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Factory & Machine

Automation Playbook

All NEW for 2017


IT/OT Convergence
• Spotlight on the convergence of IT and OT
• New tips for securely benefiting from the IIoT
• Special focus on mobile HMI
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SPONSORS
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CONTENTS
11 Playbook Advisors

12 Contributors
15 Introduction

Spotlight: The convergence of IT and OT


18 Three essential changes to the IT/OT Dynamic

20 10 guidelines for using HTTP and MQTT protocols

23 Seven steps to applying APIs to implement the IIoT

27 Five benefits of using Node-RED for your IIoT project

29 Four ways virtualization can benefit OT

Practical Guide to the Industrial Internet of Things


32 Five factors to consider before launching an IIoT initiative

34 Four cornerstones of your IIoT plan


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CONTENTS
37 Six steps to success with the IIoT visible factory

41 Top 10 benefits of IoT enabled mechatronics

45 Local data storage key to unlocking Internet of Things potential

47 The Internet of Things in reverse

Section 1: Planning and implementing an automation project


50 17 points to consider before even beginning your automation project

56 17 tips for automation project managers

61 Automation project management from a machine builder’s perspective

66 How to justify capital projects: Speaking finance gets results

75 Eight tips for selecting the right automation system components

78 How to properly select and vet a system integrator

83 23 common mistakes people make in automation projects


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CONTENTS
90 10 ways your automation project can fail and how to prevent it

93 Five recommendations for implementing workflow systems

95 17 ways to get the most from simulation and CAD/CAM software

99 Five tips for improving motion control systems

Section 2: Selecting products to build your automated system

A. Controllers
102 Eight factors to consider in deciding among PLCs, PCs, or PACs

104 17 best practices for specifying PLCs, PACs or PC controllers

109 14 tips for programming PLCs

112 Five integration pointers to improve designs

OEM machine designers (in addition to automation end users) will specifically find useful tips in highlighted articles.
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 6 / 252

CONTENTS
B. HMIs
113 Five key functionalities for HMIs

115 Six ways mobile HMI access can boost OEE

117 Nine steps for HMI design and implementation

120 Six ways to improve development and deployment

122 Four techniques to improve screen effectiveness in HMIs

124 Seven techniques for effective alarm display

C. Motors
126 Six questions to ponder when choosing a motor

128 12 guidelines for selecting motors and drives

131 Six things to know about the new higher efficiency motors

134 Seven key points in applying servo drives, motion controllers and PLCs

OEM machine designers (in addition to automation end users) will specifically find useful tips in highlighted articles.
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 7 / 252

CONTENTS
137 16 secrets to specifying sensors in industrial applications

143 12 tips for choosing and sizing pneumatic and hydraulic components

146 11 considerations for selecting and deploying industrial robots

150 12 issues to address in building a successful machine vision system

Section 3: Networking, Security, and Safety


158 Five guidelines for building a successful data-driven network

160 The three layers of network security for IIoT applications

162 Four considerations when choosing a firewall

164 10 issues to address before you develop an industrial network

167 Nine ways to build a better plant-floor network

170 Eight best practices for implementing industrial Ethernet

172 Four tips for dealing with wireless latency and bandwidth issues
OEM machine designers (in addition to automation end users) will specifically find useful tips in highlighted articles.
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 8 / 252

CONTENTS
174 How network management systems aid firmware, configuration updates

176 Six strategies for creating a secure industrial network

181 Seven details to remember when implementing network security

184 Four key steps to planning your wireless network

186 The three biggest concerns in wireless cybersecurity

187 17 considerations for I/O engineering success

193 Five steps to achieving functional safety

195 Seven safety functions that can save you money

197 Ten human factors to consider when developing safety systems

200 Five priorities in designing safety systems

203 Eight tips for the technical side of safety systems

206 Wiring, safety PLC programming critical to machine safety performance


OEM machine designers (in addition to automation end users) will specifically find useful tips in highlighted articles.
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 9 / 252

CONTENTS
Section 4: Best practices for asset management and operations
209 Develop a strategy for asset management

210 Five best practices for more reliable asset management

212 Four considerations for monitoring equipment assets

214 Four tips for calibrating equipment

215 18 recommendations for building effective manufacturing IT systems

219 22 ways to get the most out of OEE and lean manufacturing disciplines

226 15 ideas for improving product lifecycle management

229 16 strategies for achieving your energy management objectives

235 Three ways to save with your power bill

237 Six equipment strategies for cutting costs

239 Four human factors to consider in implementing energy management programs

243 10 tips for switching to predictive maintenance


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CONTENTS
244 Vendor Selection Resource Guide
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PLAYBOOK ADVISORS
Thomas A. Doney Joe Martin
Senior Research Engineer President
Nestlé Martin CSI

Paul Brinks Jeff Miller, PMP


COO Director of Project Management
Koops Inc. Interstates Control Systems Inc.

Stephen M. Goldberg Howard Skolnik


Director - Information Technologies President/CEO
Matrix Technologies Inc. Skolnik Industries

Michael Hake Arthur C. Smith


Senior Facilities Systems Support Technician Senior Automation Controls Engineer
Data Device Corp. MT&E - Machine & Automation Systems
Corning Inc.
Robert Lowe
Executive Director
Control System Integrators Association (CSIA)
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 12 / 252

CONTRIBUTORS
Michael Mikolajczak Jad Wehbe Abdulilah Alzayyat William Wang Kurt Wilde Tom Jensen
Bryan Sisler Automate, Lebanon - Jim Hulman DuPont China, China Henniges Automotive, USA Lenze, USA
ABB, USA Germany - Qatar Joaquin Ocampo
Bosch Rexroth, USA Tim Matheny Satish Samineni Stefano Linari
Alex Miller Rafael Arevalo Duque ECS Solutions Inc., USA Halcrow, Qatar Linari Engineering srl, Italy
ABB Robotics, USA Automatizacion Ingenieros Larry W. Ostrander
Especialistas sas, Colombia CADD Tech Support, USA Ed Nachel Tianshun Qiu Dan Perkins
Mike Berryman Elobau Sensor Technology IBM (China) Co. Ltd., China LINAK U.S. Inc., USA
Advantech, USA Peter van den Berg John F. Wozniak Inc., USA
Avans University of Applied CC-Link Partner Alexander Pinkham Jagjeet Paul
Wendy Jacintha Science, the Netherlands Association, USA Julian Martinez ICONICS, USA Little Systems, India
AFLAC, Canada Emerson Network Power,
Stanley Moses Johnny Sorensen Colombia Joel Albert Ken Lauer
Leslie Crothers Bahwan CyberTek Inc., USA Chr. Hansen, Denmark Industrial Networking Middough, USA
Almac, United Kingdom Roy Adams Solutions, USA
John Malinowski John Lewis ERA LLC, USA George Hockett II
Rob Cotner Baldor Electric Company, Cognex Corp., USA Josu Bilbao Miniature Plastic Molding
Anixter, USA USA Vikram Kumar IK4-IKerlan, Spain LLC, USA
Mohbat Tharani EZAutomation, USA
Carl Stelling Shawn Day COMSTATS Institute of John Wilson Deana Fu
Antaira Technologies, USA Henry Menke Technology, Pakistan John Holmes Integrated Automation, Bryan Knight
Balluff Inc., USA Festo Corp., USA Australia Mitsubishi Electric
Lonnie Purvis Hernan Gardiazabal Automation, USA
Apex Manufacturing Jeremy Jones ContrALL, Mexico Robert L. Fischer Sudhendu Banerjee
Solutions, USA Baumer Ltd., USA Fischer Technical Services, Instrumentation Ltd., India Stephen Chilton
Mike Cerda USA Monozee Ltd., United
John Coetzee Jingxu He Control M Automation, Majid Takabi Kingdom
Aristotle Consulting, South Bayer, USA Mexico Eric Esson JGC Co., Iran
Africa Frommelt Safety Products, Todd Desso
Mike Fahrion Sanjay Mishra USA Tom England Eddie Lee
Sujata Tilak B&B Electronics, USA COTMAC Electronics Pvt. Kollmorgen, USA Mike Werning
Ascent Informatics Pvt. Ltd., India Chris Alexander Moxa Americas, Inc.
Ltd., India Eric Byres Givaudan Flavors, USA Pierre Lampron
Mike Miklot Roy Greengrass KSH Solutions Inc., Canada Nelson South
Dave Robinson Belden, Inc., USA Del Monte Foods, USA Dr. Colin Harrison Nelson South Electrical,
Aurora Industrial Glasgow Caledonian Chris Weigmann Australia
Automation, USA A. Klemptner University, United Kingdom Lakeside Manufacturing,
DTE Energy, USA USA » CONTINUED ON PAGE 13
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 13 / 252

CONTRIBUTORS
Kenn Anderson Mark Battisti Gilbert Brault Jim Anderson Matthew T. Seiman Charlie Norz
Nova Systems Inc., USA QPoint Robotic Solutions, Antonio Chauvet Jill Oertel Trelleborg Sealing WAGO Corp., USA
USA Schneider Electric, France Aaron Schulke Solutions, USA
Joe Sebastian SICK, USA Nathan Schiavo
Diane Trentini Dennis Sanchez Johan Hult Ed Novak Wesco, USA
Optimation Technology RECOPE, Costa Rica Schneider Electric, Sweden Tom Hoffman Trio Motion Technology,
Inc., USA Jeff Miller USA Wilfredo Jimenez
Cheng Xinping Robb Dussault Gregory Richards WJ Automation &
Ben Orchard Rockwell Automation, John Boville Siemens, USA Pramod Parikh Integration Corp., Puerto
Opto 22, USA China Schneider Electric, USA United Phosphorus Ltd., Rico
Tomaz Vidonja India
Scott Klages Chris Brogli Jerry Schultheis Simplysens, Slovenia Karen Leung
Parsec Automation Corp., Paul Brooks Schultheis Automation Fernando Jimenez Worleyparsons, USA
USA Douglas Henderson Control Systems Inc., USA Mark A. Erickson Universidad de los Andes,
Jimmy Koh Skills Improvement Inc., Colombia Erik Nieves
Mark Huebner Amy Peters Eder Mathias USA Yaskawa Motoman
PBC Linear, USA Fatime Ly Seymour SEW-Eurodrive, Brazil Alejandro Pena Robotics, USA
Thomas Sugimoto Pat Gallagher Universidad Distrital,
Jose Gonzalez Valero Rockwell Automation, USA Nesko Kontic Solar Automation Inc., USA Colombia Will Zurkan
PEMEX, Mexico SGS - Wind Energy Zurkan Solutions, USA
Mahendra Dissasekera Technology Centre, China Lewis Gordon Gary Phillips
Helge Hornis Ronan Engineering Co., Tangent Services, USA URS E & C, USA » CONTINUED ON PAGE 14
Pepperl+Fuchs, USA USA Shamsol Shamus
Shamus Technology Ent., Peter Hook Bill Bobbitt
Mark Buckley Sam Shorer Malaysia Tech Innovations LLC, USA Van’s Aircraft Inc., USA
Phoenix Contact, USA SABMiller, South Africa
Dr. Gyan Ranjan Biswal Dave Szurek Sachin Kumar
Rahul Aggarwal Andrea Sammartino Shiv Nadar University, The Mackubin Group, USA Vertex Automation System
Prekar Services & Solutions, Saipem Spa, Italy Noida, India (P) Ltd., India
India Assaf Beckman
Steve Sarovich George Pease Tomatic, Israel Pradeep Soni
Rafey Shahid Sardee Industries Inc., USA Show-Me Machine Works, VSM Venture Control
Qanare Engineering, USA System P. Ltd., Noida, India
Pakistan
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 14 / 252

CONTRIBUTORS
Individual Contributors, by Country
Algeria India Israel Pakistan USA John Nix
Nesrine Chaouche Rajesh Keswani Victor Zaltsman Faisal Mirzam Don Baechtel Tim O’Brien
Sarang Kulkarni Jim Brastauskas Tony Olivieri
Bosnia Senthil Kumar Lithuania Saudia Arabia Michael Bowne Tony Paine
Bojan Djurdjevic Arunnun Loganathan Genadij Nesterenko Ghulam Rasul Daniel Bruno Tony Perna
Mukesh Negi Bruce Centofanti Friedrich Purkert
Brazil Avinash Patil Mexico Spain Marc Emmerke Ray Royal
Edson Gonçalves de Oliveira Naveen Kumar Ramasamy Jorge Loza Antonio Anton Greg Fairchild Stephen A. Sajewicz
Babu Reddy T Miquel Vall Boladeras Irene Farquhar William Schmidt
Canada Netherlands Marty Grimes Accounties Smith
Ed Kinakin Iraq R. Hulsebos Sri Lanka Tony Guzman Konstantyn Spasokukotskiy
Amer H. Rasheed Hindrik Koning Suren Stambo Daniel Hood Joe Staples
Guatemala Mark Huebner Jim Tennant
Moises Yac Ireland Nigeria Taiwan Joseph Kolo Suresh Vasan
Joe Burke Oladapo Akinbola Iyedupe Jin-Mu Lin Rajendera K. Kapoor Leonard Walsh
Egypt Michael Kinziger Nick Wisniewski
Mahmoud Abdel Fatah Abo Ahmed Norway David Lamb
Rune Saetre Todd LaRoche Venezuela
Hian Yong Leong Juan Nicolaidis

Thanks as well to the many contributors who preferred to remain anonymous.


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INTRODUCTION
In a fast-changing, ultra-lean competitive landscape, industrial array of experience-based tips on project planning, component
enterprises need to deliver their products and services efficiently selection, and implementation. There is much more, however,
and effectively as possible. That starts with the automation layer. including a special section on ways to leverage the tools and
Today’s engineers can take advantage of an array of advanced best practices developed for IT in the operations technology (OT)
technologies ranging from smart components to built-in world. You will also find fresh information on how to bring your
connectivity to analytics packages that can make sense of the assets into the industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), an approach
data the hardware harvests. When combined with informed that will become essential over the next few years.
system design and implementation, the result is equipment that
doesn’t just manufacture items and run processes but confers a Our thanks to the more than 275 people from 40-plus
competitive advantage. countries—from end-user companies, system integrators,
machine builders, educators and automation suppliers—who
This edition of Automation World’s Factory Automation Playbook have participated in the development of this playbook. They’ve
puts the focus squarely on ways you can take advantage of the volunteered to share some of the things they’ve learned during
latest technology to improve outcomes. Expect to see the usual their careers as a way to give back to this unique community.
» CONTINUED ON PAGE 15

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continued

Introduction

In the following pages, you can benefit from their years of Kristin Lewotsky
industry experience as they share tips for success and pitfalls to Editor, New 2017 Edition,
avoid in your automation journey. The book is designed to be Factory & Automation Playbook
useful, whether you’re a veteran machine designer or working on
your first project. The goal of this playbook is to help everyone
achieve more successful factory and machine automation. 

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17 / 216

SPOTLIGHT:
THE CONVERGENCEOF IT AND OT
There was a time enterprise IT and operations technologies important but essential to remaining competitive. As part
(OT) were considered two very different domains. The idea of of that, OT departments are increasingly using traditional IT
interfacing critical machine networks with corporate networks technologies on the plant floor. This special section looks at
vulnerable to hacking or the introduction of viruses with an ways to apply tools like data transfer protocols, application
employee mouseclick was unheard of. Meanwhile, IT staff was programming interfaces (APIs) and open-source graphical
completely against the idea of exposing physical assets to the programming environments to simplify development, speed
Internet, no matter the benefits. implementation, and improve performance. The result? Less
time spent linking assets and more time spent benefiting from
Today, all that has changed. Connectivity has become not just connectivity and factory visibility.
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 18 / 252

Three essential changes to the IT/OT Dynamic


Sourced from materials provided by Belden Global Industrial
Industrial Internet of Things: Changing the IT/OT Dynamic
JOHN HEROLD Vice president, Belden Global Industrial Marketing

Success in the industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) requires more 2. Secure the network. With a connected world comes
than just sensors and cabling. In order for manufacturers to increased vulnerabilities and risks. One compromised system in a
accrue benefit while maintaining safe and secure operations, the network of devices can act as a catalyst for widespread infection,
information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) ultimately threatening an entire company’s infrastructure. IT
departments will need to work together effectively. Here are the and OT need to combine forces to effectively maintain network
three main areas that need to be addressed: availability, confidentiality, and integrity. They can also work
together to implement processes that prevent both deliberate
1. Work as one team. Different departments have different attacks and unintentional errors.
priorities. OT professionals typically focus on keeping production
running to avoid the costs of downtime, while IT workers hone Recommended security measures include use of:
in on protecting data integrity. Despite these distinct roles, it’s
important to look at manufacturing holistically and combine • Encryption to ensure data confidentiality and prevent
forces to create an open dialogue between departments. Finding unauthorized data interception when running on public
ways for both departments to work together will help businesses networks.
take advantage of their combined strengths and meet business
goals. • Access control to ensure that only devices allowed to
communicate with one another can do so, and to prevent
unauthorized access to the network during operation.

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continued

Three essential changes to the IT/OT Dynamic

• A uthentication to block devices and users without explicit


access to the network.

• Zones to separate critical sections from non-critical sections of


the system and avoid the spread of network infections.

3. Align network infrastructure. All devices that can be


part of an IIoT initiative need a powerful network connection. This
creates a huge demand for consistent and unified communication
over an Ethernet network. The network containing these devices
should be hierarchical to simplify network management and
operation. At the field level, communication areas should be
divided into effectively manageable units, such as machine,
production, and any other logical or physical unit. In any IIoT
initiative, the amount of data generated and collected will be
significantly higher than ever before, introducing a challenge
for IT and OT professionals. Both teams will be required to work
together to connect devices in a simple, cost-efficient manner
while also meeting the demanding performance and reliability
requirements of the specific application. 

