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Dissertation Proposal

The impact of gender based violence on women’s reproductive health: the case of Tlokweng
Village.

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Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE...........................................................................................................................................................4

1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................4

ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................................................4

1.1. Background..................................................................................................................................................5

1.2. Introduction.................................................................................................................................................6

1.3. Statement of the Research Problem...........................................................................................................6

1.4. Objectives.....................................................................................................................................................7

1.5. Research Hypothesis...................................................................................................................................7

1.6. Significance..................................................................................................................................................8

1.7. Justification..................................................................................................................................................8

1.8. Limitations...................................................................................................................................................8

CHAPTER TWO..........................................................................................................................................................9

2. LITERATURE REVIEW....................................................................................................................................9

2.1. Literature Review Introduction.................................................................................................................9

2.2. Key terms...................................................................................................................................................10

2.3. Literature Overview..................................................................................................................................11

2.3.1. Laws and Policies...............................................................................................................................11

2.3.2. Trends and patterns of GBV – a global perspective.........................................................................11

2.3.3. Strategies to reduce GBV..................................................................................................................12

2.3.4. GBV and Health................................................................................................................................12

2.4. Theoretical Framework............................................................................................................................14

CHAPTER THREE....................................................................................................................................................16

3. METHODOLOGY.............................................................................................................................................16

3.1. Introduction...............................................................................................................................................16

3.2. Research Design.........................................................................................................................................16

3.3. Description of study..................................................................................................................................17

3.4. Research Subject.......................................................................................................................................19

3.5. Data Collection Methods..........................................................................................................................20

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3.6. Ethical Considerations..............................................................................................................................22

3.7. Sampling.....................................................................................................................................................23

3.8. Data analysis..............................................................................................................................................24

3.9. Timetables/Timeline..................................................................................................................................25

3.10. Dissemination of study findings...........................................................................................................26

3.11. Budget....................................................................................................................................................26

References....................................................................................................................................................................27

APPENDIX 1: QUESTIONNAIRE - GUIDE FOR FEMALE COMMUNITY MEMBERS..............................28

APPENDIX 2: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR INSTITUTIONS...............................................................................30

APPENDIX 3: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR SCHOOL HEAD.............................................................................31

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CHAPTER ONE

1. INTRODUCTION

ABSTRACT
The principal characteristic of gender-based violence is that it occurs against women precisely
because of their gender. Gender-based violence involves power imbalances where, most often,
men are the perpetrators and women the victims. This study of gender-based violence in
Tlokweng village, south-east of Botswana will contribute to a better understanding of health
needs among third world country’s women. High occurrence of pregnancy-related complications
and gynecologic conditions, in addition to barriers to accessing care, indicate a need for better
targeting of reproductive health services. The association between ignorance, lack of resources
and reproductive health indicates a need for gender based violence (GBV)-related and
psychosocial services alongside standard reproductive healthcare. During this session we will
explore in detail the causes and contributing factors of gender-based violence, various effects of
gender-based violence on victim’s reproductive health, their families, perpetrators and the society
as a whole, as well as examine a variety of possible social responses to the phenomenon.

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1.1. Background
A substantial number of girls and women in this suffer from violence and its consequences
because of their sex and their unequal status in society. Over two thirds of women in Botswana
(67%) have experienced some form of gender violence in their lifetime, including partner and
non-partner violence. A smaller, but still high, proportion of men (44%) admit to perpetrating
violence against women. Violence against women (often called gender-based violence) is a
serious violation of women’s human rights. Yet little attention has been paid to the serious health
consequences of abuse and the health needs of abused women and girls. Women who have
experienced physical, sexual, or psychological violence suffer a range of health problems, often
in silence. They have poorer physical and mental health, suffer more injuries, and use more
medical resources than non-abused women.

Females of all ages are victims of violence, in part because of their limited social and economic
power compared with men. While men also are victims of violence, violence against women is
characterized by its high prevalence within the family; its acceptance by society; and its serious,
long-term impact on women’s health and well-being. The United Nations has defined violence
against women as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in,
physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion
or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.”

Health care workers have the opportunity and the obligation to identify, treat, and educate
women who are being abused. Health care institutions can make significant contributions to
addressing violence against women by supporting clinicians and clients. Developing and
institutionalizing national health-sector policies, protocols, and norms about violence call
attention to the problem of gender-based violence, and help ensure quality care for survivors of
abuse.

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1.2. Introduction
This section is an overhaul entrance into the study of what violence against women in any
domain will affect their reproductive health. An initial outlay of the forms in which the violence
is perpetrated becomes utmost important as it forms a basis of understanding on the cause and
effect stimulus. Important to note are the cultural, social and economic impetus at play that
culminate in these acts of violence with an investigation into their ripple effect. Patriarchal
attitudes are a significant underlying factor driving the incidence of GBV in Botswana. While
women and men affirm gender equality in the public domain this has not translated in their
private lives particularly in their intimate relationships.

