glued-in deformed bar at the loaded Bar slenderness ratio and glue-line thickness have an
end, and the strain distribution of the deformed bar during obvious effects on the withdrawal strength and bond
loading. behavior of glued-in deformed bar joint. Bond stress
distribution along anchorage length is not uniform, but
3 TITLES, AUTHORS, ABSTRACT AND rather concentrated near both the loading and the
KEYWORDS anchorage end. Appropriately increasing of glue-line
thickness is beneficial to the bond behavior of glued in rod
3.1 FAILURE MODES joint. The parameter of glue-line thickness is sensitive to
the initial joint stiffness. Ductile timber joint with glued-in
Four types of failure modes mainly occurred during rod could be realized by proper design.
testing, which are pull out failure of bar, timber shear
failure, splitting of timber and yielding of bar. It is obvious
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
that failure modes are significantly related to the anchorage
length. It should be noted that for those specimens with bar This research was supported by National Natural Science
slenderness ratio of 12.5, most of them failed in bar Foundation for young scholar of China/NSFC (Grant No.
yielding, although the final failure modes were splitting of 51108233). The support of NSFC is gratefully
timber blocks, however, this is in the final stage. It can be acknowledged.
concluded that ductile failure of glued-in rod timber joint
can be realized with reasonable design. REFERENCES
3.2 STAIN DISTRIBUTION [1] Johansson C. J. Glued-in bolts. In: βlass HJ, editor,
Structural Timber Education Program. Lecture, C14,
Figure 3 illustrated the bar strain distribution of one group Part 1, Netherlands: Almere, 1995.
of specimens at different loading level. Three specimens [2] Broughton J.G., Hutchinson A.R. Review of relevant
were included in each group. It can be observed that at the materials and their requirements for timber repair and
lower loading level, the strain of steel bar was mainly restoration, LICONS (low intrusion conservation
developed near the loaded end and decreased toward the systems for timber structures, CRAF-1999-71216,
support end progressively. With the external load Task 2.2, 2003.
increased, the strain near the loaded end were fully [3] Aicher S, Herr J. Investigations on high strength
developed and the development of strain transferred from glulam frame corners with glued-in steel connectors.
the loaded end to the anchorage end gradually. In: 5th World conference on timber engineering,
1600 pages 273-280. Montreux, Switzerland, 1998.
0.2Pu(Exp.)
1400 0.4Pu(Exp.) [4] Guan Z.W. Structural behaviour of glued joints using
1200
0.6Pu(Exp.)
0.8Pu(Exp.)
FRP. In: 5th World conference on timber engineering,
1.0Pu(Exp.) pages 261-265. Montreux, Switzerland, 1998.
Steel strain / µε

1000 Fitted Results


[5] Kuhlmann U, Aicher S, Lippert P. Rigid frame
800 corners with glued-in rods, Joints in timber structures.
600 In: Proceedings of the international RILEM
400
symposium, pages 343-352. Stuttgart, Germany, 2001.
[6] Buchanan A.H., Barber D.J. Fire resistance of
200
epoxied steel rods in glulam. In: Proceedings, 1994
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 pacific timber engineering conference, pages590-598.
Distance from loaded end /mm
Gold Coast, Australia, 1994.
Figure 3: Strain distribution of glued-in deformed bar [7] Connolly T, Mettem C. J. Development of Eurocode-
along anchorage length type design rules for axially loaded bonded-in rods.
Report for project LICONS: 2008, 29.
3.3 BOND STRESS DISTRIBUTION [8] Broughton J. G., Hutchinson A. R. Pull-out behavior
The bond stress distribution at bar/adhesive interface is not of steel rods bonded into timber. Materials and
uniform, but rather accentuated near both the loading end Structures 2001, 34(2): 100-109.
and the anchorage end, which confirmed the Volkersen
theory (1938). Bond stress is sensitive to the glue-line

104
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

STUDY ON PREVENTION FOR BUCKLING OF COMBINED PILLAR WITH


FIBER MATERIALS OR SCREWS
Hirokazu Namiki1, Hideyuki Nasu2

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to examine a prevention method of combined pillar buckling. The aramid fiber,
glass fiber and small screws were adopted as reinforced materials. The prevention method of buckling bundled up with
these fiber materials or screws to four pillars of common dimensions. Four narrow pillars using reinforce material were
effective in prevention for buckling. The effect is different according to reinforce material, interval and construction quality.
The longer pillars gets, the lower unity of pillar gets. However, the strength itself is improved effectively.

KEYWORDS: Heavy Timber Structure, Combined Pillar, Buckling, Screw, Glass Fiber, Aramid Fiber

1 INTRODUCTION 12 Reinforce interval Aramid Fiber


50mm Loose
25mm Tight
The purpose of this study is to examine a prevention Glass Fiber
method of buckling. It is to improve strength of pillar used Loose
Tight
Japanese common dimension and local timber. It is
expected that the needs of the large section wooden
6cm×6cm×1m 3cm×3cm×1m 3cm×3cm×1m 3cm×3cm×1m
construction building increase in Japan in the future. ×1pillar ×1pillar ×4pillars ×4pillars,
(Screw reinforce) (Fiber reinforce)
However, the great sectional pillar necessary for a large
scale wooden construction building has a problem with
cost and transportation. We carried out a study to solve
these problems.
2 EXPERIENT OUTLINE
The prevention method of buckling bundled up with fiber
materials or screws to four pillars of common dimensions.
They consider structural performance of pillars that a
larger cross-section of apparent. This study wants to
inspect the 6m pillar that assumed a building. However,
our facilities cannot perform experiment. Therefore we
9cm×9cm×3m 6cm×6cm×2m 3cm×3cm×1m 3cm×3cm×2m 3cm×3cm×2m,
experiment with 1/3 scale model. In addition, I compare it ×1pillar ×1pillar ×1pillar ×4pillars ×4pillars
(Screw reinforce) (Fiber reinforce)
to find consistency whether we can assume a true size
Figure 1: Test piece list (aramid fiber, glass fiber and screws)
experiment from a scale model and test it. The examination
body produced the examination body of 17 kinds 78 in T
Table 1: Specifications of each test piece
total with 5 kinds, combined pillar 12 kinds in pillar
Butt end Length Reinforce
Number dimensions Reinforce interval Looseness Number
materials of one (I call it a single pillar as follows) to find of
Test piece name of pillar (mm) material test piece
(mm) (mm)
the consistency of the comparison with combined pillar 1-90×90×3000 1 90×90 3000 - - - 6
and scale model. The reinforce screw uses all screw course 1-60×60×1000 1 60×60 1000 - - - 6
1-60×60×2000 1 60×60 2000 - - - 6
thread 51mm. It performs a comparison by the difference 1-30×30×1000 1 30×30 1000 - - - 6
in casting distance. Reinforcing fibers are compared using 1-30×30×2000 1 30×30 2000 - - - 6
4-30×30×1000-C51-50 4 30×30 1000 Screw 050 - 6
glass fiber and aramid fiber. We compare construction 4-30×30×1000-C51-25 4 30×30 1000 Screw 025 - 6
quality of fiber by either loose or tight. 4-30×30×1000-A-L 4 30×30 1000 Aramid Fiber 250 Loose 3
4-30×30×1000-A-T 4 30×30 1000 Aramid Fiber 250 Tight 3
4-30×30×1000-G-L 4 30×30 1000 Glass Fiber 250 Loose 3
1 4-30×30×1000-G-T 4 30×30 1000 Glass Fiber 250 Tight 3
Hirokazu Namiki, Graduate Student, Nippon Institute of 4-30×30×2000-C51-50 4 30×30 2000 Screw 050 - 6
Technology, 4-1 Gakuendai, Miyashiro-machi, Minamisaitama- 4-30×30×2000-C51-25 4 30×30 2000 Screw 025 - 6
gun, Saitama Pref., Japan. Email: hirokazu.namiki@gmail.com 4-30×30×2000-A-L 4 30×30 2000 Aramid Fiber 250 Loose 3
2 4-30×30×2000-A-T 4 30×30 2000 Aramid Fiber 250 Tight 3
Hideyuki Nasu, Prof. Dr. Engineer, Nippon Institute of 4-30×30×2000-G-L 4 30×30 2000 Glass Fiber 250 Loose 3
Technology, Japan. Email: nasu.hid@nit.ac.jp 4-30×30×2000-G-T 4 30×30 2000 Glass Fiber 250 Tight 3

105
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

We use 200t Amsler testing machine for experiment. We 4 CONCLUSIONS


measure displacement and maximum load using data
logger TDS-530 and displacement meter SDP-100CT Expected by 1/3 scale model is possible in this experiment.
made by Tokyo Sokki Kenkyujo Co.,Ltd. We grasp the Four narrow pillars using reinforce material were effective
structure performance of combined pillar from a in prevention for buckling. The effect is different
destruction property and maximum load. according to reinforce material, interval and construction
quality. The longer pillars gets, the lower unity of pillar
3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULT AND gets. However, the strength itself is improved effectively.
mlEXAMINATION
3.1 INSPECTION OF SCALE MODEL Table 2: Experimental results (average)
If the slim ratio of the examination body which I compared Test piece name Maximum load (kN) Inclusion (%)※1 Rate of strength increase (%)※2
1-90×90×3000 134.87 - -
is the same, the ratio of biggest strength becomes same as 1-60×60×1000 85.18 100.00(4pillar) -
1-60×60×2000 55.48 100.00(4pillar) -
the ratio of the cross section. Difference was less than 1% 1-30×30×1000 15.89 0.00(4pillar) 100.00(4pillar)
from the comparison of consistency. Therefore we think 1-30×30×2000 4.29 0.00(4pillar) 100.00(4pillar)
4-30×30×1000-C51-50 70.83 033.60(4pillar) 111.44(4pillar)
assumption of experiments with scale model that's possible 4-30×30×1000-C51-25 85.94 103.51(4pillar) 135.21(4pillar)
4-30×30×1000-A-L 63.68 000.50(4pillar) 100.18(4pillar)
(Table 3). 4-30×30×1000-A-T 66.42 013.21(4pillar) 104.51(4pillar)
4-30×30×1000-G-L 67.27 017.14(4pillar) 105.84(4pillar)
3.2 COMPARISON OF REINFORCE INTERVAL 4-30×30×1000-G-T
4-30×30×2000-C51-50
97.81
28.50
158.42(4pillar)
029.56(4pillar)
153.88(4pillar)
166.09(4pillar)
LLLFOR SCREW 4-30×30×2000-C51-25
4-30×30×2000-A-L
44.03
18.57
070.11(4pillar)
003.63(4pillar)
256.60(4pillar)
108.22(4pillar)
Reinforce interval 25mm is higher strength than reinforce 4-30×30×2000-A-T 30.22 034.05(4pillar) 176.12(4pillar)
4-30×30×2000-G-L 29.44 032.00(4pillar) 171.54(4pillar)
interval 50mm (Figure 2). The stiffening effect is high 4-30×30×2000-G-T 48.14 080.83(4pillar) 280.52(4pillar)
※ 1 Inclusion (%) ・ ・ ・ Percentage who are close to one equivalent of 6cm angle from four
because the number of screws has increased by double. equivalent of 3cm angle
Tended splitting of wood resulting from defects due to Calculation formula
Maximum
Maximum load
load of
ofcomparative
comparative test
test piece
piece
- Maximum load of 3cm amgle×4 ×100
screw failure behavior is (Figure 3). I thought is reinforced of inclusion (%)
Maximum load of 6cm angle - Maximum load of 3cm amgle×4
by screws require verification of optimal solution cost and ※2 Rate of strength increase (%)・・・Percentage increased maximum strength of pillars bundle
pouring interval, from workability. based on four equivalent 3cm angle
Calculation formula Maximum load of comparative test piece
3.3 COMPARISON OF FIBER MATERIALS of Stiffening effect (%) Maximum load of 3cm amgle×4
×100

There is strength of glass fiber than aramid fiber in all 100.0


1m 2m
parameters. We considered reinforcement effect is 80.0
Load(kN)

different by material. The destructiveness of the glass fiber 60.0


and aramid fiber was different in a tendency. We carried 40.0
out an additional experiment partially in order to inspect 20.0
the reason. It is thought that affinity with rigidity and the 0.0
Aramid Fiber

Glass Fiber
3cm×3cm×4pillars

(Reinforce interval

(Reinforce interval

6cm×6cm×1pillar
length of the fiber or the resin may influence binding force.

Glass Fiber
Aramid Fiber

(Tight)

equivalent of
(Loose)
equivalent of

(Tight)
(Loose)

3.4 COMPARISON OF CONSTRUCTION QUALITY


50mm)

25mm)
Screw

Screw

FOR REINFORCED FIBER


As a result of comparing presence or absence of loosening
caused by temporary fixing, specimens there loosening
showed lower strength than the specimens with no
Figure 2: Relationship of combined pillar with single pillar
looseness at all parameters. Showed lowest strength in the
specimens there loose aramid fibers, the reinforcing effect Table 3: Comparison of integrated
T
was almost 0%. It is necessary to do construction of tight
Sectional area Maximum load Area ratio Maximum load ratio
fiber at reinforce time because reinforce effect is not got Test piece name
(mm2) (kN) (%) (%)
when loose fiber. 1-90×90×3000 8100 134.87
11.11 11.78
1-30×30×1000 900 15.89
3.5 COMPARISON OF EFFECT OF LENGTH OF
LLLTIMBER
The screw of reinforce interval 25mm and tight glass fiber
have high unity at all parameters (Table 2). Further, the 1m
materials have higher unity than 2m materials. We Fiber
Fiber
considered for deviation of pillars each other due to
deformation of bending than 2m material is small, unity is Figure 3: Splitting Figure 4: Figure 5: Rupture
failure of the reinforcing Delamination fracture destruction of fiber
high 1m materials. The 2m materials have higher rate of portion (Screw) of fiber (Aramid fiber) (Glass fiber)
strength increase than 1m materials in all parameters
(Table 2). Rate of strength increase of combined pillar is Table 4: Difference in strength by length of member
high because of 2m materials have higher difference of Maximum load of four Maximum load of one Difference of strength
Length (mm)
maximum load of 3cm × 3cm × 4pillars and 6cm × 6cm × equivalent 3cm×3cm (kN) equivalent 6cm×6cm (kN) (%)
1000 63.56 85.16 033.98
1pillar than 1m materials (Table 4). 2000 17.16 55.48 223.31

106
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

EDGE CONNECTIONS FOR CLT PLATES: IN-PLANE SHEAR


TESTS ON HALF-LAPPED AND SINGLE-SPLINE JOINTS

Masoud Sadeghi1, Ian Smith2

ABSTRACT: A crucial aspect of fully realising the potential of cross-laminated-timber (CLT) as a structural material is
ability to interconnect it to similar and dissimilar materials. This paper primarily reports in-plane shear tests on half-lapped
and single-spline joints that make edge-to-edge connections between CLT panels using screws. A novel aspect of the study
is investigation of how placing washers under screw heads alters stiffness and strengths of joints. Subsidiary axial load tests
on screws assisted explanation of the shear joint results. Conclusions include the importance of accounting for large
displacement effects on how screws transfer forces across joint-planes, and need to improve current generation joint design
methods so that they account for effects of eccentricities that result from construction arrangement and detailing decision.

KEYWORDS: Connections, Cross-Laminated-Timber, Lateral load, Self-Tapping Screws, Shear, Washers, Withdrawal

1 INTRODUCTION 123 deformation of joints. When the rope effect is included the
estimated strength approximates the maximum load (Pm).
CLT products have particular characteristics that need to
be considered when addressing design and construction of This paper discusses and interprets tests on half-lapped and
joints in them. As the name implies, CLT has pieces of single-spline CLT connections made using self-tapping
lumber placed in layers that cross-reinforce one another, screws. Specimens were subjected to in-plane shear forces
with adjacent layer faces bonded using mechanical that simulated force flows that would occur in edge-to-
fasteners or adhesives. This overcomes what has proven to edge CLT plate connections within CLT slabs that perform
be the primary weakness of most other types of EWP, and diaphragm or shear wall functions. Supplementary screw
that has limited their usage as general purpose structural withdrawal and pull through tests were carried out to
materials. To activate toughening against splitting caused facilitate explanation of the shear force test results.
by laterally loaded fasteners, it necessary that fasteners
penetrate sufficiently deeply into CLT to be anchored into 2 METHOD
at least lamination that cross-reinforces a face lamination.
Shear force test specimens were designed to simulate
Proprietary self-tapping screws are a common choice of
antisymmetric lapped joints and non-symmetric single-
fastener because they are available in suitably large lengths
spline joints as occur in connections in CLT slabs. As
and their threads cause them to anchor properly in CLT.
shown in Figure 1 the panel element on the left side of a
Preferences also commonly favour use of relatively small
specimen was pushed down relative to the piece on the
diameter self-tapping screws (~ 10mm) because that
right side, with the apparatus constraining other
mitigates proneness to intra-lamination splitting when
distortions. The CLT used was 180mm thick Nordic X-
lateral forces on screws makes them embed into CLT.
Lam manufactured in Canada, having five equal thickness
The lateral load resistance of dowel-type fasteners (nails, laminations and an average density of 513kg/m3. The self-
screws, plain dowels, bolts, etc.) is widely taken to be tapping screws used had nominal shank diameters of 6mm,
adequately explained by the European Yield Model were 160mm long and thread to 70mm from the tip. The
(EYM). Various timber design codes use the EYM to splice elements in single-spline tests were 19mm thick
predict the yield load (Py) as the basis of design strengths Douglas fir plywood. For each type of joint two fasteners
of joints, while others supplement those capacities with an situations were considered, with those being use of only
allowance for rope effect resistance which develops at high self-tapping screws and use of self-tapping screws with
washers placed under their heads. Washers used were flat
1
Masoud Sadeghi, University of New Brunswick, Bailey Dr, shaped steel with a thickness of 3mm, and having outer
Fredericton, Canada. Email: m.sadeghi@unb.ca and inner diameters of 19mm and 7mm respectively.
2
Ian Smith, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada

107
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

Figure 2 shows axial load tests carried out with intend that deformation regime. Figure 5 shows examples of residual
they represent behaviours of self-tapping screws subjected deformations in lapped-joint speciments with and without
to longitudinal shearing surface forces similar to those washers placed under screw heads. In both instances the
developed due to initial eccentricities or large failure mechanism involved plastic bending deformation of
deformations in joints/connections. the screw on either side of the joint plane. The greatest
bending distortion occured in either instance on the side of
the joint where the screws were most effectively anchored
into the CLT. When there were no washers the anchoring
was most effective on the point-side of the joint, and
therefore development of axial forces in screws was
controlled by pull-through resistance of the head-side
Figure 1: Shear test Figure 2: Axial test portions of screws. By contrast, when there were washers
apparatus configurations the screws were anchored most effectivey on the head-side
of the joint, with development of axial forces in screws
3 PRIMARY RESULTS controlled by withdrwal resistance of threaded portions of
screws. This is entirely consistent with results of axial load
Test data were analyses to determine engineering
tests on screws.
parameters that quantify the stiffness, strength, ductility,
and energy absorption characteristics of joints or screws.
Figure 3 shows average load versus deformation responses
of half-lapped and single-spline joints without washers
inserted under screw heads. In rough terms, half-lapped
CLT plate edge-to-edge joints were is 50% superior to
single-spline joints subjected to shear flows. This is
attributed to combined effects of using relatively thin
plywood as the head-side member and eccentricities that a) without washers b) with washers
complicate force flows in single-spline joints.
Figure 5: Residual deformations in half-lapped joints
Adding washers also significantly altered the responses of
single-spline joints, with the reasons once again relating to
alteration of the axial load response of screws. Plus in that
instance there was alteration of deformation and failure
mechanisms. Also again, significant discrepancies existed
between EYM model predictions and test results.