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10 guidelines for using HTTP and MQTT protocols


Sourced from materials supplied by Kepware Technologies
Protocols to Watch ARON SEMLE R&D lead, Kepware Technologies

The process of harvesting value from an IIoT project begins connecting an application to a device, like a supervisory control
with exchanging data between nodes on the network. Multiple and data acquisition (SCADA) system polling a flow computer for
protocols exist to accomplish this step. Two of the most common flow-rate data.
are hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and Message Queuing
Telemetry Transport (MQTT). HTTP is a client-server protocol used 2. Choose HTTP for flexibility. HTTP provides a
to enable clients to request data from a server and for the server transport, but doesn’t define the presentation of the data. As
to satisfy those requests. MQTT is a publish/subscribe protocol such, HTTP requests can contain HTML, JavaScript, JavaScript
designed for SCADA and remote networks. Developed in 1998 for Object Notation (JSON), XML, and so forth. In most cases, IoT is
a Phillips 66 pipeline project, MQTT is a bi-directional, lightweight standardizing around JSON over HTTP. JSON is similar to XML—
event- and message-oriented transport that allows devices to without all the overhead and schema validation—making it more
communicate efficiently across constrained networks to backend lightweight and flexible. JSON is also supported by most tools and
systems. programming languages.

Many IoT platforms support HTTP and MQTT as their first two 3. Understand the strengths of MQTT. Like HTTP,
inbound protocols for data. Here, we present key points to MQTT’s payload is application-specific, and most implementations
consider when choosing and implementing a protocol. use a custom JSON or binary format. MQTT isn’t as widely used
as HTTP, but it still has a large market share in IT. There are many
1. Use HTTP to gather data in limited amounts. open source clients/producers, brokers, projects and examples in
HTTP can be effective for poll-response uses that involve every language.

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continued

10 guidelines for using HTTP and MQTT protocols


4. Know the sweet spots. Use HTTP for sending chunks of time basis. Then you connect your applications—as many as you
data, like one-minute temperature readings every hour. Don’t use want—to the MQTT server. You can access whatever data you
HTTP for streaming high-velocity data. HTTP can do sub-second need from the device without connecting directly to the device
data, but 100-ms updates over HTTP are difficult. It has a lot of itself, thereby avoiding any effect on its operation.
overhead per message, so streaming small messages is inefficient.
6. Get in a state. Unlike HTTP, which is stateless, MQTT
Use MQTT when bandwidth is at a premium and you don’t know has state. That makes it well-suited for use in a control system
your infrastructure. It focuses on minimal overhead (2- byte environment.
header) and reliable communications. It’s also very simple.
7. Keep it protected. Always secure HTTP communications
5. Avoid polling problems with MQTT. That flow using HTTPS.
computer doesn’t just generate flow rate data. Other information
from that device such as end-of-batch tickets, audit trails, orifice- 8. Build your infrastructure. If you are using MQTT, make
plate calibration coefficients might be useful from a SCADA or sure you or your vendor have an MQTT broker you can publish
manufacturing execution systems (MES) standpoint. Because data to—and always secure communication via Transport Layer
operations is already polling that device for the flow rate data, Security (TLS).
however, adding more polls will not only be complex, it will also
upset the plant-floor polling cycle. 9. Be aware of interoperability issues. Just because
two products support HTTP/REST/JSON doesn’t mean they’ll work
MQTT helps prevent polling problems by having the plant floor together out of the box. Often the JSON formats are different and
device transmit all its data to an MQTT server on a constant, real- require minimal integration to get things working. Similarly, just

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continued

10 guidelines for using HTTP and MQTT protocols


because two applications support MQTT doesn’t mean they are
interoperable.

10. Leverage open-source tools. Does the end


application not support MQTT? If so, there are a lot of open source
tools for getting MQTT data into databases and other formats like
HTTP.

As with most things in engineering, there is no one best solution.


Consider the features of the two protocols and weigh them
against the needs of your application. Don’t forget to take into
account the skill sets of your staff and your levels of vendor
support. You will need to build a system that will serve your needs
over the long term. 

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Seven steps to applying APIs to implement the IIoT


Sourced from materials supplied by Opto 22 REST APIs Unlock the IIoT
MATT NEWTON Director of technical marketing, Opto 22

For all of the excitement surrounding factory visualization 1. Get off the bus. Traditional industrial system architecture
and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT), there remains the is built around a bus topology. Assets are connected to the bus
central challenge: getting the data from the devices to the and speak the same protocol. The problem with leveraging this
various computing systems and applications that can convert architecture in IIoT applications is that systems that are not a
bits and bytes into actionable information. The problem is that part of the bus and do not understand the bus protocol cannot
while capturing the data from assets can be easy, getting it to leverage the data and resources available on the bus. But for the
the applications in an efficient and secure fashion can be both IIoT to be viable, IIoT hardware and software assets must connect
complicated and challenging. Although number of methods and start talking to each other.
exist to port over data, including gateway PCs and purpose-built
middleware, the cost and complexity have discouraged some 2. Follow the rules. An application programming interface
manufacturing organizations from participating. RESTful APIs (API) is a set of rules for interacting with a software program,
provide an alternative approach. frequently web-based. Google Maps is a good example. The
company doesn’t just have the mapping function, they have a
RESTful APIs are designed to bridge the communication Google Maps API that provides a structure for how an application
disconnect between the physical electrical signals industrial assets should request a map. Instead of building their own mapping
use and the digital systems of the Internet. They can significantly application, developers simply use the API to call the mapping
reduce, if not eliminate the need for gateways and middleware. function. By combining APIs, developers can put applications
together much more quickly than writing from scratch.

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continued

Seven steps to applying APIs to implement the IIoT


3. Get your REST. APIs are designed using a common and communicate directly to the cloud—no middleware, protocol
architecture called the representational state transfer (REST). conversion, or edge gateways required. RESTful APIs are used all
The REST architecture defines a set of constraints—like routines, across the Internet today. They’re the technology that stitches the
protocols and tools—that API developers build their APIs against IIoT together.
to ensure interoperability with other APIs.
5. Put APIs on the edge. RESTful APIs can be added to
RESTful APIs operate like the client/server architecture of websites. smart edge devices like programmable automation controllers
A client like a web browser makes an HTTP/S request to a website (PACs), enabling them to securely access legacy physical assets,
for a webpage on an HTTP/S server. Then the server responds with while minimizing the integration time and cost associated with
the correct data payload and formatting information to display the IIoT application development by eliminating the need for protocol
webpage correctly. converters, gateways and middleware.

4. Start talking. RESTful APIs offer a standard form of sharing 6. IIoT the easy way. Today, thousands of APIs exist,
data and resources between IIoT devices and IIoT software. including a number aimed at simplifying the implementation
Ethernet and TCP/IP were the first step toward the IIoT. RESTful of the IIoT for industrial automation. Look for APIs for predictive
APIs are the next step in moving up the OT/IT technology maintenance, gathering sensor data, and programming and
convergence stack. RESTful APIs are the tools that allow OT and monitoring devices. As an example, a predictive maintenance
IT engineers to connect real-world physical assets like sensors, application (a client) could open a secure HTTPS connection to a
motors, pumps, relays and control systems to the digital world programmable automation controller, or PAC (the server) on the

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continued

Seven steps to applying APIs to implement the IIoT


factory floor, requesting motor runtime data. Because of a well- 7. Build the apps you need. The RESTful API approach
documented RESTful API, the client knows exactly how to connect enables developers to use the tools of their choice—any JSON-
to the PAC, obtain a list of available data resources, and read and compatible language and any system—to develop software
write the values of those resources. The PAC’s HTTPS server would applications for manufacturing, asset utilization, predictive
respond back to the predictive maintenance application with the maintenance, reporting, and more. OEMs and machine builders
motor’s run time in JavaScript object notation (JSON) data format. no longer need to worry about drivers, converters or licenses to
JSON is important in IIoT system architecture because it uses a connect their machines to IT systems. RESTful APIs make all of
lightweight, key-value pair data interchange format that almost these legacy tools for converting real-world machine data into the
any software language can consume. format IT systems understand are a thing of the past.” 

Another example involves using RESTful APIs directly within


database applications. Microsoft’s SQL Server 2016 has built-in
support for storing, managing and parsing JSON data. By using
Transact SQL, developers can directly query PACs through the
RESTful API and parse the resulting JSON into database tables—
no middleware, OPC, ODBC or other software application required.

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continued

Seven steps to applying APIs to implement the IIoT

THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FOG COMPUTING AND EDGE COMPUTING:

Forget about the cloud. As companies explore the Industrial Internet of collects the data and performs higher-level processing and analysis.
Things (IIoT), fog computing and edge computing take center stage as This system filters, analyzes, processes, and may even store the data for
strategic ways of dealing with the vast amount of production-related data transmission to the cloud or WAN at a later date.
at the core of IIoT. Although the two terms are frequently used synony- Although it is effective, the fog computing architecture relies on a
mously, they actually refer to two distinct architectures. multi-link chain of communications to move data from physical assets
First, let’s point out the similarities. Both fog computing and edge comput- to the digital world for analysis. Each of these links is a potential point
ing involve pushing intelligence and processing capabilities down closer of failure.
to the devices generating the data: pumps, motors, sensors, relays, etc. The Edge computing
primary difference between the two is where the intelligence and comput-
Edge computing pushes the intelligence, processing power and com-
ing power reside.
munication capabilities of an edge gateway or appliance directly into
Fog computing. devices like programmable automation controllers (PACs).
Fog computing pushes intelligence down to the local area network It shortens the communications chain and reduces potential points of
level of network architecture, processing data in a fog node or IoT failure by wiring physical assets like pumps and motors into an edge
gateway. device like an intelligent PAC. That device collects, analyzes and pro-
In fog computing, the data from the control system program is sent to cesses data while also running the control system program. The PAC
an OPC server or protocol gateway, which converts the data into an In- then uses edge-computing capabilities to determine what data should
ternet-compatible protocol like MQTT or HTTP. Next, the data passes to be stored locally or sent to the cloud for further analysis.
another system, such as a fog node or IoT gateway on the LAN, which

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 27 / 252

Five benefits of using Node-RED


for your IIoT project
With the growing interest in factory visualization, big data, a visual, browser-based, drag-and-drop interface, Node-RED
and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), forward-looking allows IIoT application developers to focus on identifying an
organizations are exploring ways to harvest insights from the opportunity and developing a solution, rather than building the
data flying around the plant floor. The question is how to do it components of an application from scratch.
quickly, flexibly, and without hiring a small army of developers.
Enter Node-RED, an open-source tool that makes the software 3. It’s designed for ease-of-use. The integrated
aspect of connecting devices on the network as easy as dragging development environment (IDE) is drag-and-drop, point-and-
and dropping. Let’s take a closer look at why you should click, and fill-in-the-blanks. You can create many applications
investigate Node-RED for your next project: without a single line of code. There are options to develop
more complex applications by incorporating JavaScript in
1. It’s a graphical tool designed for ease of use. function blocks, but it’s not required for most data processing
Node-RED is a browser-based graphical flow editor that applications.
provides a visual tool for easily linking legacy physical assets like
controllers to cloud services. 4. You can take advantage of prewritten nodes.
Users can leverage a library of more than 700 prebuilt nodes and
2. You don’t need a lot of programming sample node flows available for generating dashboards, moving
experience. The Node-RED development environment offers data between databases, and pushing data to the cloud. It’s all
a gradual and easily approachable learning curve for users of available on the nodered.org website.
all levels and requires few to no programming skills. Through

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Five benefits of using Noe-RED for your IIoT

5. It makes your data actionable.


a) An automotive manufacturing engineer could use Node-RED
to pull real-time production statistics or process status data
directly from a PAC, log it into a local SQL database, push it up to
the cloud for storage and further analysis, and then present the
data to a web-based dashboard so that operators on the plant
floor and on the management team can see what’s happening in
real time.

b) An oil and gas company could provide its field engineers with
a mobile interface so they can view historical statistics on oil well
output and trend that data based on current well output.

c) In the food and beverage industry, an application could be


built to monitor various batch levels, share the level data with
external sources through APIs, and coordinate raw material
deliveries to increase productivity and ensure use of the freshest
materials. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 29 / 252

Four ways virtualization can benefit OT


For many years, corporate IT and manufacturing IT, commonly last a decade or more. As a result, plant-floor software may have
referred to as operations technology (OT), were separate been developed for older operating systems (OSs). If hardware
with different hardware, software, networking protocols, and, needs to be replaced, that can be a problem if the software
frequently, different staff. Today, IT and OT have begun to vendor has decided against upgrading the application to run
converge. Though day-to-day activities on corporate IT and on Windows 10 instead of Windows 95, for example. In the
manufacturing OT networks remain largely specific to their past, the only solution was to swap out hardware and software.
unique tasks, the intertwining of these networks is bringing Virtualization makes it possible for plants to modernize their
about an overlap of technology practices—the most prevalent of control systems hardware while continuing to run older control
which is virtualization. systems on outdated, but still stable, OSs. This is done by
creating a virtual machine to run the older OS within a server
Virtualization software enables a single server to be partitioned that is running an up-to-date OS that is properly patched for
into multiple distinct virtual machines, each provisioned security.
with its own processing power and memory. This allows IT to
concentrate on protecting and maintaining a single physical 2. Virtualization supports flexibility. An added level
server while end-users experience the computing process as of flexibility enabled by virtualization is known as Software
though they were working on their own machines. Defined Networking (SDN). This involves using open protocols,
like OpenFlow, to apply globally aware software control at the
1. Virtualization supports multiple operating edges of the network. This allows for access to network devices
systems. Whereas systems in an IT environment get replaced that use closed or proprietary software or firmware. Using
every few years, the control systems for machines are built to SDN on this kind of network, you can avoid having to do a rip-

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Four ways virtualization can benefit OT

and-replace by building an overlay network in which an SDN-


enabled controller controls legacy devices in your infrastructure
through existing, standardized protocols like the simple network
management protocol (SNMP) or border gateway protocol (BGP).
There is open software available to do this under the Apache
license.

3. Virtualization is secure. Virtualized devices become


components on the network that are within the network
administrator’s ability to protect from outside-the-network
penetration or unauthorized use from inside the network. Good
virtualization software establishes secure virtual machines that
cannot be accessed from other machines on the server.

4. Virtualization saves to the cloud. From the


insurance angle, virtualization protects against loss of data and
IP by backing up to the cloud. Such virtual backups can be used
in the case of disaster recovery to bring a plant back online as
soon as new hardware is installed and the I/O is connected. 

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31 / 223
252

PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE


INDUSTRIAL INTERNET OF THINGS
The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Where do we begin? The and security breaches, industrial wireless solutions add
label itself implies a web of technologies—control systems, unprecedented flexibility. It’s important to ask yourself questions
sensors, enterprise server networks, mobile applications, SCADA about what will be affected during outages, and how you’ll deal
and more—functioning together to manufacture products. with different types of data loss. It’s also critical to assess security
risks and make sure protections are in place, as we explain in
We can make all of these things connect and extract data, Wireless Use Cases and Cybersecurity Steps.
but the real value comes from how we use the data to make
improvements to our manufacturing processes. Flexibility is key. With such a broad topic, it’s important to think about the big
The Internet of Things in Reverse explains why systems must be picture, as we mention in 4 Cornerstones of Your IIoT Plan. In
flexible enough to do something useful with feedback. order for IIoT systems to continue providing value year after
year, they must be flexible enough to adapt and evolve as new
Though they come with concerns over connectivity outages functionalities become available.
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 32 / 252

Five factors to consider before launching an IIoT


initiative
The industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) promises big benefits like network? How many are in use? Do they need to be converted
increased productivity, better quality products, and reduced in order to get the devices to communicate with others in your
cost of operations. Organizations should not blindly launch an environment? What type of media (cabling) are you using in your
IIoT initiative, however. Success requires more than just planning locations? Fiber-optic cable? Serial (RS-232/422/485)? Copper?
for how to use data. It requires a careful assessment of current
assets, resources, and processes in place. 3. Location/environment: Where is your facility located?
If your equipment is in a remote location, can your devices be
Here are five issues industrial organizations should consider monitored via cellular networks? Are 3G or 4G/LTE networks
before making any moves: available to reach your site? If not, are broadband or fiber-based
networks available? Also, within the building itself, what is the
1. Legacy equipment: Take inventory of automation overall environment? Is it hot and dusty or kept at a controlled
devices such as PLCs, RTUs, robots and drives. How old are temperature? Is there lots of vibration? Are you using industrial-
they? Do they need to be replaced or upgraded? Is your legacy grade equipment that is designed with wide environmental
equipment going to be able to communicate with newer ratings and industry certifications?
equipment? How much time and money will this take? What
cost-effective solutions can address your current infrastructure? 4. Security: According to a recent Business Insider
Intelligence survey, 39 percent of executive respondents
2. Protocols/communications: Along with the indicated that privacy and security are the most significant
equipment, what protocols are being used by the devices in your barriers to IoT investment. Security was the most commonly

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continued

Five factors to consider before launching an IIoT initiative

cited concern among respondents. Though this survey applies


to all items in IoT, security should be an important concern
for IIoT as well. How can sensitive data be protected when it is
collected and transferred? What security measures are in place
for the systems that collect, monitor, process and store IIoT data?
Are there any regulations regarding the protection of data and
information that you need to be aware of?

5. Staff: As more technology-based devices are added to


your network, do you have IT staff on hand, as well as other
employees who are tech savvy and can help with installation
and monitoring on the factory floor? Is software or remote
monitoring needed to keep tabs on devices in other locations? 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 34 / 252

Four cornerstones of your IIoT plan


The concepts surrounding the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) This is a major area of consideration for the oil and gas industry
are shaping up to be central to the future of manufacturing. To in particular. Some companies operate thousands of wellheads
help you on your journey, this article outlines four key pieces to in high-density zones, but cannot justify pulling less-dense oil
consider as you prepare to get underway. resource zones together to existing pipeline infrastructures.
Using serial-to-wireless conversion technologies for both cellular
The Industrial Internet of Things is a very broad topic— and Wi-Fi, companies can manage and operate numerous
encompassing everything from sensors to networks to wellheads spread kilometers apart from one another with far
machinery. At the core of it all, however, are the communications, less infrastructure and procurement cost. Furthermore, this
systems and processes connecting machines to each other, as conversion to open-standard wireless technology allows for
well as to people and larger corporate systems. future mobile scalability and satellite expansion.