1.3. Statement of the Research Problem


Violence against women is one of the most dramatic manifestations of the abuse of power that
stems from existing economic, social, political and cultural inequalities between men and
women. It is present in the private as well as the public spheres of women’s lives. It is
understood to include physical, sexual and psychological harm that occurs within the family or
domestic unit or within any other interpersonal relationship as well as in the community. Gender-
based violence can manifest itself in numerous forms throughout a woman’s life, causing severe
physical and psychological consequences, including her sexual and reproductive health. At the
Vienna Conference on Human Rights (1993), violence against women was recognized as a
violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and in the Cairo and Beijing conferences,
governments and the international community committed. In Cairo and Beijing, the international
community recognized the link between violence against women and political crisis.

In a given scenario of a third world country like Botswana and in a small village like Tlokweng,
what would be the impact of gender based violence on women’s reproductive health? A thorough
investigation on the feminine genders’ way of life in Botswana, given the socio-economic status
and the role women play in society that makes them vulnerable as victims of gender violence.

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1.4. Objectives
The overall goals of this study are to increase understanding of reproductive health outcomes and
SGBV
1. Understand effects of gender based violence on women’s reproductive health.
2. Find out the extend of gender based violence against women in Tlokweng Village.
3. Investigate socio-economic factors that contribute to gender based violence against
women.
4. Understand different stakeholders concern with gender based violence in Botswana

1.5. Research Hypothesis


A hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It describes in concrete (rather than
theoretical) terms what you expect will happen in your study. Not all studies have hypotheses.
Sometimes a study is designed to be exploratory.

Gender Based Violence seriously affects all aspects of women’s health- physical, sexual and
reproductive, mental and behavioural health. Health consequences of GBV can be both,
immediate and acute as well as long lasting and chronic; indeed, negative health consequences
may persist long after the violence has stopped. The more severe the level of violence, the
greater the impact will be on women’s health. Furthermore, exposure to more than one type of
violence (for example physical and sexual) and/or multiple incidents of violence over time tends
to lead to more severe health consequences (WHO 2002, Johnson/Leone 2005, both cited in
WHO/PAHO 2012a).

GBV can result in women’s deaths. Fatal outcomes may be the immediate result of a woman
being killed by the perpetrator, or in the long-term, as a consequence of other adverse health
outcomes. For example, mental health problems resulting from trauma can lead to suicidality, or
to conditions such as alcohol abuse or cardiovascular diseases that can in turn result in death.
HIV infection as a result of sexual violence can cause AIDS and ultimately lead to death (Heise
et al 1999, WHO 2013).

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1.6. Significance
In trying to answer question 4 on the objectives, this study will benefit or impact many
stakeholders in addressing the issue of gender based violence on women’s reproductive health
from not only Tlokweng but Botswana as a whole and other countries in the region that have
similar settings in terms of socio-economic standings. There will be discussion on what people or
groups of people might benefit from reading this research, what can be done by corporations to
mitigate GBV in communities deprived of information and how best to teach and train
perpetrators of such acts of violence on stopping the GBV and encouraging women not to
stigmatise this violence, but rather come out so that they can be assisted.

1.7. Justification
In this section, references to the rationale for the research are to be invoked, that is, the reason
why the research is being conducted, including an explanation for the design and methods
employed in the research.

In this research, it should be noted that the aim is to show the impact gender based violence has
on women’s reproductive health – as women are seen as symbols of a societal growth, if they are
harmed then society is also damaged. In the Botswana culture (African culture) women should
not be violated in any way, that is, infringe their right to freedom of expression and being, any
violence of whatever form should not be tolerated and if it transpires, the effects are what we are
examining here. Why we are conducting research, is because there is need to contribute to
solutions that minimize or do away with violence against women as there is need for equal
rights.

1.8. Limitations
In this section, much is focused on the drawbacks to my research, that might include; focusing on
a small area and limited population survey like Tlokweng, lack of funding, use of old data to
draw some conclusions. It will also be imminent to note the application of the results to be found
here on an international scale – as focus is only placed on a small village in a third world
country. Some of these obstacles can be overcome. Research solely based on women, the balance
in finding the other side of the men’s views overlooked.

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CHAPTER TWO

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Literature Review Introduction


This literature review provides answers to the questions raised in Chapter 1 under objectives, by
compiling information from available published and unpublished sources and presenting it in a
succinct format so that researchers and policymakers can familiarize themselves with existing
research and key documents, use it to inform policy and program decision making, and build a
research agenda and portfolio that targets knowledge strengths and gaps.

The review aims at including more than 20 documents related to GBV in Botswana. Most focus
on various forms of violence experienced by women, including domestic or intimate partner
violence (IPV). Several large nationally representative surveys have been conducted, notably the
Gender Violence Indicators Study Botswana (2012 – 2014), as well as a national GBV study that
focused on IPV (Pelser et al., 2005). These provide prevalence estimates for GBV and a wealth
of other information on factors associated with GBV experienced by women. Also, a large
portion of the reviewed studies and policy documents examined GBV among children. One
nationally representative study looked at the prevalence of several forms of violence experienced
by school-aged children, both inside and outside the school environment (Burton, 2005). Another
looked at experiences of GBV among girls and young women, and focused on educational
impact (Bisika et al., 2009).