Figure 3: Average load- Figure 4: Effect of washers As discussed in the full length version of this paper, data
displacement curves for on average load- and observations from axial load tests on screws were
shear tests: half-lapped and displacement responses of consistent with and helped explain findings from shear
single-spline joints without half-lapped joints tests.
washers
Examination of plastically deformed screws from failed 4 CONCLUSIONS
joint specimens revealed that half-lapped and single-spline Primary conclusions from the presently reported study are:
joints failed by type IV and type III mechanisms  Half-lapped self-tapping joints are about 50% stronger
respectively when there were no washers. This agreed with and stiffer than single-spline joints when acting as
the EYM theory, but does not mean that that type of design plate edge-to-edge in-plane shear connections in CLT
level model accurately predicts observed joint capacities. slabs.
Comparisons of Eurocode 5 EYM equation predictions  Placing washers in under heads of self-tapping screws
with test results indicated substantial discrepancies exist in
can significantly increase the capacities of either half-
predictions of either Py or Pm. lapped or single-spline shear joints in CLT slabs.
Figure 4 compares average load-displacement responses  It is important to consider eccentricities that affect the
for half-lapped joints with and without washers placed behaviour of shear joints in CLT slabs, as can occur
under the heads of screws. Addition of washers had only for example when single-spline connections are
slight effect on itiial stiffness of a joint, increased strength, employed.
and decreases the post-yield point ductility. However  Some inadequacies exist in contemporary European
adding washers did not create a non-ductile response. Yield Model type methods for calculating design
Inclusion of washers changed the deformation and failure capacities of self-tapping screw joints in CLT.
mechanisms after the response exceeded the small

108
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE DUCTILITY OF BOLTED


CONNECTIONS LOADED PERPENDICULAR TO THE GRAIN

Wataru Kambe1, Kei Tanaka2, Kotaro Kawano3, Takumi Nakahata4 and Masafumi Inoue5

ABSTRACT: The fracture characteristics and deformation ability in timber engineering is very important criteria for
structural design. However those fracture patterns are complex and confusing, so the quantitative evaluation is very difficult.
In our past study, we could see the three fracture types and defined them the brittle, ductile and inter-mediate type with
bolted connections loaded perpendicular to the grain. This definition isn’t enough because it’s not clear definition and we
couldn’t study the deformation ability or ductility factor.In this study, for those connections, we would apply the evaluation
method proposed by Ian et al. In this evaluation method, fracture pattern would have relevance to ductility factor. And the
evaluation methods proposed by us, AIJ code and Ian et al would be compared.

As a result, it is confirmed that fracture pattern based on mechanical calculation proposed by Ian could be agree with the
pattern based on our video observation. Then proposed method would be useful for structural design.

KEYWORDS: Bolted connections, Ductility factor, Loaded perpendicular to grain, Database

1 INTRODUCTION 123 the structural design of ultimate strength for steel and RC
structures, the ductility factor is the most important factor.
As considering of the structural performance and its
However the ductility factor for structural design in timber
fracture characteristics in timber engineering, the abilities
engineering wouldn’t be enough.
of connections would be a criterion for the whole
In our past studies[3-8], we conducted loading tests with
structures. In these days, some higher and large-scale
bolted connections loaded perpendicular to the grain and
buildings with timber members have been built, for
studied the fracture pattern of wooden members. And we
example apartment house or buildings for the offices. Then
proposed the calculation method with FEM or simple
the adequate structural design has been more important in
equation. These methods would be useful for estimation of
timber engineering.
the brittle fracture strength or the crack-initiation-strength
Architecture Institute Japan (AIJ) published the design
code[1] or design example[2] of timber structure in these for single or multiple bolted connections(Fig.1,2).
years. In these articles, we could realize that the ranks of In this study, we would calculate the ductility factor with
the deformation ability of the connections have been set [1, proposed method by Ian et al, and compared with the
2] and these definition would be based on its specification. evaluation results based on our video observation. For the
However the range of deformation couldn’t be listed and estimation method of ductility, Mohammad studied
cleared, so we couldn’t calculate the deformation ability of proposed appreciate method for bolted connections, then
the timber frame with those connections. Additionally for that method would applied. Additionally the ductility
factor, u, could be ranked by Ian et al (Table 1) [10].

1
Table 1: Proposed ductility ranks for connections [10]
Wataru Kambe, Dept. of Architecture and Environment Design,
Faculty of Eng., Kanto Gakuin University, 1-50-1 Classification Average ductility factor
Mutsuurahigashi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8501 Japan, Brittle u≦2
Email: wkambe@kanto-gakuin.ac.jp
2
Kei Tanaka, Dept. of Architecture, Faculty of Eng., Oita Univ., Low ductility 2<u≦4
Japan, Email: kei@oita-u.ac.jp Moderate ductility 4<u≦6
3
Kotaro Kawano, Taisei Corporation, Japan,
High ductility 6<u
Email: kwnkut00@pub.taisei.co.jp
4
Takumi Nakahata, Faculty of Eng., Oita Univ., Japan, 2 PREVIOUS TEST METHODS
Email: v13e6020@oita-u.ac.jp
5
Masafumi Inoue, Dept. of Architecture, Faculty of Eng., Oita In our past studies, single bolted connection (Fig.1) and
Univ., Japan, Email: inoue@oita-u.ac.jp multiple bolted connections (Fig.2) would be tested with

109
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS
glulam made of Japanese Larch, Scots Pine and Japanese fracture (based on E1) would be calculated from 2 to 6, the
cedar. In these tests, we measured the strength and relative connection which ductility factor is from 2 to 6 would be
displacement as shown these figures. ranked “Low-ductility” or “Moderate-ductility” in Ian’s
method. In another word, it is confirmed that Fracture
grain pattern based on mechanical calculation could be agree
direction with the pattern based on the video.
h 25
e2 wood species Ductile
bolt diameter
e1 20 Not Brittle
6 Brittle
grain 15

number
direction
E1
h
10 10 (our observation)
e2
5
e1 5 3
grain 0
direction
1
0<µ≦2 2<µ≦4 4<µ≦6 6<µ
2
e2
Low- Moderate- High-
3 5
Brittle
h Ductility Ductility Ductility
4 6

reinforcing
e1 plywood 7

b L
E3(proposed by Ian et al )
Figure 1: Test methods for single bolted connections [4] Figure 3: A sample of histogram with ductility
P P factor evaluated by E1 and E3
9
1 2
REFERENCES
3 4
[1] Architectural Institute of Japan, Standard for Structural
Design of Timber Structures, Maruzen, 2006 (in Japanese).
5 6 [2] Architectural Institute of Japan, Design Practice for
Engineered Timber Joints, Maruzen, 2012 (in Japanese).
7 8
[3] W. Kambe, T. Nakagomi, Y. Ikura. A Study on brittle
fracture of bolt joints with Japanese larch glulam loaded
P
perpendicular to the grain based on local fracture approach,
P P
Trans. AIJ, No. 611: 111-118, 2007 (in Japanese).
[4] W. Kambe, N. Itagaki, Y. Iijima. An experimental study on
embedment strength for bolted connections loaded
perpendicular to the grain, Trans. AIJ, Vol. 75, No.
657:1991-1999, 2010 (in Japanese).
[5] Y. Kamakura, M. Hirosue, W. Kambe, T.Nakagomi. A study
on fracture mechanics on crack propagation behaviour about
mode I fracture with Japanese larch glulam, Journal of
Structural Engineering, Vol.57B: 329-334, 2011(in
90
Japanese).
[6] W. Kambe, T. Fujioka, Y. Kamakura, T. Nakagomi. An
experimental study on crack initiation in bolted connections
loaded perpendicular to the grain by two bolts, Journal of
P

Figure 2: Test methods for multiple bolted connections Structural Engineering, Vol.58B: 271-276, 2012 (in
[6,7,8] Japanese).
[7] W. Kambe, K. Tanaka, K. Kawano, T. Nakahata, M. Inoue.
3 EVALUATION RESULTS OF DUCTILITY An experimental study on fracture characteristic on grid-
bolted connections loaded perpendicular to the grain, AIJ
FACTOR
journal of technology and design, Vol.19, No. 43: 897-902,
In this study, with loading test results in our past articles, 2013 (in Japanese).
we would calculate the ductility factor based on proposed [8] W. Kambe, K. Tanaka, T. Nakagomi. An experimental study
on crack initiation strength of rowed-bolted connections
method and compared with our definition based on video
loaded perpendicular to the grain, Summary of AIJ, 2013(in
observation. The former is called E1 and the latter is called Japanese).
E3 in this study. Those results would be shown like Fig. 3. [9] M. Mohammad, W. M. Toro, P. Quenneville and A.
Salenkinovich. Stiffness and ductility of bolted connections,
The ductility factor of specimens observed its brittle Proceedings of WCTE: 2010.
fracture (based on E1) would be calculated under 2, the [10] I. Smith, A. Asiz, M. Snow, Y.H. Chui. Possible Canadian /
connection which ductility factor is under 2 would be ISO Approach to Deriving Design Values from Test Data,
ranked “brittle” in proposed method by Ian et al (E3) . Proceedings of the international Council for Research and
And the ductility factor of specimens observed its ductile Innovation in Building and Construction: 2006.

110
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

DEVELOPMENT OF CONNECTING METHOD FOR TIMBER STRUCTURE


USING EXPANDING DENSIFIED WOOD - APPLICATION TO KEYED
MORTISE AND TENON CONNECTION WITH DENSIFIED WOOD

Masaya Kato1, Akinori Iwasaki2, Kei Tanaka1 and Masafumi Inoue1

ABSTRACT: In recent year, for rubbish disposal and waste problem, the segregation of wood and the metal are difficult
problem to be solved. The problem will be solved to use the wood based connector such as densified wood connector
instead of metal connector at joints in timber structures. In this study, the densified technique is adopted for sugi. The usage
of densified sugi lead to improve recycling rate because the segregation is not necessary. The strength characteristics of
keyed mortise and tenon connection with key made from densified sugi was unveiled by the tension test of joint. From the
test results, the key made of 70% densified ratio without steam treatment is suitable for keyed mortise and tenon connection.

KEYWORDS: Densified wood, Sugi, Expanding, Keyed mortise and tenon connection, Tension test

1 INTRODUCTION 1 with mortise and key. This is a traditional detail


of connection in Japan.
In recent year, the rubbish disposal and waste problem
should be solved in all industry. The technology to
promote the recycling of construction waste is not yet
established. Especially, for the construction waste, the
recycling ratio is lower than that of other industry. One of
the reason for this problem is that the segregation of wood
and the metal are difficult. It is preferable to substitute the Beam
metal connector to wooden connector in timber structures.
The hardwoods are generally used for the connector in Tenon
timber structures such as dowel. However, the percentage
of hardwood in the wood resource is few. Sugi is typical
Mortise
artificial softwood in Japan. On the other hand, the Column
resource of sugi is huge in Japan. The densified technique
is adopted for sugi. The usage of densified sugi leads to
improve recycling rate because the segregation is not
necessary. The strength characteristics of keyed mortise
and tenon connection with key made from densified sugi
was unveiled by the tension test of joint.

2 OVERVIEW OF KEYED MORTISE AND Key


TENON CONNECTION
Figure 1 shows the detail of a keyed mortise and tenon
connection. The keyed mortise and tenon connection Figure 1: Detail of a keyed mortise and tenon connection
is composed of beam with long tenon, column
3 DENSIFIED METHOD
The outline of method of densification was shown as
1
Masaya Kato, Kei Tanaka, Masafumi Inoue, Oita University, below. The densified woods are compressed to the
700, Dan-noharu, Oita, Japan. E-mail: v13e6007@oita-u.ac.jp, direction perpendicular to fiber. Only sugi materials are
kei@oita-u.ac.jp, inoue@oita-u.ac.jp
2
compressed. The sugi materials are pressed by cold-press
Akinori Iwasaki, Kumagai Gumi Co.,Ltd, Tokyo,Japan.

111
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS
after microwave treatment by high frequency oven for one specimens used non-densified key key,, initial stiffness are
minute. The sugi materials were fixed about 3 days after almost the same values. Compared to the difference of
compressed. Steam treatment is used to expand densified densified ratio, specimens for 50% of densified ratios are
sugi in artificial expanding method. the highest values. At the difference of steam treatment
The definition of densi
densification
fication ratio is shown Eq.(1). time, specimens without steam treatment are the highest
stiffness. Initial stiffness decreases gradually to steam
A− B treatment time becomes longer.
Densificat ion ratio = × 100  (%) (1)   
 
A
Initial stiffness (kN/mm)
14
Non-densified 30%,50% 70%
where A=thickness before densification, B=thickness after 12 wood
densification. Average

10

4 TENSION TEST OF JOINT 8

6
4.1 TESTING METHOD
4
The list of specimens is shown in table 1. The parameters
2
of this test are species of the key, difference of densified
ratio of the key, and difference of steam treatment time at 0
NPJ-S NPJ-H NPJ-K NPJ- NPJ- NPJ- NPJ- NPJ- NPJ-
Cw-S- Cw-S- Cw-S- Cw-S- Cw-S- Cw-S-
the densified sugi. The parameters of the species of the key 30-S3 50-S3 70-N 70-S1 70-S3 70-S5

are sugi, hinoki and oak. Difference of densified ratio at


the keys are 0%, 30%, 50% and 70%. And difference of Figure 2: Initial stiffness
steam treatment times at densified sugi are 0min, 1min,
3min and 5min. 4.2.3 Maximum load
All specimens are loaded by monotonous tension loading. Maximum loads
loads of all specimens are shown in figure 3. In
specimens used non-densified key, maximum load is
Table 1: List of specimens in tension test increased to density becomes higher. Compared to the
difference of densified ratio, specimens used key for 70%
Density(×103 kg/m3 ) Steam
Name Species
Densified
treatment
Number of of densified ratios are the highest values. At the difference
ratio(%) sample
Before densification After densification time
of steam treatment time time,, specimens without steam
NPJ-S Sugi 0.34~0.38
treatment are the highest values. Maximum load decreases
NPJ-H Hinoki 0.44~0.48
gradually to steam treatment time becomes longer.
NPJ-K Oak 0.76~0.83

NPJ-Cw-S-30-S3 0.38~0.42 0.39~0.56 30


3min Each
Maximum load (kN)
NPJ-Cw-S-50-S3 0.35~0.40 0.52~0.60 50
3 samples
14
Non-densified 30%,50% 70%
NPJ-Cw-S-70-N 0.39~0.41 1.03~1.05 0min wood
Sugi 12
NPJ-Cw-S-70-S1 1min
0.90~1.05 70
NPJ-Cw-S-70-S3 0.35~0.41 3min 10
NPJ-Cw-S-70-S5 0.90~1.04 5min
8

6
4.2 TEST RESULT Average
4
4.2.1 Failure mode
Photo 1 and 2 shows typical failure mode. Final failure 2

modes are fracture of key in all specimens. 0


NPJ-S NPJ-H NPJ-K NPJ- NPJ- NPJ- NPJ- NPJ- NPJ-
Cw-S- Cw-S- Cw-S- Cw-S- Cw-S- Cw-S-
30-S3 50-S3 70-N 70-S1 70-S3 70-S5

Figure 3: Maximum load

5 CONCLUSIONS
The
T he following conclusions obtained from the results of
tension test. Key made of 70% densified sugi without
steam treatment have higher initial stiffness and maximum
load than oak. Initial stiffness and maximum load
Photo 1 and 2: Failure mode decreases gradually to the time of steam treatment
becomes longer.
4.2.2 Initial stiffness Therefore, the key made of 70% densified sugi without
Initial stiffness of all specimens are shown in figure 2. In steam treatment is suitable for keyed mortise and tenon
connection.