1. Connectivity. Among the challenges faced by today’s Manageability of these systems becomes increasingly important
industrial companies is how to take advantage of emerging as well. As ever-greater numbers of devices are connected to
technological innovation while still protecting the sizable the network, you must ensure that the devices are manageable
investments already made in existing systems. Legacy in order to guarantee that future policies, system upgrades and
technology cannot simply be abandoned, nor can companies other advances can be deployed and their benefits realized.
undertake the cost of its wholesale replacement. Given that
the typical lifecycle for industrial things exceeds 20 years, the 2. Security. In a world in which security breaches have
connecting of legacy infrastructures with new things must be become all too common, it is increasingly crucial that you ensure
streamlined so all parts can securely and reliably interoperate the protection of your manufacturing plants. The consequences
across the enterprise. of failure could be profound and far-reaching.

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Four cornerstones of your IIoT plan

Achieving that security starts with ensuring the integrity of through common frameworks based on truly open industry
data, and that means safeguarding the transmission of data as standards. This is not only about the infrastructure, but the
it travels from decentralized locations through new devices and platforms as well.
legacy equipment, across internal networks, and to and from the
Cloud and/or data center. Organizations like the Open Interconnect Consortium (OIC) and
Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) have been established to
Both hardware and software security and services must be work toward this goal. For example, the OIC seeks to define a
integrated. This is the first step in successfully converting data common communications framework based on industry standard
into greater productivity and efficiency, new business solutions technologies. This would enable companies to wirelessly connect
and services, and faster time to market. and intelligently manage the flow of information between
personal computing and emerging IIoT devices, regardless of form
Accessing secure data is, however, just the beginning. As IIoT factor, operating system or service provider.
accelerates, our challenge shifts to unlocking the value hidden
inside the data. That requires analysis, turning the information 4. Flexibility. If you feel that you’re behind on embracing the
extracted from the data into actionable insight your business IIoT, you may be in a hurry to start implementing new systems. But
can use. To do that, you need the right hardware/software it’s important to stop and consider the flexibility of prospective
infrastructure able to access, analyze, share and store your data. systems so that you can evolve with changing technologies.

3. Interoperability and standards. Secure, reliable The traditional design and augmentation of industrial systems
interconnections and shared information can only be achieved has long been characterized by either (1) designing a proprietary

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 36 / 252

continued

Four cornerstones of your IIoT plan


or custom end-to-end solution or (2) adding functionality
by repeatedly tacking on vendor-defined black boxes.
While the latter can be quick to implement, it becomes
an expensive and cumbersome option when it must
continually be replaced every few years.

STRONGER. Developing and deploying the systems that will make up

FASTER.
IIoT represents a massive investment for decades to come.
The only way to meet the needs of today and tomorrow is
EASIER. not by predicting the future but by deploying a network of

PROLINE G2 systems flexible enough to evolve and adapt. The way forward
involves a platform-based approach; a single flexible hardware
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• Durable materials and components provide long-lasting protection for
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• More flexible installation options with the EZ-Load Mounting System focus on innovation and allow for evolution as technology
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• Easily access electrical components by removing doors, tops, sides
and/or bases
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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 37 / 252

Six steps to success with the IIoT visible factory

When it comes to energy visibility and energy management, For example, you could connect a power-monitoring device
how you do it is just as important as what you do. It’s not enough to your plant’s main power feed and start monitoring power
to make the commitment and install the sensors and meters. usage. Once you’ve started collecting power monitoring data,
Logging all the data to a central repository won’t deliver the over time you’ll be able to determine exactly what it costs in real
results you seek. You have to have a concrete goal and a strategy time to turn on a motor, run a process, or have the building air
for achieving it. Follow these tips to set yourself and your conditioning set to 78 degrees.
organization on the road to success.
Or perhaps you want a daily report emailed to you showing
1.Target a problem. The process doesn’t start with the production count, raw material inventory, and average
data, it starts with a pain point. What are the issues you’re trying production time. All of this data can be captured through IIoT
to address, whether that’s excess utility spending, repeated technology and brought right to your mobile device.
downtime, or inconsistent performance among facilities? Don’t
try to cover everything. Don’t capture massive amounts of data 2. Go deep. If the first step is to start small in terms of defining
just because you can. Start with a problem on a manageable the scope of the issue, the second step is to go large, in terms
scale, preferably in one location. Determine exactly what you of gathering granular enough data around that single issue to
need to solve the problem. Most important, have a strategy provide meaningful input. In the case of energy management,
for how you plan to use the data before you ever think about reviewing a utility bill once a month or once a quarter does not
actually acquiring it. provide insight. Monitoring needs to take place on the order of
days, shifts, or even hours.

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Six steps to success with the IIoT visible factory

Look for opportunities to collect data at an asset or “thing” level. analysis to identify best practices and also staffers who may need
For example, is there a sensor you could install to more closely more comprehensive training.
monitor and log your process? The cost of sensors has come
down substantially, allowing increased visibility into all aspects 3. Centralize and analyze. Identify a way to aggregate
of automation. the data into a central repository. This might require some type
of IoT gateway or protocol converter as well as a database to
Walk around your facility, talk to your operators, and identify house the information Once you’ve centralized the data, you
laborious manual processes such as pen-and-paper or Excel can analyze opportunities to optimize processes. For example,
spreadsheet data entry tasks. Identify potentially useful data that develop a report to cross analyze your newly found sensor data
is currently siloed and unavailable to other systems and business with production output. Do certain variables in the process
decision-makers. Good examples might be environmental data, relate to a higher or lower yield?
production data, or data related to your batch process.
4. Make the data easily accessible. Traditional energy
To be useful, data acquisition should go beyond simply tracking audits provide useful information but they are just a snapshot
a quantity over time. Factors can be analyzed geographically: in time. They define how the system is acting now but not how
country to country, state to state, facility to facility, environment it will be in the future. They’re not very useful for monitoring
to environment. It can also take place on an equipment level: equipment to perform predictive maintenance, for example. For
facility to facility, line to line, machine to machine, and even axis machine health monitoring, you need visualization and analysis
to axis. Human factors provide another avenue to insight: facility software that can serve up data on a near-real-time basis. It
to facility, shift to shift, operator to operator. This last enables should be accessible simultaneously to staff throughout your

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continued

Six steps to success with the IIoT visible factory

organization, not just those behind desks on the top floor after the system so that when it reaches the trigger point, the
overnight off-line batch processing. controller recognizes a problem and initiates corrective action
independent of human intervention. The ultimate goal is for the
Look for visualization and analysis software with fast-start equipment itself to reduce energy consumption throughout the
tools that enable users to access preconfigured data plots and facility.
reports, and assemble dashboards. It should also allow them to
apply filters and customize cross correlation so that individuals 6. Turn to the experts. Developing the kind of factory
with different job roles can leverage the results to meet their visibility discussed above delivers huge benefits but it’s not a
objectives. Web-based applications make fresh data available to trivial task. Thanks to purpose-built applications, you no longer
staff on the production floor, managers in offices, and to anyone need a team of developers and software architects to get
off site over portable devices. things running. What you may need, though, is an experienced
integrator who can guide you through the process and get you
5. Look beyond monitoring and analysis. After to the point of realizing value as rapidly as possible. Alternatively,
gathering the data and converting it to actionable information, work with your vendors. Tap their expertise as you work on
your next objective should be to establish procedures to apply your system. You can also take advantage of cloud services that
the information. This can be as simple as sending an alert when deliver visibility without the headaches. Today’s connectivity
the levels exceed preset thresholds. The system can deliver it tools protect even the most sensitive data and systems from
in the form of an alarm on the control panel or HMI, a message outside incursions.
to the maintenance staff, or an email to the facilities manager.
A more sophisticated and effective approach is to automate

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Six steps to success with the IIoT visible factory

In a complex global marketplace marked by fierce compe-


tition, you need every possible competitive advantage you
can get. Energy monitoring, analysis, and management offer
opportunities to cut waste and realize substantial savings.
By following these simple tips, you can be well on your way
to realizing value and return on investment in as little as six
months. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 41 / 252

Top 10 benefits of IoT enabled mechatronics


Integrating Internet Connected Smart Robot Modules
Adapted from material supplied from PBC Linear’s Mark Huebner

Internet connected “smart” technology has become intertwined


with almost every aspect of our daily life. The smart phone we
all carry keeps us connected to people, and lets us automate
notifications or responses based on our personal preferences.
Automobiles are being outfitted with increasing capabilities to
automatically adjust, producing higher fuel efficiency and increased
safety based on driving habits and surrounding conditions. The
smart house is constructed to be programmed for tighter security,
maximized electrical efficiency in lighting and HVAC, and greater
comfort driven by an array of ergonomic sensors.

These kinds of advances in connectivity, control, and automation


are found throughout industrial applications, and now are
making their way into motion applications. The results of
this type of internet-enabled machine provide a new level of
flexibility, performance, and cost advantages.

The old way of addressing machine integration and motion

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Top 10 benefits of IoT enabled mechatronics

control focused on basic engineering disciplines … mechanical mechanical and electrical with optimized motion elements and
and electrical … and each dedicated engineering group did their smart stepper or step-servo closed loop motor technology with
work independently. In the end, somehow the two had to be integrated controls. These can easily be applied to single axis,
brought together and made to operate. This would most often multiple axis, or XYZ Cartesian configurations.
result in a functioning, but far from optimized machine that was
cumbersome to build, wire, connect, and difficult to monitor, Here are the top 10 advantages machine builders and users gain
change, or adjust. when combining these enhanced mechanical components with
advances in smart motor technology and control strategies.
In the old paradigm specifically, mechanical engineering would
work on the physical motion created. Things like the bearings, Top 10 Benefits of Internet Enabled Mechatronics
rails, lead screw, belt, or other drive mechanism, and how to
connect to a motor. Electrical engineering would select the 1. Lower Cost & Enhanced Functionality. The
sensors, attach the I/O, driver, PLC, controller, amplifier, and bottom line is that each of these items has a positive impact on
power supply. The motor would fall somewhere in between, your financial bottom line. Less wiring and connectors, fewer
most often with the electricians because it had to be connected components and sensors, less labor invested, reduced time spent
to power and controlled. in setup and maintenance, and maximized operational uptime
all add up to a cost savings that is substantial in the overall cost
A new model has emerged that simplifies the machine design of ownership and operation.
and build process while easily enabling internet integration
with the use of “smart robot modules”. It is the marriage of

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Top 10 benefits of IoT enabled mechatronics

2. Less space. Due to the driver, controller, and


amplifier being built into the smart motor, the panel
space required for those things can be eliminated
resulting in savings of material, time, labor, and
overall cost.

3. Simplified wiring. Along with the


elimination of the driver, controller, and amplifier,
fewer sensors are required, especially when an
encoder is used. All this results in fewer input/ Manually adjusted slides can be upgraded with smart stepper or step-servo motors to take
advantage of recipe driven setup speed and flexibility.
output connections and less complicated wiring
schemes. working through the PLC. This distributed control model frees
up the installation team to work on multiple axes simultaneously,
4. Reduced troubleshooting. With fewer components, and report progress via internet connectivity. It also allows an
less wire connections, and increased performance, the job of operator to make in process adjustments at an individual axis
tracing down any problems that may arise is greatly reduced. without affecting the PLC or entire production line.

5. Streamlined commissioning. Machine installation and 6. Modular integration. Standardized smart robot
startup is made easier with pre-programmed homing routines, modules make integration into multiple axes, or multiple
and with the ability to make changes at an individual axis without machines a natural and easy process.

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Top 10 benefits of IoT enabled mechatronics


7. Automated adjustment. Rather than a time 10. Increased output. All of these things are working
consuming manual change over, switching a packaging or together in a IoT connected motion system driving greater
assembly line to a different size or part can become automated flexibility, less downtime, increased performance, and greater
and “recipe driven,” increasing manufacturing flexibility and bottom line output for manufacturers, assembly lines, packaging
speed. In addition, adaptive control is possible with conditions equipment, and production equipment.
monitored and adjustments made locally, in real time, and
right at the actuator level, without having to route instructions With today’s integration of IoT processes and equipment,
through the PLC. traditional disciplines are merging, and the benefits are seen
throughout the life cycle of a machine. The design phase
8. Maximized uptime. Real time monitoring of is shortened with cross discipline communication, design
temperatures, friction, motor torque, and other performance development and project management tools. Procurement and
related data can be routed to a mobile device allowing the build cycles are shortened due to the need for fewer components
human decision maker to proactively handle issues related to along with the use of online configuration and purchasing tools.
maximizing machine uptime. With IoT connected programming and real time analytics, ease of
use, maintenance, and overall life are increased for the user. All of
9. Preventative Maintenance. Established timeframes these things combine adding to the bottom line, creating more
for periodic maintenance based on cycles, number of pieces opportunity, and increasing financial returns. 
run, or other dynamic conditions can easily be monitored and
reported to any IoT connected device, such as a work station,
tablet, or mobile phone, allowing teams to proactively keep
equipment running at peak efficiency.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 45 / 252

Local data storage key to unlocking Internet of


Things potential
By Tony Paine, CEO, Kepware Technologies

Why the added distance and complexity of your plant networking But before you start wondering about how to tackle all that
architecture introduces potential points of failure or data loss, data, it’s important to first understand how the extension of
which can limit the ultimate value of the Internet of Things. Industrial IoT beyond building automation, Wi-Fi and central
data stores is raising bandwidth and connectivity challenges for
The Internet of Things (IoT) is approaching a tipping point. The telemetry systems. Remote device communications typically
IoT market is projected to grow from $33 billion in 2013 to $71 leverage a mixture of wireless, radio, fiber optic, satellite and
billion in 2018, according to Juniper Research. Cisco predicts telephone services. Bandwidth constraints of these different
that some 25 billion devices will be connected by 2015, and 50 technologies have the potential to significantly degrade the data
billion by 2020. IoT will enable smarter automation that allows being communicated through them. Other factors like physical
“things” to share information, learn about their surroundings, obstructions, weather and environmental elements can also
and auto-tune themselves to achieve optimum throughput and result in a loss of connectivity and therefore data.
minimal downtime.
Industry also faces a major challenge associated with prioritizing
With everything from thermostats to pipelines connected and the storage and communications of collected data. After all,
communicating, the question most people fixate on is: How not every device produces enough data or high-priority data to
will we be able to collect and capitalize on the resulting mass of warrant constant live streaming to central storage. Therefore, it is
machine data? essential to preserve data at the point of collection. This protects
against loss of data in the event that connectivity is lost. It also

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Local data storage key to unlocking Internet of Things potential

ensures that potentially lower priority machine data can still be or performing basic data mining in the field related to operations.
compiled and communicated as packages over time.
Though local historians will prove important to IoT success,
Data collected at the device or sensor has an increasing distance, they will still need to feed up to centralized or enterprise data
number of paths, and elements to traverse before it makes its repositories for long-term storage and more in-depth analysis.
way to enterprise storage for deep analysis. With added distance Not surprisingly, we are seeing these repositories migrating to the
to travel and complexity of architecture come more potential cloud for flexibility and the ability to provide additional bandwidth
points of failure or data loss, potentially limiting the ultimate as needed. The power of cloud computing will make the required
value of the IoT. With these considerations in mind, it becomes storage and processing power available to handle the zettabytes
easy to understand why local data storage may be the key to the of data resulting from the continuous build-out of IoT systems.
successful implementation and capitalization of the IoT. A tiered
architecture is ideal to support local data collection, storage and As the IoT continues to proliferate across consumer, enterprise
communication— think of it as multiple mini-data centers. and industrial installations, we will likely see distributed data
architectures become the norm, with local historians playing a
Local historians that collect data at the point of creation provide key role in this increasingly dispersed, foundational architecture.
an economical way to support IoT data collection across a While those who insist upon a centralized architecture will likely
dispersed architecture. Ideally, a local historian can buffer non- fail or at least struggle to support and leverage the deluge of
deliverable data until a later time and support flexible delivery. connected devices, those willing to innovate and address the
challenges of a distributed architecture will be able to capitalize
It could also identify an alternate available delivery channel. Plus, on the connected world.
local historians can be tapped on-site for troubleshooting devices
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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 47 / 252

The Internet of Things in reverse


By Michael Bowne, Director of technology marketing, PI North America

Most of the talk surrounding the Industrial Internet of Things (no pun intended) in its process. The solution involves slightly
focuses on moving data upward and outward. Equally important rearranging the order of the steps in the recipe. If the responsible
is enabling your factory to handle incoming data. machine can be quickly reconfigured to handle this tweak, then
everyone’s happy. However, if the change is arduous, the return
When it comes to your factory’s ability to handle data, there are on investment (ROI) on such a tweak diminishes rapidly.
two use cases: process improvement and process agility.
Machine flexibility includes the network to which it is connected.
Looking first at process improvement, after completing data Network flexibility comes in many forms. This can mean flexibility
collection, analysis and decision-making, the final step involves in the cabling, as in the network should support any topology
taking action. Doing this entails taking data and feeding it back such as line, star, tree, ring and wireless. It should also support
into the manufacturing environment to improve the process. openness and web tools. This means not just creating a machine
automation network, but one to which standard Ethernet
Since improvement means change, the question is: What devices can also be connected. In other words: an open cable.
does change require? The answer: flexibility. Manufacturing This allows for access to acyclic data via the devices’ integrated
machines need to be flexible and modular so that tweaks to the web servers.
production process can be implemented easily.
It should also support simple addressing. Within Profinet, logical
Take, for example, a beverage maker. After analyzing some data, device names can be assigned during engineering, with the
this company recognizes a previously unknown bottleneck PLC programming the station addresses. On the flip side, if the

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The Internet of Things in reverse

PLC is taught the topology of the network, it can automatically Start-Up function enables the identification of stations in less
assign the station names and addresses. This is a powerful than 500 ms, maximizing agility.
feature supporting machine flexibility. And remember, process
improvement can be achieved efficiently only if the machines To further understand the importance of feeding data into
are modular and the network is adaptable. the manufacturing environment, let’s look at the example of a
car manufacturer. Similar to the beverage bottler, let’s say this
The second use case to consider involves process agility. One manufacturer analyzes some Big Data and notices that sections
aspect often glossed over in discussions surrounding the of his line are still consuming energy even when those sections
Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is the good old-fashioned are not producing anything. Though only loosely coupled to
Internet itself. As the e-commerce industry crosses the $1.5 the process itself, if he were able to feed that data back into the
trillion threshold, people are becoming ever more accustomed system, he might be able to cut costs (utility bills) during those
to doing business online. It is a perfect example of data feeding periods. With ProfiEnergy, the network enables his robots to go
into a manufacturing environment. While the objectives for this into a sleep state similar to a laptop. When production resumes,
use case are different, the requirement is the same: flexibility. that section of the line starts running again.