About one-third of the reviewed research studies addressed GBV among specific populations,
including people living in specific geographic locations, school children, employees, female
domestic workers, female university students, prisoners, street children, people living with HIV,
women with disabilities, and refugees. A slightly larger number of studies examined knowledge
and attitudes related to GBV and other associated factors, including demographics, harmful
traditional practices, the school environment, controlling behaviors, and substance use. Several
of the reviewed studies examined the impact of GBV in Botswana, focusing on individuals’
health and education, as well as Botswana’s economy. Only a few studies were found that
evaluated GBV interventions, despite the fact that many GBV interventions are occurring in
Botswana. Summaries of findings from all reviewed studies are included in this report.
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2.2. Key terms
Gender: Refers to the social differences between men and women that are learned, and though
deeply rooted in every culture, are changeable over time, and have wide variations both within
and between cultures.
Gender-based Violence: Gender-based violence is an umbrella term for any harm that is
perpetrated against a person’s will, and that results from power inequities that are based on
gender roles. Around the world, gender-based violence almost always has a greater negative
impact on women and girls. For this reason the term "gender-based violence" is often used
interchangeably with the term "violence against women." One reason the term "gender-based
violence" is often considered preferable to other terms that describe violence against women is
that it highlights the relationship between women’s subordinate status in society and their
increased vulnerability to violence. However, it is important to remember that in some cases men
and boys may also be victims of gender-based violence. Violence may be physical, sexual,
psychological, economic, or socio-cultural. Categories of perpetrators may include family
members, community members, and/or those acting on behalf of cultural, religious, or state
institutions.
Violent Episode: An act or series of acts of violence or abuse by one perpetrator or group of
perpetrators. May involve multiple types of violence (physical, sexual, emotional, economic,
socio-cultural); and may involve repetition of violence over a period of minutes, hours, or days.
Survivor: Person who has experienced violence or other abuse.
Secondary Survivor: Person impacted by the experience of gender-based violence inflicted
upon the survivor. May include family members or others close to the survivor.
Perpetrator: Person, group, or institution that directly inflicts or otherwise supports violence or
other abuse inflicted on another against her/his will.
Intimate Partner: Includes current or former spouses (legal and common law), non-marital
partners (boyfriend, girlfriend, same-sex partner, dating partner). Intimate partners may or may
not be cohabitating and the relationship need not involve sexual activities.
Minor: Person under the age of 18 (according to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of
the Child).

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2.3. Literature Overview

2.3.1. Laws and Policies


The literature review will include a review of government policy documents that address GBV,
including international agreements, national policies, laws, plans, strategies, and guidelines. The
international agreements signed by Botswana’s government reaffirm its commitment to
addressing and eliminating GBV. The national policies, plans, strategies, and guidelines span
various sectors (for example, health, police, labor, education) and put into place actions and
measures to prevent and respond to GBV. The GBV laws that are in place exist to protect citizens
against GBV and to help survivors. This report will include summaries of the GBV-related
information contained in each of these documents.

2.3.2. Trends and patterns of GBV – a global perspective

Brown (2004) argues that there are three types of violence that are most prevalent and these are
physical, sexual and psychological. However, research detailing the multifaceted nature of
violence and the extent of joint occurrence between different types of violence remains sparse
hence need for other researches. USAID (2012) reported that an estimated one in three women
worldwide has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime. Although
statistics on the prevalence of violence vary, the scale is tremendous, the scope is vast, and the
consequences for individuals, families, communities, and countries are devastating. Since the
1993 World Bank report on health highlighted gender-based violence as a priority public health
concern, information on the prevalence of gender-based violence has increased dramatically.
However, research detailing the multifaceted nature of violence and the extent of joint
occurrence between different types of violence remains sparse. Also yet to be adequately
addressed are the question of age at onset of different types of violence and whether the
experience of violence in childhood might correlate to earlier onset of adult victimization.
Gaining a better understanding of the age at onset is important for designing studies that identify
risk factors for violence and properly targeting prevention programs.

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2.3.3. Strategies to reduce GBV
In order to improve GBV research in Botswana, and the use of research and other information to
strengthen the national response to GBV, the researcher will recommend wide dissemination of
this report with translation of research findings for different audiences; prioritization of research
to evaluate impact and costs of GBV programs and services; and capacity strengthening of
organizations and individuals within Botswana to conduct high-quality GBV research and
evaluations, and to report on and translate the findings for policy making and programming.

2.3.4. GBV and Health


This form of GBV is most widely practiced in Sub-Saharan Africa and in the Middle East, but
also occurs in Northern Africa, Europe, Asia and the Americas. It is often carried out by
traditional practitioners, not by medical personnel. In half of the 29 countries where it is
practiced, the majority of girls go through FGM before the age of 5, and in the other half
between the ages of 5 and 14. Altogether the percentage of women who have suffered FGM
ranges from over 90% (Somalia, Guinea, Djibouti and Egypt) to less than 5% (Ghana, Togo,
Niger, Cameroon and Uganda). FGM lies at the intersection of very sensitive issues: patriarchy,
gender roles, women’s reproduction, and men’s perceptions of women’s sexuality.43 FGM is
also a clear example of gender-based violence that is sustained by women performing the
practice. In an overview and exploration by UNICEF, the most frequently cited reason for
supporting FGM was ‘social acceptance’, and this was also the benefit of FGM most commonly
reported.44 Both the attitudes and the practice vary according to levels of education, economic
wealth, and location, and in most countries it is less common amongst youth than adult women.
UNICEF’s report also states that prevalence has dropped in more than half of the 29 countries in
Africa and the Middle East where the practice is concentrated.