112
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

ADHESIVELY BONDED TIMBER JOINTS — TO WHICH


EXTENT DO DEFECTS MATTER?

Till Vallée1,a, Simon Fecht2,a, Cordula Grunwald3,a, Thomas Tannert4

ABSTRACT: Although adhesively bonded timber joints have proven their suitability as a structural joining method, often
yielding in better mechanical performance, practitioners remain reluctant to consider them as a substitute for traditional
mechanical fasteners. Among the reasons invoked, the quality control with regard to defects in the adhesive layer remains
the most challenging. Little research has been put into the evaluation of the effect of defects, respectively to which extent
they really influence the capacity of bonded joints. This research sheds new light on that topic by presenting experimental
evidence completed by numerical calculations, showing that the issue of defects on joint capacity is usually overestimated.

KEYWORDS: Adhesively, bonded, joints, capacity, experimental, numerical, defects.

1 INTRODUCTION 123 sufficiently close to the end of the overlap, stresses can be
affected as much as 25%. Logically, the most critical stress
Adhesively bonded timber joints in which adhesives are state occurs at the extreme of the overlap. More
considered substitutes for traditional mechanical fasteners, specifically [4] concludes that: “for adherends that do not
are increasingly in the focus of research. Practitioners, yield, the reduction in strength, as the defect size
however, often remain sceptical because of the increases, is not proportional for small defect sizes”.
uncertainties related to the quality of the bonded joint. A
The objective of this paper is to present experimental
major concern is the presence of defects, e.g., voids,
evidence followed by numerical investigations to shed
porosity, micro-cracking in the adhesive and lack of
light on the relationship between defects and joint
adhesion which are generated by inadequate preparation of
capacity. For this purpose artificial defects have been
the joint or by environmental degradation of the interface.
inserted in adhesively bonded timber joints.
This issue is mostly addressed by trying to detect defects
before servicing the corresponding joints. Due to the large
variety of defects [1], non-destructive-tests (NDT) have 2 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS
been developed for that purpose, e.g. in the context of 2.1 MATERIALS AND SPECIMENS
composite materials [2]. These techniques have proven to
detect defects with different success [3]. Besides All tests were performed on single lap shear specimens
warranting the absence of defects using NDT, or at least consisting of beech samples (100mm x 25mm x 5mm)
aiming to do so, research was also devoted to investigate, bonded together using a 2C epoxy adhesive (Henkel Hysol
respectively quantify, the effects of defects on the capacity 9492) with an overlap length of 25mm and a thickness of
of bonded joints. 0.5mm. Thus the total bonded surface amounts to 625mm².
Defects were simulated using precisely calibrated circular
The general conclusion of investigations related to flaws Teflon patches of different diameters.
and defects in bonded joints is that that stresses are
essentially unaffected far from the void. If the void is Two series were defined: S1, cf. Fig. 1, in which the size
of the centrally placed defect was varied from 5mm to
1
Till Vallée, Email: till.vallee@ifam.fraunhofer.de 20mm, in steps of 5mm, corresponding to defects of 3% to
2 50% of the bonded surfaces; and S2, cf. Fig. 2, in which
Simon Fecht, Email: simon.fecht@ifam.fraunhofer.de
3 defects (5mm) were arranged in different patterns (1x1,
C. Grunwald, Email: grunwald@ifam.fraunhofer.de
a 2x2, and 3x3). All results were compared to a defect-free
Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and
configuration. Testing was performed on a UTM, load-
Advanced Materials IFAM, Wiener Straße 12, 28359
Bremen/Germany.
displacements and joint capacities were recorded.
4
T. Tannert, Assistant Professor, Departments of Wood Science
& Civil Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2424
Main Mall, Vancouver, Canada. Email: thomas.tannert@ubc.ca

113
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

Figure 1: Specimens of series S1, different defect sizes

Figure 4: Capacity of specimens of series S2 – plotted


against defect pattern

3 CONCLUSIONS
Figure 2: Specimens of series S2, different defect patterns
The influence of defects on the capacity of adhesively
bonded joints was found to be by less pronounced than
2.2 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS commonly assumed by practitioners, which at least allows
After being tested, all specimens of both series S1 and S2 questioning the severe reservations formulated towards the
exhibited failure inside the timber, failure never occurred issue of poorly bonded connections. Furthermore, using
in the adhesive layer. When no defect was artificially numerical modelling (not presented in this abstract, but
inserted, capacity amounted for around 3.56 kN (with a fully developed in the paper) it is possible to correctly
variance of 22%); this value is subsequently taken as the evaluate the effect of defects on the mechanical behaviour
reference value for all joints with defects. For series S1, as of bonded joints.
shows Fig. 3, increasing the defect area reduces the joint
capacity; this reduction, however, is relatively limited; it REFERENCES
amounted for less than 30% when the defect was set to
10mm (corresponding to a “loss” of the bonded surface of [1] R.D. Adams, P. Cawley, A review of defect types and
50%). For series S2, as displayed in Fig. 4, the effect of non-destructive testing techniques for composites and
defects is even less pronounced, with almost no reduction bonded joints, NDT International, Volume 21, Issue 4,
in joint capacities even for the quite severe defect pattern August 1988, Pages 208-222.
3x3 (reduction of the bonded area of around 28%). [2] R.D. Adams, The nondestructive evaluation of bonded
structures, Construction and Building Materials,
Volume 4, Issue 1, March 1990, Pages 3-8.
[3] C.J. Brotherhood, B.W. Drinkwater, S. Dixon, The
detectability of kissing bonds in adhesive joints using
ultrasonic techniques, Ultrasonics, Volume 41, Issue
7, September 2003, Pages 521-529.
[4] E.F. Karachalios, R.D. Adams, Lucas F.M. da Silva,
Strength of single lap joints with artificial defects,
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives,
Volume 45, September 2013, Pages 69-76.

Figure 3: Capacity of specimens of series S1 – plotted


against defect size

114
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

EVALUATION ON SHEAR PERFORMANCE OF WOOD-


CONCRETE COMPOSITE ANCHORED WITH STEEL REBAR

Yukyung Shin1, Sang-Joon Lee1, Kwang-Mo Kim1, Moon-Jae Park1

ABSTRACT: The wood-concrete composite can be a structural member with improved performance, and widely use in
structural engineering field. Related researches have been done, but are not enough to fundamental studies on shear
performance. This study is performed for evaluating shear performance with anchored steel rebar. Yield mode and reference
design value were derived with EYM, and proved results using shear test. Finally, finite element analysis was conducted to
validate failure mode shapes.

KEYWORDS: Wood-concrete composite, Shear performance, Anchored steel rebar, EYM, Finite element analysis

1 INTRODUCTION 1 2.2 WOOD-CONCRETE COMPOSITE


Wooden members are widely using in structural The shape and size of wood-concrete composite were
engineering due to interests of environment friendly referred to previous research (Jutila and Salokangas, 2010;
material. Upgrading structural performance, wood- Lee et al., 2012). The details were shown in Figure 1. The
concrete composite is developed so that compressive and anchorage length as fixed in wood part and 8 anchorage
bending strength is improved. It is considered one of the lengths were used in concrete part to verify the effect of
main issues for wood engineering (Lee et al., 2011). anchorage length.
Yeoh (2011) pointed out that one of the effective designs
for wood-concrete composite was high composite action.
Therefore, this study researched on shear performance of
wood-concrete composite. Composite model was assumed
to be connected wood block and concrete block by steel
rebar (Jutila and Salokangas, 2010). It was one of the
simplest models for shear performance evaluation. To
calculated shear performance, European Yield Model
(EYM), shear test, and finite element analysis were
conducted.
Figure 1: Wood-Concrete Composite Model
2 MATERIALS AND METHOD
3 EVALUATION ON THE SHEAR
2.1 MATERIALS PERFORMANCE
The species of wood for manufacturing the wood-concrete
composite was pinus koraiensis Sieb. and moisture content 3.1 EUROPEAN YIELD MODEL (EYM)
and oven-dried density were 13.5±2.04% and 0.43±0.04 European yield model (EYM) was a prediction method of
g/cm3 respectively. Concrete was ready-mixed type which shear performance without field test. It could determine
was made by Korean standard (KSF 4009). Design target reference design values (Z) that represented yield modes of
strength of concrete was 21 MPa. Steel rebar was used as a the wood composite, and predict the yield loads and
shear connector, and its yield strength was more than 294 deformation shapes.
MPa.

1
Yukyung Shin, Department of Forest Products, Korea Forest
Research Institute, Seoul, Korea. E-mail: skys28@naver.com

115
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS
3.2 SHEAR TEST from shear test. While the concrete part showed brittle
failure, the wood part represented deformation.
Shear test was performed using Universal Testing Machine
(UTM) (Instron co. ltd, USA). The test was referred to Stress was focused on steel rebar, which signified steel
previous research (Lee et. al., 2012). rebar was charged the most of shear stress (Figure 2 (a)).
Also, strain was concentrated on wood, which meant wood
3.3 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS part was deformed due to shear load (Figure 2 (b)). It was
different from the result of shear stress. It might be
Finite element analysis was applied for verifying shear because analysis was not performed up to failure of the
performance of wood-concrete composite with finite model. If the analysis continues and load increases,
element program ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.0. Each part concrete would have cracking and wood would remain
of the composite model was designed as a solid element deformed shape due to ductile property.
(SOLID 186, 187) to consider local deformation and
connection between wood and concrete was assumed
frictionless.

4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION


4.1 YIELD MODE AND REFERENCE DESIGN
VALUE (Z)
The results of EYM were shown in Table 1. Yield mode
Figure 2: Stress and Strain Distribution
and reference design value (Z) were determined due to
anchorage lengths of steel rebar.
5 CONCLUSIONS
Table 1: Result of EYM
Anchorage Reference This study was performed to evaluate shear performance of
Yield Mode wood-concrete composite. First, EYM was applied for the
Length (mm) Design Value (N)
5 Is 2,100 preliminary prediction and yield mode. As the anchorage
10 Is 4,200 length was short, Is mode was calculated meaning failure
15 IV 5,945 in sliding part. The others broke out IV mode with plastic
20 IV 5,945 hinge in shear plane. Second, shear test proved failure
40 IV 5,945 mode of EYM and yield load showed 7,932±1,266 N.
60 IV 5,945 Finally, with FE analysis shear performance was validated.
80 IV 5,945 However, the deformation shape of FE analysis was
different from one of shear test. The result of FE analysis
4.2 YIELD AND MAXIMUM SHEAR LOAD showed bending of steel rebar and bearing stress of wood.

Shear test results were represented in Table 2. Failure REFERENCES


shapes showed concrete cracking and steel rebar bending
that indicated the plastic hinge at the shear plane. [1] A. Jutila and L. Salokangas: Wood-Concrete
Composite Bridges – Finnish Speciality in the Nordic
Table 2: Result of Shear Test
Countries. Proceedings of International Conference on
Anchorage Yield Load Maximum Load Timber Bridges, Lillehammer, Norway, pp.383-392,
Length (mm) (N) (N) 2010.
20 mm 7,527 10,602 [2] Architectural Institute of Korea: Korea Wood Design
40 mm 7,956 26,985 Manual, 2008.
60 mm 9,652 27,403 [3] D. Yeoh, M. Fragiancomo, M. De Franceschi, and K.
80 mm 11,728 32,055 H. Boon: State of the Art on Timber-Concrete
100 mm 10,558 27,569 Composite Structures: Literature Review. Journal of
120 mm 9,808 29,148 structural Engineering 137(10), pp.1085-1095, 2011.
140 mm 10,144 29,802 [4] S. Lee, C. EOM, and K. Kim: Shear Performance of
160 mm 11,956 25,807 Wood-concrete Composite I. Journal of Korean Wood
Science and Technology 40(3), pp.186-193, 2012.
4.3 DEFORMATION AND STRESS/STRAIN [5] S. Lee, C. EOM, and K. Kim: Shear Performance of
Finite element analysis was performed to verifying shear Wood-concrete Composite II. Journal of Korean
test. Model which considered orthotropic wood properties Wood Science and Technology 40(5), pp.327-334,
was used and applied maximum load from shear test to the 2012.
normal direction of wood part. The results were different

116
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

PULL-OUT STRENGTH OF GLUED-IN ROD JOINT FROM LVL

Kazutoshi Ito1, Wonwoo Lee 2, Changsuk Song 2, Kei Tanaka1,


Mikio Koshihara 3 and Masafumi Inoue1

ABSTRACT: Recently, the Japanese government enacted a new law in order to promote large wooden building. As a result,
the momentum in the construction of large wooden building especially multi-stories wooden buildings in local area has been
growing rapidly. In order to achieve these buildings, the higher structural performances than that by usual technique are
required.GIR joint system is widely adapted for the joint part of wooden structures. Glued in rod joint-system(GIR) have
high strength and high rigidity compared to existing joint-system. On the other hand, the structural LVL with the flexibility
performance of cross-section and high structural performance is expected as a material for multi-stories wooden building.
So, in this study, the pull-out tests of GIR joints inserted to structural LVL are carried out. And structural characteristics of
this type of joint is discussed. Maximum strength and allowable load for temporary loading obtained by pull-out tests are
presented.

KEYWORDS: Metal connector, Adhesive, LVL, Pull-out test

11 INTRODUCTION 123
The structural LVL with the flexibility performance of
In large wooden building, large span construction such as cross-section and high structural performance is expected
gymnasium, museum and domed stadium exist. For these as a material for multi-stories wooden building. On the
buildings, it is difficult to carry out structural design. But, other hand, glued in rod joint-system(GIR) have higher
recently, the Japanese government enacted a new law in strength and rigidity than that of existing joint-system. So,
order to promote large wooden building. As a result, the in this study, the pull-out tests of GIR joints inserted to
momentum in the construction of large wooden building structural LVL are carried out. From test result, structural
especially multi-stories wooden building for local area has performance of the GIR joint will be discussed.
been growing rapidly. In order to achieve these buildings,
higher structural performances than that by usual technique
2 SPECIMENS
are required.
1
Table 1 shows the list of specimens. Figure 1 shows the
Kazutoshi Ito, Kei Tanaka, Masafumi Inoue, Faculty of shape of specimens. The LVL is classified as 120E in
Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dan-no-haru, Oita, Oita,
Japanese Agricultural Standard. It is made from larch.
JAPAN.
Email: v13e6003@ oita-u.ac.jp, kei@oita-u.ac.jp, inoue@oita- Metal connector with hollow full thread bolt (φ24) is used.
u.ac.jp Embedded directions of the metal connectors are parallel
2
Wonwoo Lee, Changsuk Song, National LVL Association, and orthogonal to grain. Embedded length and the number
Shinkiba1-7-22,Koto-ku, Tokyo,Japan. of connector are shown in table1. Also, 2 types layout of
Email: w_lee@key-tec.co.jp, c_song@key-tec.co.jp connectors are fabricated (cf. table 1).The adhesive used in
3
Mikio Koshihara, Institute of Industrial Science, The University the GIR joints is epoxy resin adhesive. Curing period of
of Tokyo, Komaba 4-6-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan. adhesive is for 14days. Number of specimen is 6 in each
Email: kos@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp types.

117
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS
Table 1: List of specimens 51 MAXIMUM STRENGTH AND ALLOW-
specimen name
embedded layout of
embedded
length
number of number of ABLE LOAD FOR TEMPORARY
direction connector connector specimen
P-A1-100
(mm)
100
LOADING
P-A1-200 200 1
P-A1-300 300 Figure 2 shows the maximum strength and the allowable
P-A2a-200
parallel
to grain
load for temporary loading(To). Allowable load for
A‐direction
200 2
6
(Total 60 )
temporary loading are given from the lower limit values
P-A2b-200
B‐direction
2/3 of the maximum strength.
O-A1-100 100 In maximum strength of O-A1 series, as can be seen from
orthogonal
O-A1-200
O-A1-300
to grain
200
300
1
Table 2 and Figure 2, it is showed value of relative to
embedded length. In maximum strength of P-A2 series, the
metal connector for
pull-out test(M24) metal connector(M24)
B-direction values are higher 1.2 times than the A-
800 direction values. In allowable load for temporary loading,
embedded
length it is shown similar behavior with maximum load. However,
120

700 as can be seen from Figure2 , in the specimens embedded


connector for set up to
embedded length testing machine(M24)
300mm, value of orthogonal to grain are higher than that
of parallel to grain.
connector for set up to strength(kN)
800 testing machine(M24) 250
parallel:maximum strength
A B
orthogonal:maximum strength
150
60

200 parallel:allowable load for temporary loading

200 orthogonalallowable load for temporary loading

metal connector for 150


pull-out test(M24)

Figure 1: Shape of specimens(unit in


mm) 100

3 TEST METHOD 50

Monotonic tensile loading is applied to specimens by the 0


2000kN universal testing machine. Loading speed is 0 100 200 300 400
0.5mm/min. embedded length(mm)
strength(kN)
250
4 FAILURE MODE
200
Photo 1 and 2 show the failure mode in each series
specimens. In the case of parallel to grain, specimens a 150
shear failure in timber. In some of the two metal
connectors placed A-direction, shear failure in timber 100
occurred with LVL between the metal connectors. (cf.
photo 1). 50
maximum strength
allowable load for temporary loading
In case of orthogonal to grain, all specimens shown similar 0
P-A2a-200 P-A2b-200
failure mode. That is surface of base material of specimen specimens name
is lifted up with metal connector. Inside of the LVL, failure
that adhesive is peeled is showed at interface between the Figure 2: Maximum strength and allowable
adhesive layer and the wood (cf. photo 2). load for temporary loading

6 CONCLUSIONS
In this study, the pull-out tests of GIR inserted to structural
LVL are carried out. And structural characteristics of this
type joint was discussed.
Maximum strength and allowable load for temporary
loading obtained by pull-out tests were presented. In
maximum strength of P-A2 series, the B-direction values
are higher 20% than the A-direction values. In allowable
Photo 1: Failure mode Photo 2: Failure mode
load for temporary loading, it is shown similar behavior to
(parallel to grain) (orthogonal to grain)
the maximum strength.