The oft-quoted goal of Industry 4.0 is the ability to achieve a These use case scenarios should help make it clear that IIoT is not
lot size of one—in other words, the ability to manufacture one just about getting data out of plants, but also getting data back
widget with the same efficiency as manufacturing 1,000 widgets. into plants. It’s a cycle. Whether the use case is improvement,
To achieve this in modular plants, PLCs need to detect new agility or even energy efficiency, flexibility is a necessity. This
machines or parts as quickly as possible. With Profinet, the Fast means machine modularity coupled with network adaptability. 

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49 / 252

SECTION ONE:
PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING
AN AUTOMATION PROJECT
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 50 / 252

17 points to consider before even beginning


your automation project
The first step in any automation project is the most critical one: 3. Helping people. Automation can do many things, but
Define your objectives. The more thorough and detailed this one must be aware that its purpose is to do real things in a
definition is, and the earlier in the process it can be achieved, given ecosystem. Keep in mind that the goal is to have systems
the greater the likelihood that the project will be completed engineered to serve humans, not the other way around.
successfully.
WHAT DO THEY REALLY WANT, AND WHY?
1. Visualize success. Try to visualize what a project would It’s essential to understand each person’s expectations before a project
look like if it were a stunning success. Take note of how it will starts. There are three parts to this definition process:
affect all the people involved and write down any others you
What outcomes or desired results does the project team want to
yy
think it might touch. Take all of these people and put them
achieve?
on a spreadsheet column. Now in rows across, write down the
attributes they need in the machine/process. Use this when What do they want the project experience to be like (for example,
yy
evaluating solutions and communicate shortcomings to those no production line shutdowns during the project or communicate
updates by email)?
affected. Come up with workarounds or throw out the idea if the
results won’t be acceptable. How will they define quality, such as on time/on budget or
yy
increased production volumes or zero downtime, at the end of the
2. What’s driving the project? You need to understand project?
what is the most important motivation for doing this particular Different people will have different expectations and they all have to
project and use that to guide your decision-making. be satisfied.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 51 / 252

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17 points to consider before even beginning your automation project

4. Project definition is critical. Without doing true


TECHNOLOGY COMES LAST
engineering work, everything you learned in school and in your
career up to this point, you are not doing any project properly Never start by defining technology-driven objectives. Use the following
or professionally. By creating definition for the project and order:
then verifying that the project will answer the need, you are on 1. Business objectives. What will the business gain from this project?
your way to successful project management. It is only the start,
2. Operational objectives. How will this project impact operations—
but without a properly defined starting point, it is difficult to greater efficiency / better quality / compliance, etc.?
complete (or defend) a meandering, ill-defined project that is
3. Integration objectives. Can data generated by this system be used
meant to resolve a problem, address a challenge or complement
by other systems?
your company’s engineering resources.
4. People objectives. Skill development, ease in work pressures.
5. Start with the objectives. Don’t even begin to select Only when all of these have been defined can you establish the
suppliers and service providers until you’ve established a technology objectives.
project’s objectives. Make sure everyone on the team agrees on
what the project needs to achieve before it starts. If you don’t do it for free. If you bring them in at this stage, so that they
know where you’re going, you’ll never get there. understand the history of the project, they can contribute to
decisions that will improve the chances for a successful project.
6. Get a second opinion. It pays to get a second opinion
from an informed outsider like a system integrator or machine 7. Set rules for communication. Define what
builder before finalizing project objectives—they’ll often communications are expected at the start of the project— what

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 52 / 252

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17 points to consider before even beginning your automation project

is to be communicated, how it is to be communicated, what the


CREATE A PATH.
milestones of the project will be and how often things should be
communicated.
1. Start with a detailed description of the process you need to
automate. This description is like a “narrative” or a story.
8. Talk to everyone. Interview the stakeholders from
2. The document with the description should be the path, which
various factory disciplines, such as operations, maintenance,
helps to define the control loops, the security, the I/Os, and ultimately
quality control, supply chain, shipping and management. They
determines the size of the project.
always have a stake in every automation project.
3. With each part described, the next step is to define the objectives
for each one.
9. Never assume. Don’t make assumptions about the
ground rules—spell everything out in advance and define who is 4. The result of this work should be a general objective with
responsible for doing what. particular objectives for each part of the project and a description
that could be useful for the entire life of the project.
10. Create a chart to keep objectives clear. Define 5. The more complete the project scope definition is, the better the
the expected performance for each subsystem, and the expected job duration estimate, the engineering time estimate and the cost
steps to get there. Use Excel to list the task steps, and the estimate will be.
hours/$ across a time matrix. Then that becomes a calendar for 6. Managing change orders, while painful, helps avoid great amounts
the schedule, sort of a compressed MS Project. If you color the of project creep.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 53 / 252

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17 points to consider before even beginning your automation project

boxes, it becomes a Gantt chart. Putting all your objectives (the 10 TIPS FOR A SUCCESSFUL AUTOMATION PROJECT:
completion of functioning subsystems, integration) into one
1. Have complete clarity on the need for and scope of the solution.
simple chart keeps those objectives clear to the whole team.
2. Get all possible information (technical resources, human, financial,
11. Goals at every node. System engineering should technological, etc.).
be geared toward achieving performance goals at every node. 3. Select automation technologies for the project; do a detailed
The goal should be to have dynamic, stochastic, multi-criteria analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology.
optimization of objectives, along with metrics to measure and 4. Perform the possible sequences of automatic sequential.
control whether the objectives are being achieved, at multiple
5. Analyze the most favorable from the point of view of production,
nodes along the process. technical, technological, economic, security, etc.
6. Select virtual design tools.
12. Reducing risk. The greater the uncertainty and lack
of details at the start of the project, the greater the risk. Even 7. Perform a simulation with different virtual tools, verifying the
something small like an undefined piece of hardware or wiring design stage.
can cause problems during a project. The greater the lack of 8. Check to determine if it is the best solution to the need.
details, the more delays and cost over-runs you will experience 9. Perform a virtual prototype and animation project.
as the project moves toward completion. Don’t forget toinclude
10. Validate the project, checking to determine whether it met the four
the cost of training and updates to your system in your project stages of the project: analysis, planning, execution and validation.
budget.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 54 / 252

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17 points to consider before even beginning your automation project

13. Measure the value to be delivered. It is critical to Instrument drawings should be the key driver for all automation
define the objectives of the project in advance. This is needed to projects. These should have interlock information included
help support the business case and should not be forgotten after to provide common terms of reference for all disciplines on
the project, but tracked and the return and value shown. The what the control philosophy is. A control strategy document
things that get measured are the things that get done. Moreover, with an executive overview that leads into greater levels of
it will be easier for you to show the consequences of automation. control definition provides the context that will ensure that all
parties involved will have a clear understanding of what is to be
14. Keep it simple. Several years ago, a brilliant automation achieved.
engineer talked about a mouse on the table and teaching a
robot not only how to move the mouse, but teaching the robot 16. The essentials. Make sure to write a functional spec,
the characteristics of the mouse, etc. When asked if he used to be define complete design specifications and establish factory
an object-oriented software engineer, he said, "Why yes, how did acceptance criteria.
you know?" This resulted in a multi-million dollar failed project
later because this engineer designed a beautiful, complex, 17. No open bars. It is of paramount importance to define
variable substrate handling system that couldn't be worked in detail the design criteria that the project will have to meet,
on, cost 3X the budget, and still didn't know anything about although many people do not see the importance of this
the mouse. Find the simplest, most reliable system that will preliminary step. Without it, a very large range of solutions to
effectively do the job. a given upgrade are available, with a wide range of associated
costs. At the end of the study, the customer often finds that
15. Define your control strategy. Piping and the resulting cost is prohibitive because his own people were

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 55 / 252

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17 points to consider before even beginning your automation project

left with on "open bar," without a clear understanding of their


minimal needs and a defined set of rules. 

CREATE CHECKLISTS

As examples of some overlooked project objectives, consider the and then have others of different sizes also step through it.
following in every project: 5. Remember that checklists help to prompt you when you are in the
1. Make sure the system’s parameters are outlined in a table. Make field. Establish these checklists when you conduct meetings to get
sure they add up to sensible values; get a consensus on the data. everyone’s input. You have to make the decision on the project’s de-
2. Make sure the required power (electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic) is sign and impact, so communicate this clearly and keep an open mind.
available and that all utilities, including ventilation and lighting, are These folks invited to your meeting are your customers and you want
considered. everyone to be accommodated as much as possible. You should be
no stranger to negotiation and getting everyone to understand this
3. Make sure that specifications for these utilities will accommodate
helps you get needed support. The checklist becomes the contractual
the desired gear (clean power supply, battery backup, compressed air
document of accordance.
dew point, etc.).
6. Use the checklist to prioritize needs and rank risks associated with
4. Do a facility siting review with a dimensional layout. Keep service
certain project options. This is the good kind of documentation you
accessibility (dis-assembly) in mind. Do a time/motion study (some-
want to come out of a project meeting.
thing more than a TAKT or spaghetti chart). Step through it yourself

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 56 / 252

17 tips for automation project managers


More than technical skills are required management skills.
to successfully manage an automation
project. It also requires communication 2. Welcome the bad news. Every
and organizational skills, along with automation project has things that go
the ability to motivate a team of people wrong, but the earlier you find out what
from a variety of disciplines and different the problems are, the easier and cheaper
departments. they are to fix. Nobody wants to hear or
deliver bad news, but it’s important not
Here are a few practical tips for to get defensive. Anybody on the team Looking for training?
automation project managers: needs to be able to push the stop button
There’s a source to help you learn
if a project has gone off the tracks. the ropes of project management or
1. Project management Otherwise, you’re just gambling that improve your skills. For more informa-
resource. There have been thousands things will come out all right at the end. tion, visit
of words written about project
http://awgo.to/028
management. If you think you need 3. Keep simplicity top-of-mind.
a refresher course, or expect to be Engineers tend to make systems too Organization: Project Management Institute

assigned to your first project, there’s complex for non-engineers to deal with.
an organization, Project Management Make sure expectations are established people from these functions on the
Institute, dedicated to establishing early that will keep the needs of the automation team and consult them early
standards, providing training and people who will have to operate and in the design and testing stages for new
certifying individuals in project maintain the systems a priority. Include systems and equipment.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 57 / 252

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17 tips for automation project managers

4. Be ready to adjust. As with any project, unrealistic so that everyone knows exactly what performance measures
projections, poor execution and just plain bad design can cause they need to achieve. Don’t rush the testing phase; make sure
a project to fail. What is important is that when you begin a you leave enough time in the project schedule to accomplish
project, understand that there will be modifications necessary the necessary tests. It’s also important to make sure the right
along with way. The final result is rarely as exactly planned. This people attend the FAT; that includes the lead operator and
is not considered a failure; it’s a realistic need to adjust and maintenance tech, not just the manager.
fine-tune as the project progresses.
6. Follow programming standards. Make sure that
5. Establish testing plans early. It isn’t enough to in-house programmers, system integrators and OEMs use
design a system. You have to test it to prove that it works, not the same PLC programming standards, such as OMAC and
once but twice. It’s easy to get started on designing the tests PackML. There’s nothing worse than custom code that has to
by using a template. Equipment or systems should first be be reworked at the last minute to make it compatible with a
tested at the facilities of the integrator or OEM. This is called plant’s existing systems. Multiple approaches to programming
FAT (Factory Acceptance Testing), and its goal is to prove that can cost a company millions of dollars.
the system design will work. Simulate various scenarios to find
out how the system will react. The final testing stage, SAT (Site 7. Communicate often. Don’t make decisions without
Acceptance Testing), is done when the system is delivered to consulting the team. Unilateral decision-making alienates the
the factory floor. Its objective is to prove that the equipment team, creates confusion and fails to take advantage of the unique
actually does work as designed and is producing product at the expertise of the team members. Foster open communication
level required. Approve the testing plans early in the project and communicate frequently, so that everyone on the team

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17 tips for automation project managers

understands the issues and is aware of early and have them ready to fill in if Close

any problems that need to be resolved. needed. That same rule applies to the Internal Lifecycle Methods
Kickoff Waterfall
Establish a communications roadmap for system integrator’s team; make sure Agile
Spiral
Site
Requirements Design V Acceptance
vendors; check with them soon into the they’ve identified people with equivalent Development
Other Test
Factory
project to make sure it’s working. skills who can be assigned to the project Specification
Traceability
Acceptance
Test
if required. Design

8. Don’t be a roadblock. As
Subsystem Integration Test

Unit/Module Unit/Module Test


project manager, it’s your responsibility 10. Design criteria. Each Development

to respond to information requests and manufacturing process must have its


approve various aspects of the project specific design criteria before ordering
in a timely fashion. Stay involved and the equipment. Reliability and energy
Project management “V” model, courtesy
be responsive to prevent delays in the performance efficiency should be Control System Integrators Association.
project’s timeline. priorities in component selection.

9. Make sure you have bench 11. Vendor’s reputation. When


strength. There’s nothing that delays selecting a components supplier, it is The vendor’s industry reputation is
a project more than a team member who important to consider the breadth of the important in terms of logistics (delivery),
gets assigned to another project and no vendor’s offering in order to assure that performance, product reliability,
longer has the time to devote to your they do not “force fit” an inappropriate application expertise and after-sale
project. Identify alternative resources solution to a given application. service and support.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 59 / 252

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17 tips for automation project managers

the power of open, standards-based protocols to disrupt and


LOOK FOR GOOD TRANSITIONS.
replace proprietary or closed standards. The same is happening
It is Important to look at the expected lifecycle of the finished project. in wireless. Only open standards will have long-term success,
Will the need for the machine die in a few years because the model a broad array of vendor options and true interoperability. This
has been obsoleted? Then component selection is not that critical. is critical given the long installed support lifecycle needed in
However, if the machinery has a 20-30 year life expectancy, the automation projects.
controls will need a lobotomy every 10 years or so. History has shown
that certain manufacturers change products such that new products 14. Avoid nightmares. Take a long-term view of cost: does
are not directly forward compatible. One has to be more careful the supplier have a good history for transitioning to the next
selecting platforms that have historically proven stable over a number
generation of controls so that you are not leading the customer
of product iterations.
into a legacy nightmare.

12. Ask plant staff. Everyone tries to match the product to 15. Four key factors. When selecting components,
the application, but not enough value is placed on obtaining a consider availability of support, whether it’s an import/export
clear understanding of the plant ‘s ability and staff experience part, its security features and ease of installation.
with the product. The plant operations and maintenance
personnel should be used as resources when evaluating if the 16. Use good engineering. Carefully consider the
product is suitable for the site. features of the components. Simpler components are usually
better overall. Verify that the components have the correct
13. Power of open. The fieldbus wars taught us about tolerances for a testing application.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 60 / 252

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17 tips for automation project managers

17. Long-term cost. When engineering systems, the most


BEST IN CLASS OR CUSTOMIZE?
important thing to consider is the longevity and reliability of the
system. This is why it is so important not to choose components Many OEM machinery manufacturers select best-in-class components
or systems on the sole basis of cost. In the long run, systems that to provide the optimal solution for their new machine. If you prefer
are inexpensive up front usually will cost more than expensive this design method, then one of the most critical items on your
systems.  supplier selection list should be the ability to adapt or customize the
component solution. It is highly likely that when you go the best-
in-class components route, you will need to have flexibility in the
components to optimize the system. Many projects have failed in
the past when standard components are purchased to play together,
but when they don’t, they can’t be modified to work. Buy the system
together (usually sacrificing your design desires) or buy components
that are highly adaptable through customization.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 61 / 252

Automation project management from


a machine builder’s perspective
By Paul Brinks, Chief Operating Officer, Koops Inc.