While variations may be found across studies in terms of the types of GBV studied, definitions
used, study populations, and methodologies, the research findings here will try and be consistent
in demonstrating the magnitude of the problem and many of its consequences. The study will
offer a wealth of information that can be used for policy making and programming. The review
of government documents suggests that some information will be used to shape policies and

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plans, but it should also reveal a more comprehensive look at the data that could contribute to
improved priority setting and more strategic approaches to ending GBV and supporting
survivors.

The literature review will also reveal some information gaps. These include research on boys’
and men’s experience of GBV, the prevalence of and factors associated with perpetration of
GBV, and an understanding of how risk and protective factors play out in different settings and
among different populations. The most critical gap, however, is in studies to evaluate GBV
policy and program interventions. Although the literature review might not set out to assess the
quality of information presented in the identified documents beyond the criteria established for
the search process, variations can be observed in the scientific rigor of the studies, accuracy or
completeness in presentation of the methods and results, and interpretation of the findings.

Violence against women is perhaps the most widespread and socially tolerated of human rights
violations, cutting across borders, race, class, ethnicity and religion. The impact of gender-based
violence (GBV) is devastating. The individual women who are victims of such violence often
experience life-long emotional distress, mental health problems and poor reproductive health, as
well as being at higher risk of acquiring HIV and intensive long-term users of health services. In
addition, the cost to women, their children, families and communities is a significant obstacle to
reducing poverty, achieving gender equality and ensuring a peaceful transition for post-conflict
societies. This, in conjunction with the mental and physical health implications of gender-based
violence, impacts on a state or region’s ability to develop and construct a stable, productive
society, or reconstruct a country in the wake of conflict (United Nations Economic Commission
for Africa, 2010).

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2.4. Theoretical Framework
This research will look at the life cycle of violence against and its effects on health on a broad
base and try to juxtapose the implications on our study area of Tlokweng. Globally, at least one
in three women has experienced some form of gender-based abuse during her lifetime.2 Violence
against girls and women can begin before birth and continue throughout their lives into old age
(see Figure 1). Women are reluctant to discuss abuse, and may accept it as part of their role. Even
assuming that current data underestimate the prevalence of violence against women, millions of
girls and women worldwide suffer from gender-based violence and its consequences. The most
common forms of violence against women are physical, sexual, and emotional abuse by a
woman’s husband or intimate partner.

To be effective, intervention strategies for domestic violence must be based on a clearly


articulated theory of violence. To the extent possible, all parts of the community must share this
view of violence to effectively coordinate their responses to the problem.

There are several theories surrounding domestic violence, including the idea that domestic
violence is a learned behavior from childhood and that repressed batterers fall into a cycle of
violence. For example, the social ecological model recognizes that factors contributing to
domestic violence exist at the individual, relationship, community, and societal level. Some
factors, such as substance abuse, contribute to the frequency and severity of the abuse while
others, such as the systematic acceptance of violence against women, has a causal relationship to
domestic violence.

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Although there are no simple explanations, research indicates that domestic violence has its roots
in the subordinate role women have traditionally held in private and public life in many societies.
The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women describes
violence against women as "a manifestation of historically unequal power relationships between
men and women." At the same time, violence is used to perpetuate and enforce women's
subordinate role. In the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, the United
Nations and its member countries denounce domestic violence as one of the "crucial social
mechanisms by which women are forced into subordinate [positions] compared with men." The
following sections will outline different theories regarding domestic violence throughout recent
history, contributing factors to domestic violence, and the role of alcohol in domestic cases.

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CHAPTER THREE

1.

2.

3. METHODOLOGY

3.1. Introduction

In this chapter, there is description of the methods and approach to be used in trying to
understand the complex dynamics related to the understanding of reproductive health outcomes
and Gender Based Violence and practice; and, what role policy and practice have on the
decisions women, who confront domestic violence in their lives, make. The challenges inherent
in my task included the complexity and enormity of the topic itself, as well as moral and human
dilemmas the above objectives listed as:
5. Investigate socio-economic factors that contribute gender based violence against women.
6. Understand effects of gender based violence in women’s reproductive health.
7. Find out the extend of gender based violence against women in Tlokweng Village.
8. Understand different stakeholders concern with gender based violence in Botswana

1.

2.

3.

3.1.

3.2. Research Design

Research studies according to Trochim (2005) are designed in a particular way to increase the
chances of collecting the information needed to answer a particular question. The information
collected during research is only useful if the research design is sound and follows the research
protocol. Carefully following the procedures and techniques outlined in the research protocol
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will increase the chance that the results of the research will be accurate and meaningful to others.
Following the research protocol and thus the design of the study is also important because the
results can then be reproduced by other researchers. The more often results are reproduced, the
more likely it is that researchers and the public will accept these findings as true. Additionally,
the research design must make clear the procedures used to ensure the protection of research
subjects, whether human or animal, and to maintain the integrity of the information collected in
the study.