118
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

EVALUATE BEARING STRESS OF GLULAM USING DIGITAL


IMAGE CORRELATION

Gi Young Jeong1, Moon Jae Park2

ABSTRACT: The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of different sizes of drift pins (12mm, 16mm, 20mm, 30mm)
and six orientations of glulam associated with pin positions (RL, TL, LR, TR, LT, RT) on bearing stress and strain
distributions of glulam using digital image correlation (DIC). Different bearing stresses, strain distributions, and fracture
behaviours associated with the orientation of the glulam and pin sizes were observed. As the diameter of drift pins increased,
the bearing strength increased regardless of the orientation. However, the trends of failure behaviours did not change by the
pin size.

KEYWORDS: Bearing stress, Glulam, Digital image correlation

1 INTRODUCTION 123 16mm, 20mm, 30mm) were used to analyze the effect of
the pin size on the bearing strain distribution and strength.
The structural weak point in wood frame building is the
joint area. The design value of the joint area could help for
architects and contractors to select proper connections.
Drift pine type joints are one of the most common
connectors used in wood frame building. Wood as an
orthotropic material showing the three distinctive
properties according to the longitudinal, radial, and
tangential directions. With the directional dependent
property of wood, the way of the pin aligned with glulam
creates six different combinations of loading cases.
Therefore, design values for pin connection in glulam
should require bearing stress from the six different oriented
specimens.

2 MATERIALS AND METHODS


Figure 1 shows six different oriented specimens (RL, TL,
LR, TR, LT, and RT) prepared to measure the bearing
strength and strain distribution of pin connection. The first
letter indicates the length direction of a pin aligned with
the fiber direction in glulam. The second letter indicates
the applied loading direction associated with a pin to the
fiber direction in glulam. Different sizes of pins (12mm,

1
Gi Young Jeong, Chonnam National University, 77
Yongbongro Bukgu, Gwangju 500-757, South Korea
Email: gjeong1@jnu.ac.kr
2
Moon Jae Park, Korea Forest Research Institute, 57 Hoegiro, Figure 1: Six differently oriented glulam associated with pin
Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 130-712, South Korea positions
Email: mjpark@forest.go.kr

119
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS
Figure 2 shows the 3-dimentional digital image correlation specimen were mostly govern by strain y distribution,
set up with two cameras and universal test machine. Before whereas fracture behaviours of the RT and TR specimen
load applied, the dimensions of all specimens were were mostly govern by shear strain distribution.
measured and speckle pattern was applied to the surface of
the front side of the specimen. The loading rate was
1mm/min. During the load applied, a series of images was
captured at ten frame rates to compute the strain
distributions.

a) Strain x distribution from DIC

Figure 2: Digital image correlation set up for bearing stress


test

3 RESULTS b) Strain y distribution from DIC


3.1 BEARING STRENGTH
Comparing the bearing strength of glulam with a 12mm
pin, the highest bearing strength of 24.78 MPa with a
coefficient of variation (cov) of 9% was observed from the
RL specimen, whereas the lowest bearing strength of 7.71
MPa with a cov of 29% was observed from the LR
specimen. The average bearing strength of 23.42 MPa,
17.66 MPa, 14.14 MPa, 8.62 MPa from the TL, RT, TR,
and LT specimens were observed, respectively. For the
design bearing strength, it can be suggested that the RL
and TL, the RT and TR, and the LR and LT could be
c) Shear strain distribution from DIC
combined as three different groups. Figure 3: Different stress distribution from DIC and failure
behaviours

3.2 STRAIN DISTRIBUTION AND FAILURE 4 CONCLUSIONS


BEHAVIOR
Different bearing stress, strain distributions, and failure
behavior of pin connection were observed using DIC. The
Figure 3 shows the strain distribution from DIC and failure bearing stress of the differently oriented specimen was
behaviour of glulam. Different strain distributions occurred found to be directional dependent. The strain distribution
in the main member. Figure 3a shows the stress x from DIC was highly related with the failure behavior of
distribution. Maximum strain x occurred the main member the connection. It could be used for the connection design
near the pin. The failure behaviour shows that cracks including the end and edge distance related to the glulam
propagate in the x direction at the hole. Figure 3b shows orientation and the pin size.
the strain y distribution from DIC and failure behaviour of
glulam. Much higher strain y value was observed the area
near the pin. As the distance away from the area near pin,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
the magnitude of strain y value is averaged out. It is This study was financially supported by Chonnam
strongly related with the design value for the bearing National University and Korea Forest Research Institute,
strength. Fracture behaviours of the RL, TL, LT, and LR 2013.

120
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

WOOD-BASED STRUCTURAL-USE PANEL DIAPHRAGMS AND


SHEAR WALLS: PROBLEMS DUE TO MOISTURE EXPOSURE
AND RECOMMENDED REPAIRS

Agron E. Gjinolli1 and Dick Bower2

ABSTRACT In North America diaphragms and shear walls, constructed with oriented strand board (OSB) and plywood
provide the primary lateral load resisting system in residential construction and are very popular in low-rise light-
commercial buildings. The ability of these assemblies to resist and transfer shear loads is greatly dependent on the strength
and behaviour of sheathing-to-framing connections. A case study describing an investigation technique and testing of shear
wall and plywood floor diaphragm problems associated with prolonged exposure to rain is provided. The repair technique,
including recommended steps taken for correcting problems related to fastener nailhead embedment and improving glue
bond durability problems for plywood panels, is presented.

KEYWORDS: OSB, plywood, diaphragms, shear-walls, delamination, embedded nail-heads

1 INTRODUCTION 123 dimensional changes of the installed panels after they have
been exposed to moisture. A summary of a case study
In the United States, wood structural panels must be involving structural plywood performance problems
manufactured in conformance with U.S. Department of related to nailhead embedment and face veneer
Commerce Voluntary Product Standard, PS 1, delamination due to prolonged exposure to the rain is
Construction and Industrial Plywood [6], or PS 2, provided, including the recommended steps taken to
“Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use correct the problems.
Panels” [7]. In Canada, plywood structural panels are
manufactured in accordance with Canadian Standards
Association Standards CSA O121-M1978 Douglas Fir
2 CASE STUDY
Plywood, CSA O151-04 Canadian Softwood Plywood or The observed structure was a two-story addition to a
CSA O153-M1980 Poplar Plywood, and CSA Standard school building located in Southern California. The
O325 “Construction Sheathing. building under construction utilized light-framed wood
construction. The L-shaped footprint of the structure is 43
These standards establish minimum performance criteria
meter in the north/south direction and 16.5 meter and 8.5
based on the intended end-use application for the product
meter, respectively in the east/west direction.
and have worked well for ensuring satisfactory
performance of panels used in typical sheathing
2.1 EXAMINATION METHODS AND
applications. As with any building product, however,
PROTOCOL
performance problems can and do occur. Performance
problems with wood-based structural-use panels, as with The floor and roof structure were visually examined for
any building materials, can occur during construction of outward signs of moisture exposure, installation issues and
the building or after the building has been completed and possible glue-bond problems. Two samples of the floor
occupied. The most common problems associated with plywood sheathing were also removed from selected areas
wood-based structural-use panels are related to to investigate the panel glue bond and sheathing fastener
connection. Observation of the removed samples and the
1 results of the testing are presented in testing section of this
Agron E. Gjinolli, P.E., Universal AET, 1925 Hwy 50 and 132,
paper. Selected areas of the floor panels were tested for
Stoughton, WI 53589, USA. Email: agjinolli@universalaet.com
2
Dick Bower, TECO, Certification and Testing Division, Sun moisture content using digital moisture meter.
Prairie, Wisconsin, USA

121
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

2.2 TESTING OF STRUCTURAL PLYWOOD well-established record of reliability. Most performance


DIAPHRAGM PANELS problems associated with wood structural panels are
related to moisture exposure. In addition, fastener heads
Since the building was located in a high seismic region of
can become embedded in the panel due to thickness swell
Southern California, plywood floor diaphragms and shear
of the panels caused from prolonged exposure to the wet
walls of this structure provide the primary lateral load
weather. A summary of a case study describing an
resisting system. The capacity of these assemblies to resist
investigation method for a plywood floor diaphragm and
and transfer shear loads is appreciably dependent on the
shear wall problems associated with prolonged exposure to
strength and behaviour of sheathing-to-fastener
rain is provided. A step by step field repair procedure for
connections. In order to predict the potential for reduction
damaged plywood panels due to embedment of fastener
in shear capacity of sheathing connections, a nail lateral
nailheads and problems associated with plywood glue
resistance testing according to section 7 of PS 2-09 [6] was
bond durability was provided.
conducted on two (2) sets of test specimens removed from
the floor assembly.

REFERENCES
[1] Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM) for One-
and Two Family Dwellings. American Forest and
Paper Association (AFPA) and American Wood
Council (AWC), USA, 2012.
[2] Guideline for structural condition assessment of
existing buildings; Structural Engineering Institute of
the American Society of Civil Engineers, SEI/ASCE
11-9. USA, 1999.
[3] Fernando S. Fonseca, Johnn P. Judd. , Effect of
Overdriven-Nail-Depth Combinations on Wood Shear
Walls. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference on
Timber Engineering, June 14-17, Lahti, Finland ,
2004.
[4] Folz, B., Filiatrault, Andre. CASHEW (A Computer
Program for Cyclic Analysis of Wood Shear Walls),
CUREE. University of California, San Diego, USA,
2000.
[5] Gjinolli, A., Vogt, J., In Service Moisture Problems
and Structural Performance of OSB Panels
Proceedings of the 9th World Conference on Timber
Engineering, August 6-10, Portland, Oregon, USA,
2006.
[6] U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of
Standards & Technology, 1995. Voluntary Product
Standard PS 1-09, Structural Plywood. Washington,
DC, USA
[7] U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of
Standards & Technology, 2004. Voluntary Product
Standard PS 2-10, Performance Standard for Wood-
Figure 1: Nail lateral load test in accordance with PS Based Structural-Use Panels. Washington, DC, USA
2-09(top) and CASHEW program output; load- [8] Vogt, J.J. & Gjinolli, A.E. 2005. Investigation of
displacement response from monotonic pushover problems involving wood structural panels, 3rd
analysis (MIDDLE) and cyclic load analysis (bottom) International Conference on Forensic Engineering,
Diagnosing Failures and Solving Problems,
Institution of Civil Engineers, London, United
3 CONCLUSIONS Kingdom

Wood-based structural-use panels are the primary


structural sheathing components used in many types of
light-frame low-rise wood structures built in North
America. In comparison with other sheathing products,
wood structural panels offer many advantages and have a

122
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

EFFECT OF WOOD DECAY ON SHEAR RESISTANCE OF


DOWEL-TYPE JOINTS WITH STEEL SIDE PLATES

Kei Sawata1, Yutaro Sugano2, Ryuya Takanashi3, Takuro Hirai4,


Yoshihisa Sasaki

KEYWORDS: Brown rot fungus, Main member thickness, Load-displacement curve

ABSTRACT 123 decay procedure were immersed in a water bath for 1


week. Average wood density was 475 kg/m3 (standard
Wood is affected by environmental degradation during its deviation, 25.6 kg/m3), and average moisture content was
service life. It is well known that biological factors, 76.0 % (standard deviation, 19.5 %).
particularly wood fungi and termites, pose significant risk
to the integrity of timber structures. The timber joints Specimens of dowel-type joints with t/d of 8.75 were
degraded by biological factors may have largely effect on prepared from Todomatsu (Abies Sachalinensis) solid
safety and serviceability of timber structures, because the lumbers with length of 290 mm. Control samples and
structural resistance of the joints often have an influence samples after decay procedure were immersed in a water
upon that of structures. bath for 3 weeks. Average wood density was 398 kg/m3
(standard deviation, 32.2 kg/m3), and average moisture
Several studies on strength degradation of wood have been content was 102 % (standard deviation, 24.0 %).
reported to date, in which compressive strength, tensile
strength, bending strength, and shear strength were This study assumed the case of wood decay occurring at
examined. However, little data has been collected on shear the dowel lead hole of dowel-type joints. The samples
resistance of timber joints exposed to wood-decaying were sterilized by heating to 120°C for 60 min. Then, the
fungus. The present study focused on the shear resistance dowel lead hole was filled up the sawdust covered with the
of dowel-type joints decayed by brown rot fungus. mycelium. The sawdust from Ezomatsu (Picea jezoensis)
and Todomatsu was inoculated with a small piece of
The shear tests were conducted on the dowel-type joints Fomitopsis palustris mycelium mat. Samples with t/d of
with steel side plates. The main member and side plates 2.5 were incubated at 26°C and 98% relative humidity for
was connected with a dowel with diameter (d) of 12 mm. 35, 56 and 77 days. Four groups, which were the control
The end and edge distance were 7d and 4.3d, respectively. sample group and three groups for different decay periods,
The shear resistance of dowel-type joints was determined of 12 replicates each were used in the tests. Samples with
from two main member thickness (t), which was set 2.5d t/d of 8.75 were incubated at 26°C and 80% relative
and 8.75d. humidity for 60, 90 and 120 days. Four groups of 8
Specimens of dowel-type joints with t/d of 2.5 were replicates each were used in the tests.
prepared from Spruce (Picea Abies) solid lumbers with Dowel-type joints under lateral loads parallel to the grain
length of 420 mm. Control samples and the samples after were tested by monotonic tensile loading and reversed
1
cyclic loading. The cycle loading protocol was defined in
Kei Sawata, Research Faculty of Agriculture, terms of average yield displacement obtained from the
Hokkaido University,N9W9, Sapporo, Japan. monotonic tensile tests. Initially, one cycle was applied for
E-mail: ksawata@for.agr.hokudai.ac.jp
2
Yutaro Sugano, Graduate School of Agriculture,
each displacement level, which was 25% and 50% of the
Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. yield displacement. Then, the step of the cyclic test was
3
Ryuya Takanashi, Graduate School of Agriculture, repeated three times to produce 75%, 100%, 200% and
Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. 400% of yield displacement. Displacement between the
4
Takuro Hirai, Research Faculty of Agriculture, steel plate and the sample was measured with two
Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. displacement transducers. Tests were terminated when the
5
Yoshihisa Sasaki, Research Faculty of Agriculture, load decreased to 80% of the maximum load.
Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

123
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

The yield mode of dowel-type joints differed with t/d, that


is, the dowel of joints with t/d of 2.5 showed the rigid
deform and the yielding of dowel appeared in the joints
with t/d of 8.75. Even if the main member was decayed,
the dowel of joints with t/d of 8.75 showed the residual
bending deformation. However, the residual bending angle
of dowel of joints exposed to decay fungus was smaller
than that of control specimens.
The control specimens with t/d of 2.5 (Fig. 1(a)) showed
the load-displacement curves which were similar to perfect
elasto-plastic curve. However, the shape of load-
displacement curve for the decayed specimen differs
significantly, having an uncertain yield point on the load-
displacement curve. In the case with t/d of 8.75 (Fig. 1(b)),
the control specimens showed almost constant load near
the ultimate load. Some of decayed specimens showed that
the load was gradually increased until maximum load, and
then was rapidly decreased.

25
Blue lines, control specimens
20 Red lines, decayed specimens

15
Load(kN)

10

5
(a) t/d=2.5
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Displacement(mm)

25

20

15
Load(kN)

10

5
(b) t/d=8.75
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Displacement(mm)

Figure 1: Load-displacement curves of


dowel-type joints.

124
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS COMPOSITE JOINTS ON


THE BASIS OF POLYMER MORTAR WITH MATCHED
PROPERTIES

Martin Kaestner1, Markus Jahreis2, Wolfram Haedicke3, Karl Rautenstrauch4

KEYWORDS: polymer mortar, polymer concrete, concrete, rigid bond, shear test, pull-out test

ABSTRACT 123 The 2-component resins used reveal a high adhesive


potential for many materials, especially for wood,
For demanding applications with increased requirements in minerals, glass and steel. Hence it is very well suited to
terms of load-carrying capacity and long spans, the High- provide rigid bonds between those materials. Furthermore,
Tech Timber Beam® (HTB) – a hybrid composite beam the shrinkage of these resins during the chemical reaction
made of glulam and high-performance materials – was is low. Thus, it can be used for grouting or to glue rods
developed at the Bauhaus University in cooperation with a into holes. In the presented investigations, pure epoxy-
local SME [1]. The applicability of the High-Tech Timber systems were used with different mineral fillings from rock
Beam® for TCC constructions (Timber-Concrete- flour to gravel with specific grain-size curves. The
Composite) is examined in ongoing research. In former properties of the different mixtures of PC were adjusted to
investigations several studies with new technologies and the application purpose – in most cases this was done by a
materials for rehabilitation and strengthening of historic modification of the gradation and the amount of
timber structures were carried out at the Bauhaus aggregates. Additionally, the processability depends on the
University [3]. Within those studies, several formulations type of hardener used. In several material tests the
of glue-mortar based on epoxy resin and mineral fillings properties of the different PCs were determined. These are
(hereinafter also referred to as PC – polymer concrete) characterized by high strength in compression
were developed to implement a direct and continuous bond (90…142 MPa), tension (16…36 MPa) and shear
between timber and reinforcing materials or elements (for (25…>35 MPa). A new shear test configuration was
instance LVL, CFRP lamellas, bars made of GFRP or developed to detect the shear strength and stiffness of the
steel). The different mixtures of PC were adjusted to their different PC formulations (Figure 1).
application purposes through a range of modifications to
the composition and detailed material analysis.