1. Select and build your internal 2. Select a Project Manager. General Information
project team. This is an important This person will build, execute and • Project name
first step that should never be skipped. monitor the project plan and head up the • Tech Spec revision level
Getting the right people with the right team throughout the entire process to • Tech Spec revision date
attitude will make the project successful. ensure continuity of understanding and • Project description
Work this one through before calling an commitments. This person will be the only • Estimated machine life
equipment supplier; it will save precious contact with the system builder or supplier. • Target cost
time and money.
3. Define your automation Performance Specifications
• Involve departments. Manufacturing, goals. The project manager must set the • Production rate
Quality, Finance, Purchasing, Facilities, agenda for the meetings and be persistent. • Maximum noise levels
Engineering. The goal is to develop a Technical • Capability
• Select people for the team with the Specification (Tech Spec) that lays out the • Operator duties
right combination of skills and attitudes. design parameters and the performance • Number of operators
expectations for the system’s builder. The • Setup and changeover
following list will get you started on a • Repeatability
Technical Specification Form:

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Automation project management from a machine builder’s perspective

Machine Definition Project Management *


DEFINITION
• Operation sequence • Timeline development
• Guarding • Transportation Poka-Yoke is a Japanese term that means
• Ergonomics • Installation “mistake-proofing.” A poka-yoke is any
• Cycle activation • Warranty mechanism in a lean manufacturing
process that helps an equipment operator
• Frame configuration • Terms
avoid mistakes. Its purpose is to eliminate
• Size footprint
4. Justification. This may be a product defects by preventing, correcting
• Power requirements or drawing attention to human errors as
• Quality/Poka-Yoke* challenge. Management and the project
they occur. More broadly, the term can
team must be committed to the value
refer to any behavior-shaping constraint
of the investment. Companies will vary
designed into a process to prevent
Acceptance Criteria greatly as to how the justification is
incorrect operation by the user.
• Runoff requirements measured and how quickly a return on
• Safety review investment is required. Many common
• Poka-Yoke verification areas looked at for justification are:
• Training Capacity, efficiency, quality, personnel
• Documentation requirements reduction, safety, sales value, etc.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 63 / 252

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Automation project management from a machine builder’s perspective

Note: It is very useful to narrow it down to three of the major issues • A sign-off on all technical descriptions of the system
and put dollar amounts and specific justification to those issues. • Production rate of the system
You can review the documentation after the automation project has • Final part drawings from the customer
been up and running and compare that to your original thinking. • Capability to hold tolerances over a period of time
• Progress meetings and milestones
5. Select a supplier. The best supplier is the one that you • Statements regarding noise, safety and environment
can trust. Start by calling a few companies in for interviews. Use • Training for operation and maintenance
the Technical Specification (Item 3) as reference and ask the hard • Recommended spare parts
questions to determine the experience, capacity, capability and • Documentation and manuals
thoroughness of the supplier. Pick the supplier with whom you • Names of selected components
feel most comfortable. • Criteria for acceptance of the system at the supplier
• Criteria for acceptance of the system at your plant
6. The contract. The qualified supplier will be able to • Procedure for handling changes after the order
contribute with ideas and concepts that must be reviewed • Warranty and service policies
with the project team. Solidify those ideas into a contract with • Delivery date
the supplier. The contract should include your commitments • Project price
and those of the supplier. The supplier will use your Technical • Payment terms
Specifications (Item 3) to develop a contract (proposal) that will
address the following:

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Automation project management from a machine builder’s perspective

7. Monitor the project. It is highly advisable that project 8. Training. Select the person from the project team that
managers from both the buyer and the supplier stay with the will be responsible for the operation and maintenance of the
project throughout the entire process. Good communication on automation system. This key person must take ownership and
all the details between the two is critical throughout the project. develop a plan for involving other people from the plant floor
The supplier should provide a timeline with all the critical and learning as much about the system from the supplier as
milestones: possible. This is crucial as the transfer of ownership takes place
from the supplier to you.
• Process planning
• Design review of electrical, mechanical, and flood power The following list should be covered by the training process:
systems
• Purchase parts ordered • All operational aspects including setup and changeover
• Subassembly procedure
• Final assembly • PLC, operator interface, and other system programming
• Debug time • Interlock and safety systems
• Runoff at supplier • Troubleshooting and repair service training
• Runoff at your plant • Preventive maintenance schedule
• Training • Manual and other documentation
• Installation and startup

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Automation project management from a machine builder’s perspective

9. Runoff and acceptance at the supplier. The intent


is that the system, as designed and as stated in the Technical
Specification, will be run off at the supplier’s plant and that it
meets or exceeds the criteria as agreed upon.

10. Installation, final acceptance, and production


startup. The acceptance criteria as stated in the contract will
be the standard. This can be a critical time since all the planning
done previously must come together at this point.

It is now time for the person and company who purchased the
system to demonstrate their readiness by putting the system
into production. This is usually done with the assistance of the
supplier.

Notwithstanding warranty and service agreement coverage,


most suppliers are eager to have the system running smoothly
before leaving the plant. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 66 / 252

How to justify capital projects:


Speaking finance gets results
By Gary Mintchell, Founding Editor, Automation World

Note: This article is as relevant today as it was in 2003 when first Different languages
published. It has been updated several times since then. This language has terms like cash flow, capital and interest.
Campbell, who reveals these definitions later, advises, “You must
For technical managers, it seems like a “no brainer.” Applying identify the positive cash flows you create with a new system,
new technologies will make the process better, faster and more and then, using your company’s method for calculating cash
consistent. Then the inevitable happens—the capital review flow, do the math.”
team, whose members may not know a proximity sensor from a
pressure transmitter, say, “No money available.” Even if we are on a solid footing with the language of finance,
we may not be so good at seeing our projects through an
Keith Campbell, veteran of Hershey’s engineering management investor’s careful eyes. Peter Martin, vice president of Invensys,
team with many years of experience justifying automation a Foxborough, Mass., supplier of process controls and software,
expenditures, says, “Do it in their language; it’s easier to convince says, “When you are justifying automation, it’s important to
them.” remember that it’s an accounting problem. It is possible to
solve the accounting problem through engineering principles,
Shrewd managers make capital decisions based on return on however. For instance, where is the biggest cost accounting
investment. You have to show them how your project will impact database in manufacturing? It is information from all the sensors
the bottom line. If you can’t show the monetary justification in in the production process.” In other words, tap into the data you
the language of finance, you’ll never convince them. have, and translate them into financial numbers.

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How to justify capital projects: Speaking finance gets results

rewards at the justification stage. This person would be involved


in the analysis at all stages of the project, and will be well
positioned to translate benefits into the correct numbers.

Why is there such an emphasis on financial analysis these


days? Steve Loranger, area vice president for Emerson Process
Management, an Austin, Texas-based process controls
supplier, notes the changing value
of automation over the last
25 years. “Automation drivers from the 1950s to 1975 went
from pneumatics to electronics by emphasizing speed of
operation and labor improvements with limited automation
improvements. Drivers from 1975 to 2000 were repeatability and
Technical managers may be sitting on a gold mine of cost quality. During this time, computers went mainstream, there was
detail that can be used to determine where the manufacturing improved control, and information integration became essential.
problems lie, as well as the crucial data that can be used to figure Now, drivers are economics and business optimization, due
out the best solution—and how to get through the financial to globally integrated manufacturing and activity-based cost
maze to approval. accounting.”

This advice directly leads to the conclusion that bringing a A new automation project can be designed to solve any of a
finance person into the automation buying team will reap huge number of problems in the plant. The sidebar accompanying this

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 68 / 252

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How to justify capital projects:


Speaking finance gets results

article provides several areas of improvement that can result


from the project. Some of the areas can be hard to quantify,
but it is essential to try to cost-justify as many as possible.

For example, it may seem hard to quantify safety and


ergonomic improvements that result from improved
automation. But safety and insurance experts may be able
to help document savings that can include anything from
avoiding lost workdays to lower insurance premiums.
Boston-based Liberty Mutual released its 2003 Fall
Workplace Safety Index, and concluded that the financial
impact of workplace injuries in the United States is growing
faster than the rate of inflation.

Insurance premium savings are certainly welcome, but


a greater value to an investor is reducing risk to future
earnings. Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis is a
powerful tool that can be used to demonstrate the risk of
a catastrophic safety event involving loss of life or limb.

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How to justify capital projects: Speaking finance gets results

More often than not, risk elimination will strengthen the case lead straightness was specified. But the manufacturing of one
for capital approval. of the components, a relay, was sent to Mexico in order to save
costs. Constant employee turnover in that plant caused quality
Lifecycle costs problems including solder buildup or tape missing over a hole.
Bill Egert, engineering vice president of Addison, Ill.-based The problems just couldn’t be controlled.”
integrator Logic One Consulting, and member of the Board of
Advisors for the Robotics International division of the Society This organization clearly suffered because the decision to
of Manufacturing Engineers, advises calculating all of the costs source in Mexico did not take into account quality tolerances.
associated with the life
cycle of machines. He notes, “Check out Compounding the problem, operations and finance folks
costs associated with changes. For instance, on robotics, evaluate couldn’t team up to demonstrate the cash impact of the scrap
the tooling changes needed to support product changeover plus and productivity loss.
auxiliary equipment such as feeders, conveyors and workstations
associated with material handling.” Justification is technology-independent. The same rules apply
to buildings, automation systems and computer systems, and
Don’t dismiss employee turnover or morale as a factor that to various scopes such as the entire project, just a portion of a
can’t be quantified. Egert reveals, “We had a printed circuit project or even when evaluating competing quotes.
board assembly machine with robots where the component

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How to justify capital projects: Speaking finance gets results

Campbell says the fundamentals of justification include these Because projects are expected to pay back funds over several
steps: years, it is important to find a way to normalize the amounts in
order to keep the analysis in proper perspective.
• Identify the base case
• Identify alternatives to the base case Present value
• Determine cash flows associated with the alternatives vs. the The first step is to determine the present value, which is defined as
base case the value of all future cash flows discounted at the cost of capital,
• Use your company’s financial rules to evaluate the alternatives minus the cost of the investment. Discounted means that a future
(payback period, net present value, rate of return, hurdle rate). cash flow is worth less (discounted) than a present cash flow.

The base case is the current state of affairs. Include all the financial So, $100 received three years from now at 8% cost of capital is
data that can be compiled. Then, having identified the correctable the same as receiving $79.38 today.
problems, document various alternatives to the base case.
The Net Present Value (NPV) is the present value of all future
Quantify all the risk, benefit and loss factors that you can. Take cash flows discounted at the cost of capital, minus the cost of
a balanced approach addressing significant pros and cons to investment. Cost of capital is a weighted combination of the
demonstrate your thoughtfulness and enhance your credibility. cost of debt (long-term debt and leases after tax) and the cost
Calculate the numbers and compare to the company’s financial of equity (preferred and common stock). All future cash flows
rules. Those results can then be compared to determine the best means that the PVs are summed over some time horizon, often
alternative to present to management for funding. five or 10 years. Subtract the cost of the initial investment from

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How to justify capital projects: Speaking finance gets results

the sum of the PVs to get NPV. The greater the NPV, the better benefits. (Microsoft Excel has functions that easily calculate NPV
the investment. as well as payback and IRR justifications).

What if the company just took the funds and invested them? Emerson’s Loranger discusses the analysis from a slightly
A valuable comparison is the return due to the business different point of view. The balance sheet is where assets and
investment vs. an anticipated return from automation project liabilities are tabulated and the income statement is where
investments. The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the interest income and expenses are calculated. The analysis entails
rate that equates the present value of future cash flows to the comparing the Return on Invested Capital (operating earnings
investment outlay. The IRR assumes that cash flows can be from income statement divided by invested capital shown on
reinvested at a rate equal to the IRR. balance sheet) to the weighted average cost of capital, or hurdle
rate. The difference is the economic value added.
The hurdle rate is the minimum rate of return to justify an
investment. This includes cost of capital, risk premium (which will Analysis is good, but often engineers looking at automation
include analysis of the track record of the group asking for money, projects become infatuated with new technologies and fail
type of investment and allowance for overruns), and other factors to match the project up with business strategies. As Loranger
such as working capital requirements. shows in the Business Planning Framework graphic, technology
managers find their comfort zones in evaluating automation
Calculate the cash flows and rates of return for all of the technology alternatives. The profit zone for the business,
alternatives and then the best solutions will pop out. If the however, lies in meeting or exceeding plant, production and
numbers don’t make the hurdle rate, then reevaluate the business objectives. So, when looking for projects with the

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How to justify capital projects: Speaking finance gets results

highest probability of approval, make sure that they align with One approach that might change all of the calculations would be
one or more of the objectives in the Profit Zone. to lease new equipment, rather than purchase it. Paul Frechette,
president and chief operating officer of Key Equipment Finance,
Train managers commercial leasing services, a Superior, Colo. unit of Key Corp.,
Logic One’s Egert offers some additional tips on putting together says, “80 percent of American businesses lease equipment. They
a justification package. “Get management trained on technical do it understanding that it is use of equipment, not ownership,
aspects,” he states. “They have lots of knowledge and experience which creates profits. Leasing from the vendor or from a lessor
on finance and marketing, but not much on technical aspects. experienced in the field often yields the best deal, because they
understand the value of the residuals (the value of the equipment
A progressive, smart manager will have those technical after the term of the lease is over). The bigger lessors have been
people. A manager with technical skills will be able to see doing this for a long time and want repeat business, so they treat
some problems coming.” Another problem is management the residuals well. Their goal is to become trusted advisors.”
embracing new technology with no strategy for implementing,
no urgency for training or no technical champion to embrace Assistance in evaluating leasing options is available from
and learn the new stuff. equipment sales people. Another resource close at hand would
be people in the company’s own finance department. They
It’s not just a matter of providing training in some cases, but probably are already leasing equipment and have the process
whether the workforce has the basic background skills to make figured out. 
training a practical option.

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How to justify capital projects: Speaking finance gets results

Who are you competing with


internally for dollars?
Make sure your project proposal appeals to your company’s, sustainability officer should like your numbers better.
your business unit’s and your project stakeholder’s priorities.
After all, you are competing for the same capital as everyone • Will your proposed system save water, compressed air
else. This isn’t political. This is survival. Don’t let that “green usage, electricity, and/or floor space that must be lighted,
roof” win over your lean manufacturing improvements! heated and cooled? Most plants today face corporate
mandates to hit reductions in all these resources, and every
• Sustainable manufacturing—what will really do the bit helps.
most to reduce your “total system carbon footprint” Will
it be that green roof proposal or your production line • Consider distributed drive technologies that reduce the
improvements that produce less scrap and use less energy? heat buildup inside electrical cabinets and eliminate
the
Lean production lines won’t make the same photo opp that need for costly air conditioning and filtration, along
goats munching turf on your plant roof will—but your chief with reduced floor space. To maximize energy efficiency,
» CONTINUED ON PAGE 74

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How to justify capital projects: Speaking finance gets results

also consider high-efficiency electrical power supplies, • Headcount impact—programs that increase headcount
regenerative power supplies for servo drives, and a common don’t fare well during a
hiring freeze. Increasing capacity
DC bus between servo drives. without increasing labor is a good justification. But
automation that can efficiently scale throughput up or down
• How easily can your production system be reconfigured with reduced attention from plant personnel sounds like a
if the intended product line goes away? This is where real winner.
automation can actually help product marketers and
engineers mitigate the risk of their program proposal. • Don’t forget the convergence of advanced technologies
and best practices that have a positive impact on seemingly
• How is your company investing in growth markets? Could unrelated aspects of operations. For example, implementing
your automated line be readily deployed and supported integrated safety doesn’t just make a production line safer;
worldwide with little or no modification, following it means more uptime, which results in measurable Overall
international electrical and safety standards as opposed to Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) improvements. And today,
the local site’s internal standards? That could be a big plus. the safety network can be the same network that links
machinery together on a line, which also improves OEE. 

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Eight tips for selecting the right


automation system components
Many factors come into play when choosing components or market and not the proprietary product of only one supplier.
systems for an automation project. Some companies reduce Components should be easily replaceable with another make
the complexity by limiting the number of suppliers they work when needed at any point in time. The system should have
with or standardizing on certain features or functionalities. the flexibility to expand in the future and should not become
Others want maximum flexibility and the ability to customize obsolete in the near future. Get a commitment from the OEM
solutions or select from multiple vendors. The growing use about planned system life.
of components built to industry standards is making both
approaches easier to implement. 3. Don’t forget power. Make sure you have all the needed
power requirements in the locations intended for your new
1. Flexibility required. The adaptability and flexibility devices for the instrumentation you are using. Don’t forget to
of components are critical. Make sure that open standards like update all prints to reflect your changes.
IEC 61131-3, PLCOpen and overall fieldbus communications are
supported. For OEMs, having equipment that communicates 4. Functionality. Make sure new components have all the
with more than one fieldbus is an advantage because they will functionalities that will be required, such as asset management,
not have to order different part numbers for different customer power integration, safety system integration and the load of the
requirements. CPU.

2. Easy replacement. Ensure that components are 5. Three considerations. First, make sure new
user friendly, maintenance friendly, easily available in the components will comply with regulations, standards and best

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Eight tips for selecting the right


automation system components

practices. Second, components must be consistent and


compatible with existing systems. Third, anticipate new
trends in automation to keep your system sustainable.

6. Systems thinking. Do not fail to think systemically,


including power, grounding, communications, control and
environment.

7. Look for support. Make sure to do the research and


consider the ease with which a system can be modified if
needed. Always evaluate whether support will be available
after the project is completed. It does no good if the sys-
WORKPLACE MONITORING FROM BANNER
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monitoring with wireless visual, audible, text, email and
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BannerEngineering.com
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Eight tips for selecting the right automation system components

8. Simplify. Select from a specific and predetermined


FIND A PARTNER
list of components during the design phase on any piece of
equipment so you don’t need a spare parts room the size of a Automation project managers need to find partners who they can trust
small plant. Go green wherever possible. Retrofit pneumatics, and rely on to be with them through every stage of the project, from
for example, using electric cylinders instead; restrict the planning to implementation, from startup to long-term service and
number of stroke lengths to no more than three. Use similar support. If a problem does crop up, a good project manager needs to
criteria to simplify selection for other product categories, know that their chosen vendors can be trusted to do the right thing
whether it’s motors, servos or other components.  in the heat of the moment to keep the project on track and make it a
success. There will be plenty of time later to analyze the cause of and
blame for the problem. The important thing is to not let issues get in
the way of the project schedule and ultimate success.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 78 / 252

How to properly select and vet


a system integrator
The process of finding a qualified control may not have the expertise to
system integrator for your automation handle a complex SCADA project.
project requires effort and attention to
the details. Experience, expertise, staff 2. Be suspicious of over-
capabilities and financial wherewithal are promises. If during negotiations and
all crucial factors to consider in finding setting requirements, a system integrator
the right integrator partner. continues saying, “No problem. That’s
easy. We can do all you want”... you can
1. Selection criteria. Search for a be sure that It will be a problem, it will Integrator source
system integrator who has a long list of not be so easy and It will be something An excellent source for information
successful projects in the areas you are that is more complicated than assumed. useful in selecting a systems integrator
looking for. Check out any references The integrator should prove that he is the CSIA (Control System Integrators
they provide and find out how long they understood your requirements, didn’t Association). You can search their
have been in the field. They should also underestimate the project and that he membership by expertise, state,
certification, etc., to find exactly the
have a broad range of products they have has experience with similar projects. Be
right fit for your automation project.
worked with and have enough staff to especially careful if you get a much lower
handle all the various areas of a project. price than expected or than others have http://awgo.to/027
People who have done a lot of motion quoted. Organization: Control System Integrators
Association

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How to properly select and vet a system integrator

3. Familiarity with standards. 5. Expertise. Focus on their


Find out what partners the integrator knowledge, techniques and skills. DO YOUR HOMEWORK.
works with since no one can do it Make sure they have full knowledge of
Extensive planning is complete, timelines
alone. It’s also important to see how an system engineering, as well as sufficient
and schedules are determined, budgets and
integrator manages a project and what experience to handle your project. A
ROI calculated and all the textbook prepara-
their code library looks like. Do they proven track record and references from
tions and considerations have been met.
follow S88 and S95 methodologies? They the projects they have done are essential. What could go wrong? Plenty! Always vet
don’t need to follow these to the letter, your system integrator. Get references, see a
but if they don’t have a methodology 6. Current experience. Prior system designed and implemented by them
and aren’t even aware of the standards, experience in your discipline is key in use, visit their factory and, most impor-
don’t even consider them. to the selection of your Integrator. tant, run credit checks and investigate their
Experience keeps the integrator financial health. Nothing is more destructive
4. Comfort factor. In addition to current on new technologies and new than having an integrator run out of money
reliability and professional capabilities, hardware and software. As a result before the project has been completed.
choose an integrator you feel of the recent recession, integrators
comfortable with, who understands your are not as abundant as before, with
process needs and who has experience many unable to survive the economic Take the time to assess the strengths
in the field. The integrator also needs to turmoil. Many integrators have reduced and weaknesses of any integrator you
have a staff with expertise and domain staff, minimized technology education consider to ensure that they are capable
knowledge in your business area. opportunities and made other cutbacks. of delivering the system that you require.