The research design is based on a Mixed-Method Approach as noted by Patton, M (1990), that
is including Quantitative and Qualitative approaches to research, cohort studies- refers to a
study conducted over a period of time involving members of a population which the subject or
representative member comes from, and who are united by some commonality or similarity.
Using a quantitative framework, a cohort study makes note of statistical occurrence within a
specialized subgroup, united by same or similar characteristics that are relevant to the research
problem being investigated, rather than studying statistical occurrence within the general
population; and cross-sectional research- which has three distinctive features: no time
dimension; a reliance on existing differences rather than change following intervention; and,
groups are selected based on existing differences rather than random allocation. The cross-
sectional design can only measure differences between or from among a variety of people,
subjects, or phenomena rather than a process of change. As such, researchers using this design
can only employ a relatively passive approach to making causal inferences based on findings.

3.3. Description of study

The study will develop a collection of resources, methods and tools on violence against
women and the impact on their reproductive health to enhance the effectiveness of gender based
violence policies and find best ways to control and keep track and reduce the impact of such.
During the study, a methodological approach will be developed and tested to assess good practices on
prevention and protection - Pelham, B. W.; Blanton, H (2006). This methodological approach is generally
suitable for evaluating any program on improving gender equality. The common criterion, however, will
be developed specifically to identify good practice regarding domestic violence. Special methodological
tools will be developed to consider the specific elements of awareness-raising campaigns, trainings,
victims’ support services, and perpetrators’ programs.
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In trying to answer question 4 on the objectives, this study will benefit or impact many
stakeholders in addressing the issue of gender based violence on women’s reproductive health
from not only Tlokweng but Botswana as a whole and other countries in the region that have
similar settings in terms of socio-economic standings. There will be discussion on what people or
groups of people might benefit from reading this research, what can be done by corporations to
mitigate GBV in communities deprived of information and how best to teach and train
perpetrators of such acts of violence on stopping the GBV and encouraging women not to
stigmatise this violence, but rather come out so that they can be assisted. In this section,
references to the rationale for the research are to be invoked, that is, the reason why the research
is being conducted, including an explanation for the design and methods employed in the
research. A sample study will be undertaken on 30 women, clinics and hospitals will be visited
and local newspapers and publishing websites on women’s violence case will be invoked to see
the extent to which GBV impacts women’s reproductive health.

In this research, it should be noted that the aim is to show the impact gender based violence has
on women’s reproductive health – as women are seen as symbols of a societal growth, if they are
harmed then society is also damaged. In the Botswana culture (African culture) women should
not be violated in any way, that is, infringe their right to freedom of expression and being, any
violence of whatever form should not be tolerated and if it transpires, the effects are what we are
examining here. Why we are conducting research, is because there is need to contribute to
solutions that minimize or do away with violence against women as there is need for equal
rights.

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3.4. Research Subject

In this research, study will be undertaken on 30 interviewees, clinics and hospitals, police and
schools will be visited and local newspapers and publishing websites on women’s violence case
will be invoked to see the extent to which GBV impacts women’s reproductive health. It should
be noted that the aim is to show the impact gender based violence has on women’s reproductive
health – as women are seen as symbols of a societal growth, if they are harmed then society is
also damaged. In the Botswana culture (African culture) women should not be violated in any
way, that is, infringe their right to freedom of expression and being, any violence of whatever
form should not be tolerated and if it transpires, the effects are what we are examining here. Why
we are conducting research, is because there is need to contribute to solutions that minimize or
do away with violence against women as there is need for equal rights.

Research on violence against women is a key component of any programme designed to end the
problem - Gelles (1990). Given the nature of the phenomenon, the standardisation of concepts
related to it becomes necessary, in order not only to reach a consensus on what to consider as
violence against women, but also to reduce the heterogeneity in the methods to measure the
problem and the associated factors. Although in the past two decades the research literature on
violence against women has greatly increased, it shows the existence of relevant research bias
that could be determining our knowledge of the problem and, therefore, limiting the development
of efficient interventions to end it.

The objective of this paper is to review the methodological issues that arise when studying
violence against women as a public health problem. Although some of the issues examined in
this article can be applied to any type of violence against women, we will concentrate on effects

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on their reproductive health, since this is one of the most common phenomena of violence
against women and it has the greatest consequences at a social and political level.

As the researcher has chosen a hypothesis to test in this study, the next step is to select a pool of
participants to be in that study, that is the 30 mentioned above. However, any research project
must be able to extend the implications of the findings beyond the participants who actually
participated in the study. For obvious reasons, it is nearly impossible for a researcher to study
every person in the population of interest. In the example that we have been using thus far, the
population of interest is “the developing world." The researcher therefore has made a decision to
limit the research to a subset of that population, and this has important implications for the
applicability of study results. The researcher has put some careful forethought into exactly how
and why a certain group of individuals will be studied.

3.5. Data Collection Methods


This study will use a mixed-methods research design incorporating interviews and cross-
sectional surveys. Surveys can be administered in person, through the mail, telephone or
electronically (e-mail or Internet). A survey can be administered to an individual or in a group
setting. Surveys are used to gain information about many individuals and may
include multiple/forced choice or open-ended questions – questionnaires (e.g., demographics ,
health, knowledge, opinions, beliefs, attitudes or skills).