1
Dipl.-Ing. Martin Kaestner, Dep. of Timber and Masonry
Engineering, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Marienstr. 13A,
D-99423 Weimar, Germany.
Email: martin.kaestner@uni-weimar.de
2
Dipl.-Ing. Markus Jahreis, Dep. of Timber and Masonry
Engineering, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Marienstr. 13A,
D-99423 Weimar, Germany.
Email: markus.jahreis@uni-weimar.de Figure 1: Shear tests on different PC formulations
3
Dipl.-Ing. Wolfram Haedicke, Dep. of Timber and Masonry
Engineering, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Marienstr. 13A,
D-99423 Weimar, Germany. In particular, the bond-behaviour of PC with wood (here
Email: wolfram.haedicke@uni-weimar.de the load capacity is usually limited by the shear strength of
4
Univ.-Professor Dr.-Ing. Karl Rautenstrauch, Dep. of Timber the wood) as well as with steel, CFRP, GFRP was analysed
and Masonry Engineering, Bauhaus-University Weimar, using pull-out tests (Figure 4) and special composite shear
Marienstr. 13A, D-99423 Weimar, Germany. tests, partly according to the shear test for wood described
Email: karl.rautenstrauch@uni-weimar.de

125
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

in DIN EN 408 (Figure 2 and 3). The benefit of the latter In addition to traditional measurement equipment, contact-
test setup is the very uniform shear stress distribution free measurement with industrial close-range
(Figure 2). Because of the high stiffness of the PC photogrammetry (CRP) was used [4]. The CRP technique
(MOE 10000…> 42000 MPa) all continuous connections enables measuring of the progression of deformations,
are usually rigid connections. cracks and deteriorations during loading and unloading of
a specimen by computer controlled high resolution
cameras. The results of CRP measurements are very
helpful for the calibration and verification of FE models.
By inverse FE simulation based on photogrammetric data,
the complete analysis and graphic capacities of
commercial finite element software can be used for
processing and visualization purposes (Figure 4).

Figure 2: PC-steel composite shear test – setup, shear-


stress distribution and associated transverse stress
distribution (right) in the center axis of the PC-layer, MPa

Figure 4: Pull-out test of casted-in steel rod, inverse FE


simulation based on CRP-measurement; left: shear stress
distribution in the adjacent wood before bond-failure at the
end-grain, MPa; right: final failure

REFERENCES
[1] K. Rautenstrauch, M. Kaestner, M. Jahreis, W.
Haedicke: Entwicklung eines Hochleistungsverbund-
traegersystems für den Ingenieurholzbau. In
Figure 3: Configuration of PC-wood and PC-concrete Bautechnik, 90 (1): 18-25, 2013.
composite shear test (here: PC-concrete specimen) [2] M. Jahreis, M. Kaestner, W. Haedicke, K.
Rautenstrauch: Development of a high-performance
Additionally, composite shear tests of PC-concrete hybrid system made of composites and timber (High-
specimens were arranged in order to assess the Tech Timber Beam®). In: Proceedings of RILEM
applicability of the continuous bond for TCC-constructions Timber Structures Conference 2013, Stuttgart,
(Figure 3). As opposed to previously investigated bonding Germany, 2013.
methods, it is possible to ensure the necessary tolerance- [3] K.-U. Schober: Untersuchungen zum Tragverhalten
compensation for this connection on the building site, hybrider Verbundkonstruktionen aus Polymerbeton,
because of the mineral filling of the glue-mortar (PC). faserverstaerkten Kunststoffen und Holz, Doctoral
Different pre-treatments of the concrete surface were thesis, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Germany, 2008.
tested, e.g. sandblasted, grinded or washed-out finish. In [4] S. Franke: Zur Beschreibung des Tragverhaltens von
the PC-concrete shear tests, bond strengths of Holz unter Verwendung eines photogrammetrischen
6.3…9.3 MPa have been determined. Here, the load- Messsystems. Doctoral thesis, Bauhaus-University
capacity was limited by the shear strength of the concrete. Weimar, Germany, 2008.

126
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

REINFORCEMENT OF SHEAR FAILURE WITH LONG SCREW


IN MOMENT-RESISTING JOINT

Makoto Nakatani1, Hideki Morita2, Takuro Mori3

ABSTRACT: Moment resisting joint with lagscrewbolts shows good mechanical performance and aesthetic. However,
beam and column joints rarely showed a brittle shear failure in a panel zone of a column in previous studies. Therefore, a
joint system reinforced by long screws was developed to prevent from the failure in this research. The maximum shear
strength of the joint increased with increasing the number of long screws. However, the average of six screws specimens
was lower than that of four screws, because the glulam and some of the screws were damaged due to the narrow space
between the screws during an inserting process of the screws.

KEYWORDS: Long Screw, Lagscrewbolt, Shear Failure, Panel Zone

1 INTRODUCTION 123
The number of middle and large scale timber public
building is recently increasing in Japan. Also, the number
of houses constructed using timber portal frames is
increasing due to demand from customers to have wider
rooms. A moment-resisting joint by using Lagscrewbolt
(LSB) was developed and confirmed the performance in a
previous research [1]. The LSB joints showed good
mechanical performances and aesthetic. However, the
beam-column joints rarely showed brittle failures which
were shear failure of the column in the panel zone
surrounded by LSBs. Therefore, a cross LSB joint was
developed and confirmed good reinforcing performance in
a previous study [2]. However, it was not easy to drill
oblique lead wholes for cross LSBs. Therefore, in this Figure 1: Geometry of reinforced area
research, an improved joint was developed by using long
screws which does not need a lead hole and were used
instead of the cross LSBs prevented the joint from the
brittle shear failure.

2 EXPERIMENT
The specimens imagined an actual beam and column joint
with LSBs. Fig.1 shows geometry of the actual joint, and
the red area shows a panel zone. The column and beam
sizes were 120mm x 300mm and 120mm x 390mm,
respectively. Specimens were made of Japanese cedar
glulam, and the grade was E65-F225 in accordance with
Figure 2: Test set-up
1
Makoto Nakatani, Miyazaki Prefectural Research Institute, 20-2
Hanaguri Miyakonojyo, Miyazaki, Japan.
Email: nakatani-makoto@pref.miyazaki.lg.jp
2
Hideki Morita, Miyazaki Prefectural Research Institute, Japan
3
Takuro Mori, Kyoto University, Japan Photo 1: Long screw

127
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

(i) Two long screws (ii) Four long screws (iii) Six long screws
Figure 3: Details of reinforced specimens

the Japan Agricultural Standard (JAS). The diameter of


LSB was 25 mm, the length was 300mm and the lead hole
was 22mm. The long screws shown in photo 1 were used
to reinforce the panel zone. The diameter was 8mm and the
length was 320mm. In order to accurately investigate the
reinforced effect of the screws on shear strength of the
column, the tests were conducted based on an asymmetric
four point bending tests shown in Fig.2. Fig.3 shows the
details of reinforcing conditions of specimens. There were
four conditions, no reinforcement, (i) two long screws, (ii)
four long screws and (iii) six long screws. The total
number of specimens was 20. The failure phenomena of all
specimens were shear failure around the centre of
specimens same as shown in photo 2. Fig.4 shows a
relationship between the number of long screws and
maximum shear strength. The shear strength increased
with increasing the number of long screws. However, the Figure 4: Shear strength vs. the number of long screws
results of the six long screws specimens were varied, and
the average was lower than that of four screws. Because 3 CONCLUSION
some of the six screws were scratched by the next long
screw, and the glulam were also damaged due to the The reinforced effect of the long screws on shear strength
narrow space during the inserting process of the screws. in the panel zone was confirmed. The shear strength and
The maximum shear strength of the four screws increased modulus were increased with increasing the number of the
by 17% compared with that of non-reinforced specimens. long screws. However, they were not increased and varied
The shear modules of four screws increased by 55% over four long screws specimens in this test conditions,
compared with non-reinforced specimens. because the glulam and some screws were damaged due to
the narrow space between the screws during the inserting
process. The future problem is to propose an optimal
reinforcement method with long screws.

REFERENCES
[1] Makoto Nakatani, Takuro Mori, Kohei Komatsu:
"Development of moment-resisting joint systems
using lagscrewbolts." Proceedings of WCTE 2006,
Portland, USA, August, CD-ROM, No.148, 2006.
[2] Makoto Nakatani, Takuro Mori, Kohei Komatsu:
“Development of cross embedded joint using
Lagscrewbolt.” Proceedings of WCTE 2012,
Photo 2: Shear failure of reinforced specimen pp.360-363, Auckland, New Zealand, 2012.
(Two long screws)

128
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

EXPOSURE TEST OF SURFACE-TREATED STEEL PLATES ON


PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOODS

Hiroki Ishiyama1, Masao Nakajima2, Takuro Mori3, Yasunobu Noda4, Takahiro


Tsuchimoto5

ABSTRACT: In this study, some surface-treated steel plates on some preservative-treated woods were subjected to
exposure test, and we observed the corrosion status of the steel plates continuously. The plates were evaluated on the visual
deterioration degree, but it seems that the method have low-reproducibility. Then we tried to evaluate the corrosion status of
the steel plates by the image analysis method. As a result, visual deterioration degree was almost same result to the
deterioration degree by the image analysis method. But there are some problems that the determination of the wood adhered
to the plate, the reddish part which is not rust, and the red rust near black, are difficult.

KEYWORDS: Timber structure, Metal joint, Durability, Preservative-treated wood, Exposure test

1 INTRODUCTION 123 preservative-treated wood. Outline of the exposure test was


shown on Figure 1. Specifications of steel plates and
In Japan, it becomes important that metal joints in the preservative-treated wood were shown on Table 1 and 2.
wooden houses because installation of metal joint were We observe corrosion status of the steel plates which
required by revised Building Standard Law in 2000 and the surface was facing the wood in some intervals, and we
Act on the Promotion of Popularization of Long-life evaluated the corrosion status by the visual index, which is
Quality Housing was en acted in 2008. However, 6 glade evaluation (Figure 2). We got the image data by
knowledge about the durability of the metal joint is still scanning the plate. Then the plates which had been
less. So we are continuing to observe the corrosion status observed were returned to attach on the wood.
of steel plates which are attached on the preservative-
treated wood and exposed outdoor [1].
In this test, we had evaluated the corrosion status of steel
plates by the visual index. The method of the visual index
has the advantage of their quickness and simplicity, but at
the same time, it has the risk that repeatability is low. So
we tried to evaluate the corrosion stats of steel plates by
image analysis.
Figure 1: Outline of the exposure test
2 TEST AND ANALYSIS
Table 1: Specifications of steel plates
A B C D E F G H I
2.1 TEST OUTLINE
Zn5Cr6 Zn8Cr6 Zn5Cr3 Zn8Cr3 Z27 HDZ-A HDZ23 Z60 HDZ35

Some steel plates treated with several different types of


rust-proofing were exposed outdoor with attached on the J K L M N O
Zn5
P
Zn5
Q
Zn5
R
Z27
Zn+Al(Bak Zn+Al(Bak Zn+Sn An+Mg Zn+Mg
+organic +inorganic +organic +cation
ing)1 ing)2 plateing plateing1 plateing
coating1 coating1 coating2 coating
1
Hiroki Ishiyama, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Table 2: Specifications of preservative-treated wood
Kasugai-shi, Aichi, Japan. Email: ishiyama@isc.chubu.ac.jp 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2
Masao Nakajima, Kanto Gakuin University, Japan non-
AAC SAAC BAAC ACQ CUAZ-2 CUAZ-3 AZN
Copper
naphthe-
3
Takuro Mori, Kyoto University, Japan attached
nate
4
Yasunobu Noda, Forest Products Research Institute, Hokkaido 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Research Organization, Japan Ethofen- non- non-
5 Thiame- Dino- Ethofen-
Hiroki Nakashima, Sumitomo Forestry Co., Japan thoxam tefuran
Bifenthrin prox
prox oil
Boric acid treated treated
6 emulsion Douglas fir Hemlock
Takahiro Tsuchimoto, Building Research Institute,, Japan

129
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

2.2 IMAGE ANALYSIS Architectural Institute of Japan, Structure Ⅲ, pp.611-


The procedure of the image analysis is shown below. 612, 2012
1 1.5 2
1) We extracted the RGB values of 30 points which were No change
変化なし
概ね50%以下の変色、
Discoloration
白錆発生
(less than 50%)
概ね50%以上の変
Discoloration
白錆発生
(more than 50%)
obviously red rust. And calculated average value and
the standard deviation σof R, G, and B. We defined
average values ±σ(range A) as the range of the red
rust (Figure 3).
2) We resized the image into 100 × 100 pixels for
3 4 5
reducing data size, and calculated the RGB values of Red Rust
微量の赤錆発生
Red Rust
概ね30%以下の赤錆発生 概ね30%以上の赤錆発生
Red Rust
(less than 5%) (less than 30%) (more than 30%)
each pixels.
3) If RGB values of the pixel are included in the range A
(described above), the part of the pixel was
determined as red rust. The ratio of red rust pixels to
total pixels (10000 pixels) was called Red Rust Area
Ratio. However, the pixel, which R/G value and R/B Figure 2: Visual index (6 grade)
value was less than 1.1, was not determined as red rust,
because the pixel, which R value was small and which
G value or B value was large, was not counted.
3 ANALYSYS RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The extraction results of the pixels as red rust are shown in
Figure 4 as an example. And the relationships between the The red rust was decomposed
into RGB, and the mean and
visual index and Red Rust Area Ratio are shown in Figure standard deviation was
5. As a result, it is found that the visual index has certain calculated
accuracy, but it has the tendency to overestimate Red Rust
Area Ratio at 4 or 5 grade of the visual index (Despite the
plate was under 5% Red Rust Area Ratio, it was
determined 4 grade of the visual index, and despite the
plate was under 30% Red Rust Area Ratio, it was
determined 5 grade of the visual index. ).
4 CONCLUSIONS
We tried to adopt image analysis for the evaluation of the Carried out on 30 samples, the range of red rust was defined
corrosion on the steel plates instead of the visual index. As
色、
a result, the visual index has certain accuracy, but some Figure 3: Definition of the range of red rust
issues remained. The remaining issue is that it is difficult
to determine the part which is red but not rust, the piece of
wood attached to the steel plate, the shadow of the hole in
the steel plate, and the red rust near black.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This study was performed as one part of "metal joint
research task group, durability subcommittee,
Figure 4: The extraction results of the red rust pixels
comprehensive verification project of Wooden Long-Life
100%
Quality Housing ", the subsidized project of MLIT. I 90%
would like to thank for people involved.
Red Rust Area Ratio

80%
70%
60%
REFERENCES 50%
40%
30%
[1] Hiroki Ishiyama, Masao Nakajima, Takuro Mori, 20%
Yasunobu Noda, Hiroki Nakashima, and Takahiro 10%
0%
Tsuchimoto: Exposure test of surface-treated steel 1 2 3 4 5
plates on preservative-treated woods 【Part 1】, Visual Index

Summaries of technical papers of annual meeting Figure 5: The relationships between the visual index
and Red Rust Area Ratio

130
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PULL-OUT STRENGTH OF A


TENON AND MORTISE JOINT
- The effect of a size of komisen-dowel and a shape of a hole for komisen-dowl

Atsushi Tabuchi1, Takamitsu Motoyoshi2, Yoko Shiota3

ABSTRACT: A tenon and mortise joint are often used in Japanese traditional timber connection. This paper presents a
pull-put properties of a tenon and mortise joint by experimental methods and effects of a shape and size of a hole for a
komisen-dowel. The shape was a square or round one and the size was 15mm or 18mm. As a result, it was found that 1)the
joint which had a round hole for komisen-dowel was frequently damaged by shearing force at an end of column, 2)a pull-
out strength could be calculated under some assumptions of yield mode, which were a)a tenon breaking at a hole for
komisen-dowel by shearing force, b)splitting of a sill, c)yielding a komisen-dowel by bending moment in a column and a
sill in embedment, d)yielding a komisen-dowel by bending moment in both of column and sill.

KEWORDS: Tenon, Mortise, Japanese traditional timber joint, pull-out strength, komisen-dowel

1 INTRODUCTION 123 obtusa) . Each member had a 120mm x120mm section. A


length of column was 400 mm and a length of sill was 600
A tenon and mortise joint, which is usually used in a beam- mm. Each komisen-dowel had a square section, whose
column joint and a column-sill joint and so on, is one of dimension was 15mm x 15mm or 18mm x 18mm and
the japanese traditional timber connections. These joints knocked in a 15mm square, 18mm square, 15mm
are subjected to pull out by an earthquake and endured this diameter , or
force. Even though, a tenon 18mm diameter.
and mortise joint has not
been designed for seismic 2.2 METHOD
adequacy. The objective this A set-up
study is to make known that diagram was
a pull-out strength of a shown in Figure
tenon and mortise joint was 2. A sill was
influenced due to a shape of fixed from a
a komisen-dowell and a centre of a
hole for it. column at both
sides and at the
2 EXPERIMENT distance of
200mm. This Figure 2:Set up and method of
2.1 SPECIMEN experiment (Unit:mm)
column was
A specimen was shown in
Figure 1: A tenon-mortise pulled up and its load and displacement was measured.
Figure 1. A column
(Chamaecyparis obtusa) joint specimen (Unit:mm) 2.3 EVALUATION OF STRENGTH
with a tenon was squared with a sill ( Chamaecyparis A strength, when a column was pulled out from a mortise,
1 was evaluated following four assumptions.
Atsushi TABUCHI, Graduate School of Life and [1] Py1 : Broken tenon at a hole for komisen-dowel by
Environmental Science, Kyoto Prefectural Univ., 1-5 Shimogamo shearing force
nakaragi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan. [2] Py2 : Splitting of a sill
Email: a-tabuchi@kpu.ac.jp
2 [3] Py3 : Yielding a komisen-dowel by bending moment in
Takamitsu MOTOYOSHI, Kyoto Prefectural Univ. (former), 1-
5 Shimogamo nakaragi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.. a column and a sill in embedment
3
Yoko SHIOTA, KyotoPrefectural Univ., 1-5 Shimogamo
nakaragi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.