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How to properly select and vet a system integrator

7. Stay involved. Has your system integrator done already solved many of the problems you may face if you choose
something similar before? Chances are the pool of talent isn’t one whose experience is outside the necessary area of expertise.
all that big. Can you allocate any resources to working with that
integrator on a day-to-day basis? You will have to take ownership 10. Ask questions. Choosing a system integrator is the
of the system, so you will need to know how to modify it and hardest and easily the most overlooked part of an automation
maintain it or you will be tied into a system that might need project. Ask questions about types of projects they’ve done,
unallocated cash to make changes. Get involved at the zero level vertical preferences and size of projects. Have them include
in the planning, simulation, detailed layout, software handling project details, such as were they on time and on or under
techniques and maintenance requirements as much as you budget, and what percentage of the time.
possibly can in order to get the biggest possible benefits and to
learn in excruciating detail how it all goes together. 11. Experience has its limits. Be aware that most
integrators have experience either in a vertical industry or
8. Take a long-term view. Select an integrator with with a certain type of project, such as PLC/HMI programming.
experience in similar systems, preferably of the same make. Tie Either way, they may lack the capabilities needed to do projects
payments to project milestones. Make sure his services will be outside of that experience. Many HMI/DCS vendors have a
available for upgrades and maintenance by signing a separate list of endorsed or recommended system integrators on their
contract. home page. This is a good place to start.

9. Problem-solvers. Choose an integrator who has 12. Smart isn’t enough. Choose an integrator as you would
experience in the tasks you need performed. They have probably choose an employee. Spend time, talk to references and know

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How to properly select and vet a system integrator

that while every firm out there enlists very smart engineers, you your requests and ideas. Beware of someone that constantly
don’t want them cutting their teeth on your project. pushes back. If you hear the phrase “nobody does it like that”
or “this is how everyone does it,” you might want to consider
13. Professionalism counts. Make sure an integrator another integrator that is more open minded. You are paying
can confidently provide you with a project plan, with decision that integrator to get what you want and need—not just what
points, contingency plans and staffing that will meet your they are willing to build because it’s easy or they “always do it
timeline and project goals. that way.” Yes, you hired them for their experience and would
like their suggestions, but don’t discount your own ideas just
14. Test the team. Verify the integrator’s capabilities by because this is your first time. Also allow for the ability to
giving a test to the personnel who will perform the work on make some changes—especially if your approach is new and
your project. Make sure those people are listed in the contract, unconventional. Be open for changes and tweaks as you go if it
including fallback or substitute candidates. makes the end result
easier to use and
15. Do they have business skills? Look beyond more flexible. You
technology expertise or project experience to consider an need to stay involved
integrator’s commercial qualifications: Are they CSIA certified? throughout the
Do they have insurance? How many years have they been in whole process. Don’t
business? pass up the learning
opportunity! 
16. Are they open? Select an integrator that is open to

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How to properly select and vet a system integrator

Detail the requirements


1. One of the most important factors in selecting a system 4. Some system integrators take advantage of a poorly
integrator is his willingness to develop a good project written requirements document from a customer and
proposal. Avoid any integrator whose proposal is just one or present a very generic proposal, so the price might look
two pages long. attractive at the beginning. When the project is awarded,
then the customer has to face a series of change orders
2. Automation projects must have good system requirements because a requirement that might be obvious was not listed
from the customer, and the system integrator must list in his in the proposal. The customer ends up paying far more
proposal what requirements will be met and what will not. money for the project than originally estimated.

3. If the requirements and proposal terms are properly 5. Establishing a good project requirement list is not only an
defined from the beginning, the result will be a project with essential customer task, but also requires the cooperation of
no or minimum change orders. the system integrator. 

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23 common mistakes people make


in automation projects
In their rush to complete an automation project, people make locate the source of the problem.
the same mistakes over and over again. This “ready-fire-aim”
approach to planning and executing an automation project 3. Start with the integrator. Don’t select and buy
inevitably causes major headaches, cost overruns and delayed equipment based on a specific vendor’s recommendations,
schedules. then hire an integrator to get it to work. Instead, hire the
integrator to do the design and program and start up the
1. Don’t limit input. The most common mistake is system. In the end, it will not cost more. Time spent in the field
limiting the initial input to too few people. Many managers getting a mix of components to work together is extremely
are surprised when they hear an insight from a person in their inefficient vs. implementing a system with devices that are
plant. It’s much easier, and less expensive, to build that insight designed to work together. An experienced system integrator
into the project planning from the start. inherently designs a system to perform to a customer’s
requirements while minimizing the time it takes the integrator
2. Never assume. Mistakes are most often made during to deliver it.
the definition phase, when you think that everything will
be easy to do—motors just need to move from point A to B 4. Copy and paste. People don’t make mistakes when
with synchronized speed, for example, and then during the planning automation projects; the mistakes are planned in.
installation phase, when signal cables are routed together with This is because most machines are sold before they are fully
power cables and shielding is simply forgotten. This causes all developed and rely on the experience of previous projects
kinds of strange equipment behavior later, when it’s hard to using a copy and paste approach to get them completed on

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23 common mistakes people make in automation projects

time. The consequence of this common strategy is that you downtime. When two machines need to work together, it is
automatically give up the perfect solution for one that is good critical to use appropriate handshaking signals to avoid any
enough. The tragedy is that, with careful accounting, the cell or machine damage. Bypassing safety is another cause
differential between a white sheet design (starting with a new for problems. Design cells so workers cannot bypass safety
platform that commonly comes with an “App Store”) is much measures.
quicker than the copy/paste/mop strategy. It also retains more
customers because the adoption curve is much quicker for 7. Experts inside. In-house expertise is essential to the
machines with more “canned” features. success of any project. Integrators build good machines and
systems, but when they are deployed in the plant environment,
5. Failure to communicate. One of the most common it’s the in-house expertise that turns a good system into a great
mistakes is not communicating with the end user and technical system.
staff. If a machine does not make their work easier, they will
find a way to make your system do what they want even if it 8. Plan for changes. When designing, or budgeting for
causes other problems. If you do not consider the technical automation projects, usually there is a clear goal or list of
staff, the repairs or adjustments will be met with resentment things that need to happen. But you also need to plan for the
and most likely extended downtime. unforeseen. Something will always come up later on that will
need to be added. To cover this, always add 20 percent to the
6. Handshakes critical. Not paying attention to overall project budget. Also, additional checks or sensors may
handshaking signals and improper use of I/O handling can be needed down the line, so make sure you have extra I/O or at
cause serious damage to equipment, eventually causing more least the flexibility to expand the I/O if needed.

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23 common mistakes people make in automation projects

Seven Automation Don’ts


1. Don’t over-complicate the solution. Keep the solution need to be corrected at heavy expense and effort.
simple.
5. Don’t forget the grounding.
2. Don’t program the machine first. Always program or
storyboard the HMI first. 6. Don’t propose a project without a good understanding
of the requirements. That guarantees scope creep.
3. Don’t neglect the communication protocols and
interface terminals when evaluating control products. 7. Don’t always believe what salesmen tell you. Do
your homework and make your own decisions for your
4. Don’t waste too much time planning without customer application. 
input. That could cause critical planning errors that will

9. Do a punch list. After initial implementation, get 10. Can a machine do the job? If the automation project
agreement from everybody on the punch list of items that is based on replacing labor, you will first need to understand
need to be updated. That includes operators, technicians and the totality of what is being done manually. You may need to
production management. People might disagree on what has go back to the drawing board if a machine cannot do what an
been accomplished and what still needs to be done. operator has been doing.
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23 common mistakes people make in automation projects

11. Limit program access. Always run an information 13. More mistakes.
session after commissioning to familiarize all personnel who
may be involved with set-point changes, principles of operation, • Not rationalizing alarms or adequately defining the alarm
etc., and use password protection to allow set-point changes management system.
only within a specified range. Never allow full access to program
changes. • Poor selection of field instruments, such as using a mass flow
meter for slurry instead of a magnetic flow meter for conductive
12. Forbid coding from Day 1. Automation engineers liquids.
love to puzzle with the problems they get on their table. Forbid
any use of coding software until the entire scope is clear and • Operator requirements not considered when designing HMI
closed, the delivery has been broken down to manageable pieces screens due to lack of industry experience.
(Work Breakdown Structure) and everybody knows what the
tasks and targets are ahead of them. Also, make sure that the • Audio alarms not considered for all alarm alerts. Using only
tasks and the targets are properly documented before letting visual alarms flashing on screen is inadequate.
the engineers loose on the coding tasks, because to have them
document it afterwards involves twisting their arms to make • Operators not trained for the PLC/DCS screen operation and its
them do it. Diving right into detailed problem solving and coding features.
is the fastest way to failure in an automation project.
• Neglecting to simulate as much of the complete system as
possible before it goes to the customer.

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23 common mistakes people make in automation projects

• Failure to include the customer in system demonstrations and 16. Avoid complexity. You’ll make life complicated by
at each stage in development. introducing complexity into the operation, so that what’s
implemented at the site is not what was conceived of in the
• Selecting low-cost components to meet a budget. design. Many times simplicity is ignored when designing
controls. What may be friendly to one smart operator can’t be
• Errors in lead-time calculations. generalized for all operators. Refrain from tailoring the controls
too much. Suggest cost-effective and competitive solutions
14. Will it save money? Being able to automate a process when they already exist.
often leads to the mistaken belief that it will result in a less
expensive process or product being made. This is frequently due 17. Garbage in, garbage out. People tend to assume
to a poorly executed cost/benefit analysis. that the person coming in to do the automation work will just
pick up on what is being done at the plant and how things work.
15. Vendor cautions. Vendors can be great resources Good user and system requirements are a must for any project.
but they are poor manufacturers. They often lack a complete The final automation system will only be as good as what you
understanding of all the factors involved, not only the ask for in the requirements document. Without well-defined
installation of the project but the operation, repair and objectives, you will get scope creep.
maintenance of the project. The vendor is a servant, not an
executive. Research vendors carefully and talk to others who 18. Document everything. A small change requested
have used the vendor. Caution is particularly called for if you by the customer often leads to other changes that are much
are designing or in charge of a project where some of the more costly. If you don’t have paperwork showing the requested
technology, software or application use are unfamiliar or new. change and costs, it will be difficult to bill for the work.

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23 common mistakes people make in automation projects

the necessary when it comes to programming. Try to keep in


TIME MATTERS.
mind the individual at the factory level who has to support
1. Time management: The project should follow a scheduled time- this system after the integrator is gone. They do not see high-
line. Sometimes people procrastinate and time runs fast. level programming on a regular basis and will struggle mightily
2. Cycle time: Sometimes people don’t consider the required cycle at trying to decipher logic that is much more complicated
time for machine functions when they make changes to the system. than it ever needs to be. While there are times when complex
At the end of the project the machine cycle times becomes very slow, programming and high level functionality are called for, most
which causes low production rates and loss of a lot of money. projects need to apply the K.I.S.S. rule when the system is being
3. Troubleshooting time: Some people working on a project don’t developed.
care about the complexity of machines. The engineer should design
the whole system in a way that others can easily understand. 21. Start small. The best way to ensure long-term success
is to think (plan) big, but start small with a limited number of
functionalities, in a limited and controlled part of the production
19. Consider more than cost. Too many companies allow process. As soon as possible, do a trial using real data. Don’t
dollars to determine what types of equipment to install. They design a system that, if it fails, would completely stop or seriously
also fail to find out whether local support for the equipment impact the production process.
will be available. You must be able to source both hardware and
software within a time frame that suits the client. 22. Plan for maintenance. We should not install anything
if we have not planned properly for maintenance. Proper system
20. K.I.S.S. Some programmers go far above and beyond maintenance is a must.

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continued

23 common mistakes people make in automation projects

23. Listen to the experts. Among the most common


NO SHORTCUTS.
problems, from a manufacturer’s perspective, are:
There are no shortcuts in automation projects. To estimate time and
costs for a project requires seriously taking into account the skill levels • Failure to ask for help early.
and experiences of employees. The hardware design is usually the easy
part. Software specification, programming, testing and, commissioning • Not following manufacturers’ suggestions.
are much more difficult tasks to estimate. If the available employees for
the projects are not familiar with the process, the time to develop and
• Not investing at least a minimum amount of time in training.
implement a reliable control and automation system can easily double
or triple from the estimate. Committing to a fixed cost commissioning
of a complex automation project usually ends up in a serious monetary
• Making assumptions that turn out to be wrong, and thus
ultimately wasting a lot of time. 
loss. As most automation projects require well-functioning mechanical
equipment, issues with the mechanical equipment and with produc-
tion demands will eventually extend the duration of fieldwork.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 90 / 252

10 ways your automation project can fail


and how to prevent it
From failure to define requirements to disengaged project 2. Lack of the right people resources. Too often a
managers, changes in direction or employees who lack the project is running at full throttle, only to come to a complete
skills to do the job, the sources of automation project failures stop because the person originally tasked to do the PLC
are often easy to identify. Fixing them is usually the bigger engineering or development is busy putting out fires, has
challenge. inherited another project or is otherwise not available. When
developing schedules and project plans, try to gain stakeholder
1. Not getting maintenance and operators commitment to use contingent resources or assign another
involved from the start. Some assembly jobs have been skilled resource based upon a scheduled “check” item.
done by hand for years. The worker who has been on the line
for a long time will have seen what has and has not been done 3. Unengaged project managers. When the project
in the past. Just because components on paper are all uniform manager is unengaged or unresponsive to requests for
does not mean that they are in tolerance in the real world. information or approvals, you know the project is destined for
Maintenance workers have dealt with more fixes and operator failure.
complaints than the design engineer. The key to a new piece of
equipment working well is maintenance and operators taking 4. Lack of scope benchmarks. Without scope
ownership of the system. If they aren’t on board, the machine benchmarks in place that are tied to the proposal document,
may just end up being a big paperweight. the project manager can’t assess programming time for each
phase to help detect scope creep. Benchmarks help deter

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10 ways your automation project can fail and how to prevent it

project stakeholders from adding “capabilities” to the process 7. Failure to manage expectations. Make sure all
that can lead to both financial and timeline strains, and stakeholders understand the trade-off between scope, budget
ultimately to a failed project. and time frame. Communicate this deliberately, formally and
frequently.
5. Skills mismatch. Many automation projects are viewed
as successful when the system is in the development and testing 8. Design misalignment. Failure often comes from
stage, but it becomes an entirely different scenario when the a lack of communication on the design of the project, from
project is implemented in the field. Errors begin to crop up. This is component selection to the format of I/O tags, networks
often due to the different skill levels of the people who develop and programming structure. Provide a scope prior to design
the project compared to the people who are sent out to execute that allows all items of the design to be agreed upon. As this
it in the field. document is created, members of the team or the integrator
can then point out potential pitfalls, such as using multiple
6. Poor planning. Most projects fail because of poor networks or not selecting a common controller.
planning. There is a tendency to underestimate the complexity
of the project and overestimate the capabilities of the team. 9. Confusion. An insufficient amount of effort in the front-
Late changes are the worst enemies of any project. The project loading stage, or subsequent budget cuts or direction changes
owner also needs to establish the most important priorities for by management, will result in confusion for the project team.
the team, such as cost, quality, maintenance, training, stocking It’s a standard recipe for failure.
of components, safety, etc. This will assure that decisions are
aligned with the project’s goals.