The questionnaires will carry open and closed ended questions that accommodate short and
precise answers, which will not produce cumbersome data difficult to analyse. The aim of the
questionnaires is to gather data from the sample that links directly to the objectives of the
research and such questions on GBV effects on health will include some of the following;
Who are the most victims to this violence?, Who are the perpetrators to this violence?

The questionnaire was also designed to investigate recent incidence of intimate partner violence
and lifetime prevalence of injuries. Questions were incorporated to elicit contextual information
about the violence, including the types of injuries sustained, pregnancy outcomes, whether and
what sources of help were consulted and their comparative value, and emotional health status.

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Other questions targeted exposure to family violence in childhood as well as forced abduction
related to conflict.

An interview is an interaction that involves the researcher and the participant(s) in which
questions are presented in person, over the telephone or even electronically (email or Internet).
During an interview, questions are asked to obtain detailed information from the participant
about the topic under study. The questions may be similar to those asked in a survey. In the study,
the interviews will be used to get data from the victims of GBV that are not literate to use
questionnaires and in areas where there is likelihood of the questionnaires not being returned in
time to compile the data, like in work environments where there is need to visit people on their
free time which is generally short on lunch breaks. Data collection procedures varied depending
on the type of data that was to be collected and interlocutor in presence. For qualitative data,
interviewees and group discussions participants were directly contacted by researchers.
Conversations and discussions took place mostly at the interviewee’s work place or home.

Data Collection - Because of the sensitive nature of the questions and the difficulty in obtaining
privacy at the participant’s home, women who are willing to participate will be interviewed at a
central location outside the participant’s home, where the questionnaire will be administered in a
private area. Questionnaires can be dropped off at schools or police stations, but the problem
with this is the return of the questionnaire and the need for guidance on answering the questions.

After the participant is first selected by the house locater and is given an initial verbal consent to
participate in a survey on women’s health and welfare, she is scheduled for an appointment time
at the designated location. Another option is open for those who can answer the questionnaire in
their homes, with a sight for transport costs on our part in moving around to collect and the lag
time the respondents may want may differ as compared to a central location. When the
participant arrives for the interview, the contents of a comprehensive verbal consent form will be
read to her by the interviewer, informing her that any information she provides would be
anonymous, that her decision to participate was completely voluntary, and that participation
would have no bearing on her access to food, water, health care, or relief services for herself or
her family.

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3.6. Ethical Considerations
Regulatory frameworks, guidelines and guidance for ethical procedures on scientific research
have been constructed worldwide over the last decades, Montgomery etal (2009; 39:137–55) -
pointing to four main issues.
(1) before embarking on any inquiry, researchers must ensure that the information gathering
activity is necessary and justified. Mainly the data to be gathered must be in tandem to
the subject area of GBV and hence not too much sensitive questions ought to be asked as
this may prove unnecessary.
(2) the benefits of a particular study must be weighed against its risks, both to respondents
and to communities, and therefore researchers and ethics boards have the obligation to
take every precaution to minimize harm and maximize benefits. Accordingly, researchers
should state their engagement in informative and mutually respectful interactions and
explain the benefits to those individuals participating in the study when submitting
research proposals. Such conduct grounds on the principle of distributive justice,
according to which individuals bearing the burden of research should receive an
appropriate benefit, and those who stand to benefit most should bear a fair proportion of
the risks and the burdens of the study - Ellsberg and Heise(2002). This plays an
important role in establishing the end result of the study, as it will help those affected
directly by GBV to see how they mitigate or find help and those on the brink of getting
into GBV to desist from the acts of violence as the consequences will be outlined by the
research results.
(3) informed consent should be obtained and confidentiality must be protected.
(4) the safety of respondents and interviewers should be paramount, and infused in all
project decisions.
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Besides these general ethical principles, violence research poses specific challenges that require
particular considerations, namely different legal frameworks that shape research procedures
and affect disclosure of experiences of violence; the special training of interviewers allowing
them to be able to give assistance to participants after disclosure and the need of on-going
support to interviewers.

When planning and designing the study, researchers need to take into account the national
legislation on violence in Botswana. One major issue relates to the mandatory character of
reporting to authorities situations of violence. While reporting abuse is optional in the majority of
African countries - Becker-Bleaseet and Freyd (2006). In some countries researchers must report
cases of sexual or physical abuse to legal or social service agencies.

Voluntary participation
Participation in the study is on a voluntary basis. No inducements will be made. Where
appropriate, incurred expenses (such as for transport) could be reimbursed. Participants must be
clear that refusal to participate will not result in any negative consequences.

Confidentiality
Much of the information provided by the participants will be extremely personal. Confidentiality
of the information collected during the survey is of fundamental importance. The male
questionnaire asks participants about the perpetration of criminal behaviour, including rape, and
thus it is vital that even the interviewer is not aware of their responses to avoid ethical dilemmas
about the need to report to the police.

