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Monday, 13 February 2017

Energy and Water


CASE STUDY: Somalia, congo, scotland, Jiangsu/)

Subject\\Geography
ENERGY

Global Energy

reasons for change of energy sources

- Greater concern for the environment


- Rising prices of fossil fuels
- The knowledge that fossil fuels are finite
- Aim to reduce reliance on fossil fuel exporting countries
- Improvements in renewable technology
- The hope of developing and selling renewable technology
- Better technology and increased stability allowing nuclear development
Non-renewable energy

1. coal (solid)

-non renewable

-release huge amount of greenhouse gas when burnt

-mining deep is dangerous

-expensive to transport around the world

2. oil (liquid)

-non renewable

-oil can be wide spread and cause pollution

-expensive

3. Gas (gas)

-non renewable

-mostly located in politically unstable countries or environmentally sensitive areas

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-explosive

-release relatively little greenhouse gases

Renewable energy
Advantages Disadvantages

Solar Clean and is a infinite resource Expensive and the sun does not
low operating cost shine all the time
hard to store surplus energy
supply does not equal demand

Wind clean and is a infinite resource visual pollution


can be placed away from noise pollution
settlements expensive to install
wind is unreliable
hard to build

Tidal Clean and infinite block shipping routes


ideal for island countries Interfere with animals
limited number of sites
high set up cost

Wave Clean and infinite block shipping routes


ideal for island countries Interfere with animals
Strength of waves may vary

Hydroelectric Power Clean and infinite migration patterns of animals


dam can prevent flooding dams can flood large areas of
store water land
Limited number of suitable rivers

Biofuel Renewable and can replant release greenhouse gas


crops Deforestation
Cheap increase in food price

Geothermal clean and infinite high start up fast


used to heat water Drilling release harmful gas
Constantly and not depend on
water

Nuclear Energy

uranium and uranium is non renewable


Advantage Disadvantage

plenty supply of uranium Transporting material and waste will be risky and
expensive

Release low amounts of greenhouse gas risk of cancer

waste can be safely stored underground mining for uranium is dangerous and polluting

nuclear waste remains radioactive for a long time

Explossive

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Fuel Wood

LEDC

cant afford to buy raw materials

don't have technology or money to build and operate power stations

Can be used for cooking, heating and scaring away wild animals

Problems:

Deforestation, loss of biodiversity, desertification cuz reduce in rainfall, increase soil


erosion, dangers in breathing in the smoke and risk of forest fire

WATER

Ground water is hard to extract cuz its deep underground and often are away from
where they are needed=expensive transport

Use of water: agriculture, irrigation, household and domestic use, industry,


manufacturing and cooling

Aquifer: rocks that can hold water

Aquiclude: rocks that cannot hold water

Aquitard: rock layer that limits water movement

Sallinisation: increase in salt content in water

Water Stress: when demand of water exceeds supply of water causing water shortages,
drought
Reasons for Growing Demand Reasons for Falling Supply

Population growth climate chang

domestic demand groundwater depletion

agricultural demand Sewage

Energy production Political

Mismanagement

Problems caused by water shortages Possible Solutions

Drought Irrigation projects

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crop failure Reduce leakage

livestock deaths dam construciton

Famine water metering

ground water depletion Construction of wells

Conflict Internal cooperation

Disease sewage treatment

Eutrophication virtual water

loss of biodiversity Desalination

Education about conservation

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

Greenhouse effect and global warming


Problems to GB Solutions to GB

rising sea levels disease treatment

coastal flooding Renewable energy

loss of biodiversity hybrid cars (catalytic converter)

Desertification 3Rs

drought and famine Global awareness

Carbon sequestration