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10 ways your automation project can fail and how to prevent it

FIVE POINTS FOR FAILURE. • Insufficient milestones to measure progress and identify
problems.
1. Failure to plan for and handle project resource changes.
• Outdated/incorrect documentation in brownfield projects.
2. Failure to know or admit that requirements are not well defined.
• Insufficient time in the schedule for third-party communications
3. Failure to address requirement definition problems in a timely or for developing a particular section of the system.
fashion.
•M
 ismatch in the requirements of the project and the solution
4. Failure to plan and execute design review and approval given by the supplier.
milestones.
5. Failure to engineer the verification of project deliverables
•M
 issing of the minute details pertaining to engineering and
scope of supply.
sufficiently, including lack of inspection and test planning.
• Failure to establish a clear schedule to finalize process and
equipment designs.
10. Other reasons for failure.
• L ack of training to enable plant personnel to operate and
• Unrealistic schedules are set. maintain complex systems and new technologies. 
• Potential risks are not calculated and planned for.
• Engineers working on a project lack the necessary skill sets or
experience.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 93 / 252

Five recommendations for implementing


workflow systems
Workflow software is a useful tool in many applications, from be specific when discussing and documenting software
enforcing standards and compliance to feeding into an MES. requirements, methods and objectives.
Here are some suggestions for implementing workflow software:
3. Document standard work. Ensure that the real
1. Define your objectives. For workflow software, production workflow is accurately documented and understood
you need to first discuss what you want to use the workflow for all products and all variations before you start the project.
software to do. Do you want it to enforce compliance, for And make sure you get the operators to agree and quantify the
example, or build a corrective action solution or provide “standard work” (if it’s available). If you don’t do this up front and
offshoot functionality for an MES? Are you using it to interface get everything documented, agreed on and the “future state”
plant-to-business applications? Workflow software needs to well understood, then you will end up running in circles.
enforce a standard procedure or series of procedures. If you
have processes that change all the time, workflow may be too 4. Improving code. When you ask for additional product
structured for you to benefit. But to facilitate standard responses flexibility that will require workflow software code changes,
to activities or events, workflow software is a good solution. allow sufficient time for your programmer or integrator to make
the changes. Pushing them beyond their work capacity with
2. Define subsets. Recognize and define the expanding unrealistic schedules can result in mistakes and project delays.
subsets of workplace software (for example, fixed programming,
limited variability programming, full variability programming,
utility software, embedded software, firmware, etc.) and

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 94 / 252

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Five recommendations for implementing workflow systems

5. More workflow tips.


• D o not be overly analytical and make it unnecessarily
complicated.
• Use templates to save a lot of time.
• Use IEC 61131-3 for programming machine behavior.
• Be sure to enlist the experience of all those who will come
in contact with the workflow that you are trying to model or
diagram.
• Ensure proper channels of workflow. A proper design is
essential to avoid delays in a workflow project. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 95 / 252

17 ways to get the most from simulation and


CAD/CAM software
Simulation software and CAD/CAM systems have helped 3. Integration simulation. You can increase productivity
transform the design of machines and automated systems by for automated systems using pneumatic, hydraulic, electric
reducing design engineering time and costs. Here are some tips control, electro-pneumatic, electro-hydraulic, PLC ladder
for getting the biggest bang from your software investment: programming or function block diagram by simulating the entire
integration of these technologies into a new project. Using
1. Find a user group. For any software, it is useful to find soft technologies as support for projects allows you to analyze
out if there’s a software user group or online community that the behavior of the entire system, see how a design works or
shares problems and solutions or good and bad examples. White compare different design options and technologies. Simulation
papers and a few application examples in the manual cannot software has become an essential tool for successful automation
compare with real experiences shared by users. This is especially projects.
important if the software supplier provides only paid help or
support. 4. Start with a database. Study software concepts
well and avoid going too far before creating a full, consistent
2. Test and test again. Simulate industrial control systems components database.
on the bench to the greatest extent possible and practical.
Experience suggests that there’s never been a startup where 5. Verify performance. CAD/CAM simulation helps the
anyone said, “We performed too much simulated testing.” programmer and engineer to know about the working of a
machine before it’s built and for troubleshooting as well. It’s
also useful for research. Before applying any hardware ideas, a

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17 ways to get the most from simulation and CAD/CAM software

programmer or engineer can simulate to verify the results to the Keep it as simple as it needs to be and little more. This is as true
nearest real-world values. in design as it is in cutting metal. Drive for simplicity; save a lot of
headaches.
6. Talk to those who did a project. It’s worth
researching similar projects and simulations. Try to visit the sites 9. Is it real? Models can be very powerful—or
where the work took place. The published version that emerges very misleading. The challenge in creating a useful model
from a project is usually a pale imitation of the blood, sweat and is validating that the output is actually predictive. We are
tears that actually went into a particular software system. If you conditioned to believe what we see. In simulation, what we see
can get a word with those who were actually on the front line of may not be real. While simulation can save time and money,
the system, they tend to be the most truthful about its benefits just make sure you are modeling with the correct variables.
or limitations. Mathematical modeling is the first step in simulation, yet the
most critical step to success. Always validate against real-world
7. Design with modeling. Make sure modeling and conditions.
simulation give you a good image of the problem to solve. Have
a mental model to make sure digital version mimics the real 10. Schematics are key. When doing schematics, utilize
world. location codes and show all termination points. Allow the
schematics to be the set of drawings that live the life of the
8. Keep it simple. CAD/CAM is one of those tools that equipment by including all pertinent information with regards
quietly revolutionized low-volume production. But it is easy to the design as possible. Show wire colors, cables, terminals,
to get caught up in adding features because it is so easy to do. location codes, etc. Do not allow information to be spread across

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17 ways to get the most from simulation and CAD/CAM software

multiple documents if it can be avoided. The schematics can be simulation constraints (define the limits of the simulation),
used for installation, start-up and ongoing maintenance. visualization and reporting capabilities, procedural objects for
calculation and programming interface.
11. Identify limitations. Know the limitations of your
simulation software before you invest significant project time. 14. Simplify swap-overs. For both PLC and DCS upgrades,
Some simulation programs are more like a drawing program I/O simulators make system swap-overs much more reliable.
than a simulation program. This may be hard to see before you A simulator can also be used in troubleshooting to reproduce
buy it. problems experienced in the field, without interrupting the
actual process.
12. Team reviews. Ensure all members of the design team
have access to CAD software that allows for review of mechanical 15. Post-processor function. The post-processor
designs. A viewer program allows all members, not only the function is the most important tool for implementing CAM
mechanical engineering group, to review and find errors related software.
to their field of expertise.
16. Focus on critical process areas. Robotic and
13. Many factors for simulation. Simulation ergonomic simulation can yield positive results in developing
considerations for a process plant should include: deep manufacturing plans, but over usage can cause elevated costs
understanding of the process to be simulated and its peripherals, for those portions of process development that may not need
simulation hardware (capacities of CPU and memory), data to use simulation. It is important to analyze critical areas first
availability (physical parameters, chemical parameters), and work less critical areas after the fact in order to reduce the

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17 ways to get the most from simulation and CAD/CAM software

engineering spend. By using a product lifecycle management


(PLM) system and managing standard BOPs, you can reflect this
in the basic BOP template to identify critical process evaluation.

17. Simulate robot use. Underutilizing robots can cause


over-purchase of capital equipment when it’s actually not
needed. Use simulation to optimize robot utilization and either
eliminate capital equipment or allow for increased production
in the future. Additionally, the problem of robot interaction in
congested areas can yield physical collisions if proper safeguards
are not identified and implemented. This is also something you
can use simulation to avoid. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 99 / 252

Five tips for improving motion control systems

Technology advances, along with a systems approach to design 2. Focus on systems-level design. It is important
where all the components are working together in harmony, to understand the accuracy requirements of the entire
allow engineers to deliver improved performance in motion- electromechanical system when specifying servo drives. The
control applications. Here are some tips and best practices to get control system, position feedback sensing, the drives and
the most out of your motion control solution: final gears/mechanical links have to be carefully chosen to
work together so that the desired resolution of control can
1. Involve all departments from the beginning. be achieved. It is important to work with suppliers who strive
There was a time design started with the mechanical to understand your needs and will provide knowledgeable
engineering department. Once they developed the structure, technical support when complex control strategies need to be
they threw it over the wall to the electrical engineering group, implemented.
who would add motors and drives. That got assed to the controls
engineers, who were supposed to figure out how to make the 3. Plan for surprises. If you’ve ever designed motion
equipment work to spec. By this time, all of the flaws were control systems or served as a project manager, chances are
baked into the design. Today, the focus is on integrated design you’ve run into a few surprises during a project, such as over-
supported by mechatronic modeling. A number of commercially running conditions, inertia, braking and deceleration, current
available applications make it possible to try out many different dissipation, back driving or on-site drive tuning—just to name
designs and conduct detailed performance analysis before a few of the more common issues associated with motion-
anything is ever built. control design. You’re the person responsible for ensuring you
have thought of everything when dealing with motion-control

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Five tips for improving motion control systems

concerns. So instead of charging full force into a project, take the


DON’T FORGET POWER, GROUNDING
time to first identify all the possible scenarios that your project
may face before it starts. It’s important to document potential Proper system design is critical to the long-term success of your
trouble spots and anticipate appropriate solutions. manufacturing system. Steps to remember include:

4. Exceed machine specifications. The problem with 1. Power monitoring for energy management.
motion control is that speed does not necessarily equate to
throughput and motor resolution does not equate to system 2. Balanced and adequate power distribution for immediate needs
(in current and voltage range), as well as an allowance for growth.
accuracy. You need to design the system to exceed the machine
specifications; this means from the drive point back to and
3. Power supply review for variable frequency drives, inverters and
including the motor.
converters to ensure adequate isolation, impedance and grounding.

5. Cubic splines. Use cubic splines for motion planning and 4. Grounding review for supply to drives, drives to motors, motors to
for servo interpolation of position, velocity and acceleration. supply for high-frequency mitigation, as well as safety or PE (potential
earth) and adequate isolated TE (true earth grounding) for control
and communications.

5. Cable selection, routing, management and access design.

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101 / 252

SECTION TWO:
SELECTING PRODUCTS TO BUILD
YOUR AUTOMATED SYSTEM
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 102 / 252

Eight factors to consider in deciding among PLCs,


PCs, or PACs
The controller acts as the brains of your system. It’s no amount of customization. Before going down this route,
exaggeration to say that it is the most important element of the consider whether you have the in-house expertise to support
system. If you don’t get the controls right, you might as well stop it. Remember, if existing staff leaves, you will need to be able to
right there. It begins with selecting the right platform. The points find replacements.
below walk you through the process.
3. How unusual is your application? All things being
1. How important is cost? If cost is a factor, consider equal, it is generally easier to customize a PC-based controller
a PC-based controller. They are often cheaper than their PLC to handle an atypical application than it is to customize a PLC.
counterparts. Some of the reasons for this cost difference can Developers can choose their functionalities, their languages, and
attributed to supplier pricing, but it’s also due to the costs they can even work with a non-Windows operating system.
associated with the ruggedized factors common to PLCs.
4. How complex is your application? PLCs excel
2. What is the skill set of your staff? In general, the at operations like managing I/O, counting, and timing. They
PLC is a mature solution, which makes it relatively easy to find a can handle limited motion control but their updates are too
knowledgeable controls engineer with experience on any given slow for more sophisticated motion. For machines with highly
device. Many PLCs, particularly in the US, use ladder logic, which synchronized motion and higher axes counts, such as packaging
is familiar to many maintenance techs. PACs are also designed to machines, consider adding a dedicated motion controller to the
deliver a combination of high levels of functionality with ease of PLC. For larger, more complex systems like packaging lines, a
integration. In contrast, PC-based controllers involve a significant programmable automation controller might be the best solution.

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Eight factors to consider in deciding among PLCs, PCs, or PACs


5. How harsh is your environment? Decades have much the same manner as a PC-based controller, but gateways,
gone into ruggedizing PLCs for the industrial environment. They switches and/or servers are often needed as an intermediary
can be expected to last for 10 or 20 years. The new generation connection step. It’s worth considering also that the engineers
of purpose-built industrial PCs has made PC-based controllers and technicians now leaving school are more likely to have skill
tougher than ever, but the harshest environments still call for sets compatible with PCs and PLCs. As your workforce transitions,
PLCs. you may find PC-based control and more appropriate choice. 

6. Do you need flexibility? PC-based controllers not ARE MICRO PLCS AN OPTION?
only lend themselves to customization, they support it over the
lifetime of the equipment. Micro PLCs with flexible, “just enough” control may enable OEMs to
differentiate their equipment, particularly in stand-alone machines.
7. Got the need for speed? In general, a PC-based By developing a range of stand-alone machines using the same
controller will be faster than a PLC. controller platform, OEMs can reduce design time and lower their
costs. Look for micro PLCs that include:
8. What about the future? The increasing integration • Flexible hardware configurations, like USB, up to six serial
of IT and operations technology has begun making PC-based ports and Ethernet for communications.
control more appealing. A PC’s ability to interact with another
PC—and other information technologies in general—makes • U p to three axes of embedded motion.
it more adaptable for the various IT and operations linkages • Plug-ins and 2085 expansion for I/O USB.
we’re seeing more of these days. A PLC can, of course, be used in • S ingle programming software package that eases
installation, configuration, connectivity and maintenance.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 104 / 252

17 best practices for specifying PLCs, PACs or PC


controllers
The controller is the foundational product for any automated 2. Don’t over-specify. Don’t select a specific controller too
system. Whether it’s based on PLCs, PACs or PCs or a soon in the design phase of a project. Selection should occur
combination, your control platform must perform reliably for only after the initial machine or process automation conceptual
many years. Quality, functionality, cost, ease of programming design is completed. Far too often an over-specified controller
and maintenance, the ability to communicate and connect with unnecessarily adds to the automation project’s costs. Or even
multiple devices on the factory floor, as well as ready availability worse, an under-specified controller may result in redesign
of support from the manufacturer, all factor into the selection efforts, additional purchases and schedule delays.
process:
3. Know the instruction set. When selecting a processor
1. Start with your goals. When selecting a control of any type, know the key processes required for the project. If
platform to automate a machine, you should first decide what there are complex requirements, such as servo motion or PID
you’re trying to accomplish. Do you want increased productivity? requirements, a lot of venders will sell you a processor that is fully
Better repeatability? More consistent accuracy? Summarize the “integrated” with these systems. Unless you are familiar with what
key operating parameters of your machine, the requirements of the instruction set offers for that processor, however, the vendor’s
your application, and the constraints of your budget. You should idea of integrated commands might not be very user friendly.
have this material before you begin talking with vendors and
looking at data sheets. 4. Key check points. Whenever upgrading a system or
changing from one controller to another, always remember to
check the controller’s power supply, memory, I/O type, size and

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17 best practices for specifying PLCs, PACs or PC controllers

EXAMINE ALL COSTS

• After the main project scope and interoperability foundation have been • The learning curve for programmers and maintenance people can
determined, spend time familiarizing yourself or others working on exceed the cost of the original purchase and installation of the project
the project with the total costs of programming, installation, life cycle if this factor has not been properly considered and given a real and
maintenance and repair before purchasing of hardware, software and definable cost.
training.
• Additionally, the technical support available from hardware suppliers
• The overall cost of hardware can in general be fixed and there are for their software users is widely variable. While it may be difficult to
many options and price points available, but this hardware is useless if determine the real costs, it is critical not to overlook the cost of support
the programming software is difficult to learn, use or get support and since it will be needed on an ongoing basis for the entire lifecycle of the
training for. Simply because the hardware is purchased from a well- project.
established firm does not guarantee the software will be workable with
either the project parameters or the personnel expected to use the • The best, most capable software is useless if the programmer or
software in the field. maintenance people need to have extensive schooling from the
supplier just to use it, or if the technical support provided is difficult
to access or must be purchased.

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17 best practices for specifying PLCs, PACs or PC controllers


availability in the panel. Double-check the purpose for which expect, as you may need to add these capabilities later. Be sure
the controller is intended, and always carefully check the model the controller has the processor power to perform all the needed
number. Make sure the controller has the basic features you want, functions. It’s common to “run out of gas” when performing
such as online bypass, online programming, alarm management multiple tasks simultaneously. Look for a fast processor, enough
or closed-loop control. user memory and a lot of connectivity.

5. Take it for a test drive. When working with a controller, 7. Think ahead. Don’t go for the cheapest option when
it’s important to know its capabilities and if it meets the needs of installing a PLC. Think five years ahead to accommodate factory
your project. There’s nothing worse than being halfway through integration, peer-to-peer networking and data exchange
the project, only to find out that your controller isn’t capable of between controllers. The modern factory environment is
doing something. If the project includes something you haven’t becoming a network of integrated controllers.
done before, always bench-test the process before committing it
to the project. 8. Can we talk? A primary concern when implementing any
PLC is communications. This has been minimized with the advent
6. Build in some headroom. The controller must meet of ODVA, but can still be a problem when dealing with some
your performance needs today, but consider that the equipment sophisticated sensors or peripherals. Choosing a PLC family that
will probably operate over the next five to 10 years. During this has all the device type communications modules is paramount.
time, changes to the system may require modifications and Most PLCs on the market can communicate on device buses, but
choosing a flexible system upfront can help reduce costs in the not all can accommodate every type of Ethernet.
future. You also need scalability. The best approach is to spec
in a controller that can handle more axes of control than you Do your homework and choose a PLC that can support all your

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17 best practices for specifying PLCs, PACs or PC controllers


buses without a lot of pain. Make sure the PLC you use can for critical applications in your plant without a successful
connect to the hardware you are looking to interface with. This is prior experience with a like product with the same revision
especially true for drives, RFID cards, and radio modems. level components, firmware and software. When failure is not
acceptable, you don’t want to experiment with an unknown
9. Be a comparison shopper. Consult with people who factor.
are knowledgeable in many different hardware platforms before
specifying or selecting a certain make and model or even a 11. Go steady, with your control platform…
platform. Too many times what is specified will not perform to Customizing your controller selection for each application may
the customer’s expectations. That leaves gaps in what is bid and seem like a smart move, but sometimes it pays to narrow down
will require changes in the project. to a single control platform. Survey your requirements and select
a platform capable of handling all current and near-future needs,
For general automation systems, choose quality controller from the simplest to the most complex ones. Selecting a single
systems with the main features you need, but especially with a control platform for all of your automation control requirements,
good reputation for ease of use and maintainability. A few man- whether it is motion, robotics, numerical control, C program
days spent wrestling with programming, testing or startup issues or sequence control, can reduce spare parts inventory, unify
with that low end controller will quickly chew through any initial programming methods across all machine types and simplify
hardware savings. The PLC should make it easy to create a back- training and maintenance efforts.
up file of firmware and recipes, including data from servomotor
positions and production processes. 12…and with your vendor. The main challenge in new
PLC installations is the wide variety of protocols for I/O and
10. Consider familiar friends. Do not use a controller motion control devices. The best solution is to install single

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17 best practices for specifying PLCs, PACs or PC controllers


vendor components. They are designed to work together, 15. Buy a test version. When investigating controllers,
simplifying installation, integration, and operation. In addition, order additional hardware for a lab-based system representing
most are supported by the service contract that will help keep the production system. Upgrades are a never-ending cycle,
things running going forward. The drawback is that this will not and developing/testing upgrades in the lab ends up reducing
allow you to choose best-in-class components. downtime and lost production.