3.7. Sampling
To meet the key requirements of collecting good quality, reliable and comparable data, the
survey will use probability sampling methods to identify respondents in Tlokweng. The sampling
will be based on a two-stage clustered stratified design with equal probability of selection for
households within clusters. As the first stage, primary sampling units (PSUs) will be selected for
this survey with probability proportional to size (PPS). Wherever possible, local electoral
territorial units will be used as PSUs, as they will have the benefit of having limited and well-
defined geographic boundaries and there is usually up-to-date information available concerning

23
the people living there. Census enumeration districts or local authorities were used as PSUs
where local electoral territorial units were not available. In each PSU, a set number of addresses
was selected with a view to conducting a maximum of 5 interviews within the PSU – hence 6
PSU’s will be used in Tlokweng for the 30 respondents.

Women of reproductive age (18-49) will be randomly selected to participate in the survey and a
total of 30 women will be studied. The sample size was computed on the basis of various
parameters such as the desired degree of precision, target population size, timing and budget. The
research at the community level will be conducted within a specific geographic entity. Having a
sustained engagement in a single community will provide the local context where I could
generate anthropological insights relating to my overarching question about how the political
economy of Botswana policy and practice affects a specific population of intended beneficiaries
– women living in an urban, mostly very low-income, and medium populated area, of Gaborone -
Tlokweng Village.

They were interviewed about their own experiences with violence, and also that of the other
females in their households and the females in the households of their four closest neighbors. To
preserve anonymity no identifying information was collected on the respondent or any of the
other households she discussed. Among the aims identified within this research, women are the
main aim of the sampling. The sample size is from a minimum of 30 women to be interviewed in
Tlokweng. Men were not represented due to a higher refusal rate to participate. While most of
these initiatives focused on women, there is that broadened scope in future to include adolescents
and men to add important dimensions to the discussion of GBV. Including men in GBV research
is important for two main reasons: 1) while women and children are the overwhelming majority
of GBV victims, little is known of men’s victimization or their perspectives on the perpetration
of GBV in refugee, IDP, and post-conflict settings, and 2) findings from women’s experience of
violence are not generalizable to men since men are primarily the perpetrators, and their
experience of GBV during conflict is likely to be different from women’s because of prevailing
gender roles and the circumstances of conflict.

3.8. Data analysis


The completed individual questionnaires will be manually scrutinised and coded before being
entered into CSPro (4.1). Data entry systems will include a number of inbuilt mechanisms to
24
check data validity (range and consistency checks). The researcher will closely monitor the work
of data entry assistants and randomly check entered data every day. Quantitative data will be
analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS, version 13). A central
focus of the analysis will be to assess the extent of violence against women, their awareness of
laws and policies addressing the issue, and their help-seeking behavior in Tlokweng Village.
Both bivariate (chi-square test) and multivariate analyses (binary logistic regressions) will be
carried out. Further details are provided in each chapter.

3.9. Timetables/Timeline

Gantt Chart will be used to give timeline of the study.

# Days
Task Start Date Percent Complete
Required
Consultation 05-28-18 5 100
Application letters 05-28-18 2 75
Identify interviewees 06-09-18 5 60
Present Questionnaire/Interview 06-14-18 2 100
Develop detailed plan 06-17-18 5 100
Conduct preliminary research 06-22-18 7 100
Develop benchmark questions 06-29-18 6 100
Collect public data(Social Workers) 06-20-18 5 100
Collect public data(Police) 06-26-18 3 100
Analyze public data 06-30-18 8 60
Identify current state 07-09-18 3 40

25
Develop benchmark questions 07-17-18 6 35
Visit benchmark partners 07-23-18 4 90
Develop new process 07-25-18 2 95
Present new plan to council 07-27-18 1 100

3.10. Dissemination of study findings


The study is under a low level of community awareness of a number of factors that may
contribute to women’s vulnerability and hinder effective responses. A holistic awareness-raising
campaign incorporating both mass media and people-to-people outreach (such as through
community credit groups, women’s groups and community clubs) should be launched. While
mass media can be an effective way to disseminate new information, our study found that almost
one third of female respondents.

3.11. Budget
Cost estimates for research project proposals are given, each representing a group of related
expenditure items. Standard research expenditure items are presented under the following:

Item/Description Quantity Rate Total cost

TRAVEL

Transport(Fuel) (Tlokweng, CBD, Gaborone) 50L Petrol P8.35/l P417.50

MATERIALS, SERVICES AND EXPENDABLES 1rim(printing


paper)
Paper (Printing) P60.00
1 X 60GB drive
USB(Computer-memory stick) P800.00
1 X voice
Voice Recorder P250.00 P1,110.00
recorder

FOOD P20 B/fast X


26days
Breakfast, Lunch, Full Names P520.00

26
P50 Lunch X P1,300.00 P1,820.00
26days

CONTINGENCIES P500.00 P500.00

TOTAL BUDGET P3,847.50

27
References
Becker-Blease KA, Freyd JJ. (2006) Research participants telling the truth about their lives: the
ethics of asking and not asking about abuse. Am Psychol. 2006;61:218–26

Coughlin SS. (2006); Ethical issues in epidemiologic research and public health practice. Emerg
Themes Epidemiol. 2006;3:16

Ellsberg M, Heise L.(2002) Bearing witness: ethics in domestic violence research. Lancet.
2002;359:1599–604.