131
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

[4] Py4 : Yielding a komisen-dowel by bending moment in 1 - -


both of column and sill
The pull-out strength of a tenon-mortise joint (Py) was 2 11.2 13.2
defined as a minimum of these four strength. 3 12.7 6.1
S18 12.2 4.21 10.9 8.96 9.6
Py=min(Py1, Py2, Py3, Py4) 4 12.4 8.5

5 12.5 17.2
Table 1: Parameter of specimen
6 12.0 9.6
Feature of Size of 1 14.8 9.6
hole for komisen Quantity 2 17.2 10.5
komisen (mm)
3 19.5 9.7
S15 □15 15 6 C15 15.4 19.6 8.36 6.22 7.1
4 17.7 8.1
C15 ○15 15 6
5 12.3 3.8
S18 □18 18 6
6 11.0 5.3
C18 ○18 18 6 1 13.9 4.9
2 15.5 9.2
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3 14.2 7.3
The pull-out strength(Pmax), evaluated strength(Pcal), C18 16.3 13.8 11.1 8.96 8.1
4 19.8 15.4
stiffness(K) and so on were shown in Table2. And
peculiarity of each specimen was followings. 5 15.7 10.7

S15:Komisen-dowels of almost all specimens were broken, 6 18.9 7.3


when a loading force reached maximum. And they yielded
in about 3mm's displacement of a column. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
S18:Mortise of a column was damaged by shearing force, a A part of this research was supported by the scientific
maximum force was come at that time. research grant No.21760439 given by the Ministry of
C15:A mortise of a column was damaged by shearing Education, Science and Cultures. The authors greatly
force, but some of them was damaged when a appreciate these supports.
displacement was 3mm, others were damaged in 15mm.
A transformation of specimen varied widely.
C18:A feature was similar to C15, a mortice was broken
REFERENCES
[1] HIRASAKA Tsuguomi:Experimental studies on the ultimate
by shearing force. strength of the wooden construction connections, Journal of
structural and construction engineering, 548, 89-94, 2001
4 CONCLUSION [2] UEKI Hirotoshi, TAKARA Tomoya and HIRASAKA
Tsuguomi:Study on pull-out strength of the wooden
1)C-series, which had a round hole for a komisen-dowel, construction cotter pin connection (Part 2), Summaries of
were frequently damaged at a mortise of a column by technical papers of annual meeting Architectural Institute of
shearing force. Japan (Structures III), 7-9, 2003.9
2)A mean value of strength of C18 was higher than that of [3] SADANARI Masanori:Relationship between acoustic
S-series, which had a square hole for a komisen-dowel. emission and strength of timber connection(3): from factor
3)It was found that a strength of a tenon-mortise joint of cotter pin and strength property, Summaries of technical
papers of annual meeting Architectural Institute of Japan
could be evaluated.
(Structures III), 1-2, 2003
[4] SADANARI Masanori:Relationship between acoustic
Table 2: Results of each experiment
emission and strength of timber connection(7):the strength
Pmax Pmax_ave C.V P05 Pcal K K50
property of cotter pin joints at tenon connection with a circle
Series No.
(kN) (kN) (%) (kN) (kN) (kN/mm) (kN/mm) hole, Summaries of technical papers of annual meeting
Architectural Institute of Japan (Structures III), 145-146,
1 14.0 15.1
2007
2 16.4 16.9 [5] Architectural Institute of Japan,"Design Manual for
Engineered Timber Joints", 2009
3 13.4 14.1
S15 15.7 21.1 7.98 6.22 13.9
4 12.5 8.3
5 15.6 13.9
6 22.5 23.5

132
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

A STUDY ON FAILURE MODE AND STRENGTH ESTIMATION


OF TIMBER JOINT USING LAGSCREWBOLTS AND DRIFTPINS

Hiroyasu Sakata1, Takumi Ohira2, Yoshihiro Yamazaki3, Hiromichi Ito4,


Azuma Fujishiro5, Ryuki Odani6

ABSTRACT: Flexural tests of drift pined joints with insert-steel gusset plate with lagscrewbolts were carried out. In order
to observe various types of failure, the shear span and the difference in level of both side’s beams were changed. A method
to estimate the strength of the joint and the corresponding failure mode derived from bending failure of the column and
shear failure of the panel zone are proposed.

KEYWORDS: Lagscrewbolt, Driftpin, Experiment on joint, Moment resisting joint, Failure mode, Strength estimation

1 INTRODUCTION 123 3 RESULTS


We have carried out flexural experiments on drift pined Envelope curve of moment (M) - rotation angle of joint (θ)
joints with insert-steel gusset plate with lagscrewbolts and relationship of T-type is shown in Figure 2. When depth of
proposed analytical model of the joint. In this research, column was 120mm, shear failure at panel zone occurred,
failure mode and strength estimation is discussed. and brittle behavior was observed. Figure 3 shows the
shear strain of column along its height. Maximum shear
2 OUTLINE OF FLEXURAL TEST strain of specimen which is broken by shear failure was
recoded at 1/30rad. In addition, the location where shear
List of specimens and material properties are shown in strain stands out is apparently close to where crack
Table 1 and 2, respectively. Parameters of specimens are occurred. Shear strain generally stands out at rotation
cross-sectional dimension of column and beam, framing center of joint, which is evaluated by the analytical model
type (T-type and Cross-type), length and height of beams. we have proposed. The bending failure mechanism of the
Setup of specimen and measurement method are shown in column is also confirmed. Therefore it becomes possible to
Figure 1. Static cyclic loading was applied by actuator. estimate strength determined by bending and shear
Moment at the critical section is considered, and it is capacity of column.
calculated using shear force of the beam which is
measured by two-way pin type load cell. One- and three-
4 CONCLUSIONS
directional strain gauges were attached around panel zone
in order to examine failure mechanism caused by bending Flexural tests of joints were carried out, and M-θ relation,
and shear. failure mode and shear strain of column were confirmed.
The key point to estimate strength of the joint was
1 presented.
Hiroyasu Sakata, Structural Engineering Research Center,
Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 R3-18 Nagatsuta Midori-ku
Yokohama, Japan. Email: sakata.h.aa@m.titech.ac.jp REFERENCES
2
Takumi Ohira, Department of Built Environment, Tokyo
Institute of Technology, Japan [1] Hiroyasu S., Yoshihiro Y., Shinobu M., Hiromichi I.,
3
Yoshihiro Yamazaki, Structural Engineering Research Center, Azuma F. and Ryuki O. A study on flexural-shear
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan behavior of timber joint using lagscrewbolts and
4
Hiromichi Ito, NCN Co., Ltd., Japan driftpins. In: Proceedings of WCTE 2012, Auckland,
5
Azuma Fsujishiro, NCN Co., Ltd., Japan New Zealand, 2012
6
Ryuki Odani, NCN Co., Ltd., Japan

133
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

Table 1: List of specimens


T-type Cross-type
The Number The Number
Name DC DB L1 H1 H2 Name DC DB L H H3
of Specimens of Specimens
12T 120 390 1200 1365 1365 3 12C 120
24T 240 390 1200 1365 1365 3 24C 240 390 1200 1365 0 3
30T 300 390 1200 1365 1365 3 30C 300
12TB 120 450 1200 1365 1365 1 Cross-type(difference in level on the beam)
24TB 240 450 1200 1365 1365 1 12CS1 120
30TB 300 450 1200 1365 1365 1 12CS2 240
120
12TS 120 390 600 1365 1365 1 12CS3 360
24TS 240 390 600 1365 1365 1 12CS4 480
390 1200 1365 1
30TS 300 390 600 1365 1365 1 24CS1 120
12TL 120 390 2400 1365 1365 1 24CS2 240
240
24TL 240 390 2400 1365 1365 1 24CS3 360
30TL 300 390 2400 1365 1365 1 24CS4 480
12TC 120 390 1200 680 680 3
24TC 240 390 1200 680 680 3 Table 2: Material properties
* *
30TC 300 390 1200 680 680 1 Member Tree species Lamina ( ) Strength grade ( )
12TF 120 390 1200 1360 680 3 Column Homogeneous
E95-F315
24TF 240 390 1200 1360 680 3 120×120 Scotch pine grade
Symmetric
30TF 300 390 1200 1360 680 1 Others E105-F300
grade
(*) Japanese standard

lm = 250 mm Load Load Load

L1 L L L L
H1

H
lm lm lm
Beam Column Beam Column Beam Column
DB
H3
Rotation angle Rotation angle
of joint (θ) of joint (θ)
H2

DC Rotation angle
H4
Two-way pin Two-way pin Two-way pin of joint (θ)
type load cell type load cell type load cell

(a) : T-type (b) : Cross-type (c) : Cross-type


Figure 1: Setup of flexural test of beam-column joints

h[mm] h[mm]
20 M[kNm] :Shear failure 1800 T-type 1800 T-type
DC:120[mm] DC:240[mm]

Shear Shear
10 failure failure
h=
1530[mm]
T-type
DC :120[mm] 1500 1500
θ[rad.] 1440[mm]
0
0 0.05 0.1
40
M[kNm] 1320[mm]

30 1200 1200
1215[mm]
20 1/200,1/100, 1/200,1/100,1/50,
T-type 1/50, 1/30rad. 1/30,1/15,1/10rad.
10 DC :240[mm] in ascending order in ascending order

θ[rad.] -3 -3
0 Crack after shear 900
ε×10 [-]
900
ε×10 [-]
0 0.05 0.1 failure at panel zone -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15
(T-type, Dc:120mm)
Figure 2: Moment(M) – rotation angle Figure 3: Shear Strain Distribution around Panel Zone
of joint(θ) relationship

134
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

DEVELOPMENT OF CLT SHEAR FRAME USING METAL


PLATE INSERT CONNECTIONS

Akihisa Kitamori1, Shoichi Nakashima2, Hiroshi Isoda3

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to develop a high strength leg joint for shear wall made of small size cross
laminated timber panel in a simple system. The joint of CLT in which steel plate was inserted in the central slit and fixed by
high strength bolt at inside of short steel pipes was proposed. In order to grasp the failure mode and strength of CLT
member, material tests on embedment and shear were carried out using small CLT blocks. The test results indicated that
there is few reinforce effect by cross bonding of each lamina. It was concluded that the precise estimation of the strength of
CLT member is important in order to develop the joint proposed in this paper.

KEYWORDS: Cross laminated timber, Steel connector, Embedment, Shear

1 INTRODUCTION 123 using larger diameter dowel type connector. After


confirming the basic mechanical properties of CLT
In response to the increasing attention for timber structure member by material tests, tensile test of the developed
in terms of low environmental impact, the demand to joint was carried out.
construct large-scale or mid-rise timber building is
increasing in Japan. In such buildings the higher strength
shear wall is required since lower layer of the building is
2 MATERIAL AND METHOD
subjected to the higher earthquake force than the case of
conventional timber structures. Cross laminated timber 2.1 SPECIMEN
(CLT) has high potential to develop such strong shear wall 5 layered CLT specimen made of Japanese cedar was
element. Different from the use in Europe, CLT shear employed for the test. The thickness of each layer was
walls made of small sized panel is more reasonable on 30mm, and the average density and moisture content were
current situation of Japan in terms of transportation or 430kg/m3 and 13% respectively.
manufacturing. In this case, strong leg joint is necessary
corresponding to the strong shear performance of CLT 2.2 MATERIAL TEST
shear wall. The purpose of this study is to develop a high
strength leg joint for CLT shear wall in a simple system. As a preliminary material tests, embedment test and full-
Authors have investigated the structural performance of scale block shear test were carried out for CLT. On
steel plate insert drift pinned joint[1] and obtained embedment test, steel bar of 12mm in diameter was push
satisfactory high strength and ductility. However it was into the half cut hole at the top of the CLT block placed on
necessary to drive in multiple number of drift pins to meet the base by universal testing machine. The load and
the requirement of shear wall strength when common small relative movement between steel bar and top of the
diameter drift pin was employed. Therefore in this paper specimen were measured. On block shear test, three
the joint with easier assembling ability was developed by layered CLT block with 30x30mm notch was set in the
shear test apparatus. The top and bottom surface of the
1
Akihisa Kitamori, Research Institute for Sustainable specimen was fixed by apparatus while load was applied at
Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, Japan. notch in vertical direction to the fixed surface. Maximum
Email: kitamori@rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp force was measured.
2
Shoichi Nakashima, Utsunomiya University, Japan
3
Hiroshi Isoda, RISH, Kyoto University, Japan

135
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS
30 60 Similarly, different failure mode was observed between
30
30 different grain orientation lamina in the case of block shear
Surface fixed 90
test. Shear failure occurred along the grain direction on the
by Jigs layer which grain orientation is parallel to the loading
direction, on the other hand, obvious shear failure was not
90 found on the layer which grain orientation is perpendicular
to the loading direction. Instead, tensile failure from corner
Figure 1: Specimens for material test (left: embedment, of the notch was observed on perpendicular lamina after
right: shear) occurrence of interlayer peeling between cross laminated
layers. The shear strength of the specimen was estimated
2.3 TENSILE TEST OF THE JOINT just by considering the shear strength of parallel lamina.
This result suggested that the transversal lamina does not
The tensile test specimen of the joint is composed of CLT
work for shear strength of CLT. More detailed
in which steel plate was inserted in the central slit prepared
investigation is necessary on the mechanism of shear
at one end of the specimen. Short steel pipes of which one
failure of CLT.
end is covered by steel plate were inserted in the side hole
of CLT members and were fixed to the inserted steel plate
by high strength bolt at inside of the pipe. Since the steel
pipes and steel plate were rigidly fixed by friction, small
deformation occur by embedment of pipe into CLT
member. Based on the previous research[2], a ductile slip
mechanism was taken into consideration. By forming long
hole on the inserted steel plate, the friction slip can be
expected without causing brittle failure by shearing or
embedment of CLT member.
By clamping the another end of CLT member and inserted
steel plate, the tensile force was applied to the joint. The
Figure 3: Failure modes observed in material tests
relative displacement between CLT and steel plate was
measured.
4 CONCLUSIONS
The material tests on embedment and shear indicated that
CLT
High strength bolt there is few reinforce effect by cross bonding of each
lamina. Therefore it is more important to care for the
Friction joint by
tightening the bolt
precise estimation of their strength in order to develop the
Expected friction
joint proposed in this paper. Tensile test of the joint is to
N N
slip displacement be carried out by taking material test results into
length
Shear consideration. And its load carrying capacity is discussed.
Embedment by large
One end diameter pipes
covered steel Inserted steel plate
pipe with long hole
P=2Nμ
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Figure 2: Specimen of the tensile test of the joint This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Young
Scientists (A) number 25712018 from Japan Society for
3 RESULT AND DISCUSSION the Promotion of Science.

Figure3 shows the failure modes obtained by material tests.


REFERENCES
Large ductile deformation capacity was observed in
[1] Shoichi Nakashima, Akihisa Kitamori, Takuro Mori
embedment test. Deformation progressed at just under the
and Kohei Komatsu: Evaluation of Tensile
steel bar on the lamina which grain orientation is parallel
Performance of Drift Pin Joint of Cross Laminated
to the loading direction, on the other hand, deformation
Timber with Steel Inserted Plate, Proceedings of
spread externally on the lamina which grain orientation is
World Conference on Timber Engineering 2012
perpendicular to the loading direction. However as a result,
Auckland, 417-424, 2012
it was able to calculate the ultimate strength of embedment
[2] Kohei Komatsu, Shoichi Nakashima and Akihisa
specimen by adding the strength of each layer according to
Kitamori: Development of Ductile Moment-Resisting
the ratio of the thickness. This indicates that the reinforce
Joint Based on a New Idea for Glulam Portal Frame
effect by cross lamination was not so significant on
Structures, Proceedings of World Conference on
embedment characteristics.
Timber Engineering 2012 Auckland, 156-161, 2012

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TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

THE QUICK CONNECT MOMENT JOINT FOR PORTAL


FRAME BUILDINGS: CASE STUDY AND DISCUSSION OF
DESIGN CHALLENGES AND CONSTRUCTION DETAILING

Felix Scheibmair1, Pierre Quenneville2

ABSTRACT: The Quick Connect is a rod based connection which utilizes fully threaded timber screws which has been
developed to allow timber construction to move from the traditional model of onsite connection assembly to a construction
methodology whereby much of the connection is manufactured offsite. The connection has been developed at the University
of Auckland and has been used in a number of buildings in Australia and New Zealand. The first use in a commercial
building in Australia is discussed, including design challenges and construction detailing. The issues and findings discussed
are applicable to all box beam type timber portal frame buildings, not just those using the Quick Connect.

KEYWORDS: Timber portal frames, screwed connections, moment connections

1 INTRODUCTION 123 2 THE QUICK-CONNECT


The Quick Connect was developed at the University of The Quick-Connect joint is a semi-rigid moment
Auckland as part of a five year research programme which connection which has been developed as an alternative to
was aimed at increasing the use of engineered timber traditional moment connection solutions. The connection
materials as the structural system. bears some conceptual similarity to the partially restrained
bolted connections often used in steel construction. The
This particular segment of the overall research programme
joint consists of a rod based system as shown in figure 1.
focused on timber portal frames, being the traditional form
of structure used when maximisation of interior space is
required (Leichti et al., 2000).
Through review of literature and contact with industry
partners in New Zealand and Australia, it was determined
that current moment connections, such as the plywood
gusset connection as introduced by Batchelar (Batchelar,
1984) had a number of constructability issues.
The plywood gusset and other traditional moment
connections used in timber portal frame structures require
significant assembly or manufacture onsite. This
‘traditional approach’ to timber building significantly
impacts on critical construction paths and can often result
in construction phasing issues.