Pelham, B. W.; Blanton, H. Conducting Research in Psychology: Measuring the Weight of


Smoke, 3rd Edition. Wadsworth Publishing (February 27, 2006).

Trochim, W. M. K. “Probability Sampling” Research Methods Knowledge Base 2nd


Edition. Accessed 2/24/09.

Patton, M (1990) Qualitative evaluation and research methods, Sage Publications, Newbury
Park, California.

Gelles R J. Methodological issues in the study of the family violence. In: Strauss MA, Gelles RJ,
eds. Physical violence in American families: risk factors and adaptations to violence in 8145
families. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1990

Montgomery K, Oliver AL.(2009) Shifts in guidelines for ethical scientific conduct: how public
and private organizations create and changes norms of research integrity. Soc Stud Sci.
2009;39:137–55. 31.

Neuman, W. L., & Robson, K. (2004). Basics of social research. Pearson.USA

28
APPENDIX 1: QUESTIONNAIRE - GUIDE FOR FEMALE COMMUNITY MEMBERS
Hello! My name is Mavis L. Mojanaga a student at the University of Botswana studying for my
Bachelor’s Degree. I am conducting research on the impact of Gender based Violence on
women’s reproductive health, which is part of the requirements to accomplish my studies.
. Kindly assist me with your contributions in answering the following:
DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION (tick appropriate)

a) Age.. 15 – 25 26 – 35 36 – 45 46 – 55 56+
b) Gender.. Male Female

Marital status: Married Single Divorced Separated Widowed

A. Gender Based Violence - QUESTIONS


1. Do you know about gender based violence? Yes No

If Yes (comment) ……………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………….

2. Are you aware of violence against women and the girl child? Yes No

3. Who are the victims of violence? Men Women

4. Which forms of violence (abuse) do you know?

Physical Mental (Emotional) Verbal

5. Who actually are the perpetrators or identified as the most causing this violence against
women and the girl child? Men Women

Comment

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………….

29
6. What are the contributory factors to the cause of this violence?

Individual attributes Community influence Societal issues Relationships

7. Do the victims of violence ever report these cases? Yes No

8. Why do some victims of violence fail to report these cases to the law enforcement workers?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………

9. How does violence affect victims’ health\ wellbeing?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

10. Can you name any 3 institutions that you know in Botswana, which assists people
experiencing violence issues?

1………………………………………

2………………………………………

3………………………………………

11. In your own opinion how can gender based violence issue be solved?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

12. What is your input in fighting violence against women and the girl child?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

30
Thank you for your contribution!

31
APPENDIX 2: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR INSTITUTIONS
Hello! My name is Mavis L. Mojanaga a student at the University of Botswana studying for my
Bachelor’s Degree. I am conducting research on the impact of Gender based Violence on
women’s reproductive health, which is part of the requirements to accomplish my studies.
By hearing and observations, gender based violence is one of the critical issues
that has raised concern among nations. Many studies have revealed that the impact of violence
against women and the girl child in health is at an alarming rate in Botswana and also in other
countries. One may say this is a world outcry. Kindly assist me with your contributions in
answering the following:
ORGANISATION DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

1) Name of organization ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2) Organization objectives -------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

3) Designation of interviewee --------------------------------------------------------------------------


4) Length of service in the organization ---------------------------------------------------------------

GENDER BASED VIOLENCE QUESTIONS

1) Do you ever deal with violence cases in your organization?


2) Who are mostly involved as victims in violence?
3) Who are perpetrators of gender based violence?
4) What form of violence do occur\come across?
5) What are the contributory factors in this violence?
6) Which age group is mostly affected in this violence?
7) How often do these cases occur?
8) If cases are reported, can you give number of reported cases from 2016 till to date?
9) If some cases are not reported\withdrawn, what could be the reasons?
10) How does violence affect victims’ health and wellbeing?
11) What assistance do you give to support victims?
12) Can you briefly tell\give any initiatives\strategies that the institution use to address the
issue of violence?

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APPENDIX 3: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR SCHOOL HEAD
Hello! My name is Mavis L. Mojanaga. I am a student in University of Botswana, and I would
like to interview you about the impact of Gender based Violence on women’s reproductive
health.

By hearing and observations, gender based violence is one of the critical issues that has raised
concern among nations. Many studies has revealed that the impact of violence against women
and the girl child in health is at an alarming rate in Botswana and also in other countries. One
may say this is a world outcry. Kindly answer the following:

DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Name of School ……………………………………………………..

Number of students: Male……….. Female…………….

QUESTIONS

1. Do you ever experience violence cases in your school?

2. Who are the most victims to this violence?

3. Who are the perpetrators to this violence?

4. What forms of violence do occur\experienced in your school?

5. What could be factors causing violence against women and the girl child?

6. How does violence affect victims’ health, academic performance and wellbeing?

7. What is the school doing to help fight violence?

8. Can you name any 3 Organizations that you know, that can assist in issues of violence?

9. How often do such cases occur?

10. What measures have you put in place to address the issue of violence?

THANK YOU

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