1
Dr Felix Scheibmair, Faculty of Engineering, Auckland Figure 1: An example of the Quick-Connect joint
University, 20 Symonds street, Auckland, New Zealand. Email:
f.scheibmair@auckland.ac.nz When the structure is loaded, a tensile force is applied to
2
Prof. Pierre Quenneville, Faculty of Engineering, University of
one set of rods whilst the other set remains idle. The
Auckland, 20 Symonds street, Auckland, New Zealand. Email:
p.quenneville@auckland.ac.nz
compressive force in the connection is taken by the main
timber members. This allows a moment couple to be

137
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

developed which allows for the transfer of loading across High loads in the knee connection area and discontinuities
the joint. The rods are housed in U-shaped timber in the member design required careful consideration. The
members, hereafter referred to as timber sleeves. Placing extent of infill materials and the termination of flanges
the rods on the exterior of the portal members allows for within the connection region required multiple design
the full bending moment capacity of the members to be changes and member design iterations.
developed at the joint.
In general, compression loading in the Quick Connect is
taken by the main portal members at the connection
The timber sleeves are fixed to the main portal members
interface. A gap is then left between the member interface
by way of continuously threaded timber screws. The
and the extreme end fibre of the sleeve to ensure that no
availability of this long, high strength, fully threaded
compression loading is taken by the sleeves.
screws which have been designed specifically for high load
applications in timber, allows for the creation of efficient Due to the significant moment loading at the knee joints, a
connections between the timber sleeves and main portion of the compression loading was assumed to be
members. acting on the sleeves. The design therefore used separate
screw groups on the compression side of the connection
In practical terms, the connection can be designed and which were orientated towards or away from the joint
manufactured without special training. Pre-manufacturing depending on the load being resisted. This approach had
of the connection offsite allows for reduced crane and not been considered before and lead to an improved
labour requirements during erection. The slightly higher method of calculating the compression deflections of the
materials costs when compared to the nailed gusset system.
connection are negligible when compared to the savings in
plant and labour onsite.
4 CONCLUSIONS
A full connection design procedure, verified by full scale The Quick-Connect allows for the majority of assembly
testing, has been introduced by the authors in a separate work for timber connections to be completed off-site or on
paper (Scheibmair & Quenneville, 2012). ground. Significant savings are seen in crane times. Some
interesting design issues have been faced in the first use of
3 NETBALL CENTRAL, AUSTRALIA the connection with a box beam section, which highlight
the need to look beyond simple calculations and take a
The Netball Central facility is a New South Wales
government funded sports complex in Sydney, Australia. more global view of the forces present in the high moment
The facility encompasses five practice courts and one show zones of portal frame structures. Further, the findings show
that careful detailing can overcome most problems in
court. The main portion of the structure, housing the
timber design and that efficient connections result.
practise courts is approximately 140m, with portals
spanning 37m spaced at 8.7m.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The portals are of the box beam type, constructed of a The authors wish to thank the ‘Structural Timber
mixture of grade 11 LVL and grade 13 LVL and well as Innovation Company’ who supplied the funding for the
cross-banded LVL. The engineered timber material is used research phase of this project.
for both the column and rafter members.
REFERENCES
The Quick Connect is used for the knee and apex joints.
Beam splices, placed approximately 12m from the apex,
are formed using a screwed connection with some Batchelar, M.L. (1984). Improved Plywood Gussets for
similarity to a rod-less Quick Connect system. Timber Portal Frames, Proceedings of the Pacific Timber
Engineering Conference (pp. 654-666). Auckland, New
The overall design was managed and performed by Arup Zealand.
in Sydney. The University of Auckland consulted on the
design of the knee, apex and splice joints. Leichti, R. J., Hyde, R. A., French, M. L., and Camillos, S.
G. (2000). The continuum of connection rigidity in timber
3.1 THE IMPORTANCE OF DETAILING structures. Wood and fiber science, 32(1), 11-19.
The Netball Central structure is the first to use the Quick
Scheibmair, F., and Quenneville, P. (2012). The Quick
Connect system with box beam type members.
Connect moment connection for portal frame buildings–an
A number of issues were faced and overcome during the introduction and case study. Proceedings of the World
connection design phase of the project. Conference on Timber Engineering, Auckland, New
Zealand, 15, 19.

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TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

DESIGN EQUATION FOR WITHDRAWAL RESISTANCE OF


THREADED FASTENERS IN THE CANADIAN TIMBER DESIGN CODE

Shawn Kennedy1, Alexander Salenikovich2, Williams Munoz3, Mohammad Mohammad4


KEYWORDS: Lag screws, wood screws, self-drilling screws, glued laminated timber, sawn timber.

were conditioned to 65 ± 5% of relative humidity and 20 ±


1 INTRODUCTION123 2°C temperature prior to testing. Lag screws of six
The 2009 edition of Canadian standard for engineering diameters (from 6.35 mm to 19.01 mm) were commodity
design in wood (CSA O86) [1] provides two different off-shelf products, while self-drilling screws of three
design equations for wood screws and lag screws, which diameters (6, 8 and 12 mm) were supplied by European
are, in turn, different from those in the American “National producers. Two lengths of penetration were examined for
design specification for wood construction” (NDS) [2] and each diameter of fastener.
from the overseas codes. The purpose of this project is to
4 METHODOLOGY
study the withdrawal resistance of various types of
threaded fasteners in timber and to propose a unified All fasteners were inserted perpendicular to grain of wood
design equation for the Canadian timber design code. respecting the minimum end and edge distances in
compliance with the European standard EN 1382 [11].
2 BACKGROUND Wood samples with fasteners that required pilot holes were
The NDS design values for wood screws originate from predrilled to 70% of the nominal diameter. Fasteners were
the data collected by Fairchild [3] as early as in 1926 when inserted using pneumatic tools and all tests were performed
over 10 000 wood screws were tested in seven species of within 24 hours from insertion. In compliance with the
wood. The NDS design equation for lag screws is based on European standard EN 1382 [11], wood samples were
the work of Newlin and Gahagan [4] who tested 233 fixed to the test set-up and fasteners were pulled out with a
fasteners of different diameters in 5 wood species in 1938. hydraulic actuator at a constant cross head speed of 1
A modified version of this equation was adopted in CSA mm/min and 0.5 mm/min for lag screws and self-drilling
O86 for lag screws in the form of a table. In 1997, McLain screws, respectively. Test stopped after the resistance
[5] expanded the data base using tests conducted later by decreased to 80% of the peak load. After testing small
various American researchers and proposed new equations samples were cut from the specimens to determine local
based on nonlinear regression analysis for wood screws specific gravity and moisture content of each specimen.
and lag screws. In 2009, the McLain’s equation for wood
5 MAIN RESULTS
screws was adopted in CSA O86. More recently, Gehloff
[6], Abukari et al. [7], and Baek et al. [8] conducted 5.1 LAG SCREWS
independent investigations on the withdrawal strength of The following test data have been considered in the
self-drilling screws. analysis of the withdrawal resistance of lag screws:
3 MATERIALS
1. Kennedy [9]: D-Fir, n = 120
The experimental program conducted jointly at 2. Abukari [10]: Nordic Lam, n = 120
FPInnovations and Université Laval [9] and at McGill 3. Newlin & Gahagan [4]: N. white pine, Redwood,
University ([7], [10]), included withdrawal tests on lag Douglas-Fir, Yellow pine, White oak, n = 233
screws and self-drilling screws using sawn timber and 4. McLain [5]: SPF, SYP, n = 88
glued laminated timber of Canadian species. The sawn 5. Simpson Strong-Tie [12]: DFL, n = 130
timber and glulam products were generously provided by
manufacturers from Quebec Province and British
Columbia and included Douglas-fir sawn timber, Spruce-
pine glulam and Douglas-fir glulam. All wood specimens

1
Shawn Kennedy, Université Laval, 2325 rue de la Terrasse,
Québec, Canada. Email: shawn.kennedy.1@ulaval.ca
2
Alexander Salenikovich, Université Laval, Québec, Canada
3
Williams Munoz, Nordic Structures Bois, Montréal, Canada
4
Mohammad Mohammad, FPInnovations, Ottawa, Canada

139
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

The experimental values were compared with the


predictions using the following design equations: Prw =  59  dF0.82 G1.77 Lt
40
DF  (McGill)
1. CSA O86-09 [1]: Wood Screws
2. CSA O86-09 [1]: Lag Screws SP  (McGill)
3. NDS-2012 [2]: Lag Screws
30
4. NDS-2012 [2]: Wood Screws Nordic  L am
(McGill)
5. McLain [5]: Lag Screws DF  (UBC)

P rw,  test (kN)


Equation [1] revealed the best level of prediction for 20 SP  (UBC)
withdrawal resistance of lag screws. Figure 2 shows Hemlock
comparison of experimental mean values adjusted to
standard load duration with predicted values by Equation DFL  (SDS)
10
[1]. A coefficient of variation of 30% was assumed. n = 2430
Sugi  ( Japan)

n  =  2430  
0
0 5 10 15 20
P rw,  CSA  WS  (kN)

Figure 3: Comparison of experimental data and predicted


data for withdrawal of self-drilling screws (Equation [1])

REFERENCES
[1] CSA Standards. 2009. CSA O86-09 Engineering design in
wood, Canadian Standards Association. Mississauga, ON,
Canada.
[2] ANSI/AWC. 2012. National design specification for wood
construction. NDS-2012. American Wood Council.
n  =  691   Washington, D.C., USA
[3] Fairchild, I.J. 1926. Holding power of screws. U.S. Dept. of
Commerce, Technologic Papers of the Bureau of Standards,
No. 319. Washington, D.C., USA.
Figure 2: Comparison of experimental data and predicted [4] Newlin, J.A. and J.M. Gahagan. 1938. Lag-screw joints:
data for withdrawal of lag screws (Equation [1]) their behaviour and design. Techn. Bulletin No. 597. USDA
Forest Serv., Forest Prod. Lab., Madison, WI, USA.
[5] McLain, T.E. 1997. Design axial withdrawal strength from
5.2 SELF-DRILLING SCREWS wood: I. Wood screws and lag screws. Forest Prod. J. Vol.
The following test data have been considered in the 47, No. 5, pp. 77-84.
analysis of the withdrawal resistance of self-drilling [6] Gehloff, M. 2011. Pull-out resistance of self-tapping wood
screws with continuous thread. Master’s thesis. UBC,
screws:
Vancouver, BC, Canada.
1. Abukari [7]: Nordic Lam, D-Fir, n = 1261 [7] Abukari, M.H., M. Côté, C. Rogers, A. Salenikovich. 2012.
2. Gehloff [6]: D-Fir. L, SP, Hemlock, n = 360 Withdrawal resistance of structural screws in Canadian
3. Simpson Strong-Tie [12]: DFL, n = 130 glued laminated lumber. WCTE 2012 Proceedings.
4. Baek et al. [8]: Sugi, n = 200 Auckland, New Zealand.
[8] Baek, H-S., H. Morita, A. Shiiba, Y. Iimura and F. Imai.
With all 4 projects, 2430 experimental data points were 2012. Influence of shape factors of wood screw on
collected and compared to the equations shown in section withdrawal performance. WCTE 2012 Proceedings.
5.1. Similar to lag screws, Equation [1] was found to Auckland, New Zealand.
produce the best fit with the test data (see Figure 3). [9] Kennedy, S. 2013. Withdrawal and embedding resistance of
fasteners in timber and CLT panels. Master’s Thesis.
6 CONCLUSIONS Université Laval, Quebec, CA.
[10] Abukari, M.H. 2012. Project report on lag screws. McGill
The CSA O86 [1] equation for wood screws showed the
University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
best prediction for withdrawal resistance of lag screws and [11] EN 1382: 1999. Timber structures – Test methods –
self-drilling screws in sawn timber and glued laminated Withdrawal capacity of timber fasteners.
timber. A proposal was made to the CSA O86 technical [12] Simpson Strong-Tie. 2006. Test data on self-drilling lag
committee to apply the equation to all threaded fasteners. screws. Internal company report.
Further research will investigate the withdrawal resistance
of threaded fasteners in cross-laminated timber.
140
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

STUDY ON WOOD - STEEL PLATE CONNECTION


WITH EPOXY RESIN AND SELF DRILLING TAPPING SCREWS

Ryota Haba1, Akihisa Kitamori2, Takuro Mori3, Hiroshi Isoda4

ABSTRACT: Timber Concrete Composite (TCC) is a construction technique in which timber beam or deck is connected to
an upper concrete flange, using different types of connectors. To make TCC unification as the composite beam, the high
stiff connector is needed. In my research, on the assumption that epoxy adhesive enable the connection to be high stiff even
in small displacement, the bent steel plate sets into the slab and epoxy-glued into a slot in the glulam timber. And in order to
guarantee the long term strength, the self drilling tapping screw attaches the steel plate to the timber. This paper reports the
shear test result of wood–steel plate epoxy-glued specimens of various adhesive thickness about control and water soaked
on the assumption that the TCC is accidentally exposed to water and the steel plate is inserted in the slot which is thicker
than the plate. This paper also reports the sheer test result of specimens about self drilling tapping screws.

KEYWORDS: Timber Concrete Composite (TCC), Glued, Shear connector, Adhesive, Self drilling tapping screw

1 INTRODUCTION 123 control specimen and specimens treated by the water


soaking on the assumption that the TCC is accidentally
Wood attracts a great deal of attention as a sustainable exposed to water. In TCC, the steel plate is inserted in the
building material in the modern world as it contributes to slot whose width is thicker than the width of the plate, so
reduce a carbon emission in construction. The total volume specimens of various adhesive thicknesses are tested.
of industrial timber consumption in the world is increasing
and Japan’s wood demand also tends to increase.
It is thought that the composite structure composed of 2 SHEAR TESTS
timber and other structural member such as reinforced (CONTROL SPECIMENS)
concrete (RC) is effective in the rational design of large In the TCC of my research, the steel plate is inserted in the
scale timber structures. This research focuses on the slot of the timber and glued. If the steel plate and the
Timber-Concrete Composite (TCC) floor system. adhesive are pressed, they are put between two timbers.
The TCC structure is a construction technique in which a Although the slot of the timber doesn’t need pressing, its
timber beam or deck is connected to an upper concrete width has to be bigger than the thickness of the steel plate.
flange, using different types of connectors. There are some So each specimen with each adhesion thickness (0.1mm,
advantages of the TCC over timber-only or reinforced
concrete floors. When TCC become unification as the
composite beam, its strength and stiffness improve,
deflection decreases, and beam depth becomes smaller in
TCC. To realize this, the high stiff connector between the
concrete slab and the timber beam is needed. In this
research we focused on the bent steel plate sets into the
slab and epoxy-glued into a slot in the glulam timber. This
paper reports the shear test result of wood–steel plate
epoxy-glued specimens. Two conditions are compared:

1
Ryota Haba, Kyoto University, Uji, Japan.
Email: ryota_haba@rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp
²Akihisa Kitamori, Kyoto University, Uji, Japan.
³Takuro Mori, Kyoto University, Uji, Japan. Fig 1: Wood–steel plate epoxy-glued specimen (double-
⁴Hiroshi Isoda, Kyoto University, Uji, Japan. single-lap specimen)

141
TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

1.0mm, 2.0mm, and 3.0mm) are experimented with in in each adhesive thickness(0.1mm, 1.0mm, 2.0mm,
these sheer tests. 3.0mm). In control specimens, average maximum bonding
The main member is the wooden piece made of the air- strength increase as the adhesive thickness increases from
dried Japanese larch (20×50×230mm). The secondary 0.1mm to 1.0mm. And average maximum bonding strength
members are SS400 steel plates (3.2×50×170mm). And decreases as the adhesive thickness increases from 1.0mm
these steel plates are coated by cathodic electrodeposition. to 3.0mm. The stiffness decreases as the adhesive
The double-single-lap is made of this Japanese larch piece thickness increases.
and these two steel plates, glued by the two-part room Control specimens about the adhesive thickness of 0.1mm
temperature-curable epoxy resin adhesive. The upper side vary largely in maximum bonding strength. However the
of the specimen cover the adhesive area of 50mm×50mm lower limit of maximum bonding strength in water-soaked
and the lower side of the specimen cover the adhesive area specimens about 0.1mm is 40% smaller than the lower
of 50mm×80mm. It intends to break the upper side of the limit of maximum bonding strength in control specimens
specimen [Fig 1]. about 0.1mm. Expected reasons for this are as follows:
The silicone rubber spacer is put between the wooden After the adhesive thickness is thin, these specimens are
piece and the steel plate. It makes an adhesive thickness. made without pressing adhesive surfaces. It possibly
There are four types of an adhesive thickness (0.1mm, influences the wettability of these specimens. In water-
1.0mm, 2.0mm, 3.0mm). Each specimen has one of the soaked specimens about the adhesive thickness of 1.0mm,
four types. There are six specimens in each type. So, in average maximum bonding strength is about 86 % of it in
total, 24 specimens are experimented with. control specimens. And the lower limit of maximum
(WATER SOAKING TREATMENT SPECIMENS) bonding strength is about 88% of it in control specimens.
To obtain the adjustment coefficient of the accidental On the other hand, water-soaked specimens about 2.0mm
water leak in Article 37 of the Building Standards Law, and 3.0mm are the same as control specimens in average
specimens have to be sprinkled with water for 72 hours maximum bonding strength and the lower limit of
and dried to the air-dried state with air drying, hot-air maximum bonding strength.
drying, and so on. In this test, specimens are soaked in In every adhesive thickness, the stiffness of water-soaked
water for 72 hours instead of being sprinkled with water. specimens is not clearly different from it of control
At first specimens, which are the same shape and as many specimens.
as control specimens, are soaked in water for 72 hours. In some water-soaked specimens, cathodic
They are dried in 30℃ in the drying machine for 48 hours. electrodeposition coating is peeled and a tiny part of
They are in room temperature for 48 hours after the drying wooden piece is broken. There is a possibility that water-
machine. And they are experimented in shear tests, the soaking influences the physical property of the adhesive
same as control specimen shear tests. surface in specimens.
As a result, variation of the adhesive thickness and
accidental water leak drastically don’t influence the
3 THE TEST RESULT adhesion performance between the wooden piece and the
steel plate. In these shear tests, although a part of coating
Every shear failure causes between the steel and the on some specimens is peeled, cathodic electrodeposition
adhesive and it is brittle failure. There isn’t any wood coating is reliable coating. And even though bonding
failure. Average bonding strength is about 3N/mm ² . strength is smaller than strength of wood, if the adhesive
Figure 2 shows average strength and the initial stiffness in area is enough, this glued joint is strong enough to be used
each adhesive thickness of control specimens and water- as a shear connector in TCC.
soaked specimens. The left graph indicates bonding
strength in each adhesive thickness (0.1mm, 1.0mm,
2.0mm, 3.0mm). The right graph indicates initial stiffness 4 CONCLUSION
The glued joint between wood and cathodic
electrodeposition coating steel plate is stiff and strong
enough to be used as a shear connector in TCC. In next
tests, shear tests of glued joint specimens composed of
wood, steel, and concrete are held, and bending tests of
composite beams are held.

REFERENCES
[1] Fragiacomo, M., and Lukaszewska, E. (2013): “Time-
Fig 2: average strength and the initial stiffness in each
dependent behaviour of timber–concrete composite floors
adhesive thickness of control specimens and water-soaked with prefabricated concrete slabs.” Engineering Structures;
specimens 52: 687–696

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TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR EMBEDMENT STRENGTH OF WOOD FOR


THREADED FASTENERS IN THE CANADIAN TIMBER DESIGN CODE

Shawn Kennedy1, Alexander Salenikovich2, Williams Munoz3, Mohammad Mohammad4,


Derek Sattler5
KEYWORDS: Dowel bearing strength, sawn timber, glued-laminated timber.

1 INTRODUCTION 123 3 METHODOLOGY


The test program conducted jointly by FPInnovations and
The Canadian standard for engineering design in wood
Université Laval [7] included embedment tests on lag
(CSA O86) [1] uses the European yield model for
screws using glued-laminated timber manufactured in
calculations of lateral resistance of connections with
Quebec and British Columbia and made of Spruce-pine,
dowel-type fasteners. This model takes into account the
Spruce-pine-fir and Douglas-fir. All specimens were
moment resistance of the fastener, the assembly’s
conditioned to (65±5) % of relative humidity and (20±2)
geometry and the embedment strength of wood. The latter
°C temperature prior to testing. Lag screws of six
is considered a function of the relative density of wood and
diameters (from 6.4 mm to 19.1 mm) were commodity off-
diameter of the fastener. The purpose of this study is to
shelf fasteners.
verify the significance of these variables as applied to the
embedment strength for threaded dowel-type fasteners of
diameters 6.4 mm and greater. The importance of this
research is justified by the growing interest in the use of
large-diameter threaded fasteners in heavy timber and
hybrid structures of high load-bearing capacity.
Laser #2
2 BACKGROUND Laser #1
The embedment strength, also known as the dowel bearing
strength, was studied by several researches in Europe and
in the US in the 1980s for potential adoption of the
European yield model for design of dowel-type fastenings.
As a result, in Canada the embedment strength values have
been based on the work of Smith et al. [2]. The European
[3] values for fasteners installed into wood with pre-drilled
holes are equivalent to Canadian for parallel to grain
direction but different for fasteners of diameters greater
than 6 mm loaded in transverse direction. The dowel Figure 1. Embedment test set-up
bearing strength in the American timber design code Embedment tests were performed in accordance with
(NDS) [4] are based on the work of Wilkinson [5] who ASTM D5764 [8] half-hole test method with the fasteners
proposed embedment equations independent of the fastener inserted perpendicular to the lamination face of the glulam
diameter in parallel to grain direction. Later, Chui et al. [6] blocks and loaded at an angle of 90°, 45° and 0° to grain
reported new findings for threaded fasteners 6.4 mm in direction. The specimen width and depth were 5 and 6
diameter and less, which are different from those currently times the fastener diameter, respectively. The embedment
adopted in the design codes. length was 76 mm for lag screws of three smaller
diameters (6.4, 7.9 and 9.5 mm) and twice as long for
those of larger diameters (12.7, 15.9 and 19.1 mm). The
tests were conducted separately on the smooth shank
(unthreaded) portion and on the threaded portion of the lag
1
Shawn Kennedy, Université Laval, 2425 rue de la Terrasse, screw. Specimens were prepared by drilling a hole in the
Quebec, Canada. Email: shawn.kennedy.1@ulaval.ca center of a glulam block and then cutting it into two halves
2
Alexander Salenikovich, Université Laval, Quebec, Canada to obtain two specimens. For tests on the smooth shank
3
Williams Munoz, Nordic Structures Bois, Montreal, Canada
4 portion, the hole diameter was equal to the nominal
Mohammad Mohammad, FPInnovations, Ottawa, Canada
5
Derek Sattler, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
fastener diameter. For the threaded shank, the hole was

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TRACK 2: CONNECTIONS

70% of the nominal diameter, and the lag screw was perpendicular to grain is less than is currently given in the
carefully inserted in and out of the hole using a wrench CSA O86 [1]. Once the test program is completed and all
before cutting the block in half. data analysed, it is likely that new equations for the
embedment strength for lag screws (and potentially for
The load was applied to the half-hole specimen using a
bolts and dowels), independent of the fastener diameter,
fastener welded to a steel plate attached to the loading head
will be proposed for potential inclusion into the Canadian
of a hydraulic actuator (Figure 1). The specimen was
timber design code.
loaded at a constant speed of 1.0 mm/min, and test was
stopped when the load decreased to 80% of the peak load 5 CONCLUSION
unless the displacement first reached the lesser of 7.0 mm
or half the diameter of the fastener. The displacement was Equations for embedment strength of wood for dowel-type
calculated as the average of measurements recorded using fasteners currently used in CSA O86 standard are a
two laser sensors installed at the ends of the specimen. function of wood relative density and fastener diameter,
After the test, a wood sample was taken from each and, for lag screws, bolts and dowels, are strongly
specimen to determine the relative density and moisture dependent on the angle between the load and the grain
content in the vicinity of the loaded zone. direction. Experimental data obtained recently for lag
screws of diameters 6.4 mm and greater suggest that the
4 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS equations can be revised and be independent of the
fastener diameter. The new findings will be useful for
The following parameters were determined after the tests
design of timber connections with lag screws and other
using load-displacement curves (Figure 2):
threaded fasteners. Also, the data will be useful for
- Initial stiffness (K); development of design equations for fastenings in cross-
- Maximum load and corresponding displacement; laminated timber (CLT), which is a subject of a parallel
- Yield load and corresponding displacement according ongoing investigation.
to Yasumura and Kawai [9];
- 5% diameter offset load and corresponding 6 REFERENCES
displacement according to Wilkinson [5]; and [1] CSA Standards. 2009. CSA O86-09 Engineering
- Failure load and corresponding displacement. design in wood, Canadian Standards Association.
The embedment strength was calculated using the Mississauga, ON, Canada.
maximum load or the load corresponding to the point of [2] Smith, I., L.R.J. Whale, C. Anderson, B.O. Hilson,
minimum slope of the curve before a 5-mm displacement, and P.D. Rodd.1988. Design properties of laterally
whichever occurs first, divided by the embedment length loaded nailed or bolted joints. Can. J. Civ. Eng. 15(4):
and the nominal diameter of the fastener. The test results 633-643.
were compared with those found in previously published [3] European Committee for Standardization (CEN).
literature and with the design equations found in the CSA 2004. Eurocode 5. Design of timber structures. Part 1-
O86 [1], Eurocode 5 [3] and NDS [4]. 1. General. Common rules and rules for buildings.
EN1995-1-1: 2004. CEN Brussels.
[4] ANSI/AWC. 2012. National design specification for
wood construction. NDS-2012. American Wood
K
Maximum load Council. Washington, D.C., USA.
[5] Wilkinson, T.L. 1991. Dowel bearing strength. Res.
Pap. FPL-RP-505.USDA Forest Serv., Forest Prod.
5% diameter offset load Lab., Madison, WI.
Failure load [6] Chui, Y. H.; Smith, I.; Chen, Z. 2006. Influence of
Yield load (Y&K) fastener size on lateral strength of steel-to-wood screw
joints. Forest Prod. J. 56(7/8): 49-54.
[7] Kennedy, S. 2013. Withdrawal and embedding
resistance of fasteners in timber and CLT panels.
Master’s Thesis. Université Laval, Quebec, CA.
[8] American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
2007. D5764-97a (2007). Standard test method for
evaluating dowel-bearing strength of wood and wood-
Figure 2. Analysis of load-displacement curve based products. ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA.
[9] Yasumura, M., and N. Kawai. 1998. Estimating
The analysis of experimental data obtained to date on the
seismic performance of wood-framed structures.
fasteners in the tested range shows that the diameter has no
Proceedings of 1998 I.W.E.C. Switzerland. Vol.2. pp.
significant influence on the embedment strength of wood
564-571.
at any angle to the grain. Also, the test data suggest that the
difference between the embedment strength parallel and

144
TRACK 3: STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF CONVENTIONAL TIMBER FRAME


WALL UNDER SEISMIC ACTION : APPLICATION OF N2 METHOD

Yassine Verdret1,2, Carole Faye2, Sidi Mohammed Elachachi1,

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we apply the N2 method [2] to predict the behavior of conventional timber frame wall
subjected to seismic action. The behavior law, as input data of the N2 method, is obtained by a bilinear idealization of the
envelope curve of cyclic tests performed according to ISO 21581. Four different methods to build this behavior law are
used. The numerical results are compared with dynamic tests done at the FCBA on a shaking table.

KEYWORDS: N2 method ; conventional timber frame wall ; cyclic test ; dynamic test ; earthquake ; performance
based design

1 INTRODUCTION 123 2 TESTS ON TIMBER FRAME WALL


For buildings complying with construction rules as criteria
Two cyclic tests (named MC in the following) were
for structural regularity, lateral force method of analysis in
conducted under cyclic testing standard ISO 21581 [4] and
Eurocode 8 [7] is used to design timber structures under
made with a linear constant vertical load of 625 kg / m.
seismic actions where a simple linear–elastic analysis is
This configuration aims to represent real conditions loads
made. Another possible way to predict behaviour
experienced by the shear walls. To use the Nonlinear
structures under seimsic actions is the capacitive method or
Spectral Method, we assume that the pushover curve
the Nonlinear Spectral Method inspired by Fajfar's work
which provides the relationship between the shear force at
[2]. This method reproduces the major potential energy
the base of the structure and the roof displacement could
dissipation mechanisms activated in the fasteners
be described by the envelope curve of cyclic tests.
connecting the sheathing panels to the wooden frame,
during an earthquake. The dynamic tests on a shaking table were undertaken in
order to follow the linear and nonlinear dynamic behaviour
So, in this paper, we proposed to present the results
of the shear walls and identify the modal parameters
obtained from the application of the Nonlinear Spectral
(frequencies, damping, mode shapes). The three used input
Method [2] to the behavior analysis of an element of a
signals were representative of the French and European
conventional timber frame wall made by two OSB
seismic hazard. Six shear walls tests were performed.
sheathing panel under seismic action in order to predict its
maximal displacement and acceleration. The behavior law 3 APPLICATION OF SPECTRAL
of this element is obtained by four different bilinear NONLINEAR METHOD TO A TIMBER
idealizations of the envelope curve of cyclic tests. The
numerical results are compared to those obtained by FRAME WALL
dynamic tests carried out on a shaking table at the FCBA. The Spectral Nonlinear Method combines a pushover
analysis of a multiple degrees of freedom system (MDOF)
and an inelastic response spectrum analysis of an
equivalent system with one degree of freedom (SDOF) [3].
The accelerograms are first transformed into elastic
1
response spectrum in the spectral Acceleration –
University of Bordeaux 1, I2M, department of Civil and Displacement plane (Sae=f(Sde)) with a damping ratio of
Environmental Engineering, Avenue des facultes, 33405 Talence,
15% (noted during dynamic tests). In a second step, the
France, Email : yassine.verdret@etu.u-bordeaux1.fr
2
Technological Institute FCBA, Allée Boutaut, BP227, 33028 capacity diagram of timber frame walls is built. It is
Bordeaux cedex assumed that the material is slightly heterogeneous thereby
experimental cyclic curves are representative of all walls.

145
TRACK 3: STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

One can add that the studied system is considered as a Where Umodel: is the numerical displacement, Uexp: the
simple degree of freedom system. experimental displacement, Amodel: the numerical
acceleration and Aexp: experimental acceleration. From this
To build the capacity diagram and distinguish between the
index, there are broadly two classes (in ascending order of
elastic behaviour and the inelastic one for each sample, the
accuracy): ASTM E 2126A [1]
envelope curve is idealized by a bilinear relationship
Force-Displacement. To do this, the energy equivalence 5 CONCLUSIONS
between the two systems is considered. The post-peak
stiffness is assumed to be equal to zero. The four chosen It was established that the N2 method [2] based on the EN
methods to determine the yield stress are: 594 [8] to determine the yield stress of the bilinear law,
reproduces correctly displacements and accelerations.
- EN 594’s method [8]; Error margins between actual and simulated results
- ASTM E 2126A’s method [1]; established with the other methods used to determine the
- Karacabeyli & Ceccoti’s method (K&C) [5]; yield stress are less stable.
- CSIRO’s method [6];
By superimposing the capacity diagram and the elastic ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
response spectrum expressed on the Acceleration –
The ANRT, the Regional Council of Aquitaine, the
displacement spectral plane, one can determine the
CODIFAB and the DHUP are acknowledged for their
performance point (PP) (see figure 1) of the structure
financial support.
which correspond to the intersection between the
idealization curve and the response spectrum.
REFERENCES
As example, Figure 1 shows the superposition of the
capacity diagram obtained for an OSB12 wall, the four [1] ASTM E 2126A. (2008). Standard test methods for
idealized bilinear curves and the response spectrum for cyclic load test for shear resistance of vertical
PGA = 0,33g. elements of the lateral resisting systems for
buildings. AFNOR.
[2] Fajfar, P. (2000). A Nonlinear Analysis Method for
Performance Based Design. Earthquake Spectra,
Vol. 16, N°3, 573-592.
[3] FCBA. (2012). Test report N°403/11/725/12/422,
Essais sismiques de murs à ossature bois,
SISMOB Project. Bordeaux: FCBA.
[4] ISO 21581. (2010). Timber structures - Static and
cyclic lateral load test methods for shear walls.
ISO.
[5] Karacabeyli, E., Yasumura, M., Foliente, G., &
Ceccoti, A. (2005). Background information on
ISO standard 16 670 for cycling testing of
connections. Proceedings of the International
Council for Research and Innovation in building
Construction, Working Commission W18, Timber
structures.
Figure 1 : Pushover curve for an OSB12 wall and its four
bilinear idealizations (MC wall tested in cyclic)
[6] Muñoz, W., Salenikovich, A., & Quenneville, P.
(2008). Need for a harmonized approach for
calculations of ductility of timber assemblies.
4 RESULTS Proccedings of the International Council for
For each wall and its bilinear idealizations, knowing its Research and Innovation in building
natural period, we compare the numerical results to those Construction, Working Commission W18, Timber
obtained by dynamic test (maximum displacement, structures. St. Andrews, Canada.
maximum acceleration). [7] NF EN 1998-1. (2005). Calculation of structures for
earthquake resistance. AFNOR.
In order to evaluate the accuracy of the four methods of [8] NF EN 594. (Février 1996). Timber structures – Tests
bilinearization, we used the following error index: method –Test of stiffness and strength for shear
walls. AFNOR.
U mod el  U exp Amod el  Aexp
e ( )2  ( )2 (1)
U exp Aexp

146
TRACK 3: STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF PORTAL FRAME


CONSTRUCTED WITH JAPANESE CEDAR GLULAM

Min-Chyuan Yeh1, Yu-Li Lin2, Shu-Yu Deng3

ABSTRACT: Feasibility of using rapid grown Japanese cedar glulam for constructing a portal frame was examined. A
2500x3000-mm portal frame was constructed with 140x305-mm glulam members and subjected to a lateral cyclic load. The
connections between post and beam members were fastened with 8 16-mm pins. Resulted moment resistance of the frame
fastened with pins in square placement performed better than that with in circular placement. While the inserted metal plate
in L-type showed higher initial stiffness and energy absorption than that in straight metal plate. The stress distribution of
glulam post indicated shifts of neutral axis and deflection point as the cyclic load increases.

KEYWORDS: Glulam, Portal frame, Japanese cedar, Connection

1 INTRODUCTION 123
2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
Japanese cedar has the largest plantation area in Taiwan
and is one of rapid grown species in this region. There is a 2.1 MATERIALS
concern about the adequacy using 30-yr-old Japanese
cedar as structural glulam products for wooden structure The rapid-grown Japanese cedar logs were harvested from
applications. Post and beam structure is major local wood forest plantation in Hsin-chu Forest District. The size of
construction which requires proper joint rigidity to resist laminae was 38×140 mm after sawn, kiln-dried, and planed.
lateral loads such as earthquake and wind. A portal frame The laminae were graded with measured modulus of
design has an advantage in lateral load resistance