13. Allow choice. When working with a supplier, do not force 16. Look for a helping hand. Consider what type of
them to use a PLC they have had no experience with. If they have assistance is available to you if you have questions on the
been successful using a particular brand of PLC, even though hardware or software. It can be both frustrating and time-
you may need to expand your spare parts, forcing them to use consuming if your PLC vendor does not provide in-depth support
another product and still meet deadlines will most likely result in in a timely manner. Find out what type of telephone support and
an inferior system. local support you can leverage from the manufacturer. Be sure
you are comfortable with your access to help if needed.
14. Beware hidden costs. Today every company, large
or small, is looking for ways to become more cost-efficient. 17. Ask about the warranty. Everyone wants to know that
Consider the total cost of ownership for the controller. You must his or her system is reliable. Ask your vendor about the warranty.
always consider hardware and software costs, but think about When vendors are confident about their quality, they stand
ancillary costs. Are there annual software licensing fees? Are behind it with lengthy warranties. 
there annual technical support fees? What is the cost of training?
All of these costs can greatly increase the total cost of ownership
of a controller.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 109 / 252

14 tips for programming PLCs


The hardware platform is just one part of your PLC. Much of the web. Compartmentalize your programs to form sequences with
customization takes place in the software. How it is executed dummy addresses. This keeps the sequences straight and makes
can have a big effect on the development of the overall system it possible for different parts of the program to use the same
and the performance of the finished product. Here, we list best inputs and outputs. It also makes it easy to find where glitches are
practices to optimize the process. located in the program.

1. Design first. Designing your software to be modular and 5. Get out of the code. Ask the people at the plant why
to be arranged in layers (hardware through supervisory) before they are running the way they do. Sometimes what you might
starting to write is an absolute must. think is bad programming is really needed to optimally run a
process. On the flip side of the coin, after examining the code, you
2. Prioritize the HMI. When programming your project, often find people think a system is running in a particular way,
it’s best to start with the HMI first. If you write your application but the reality is that it is not.
first, quite often you’ll have to rewrite your code to accommodate
your HMI. 6. Use logic best practices. Utilize standard code to
decrease downtime. Organize code so devices are easy to locate.
3. Embrace ISA 88. The ISA 88 principles are applicable to Create logic to quickly outline reasons a device/function is
both batch and continuous processes, providing an elegant and not working. Don’t attempt to fix bad code from the previous
flexible solution. Say goodbye to spaghetti code. vintage...start over.

4. Compartmentalize. PLC programming is a lovely fossil. 7. Avoid canned code. When planning for PLC-based
If used properly, it can be a stroke of efficiency or a tangled controls, if your in-house techs will be involved in maintaining

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 110 / 252

continued

14 tips for programming PLCs

and upgrading the new system for future needs, don’t bring 10. Don’t forget to document. Use of programmable
in “canned code.” Ensure that your techs have input as to the controllers offers significant advantages over analog devices.
structure and nomenclature of the program. Bugs and changes However, it brings a new set of issues. First, consider the control
are the norm with any new control system, and you will find your of multiple function block parameters. It is a good practice to
facility rebounding much quicker after such a major change in maintain the software configuration control document that
equipment. summarizes all programmable/tunable parameters in one place.
You will use this document for any disaster recovery event,
8. Clarify interfaces. If multiple people program parts of including cybersecurity issues.
the PLC code, spend some time initially to make sure that the
interfaces are clear and everyone understands them. Dumping a 11. Use a counter. When two or more high-speed bits have
diagram on someone is not good enough. to be checked to ensure they are all on, use a counter instead of
the traditional latch. The latch only tells you it happened at least
9. Check CPU load. It is important to consider the CPU load once, whereas the counter will indicate if it happened with each
if communication handling is vital to the application. Running at part made, or more or less often. This allows you to see if the
the maximum cyclic load will result in poor capacity and response suspected inputs are not being made when required. Count the
times for peer-to-peer and OPC Server communication. Peak number of parts made, check your bits state counter and they
cyclic load should be kept below 65 percent and static cyclic load should compare.
below 60 percent under all conditions. Even lower cyclic loads
(30-40 percent) are desirable if high communication throughput 12. Don’t jump. Try to avoid “jumping” within your code, i.e.
is important. going from line 2 to line 7 and/or line 10 to line 4. Keep in mind

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continued

14 tips for programming PLCs

that someone else may have to review your code in the future 14. Include a failsafe. Controllers should be programmed
and it has to be comprehensive. Better yet, use programming to be a stand-alone system to ensure that failure of
templates so that the locations for the code can be accessed communication with the HMI will not affect the process. Any
easily depending on the state of the machine. failure of the controller should put the system and process in
a safe state, known as a fail-safe condition. Scan time, process
13. Prevent empty data. In PC to PLC data collection, time and action time of the controllers are priorities for a robust
signal timing and handshaking are critical. If the PLC sets a control system. 
Boolean bit when data is ready to be collected (end of cycle bit,
for example), logic should exist to ensure no empty/null data
exists in the devices to be read prior to setting the bit. String
processing, complex math and other functions can delay PLC
values updating. Failure to confirm can result in missing data.
On the PC application side, if the application is providing a
“completion response” to the PLC, the developer needs to ensure
all data has been read and successfully stored/processed. This
is especially true if the response bit is being used in the PLC to
truncate/reset PLC data.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 112 / 252

Five integration pointers to improve designs


1. Align with standards. Define the inter-PLC task is most critical. Use a SERCOS ring for 3 axes; selecting a
communication requirements and ensure that they are 4ms cycle time can be a reasonable choice. Selecting a shorter
implemented consistently across all the PLCs in the project. If duration may overburden the CPU with other tasks, especially if
the PLCs are for machine control, alignment to the OMAC and there is a slow response time in the HMI display. Unfortunately,
PackML standard will greatly improve usability and maintenance. there is no powerful diagnostic tool for this issue.

2. Make it universal. Having multiple control systems 4. Keep it cool. When designing a redundant PLC system,
interacting with one another in a factory can cause major remember to provide sufficient cooling of the power supply, CPU
problems. Because of all the different systems, simple issues and communication processor modules by using a special fan (or
can become very difficult to troubleshoot, and very costly when fans) below the modules.
bringing in external support. In most cases, custom machine
integrators will use the controls platform of your choice. 5. Check daily. Automated tests for embedded software
Standardize on a control platform across an assembly project are extremely useful. Checking all software features on a daily
and in your factory. It will save money in many ways, from basis is a very good way to guarantee that features don’t
minimizing downtime to reducing spares inventory. suddenly break, caused by a little change done by someone in
an apparently unrelated part of the software. Having problems
3. Manage time. When a PLC/PAC needs to deal with many revealed within one day ensures that they get fixed quickly, as
different tasks, the CPU time slice assignment is important, such the person who made the bug still knows what he did yesterday.
as: motion, periodic task, critical (peer-to-peer) communication Better quality software takes the heat away from customer
with other PLCs, and HMI or monitoring tasks. Here the motion support departments. 

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Five key functionalities for HMIs

As manufacturing moves into the connected era with initiatives 2. Prewritten software modules. Integrating an
like industry 4.0 and the much-hyped industrial Internet of HMI with separate ISOs, PLCs, and other controllers can be a
things (IIOT), the role of the human machine interface (HMI) in time-consuming and frustrating process. Look for an offering
automation is assuming a new importance. Today, end-users that includes plug-in software modules designed to simplify
have an array of options from simple versions with small displays development and configuration.
capable of presenting alarms and limited performance data to
high-resolution, multi-touch panels that can support diagnostics, 3. Mobile functionality. Mobile access is gaining
trends analysis, and mobile access. Here, we present a list of momentum as a core automation technology. Today, it confers
characteristics to look for in an HMI: a competitive advantage; in two years, it will be a must have. An
HMI should have embedded Web server software that enables
1. Protocol conversion. Today’s machines are networked, users to access it from client devices via Internet web browsers.
with a dizzying number of protocols backed by various alliances
multi-source agreements. Each vendor aligns with one or more 4. Robust design. The industrial environment is a harsh one.
protocols in all of their components. Your HMI should act as a Equipment needs to survive prolonged exposure to temperature
gateway to exchange data between all connected devices. In extremes, shock and vibration, dust and moisture, and more. If
order to enable yourself to choose best-in-class components your application involves the latter, you may need an HMI with
without concerns about compatibility, select an HMI capable of an ingress protection (IP) rating. Review the IP categories closely
converting between a dozen or more protocols simultaneously. and work with your vendor to ensure you make the right choice.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 114 / 252

Streamline your servo system continued

Five key functionalities for HMIs


with the AM8000 and
One Cable Technology
5. Onboard data logger. With the ability to now
take your HMI practically anywhere with you, how the
device collects, processes, and presents data continuously
for proactive monitoring and control becomes ever more
important. An onboard data logger enables the HMI to
collect, store, and display data for real-time analysis to
support condition monitoring, process control, display of
key performance indicators (KPIs). 

www.beckhoffautomation.com/AM8000

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Six ways mobile HMI access can boost OEE

Web server functionality lets staff ranging from operators to are. This enables them to run diagnostics and gather data to
plant managers access the HMI as though they were standing in understand the problem. It can also put information in the hands
front of the machine. Embedded software on the HMI enables of off-site experts who can work with them to resolve the issue,
client devices to connect via the Internet. Client devices do not no matter where they are located.
require an installed application, just a web browser. As a result,
client devices range from PCs, tablets, and smart phones to thin 2. Monitor multiple pieces of equipment from a
client devices without hard drives or memory. The connection single location. In these days of lean staffing, everybody is
from HMI to cloud takes place over a secure VPN, typically via a doing double duty. Web server functionality makes it possible
password-protected connectivity hub. That hub manages the for a single person to closely track the performance of multiple
connections to ensure that each individual is only allowed to see assets. They spend less time walking from location to location
information and functions appropriate to their job role. and more time solving problems.

Remote access is frequently discussed in the context of off-site 3. Check readings and settings of inaccessible
users, but it can be just as effective in streamlining day-to-day equipment. Frequently, industrial equipment resides in
operations on-site. hazardous areas, controlled areas, remote locations, or simply
spots that are awkward or uncomfortable to reach. Mobile
1. Show data after alarms. When the HMI or PLC HMI functionality makes it possible for staff to view the screen
sends an alarm, maintenance technicians and operators can clearly and up close while remaining at a distance from the
immediately view the mobile HMI screen, no matter where they physical display. As a result, they can check key performance

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continued

Six ways mobile HMI access can boost OEE

indicators (KPIs) inside an enclosure without opening the door versions but still requires the operator to move back and
and stopping the machinery, for example, or inside a clean room forth from display to problem area. By accessing the HMI on a
without suiting up. client device, operators can reference instructions as they are
correcting the problem. 
4. Commission multiple axes simultaneously.
Mobile HMI software can support access by several users
simultaneously. The sessions are independent so that each
individual can be on a different screen at the same time and click
through two different screens and applications at will.

5. Have diagnostic data at their fingertips. Today’s


HMIs include include integrated data loggers and enough
processing power for basic analysis and trending. With the
portable device, maintenance technicians trying to diagnose an
issue with the drive, for example, can pull up the information
right next to the device rather than returning to the display.

6. Bring fault recovery instructions to the source


of the problem. HMIs with memory have enough space
to store user manuals as PDFs. That’s a step up from printed

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 117 / 252

Nine steps for HMI design and implementation

1. Start with the big picture. HMIs are the user’s eyes and • Documentation: do not leave this out; it is an integral part of the
limbs to a process control solution. Do your homework before project.
starting implementation and understand how the process works:
• Training: prepare to teach plant personnel how to use the
• Study the problems, understand the cost and time constraints, solution.
who will use it and why.
• Follow-up: post project review, usability, effectiveness,
• Determine the best architecture: single/multi screens, local/ troubleshooting, etc.)
remote, usability.
2. Conduct a plant review forum. Hold a design review
• Define the hardware parameters: hardware selection, data with a group of plant personnel to discuss any status notifications,
connectivity, response times. events, alerts and alarms that need to be programmed, both
from the perspective of an audio-visual action and an operations
• Establish software parameters: screen layout, navigation, response. Step through the intended functional system, once as
objects, alarms, event handling. the designer, once as the user and then invite at least two levels
of users who will be interfacing with the HMI. Doing this prior to
• Implementation issues: ergonomic considerations, accessibility, specifying equipment helps to identify the features that users
markings. will want in the HMI station. It also avoids surprises at point of
commissioning.

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continued

Nine steps for HMI design and implementation

3. Standardize. Select one HMI platform for your entire plant, projects in the area. Guard the HMI location so others don’t park
process or machine that is independent of any particular controls or configure something else on top of the station.
architecture. It’s easier for the operators and reduces the back-up
hardware needed on site. Operators and programmers become 6. Mobility challenges. Many people want plant data to
very familiar with the look and feel of the graphics, projects and be available for their mobile devices. While this is an important
operation of a touch screen. Develop your own standards. If you trend, most traditional plant floor information systems tend to
rely on vendors, you will get a mess of different looking systems. be vendor-specific machine control applications and don’t really
play nice with distributed data applications. Today’s web-based
4. Right-size displays. Don’t try to save money by selecting visualization and data management tools allow for a more flexible
an HMI display screen that’s too small. It’s also important not data model at a considerably reduced price point. Consult with
to cram too much information onto a screen. Size the display your IT group prior to any major HMI deployments.
according to the amount of information that is most important
for the operator to see. Always discuss requirements with the 7. Beware HMI-PLC communication. Make sure you
equipment’s operators well ahead of time, not just with their understand how to set up communications between the PLC
managers. Operators usually have different needs and the success and HMI. This can get tricky when you are not using the same
of your system depends on their usage. manufacturer for both products. The client-server philosophy is
useful in new projects. It allows more effective communications
5. Location, location, location. Real estate can be prime with the PLCs.
in a busy production area. Locate the HMI in a practical place,
out of heavy traffic areas but accessible. Be aware of near-future

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continued

Nine steps for HMI design and implementation

8. Build a prototype. For each area where HMI is being


implemented, select a representative area to design and plan for
a formal prototype review with the project team, approving the
basic functions, colors, animations, limits, screens, formats, etc.
Build the prototype to verify the required user experience as early
in the process as possible, and keep referring back to that basic
functional requirement. If any aspect of this approved baseline
changes, you have a documented basis for a scope change.

9. Evaluate support. Many companies have good products,


but have generally poor experience in providing concise backup
in a cost-effective way, both for the contractor and the client. All
HMIs have their ups and downs, but the better the tech support,
the more likely you will have a successful project. 

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Six ways to improve development and


deployment
1. Visualize the process. HMI graphics should illustrate with one for a fall in the level of the tank. If both match within
the production process in the plant to provide better the acceptable limit, an audio-visual alarm should appear
visualization to the operators, giving them a sense of the action as an action point. ISA 18.2 is a good guide for categorizing
that’s required. Use hardware that meets minimum requirements alarm management. If an HMI alarm is not applicable for the
and keeps the number of failure points low and assures high current operating mode of the process equipment, it should be
availability of the system. deactivated automatically without operator intervention. Not
more than 10 alarms should be standing on the alarm page or
2. Choose only essential data. Make control and else it will be impossible for the operator to keep track of the
monitoring of the process simpler by selecting only the most process.
essential information from the process database for the historian.
This will reduce the load on the system and keep it from stalling 4. Back up work periodically. Backups are especially
or failing. Don’t forget the need for maintenance and make sure important before implementing upgrades or changes. Most
you schedule periodic backups. vendors include backup software as part of their application but
it needs to be used.
3. Cross-check alarms. Operators need assistance and
audio alerts, not nuisance and noise. Always revisit the alarm 5. Test security patches virtually. HMI software is at
list after pre-commissioning at a plant. Configure alarm alerts the mercy of security updates. Updates keep hardware clear of
only after crosschecking with another independent alarm. For malware but can disable once-functioning subroutines. Often,
example, crosscheck a high-flow alarm for the reactor input this happens without warning. A second backup test server

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continued

Six ways to improve development and deployment

allows patch testing without effecting production. Testing in the from the PLC program. The problem is that this leads to the
virtual environment is very cost effective. machine program residing in two locations. This complicates
troubleshooting. An HMI is great for scaling the data from user to
6. Don’t be overambitious. Manufacturers are creating PLC format, but if you move too much of the functionality to the
HMI products with more capabilities that allow off-loading HMI, problems arise. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 122 / 252

Four techniques to improve screen effectiveness


in HMIs
When developing HMI screens, realize that you are attempting to poor, the plant representation isn’t logical and the screen layout
capture the essence of the machine or process, not just posting makes it difficult to locate the data.
key automation variables and control mechanisms. Operational
feedback is vital for efficient HMI screen layouts. Think of yourself • A void the use of capitals and serif font and repetitive use of
as an artist, commissioned by manufacturing operations to create units with all data values as this makes the screen difficult to
the HMI screens. read—especially at a glance or from a distance.

1. Less is more. It’s important to keep the HMI simple and • A void colors that could create problems for people with color
with the operator in mind. It’s best when it’s self-explanatory and blindness.
easily understood. Also, try to make the pages similar and follow
the same page layout throughout. Avoid making the display too • Minimize the use of colors to allow actual device state and
technical. It’s normal for engineers to try to give the customer alarms to stand out.
everything, but when it comes to the HMI, less really is more.
• F or alarming, choose colors that contrast with the normal
2. Use effective design techniques. A good design process view so the operator will notice the change.
requires careful use of layout, color and content. If you get it
wrong, your operator misses an indication, and you lose money, 3. Think about flow. It is essential to have a clear design
or worse, someone is injured. On a poor design, the layout is approach to the HMI. Decide how the display blocks naturally

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continued

Four techniques to improve screen effectiveness in HMIs

flow and how sections need to be grouped together for the


operator. Do not blindly follow P&I diagrams. The S88 functional
hierarchy is a good place to start. Make paper-based designs to
get a feel for screens, navigation and other requirements, and
review with clients prior to designing and making electronic
screens.

4. The best HMI is a one-line rhyme. An improved


overview increases the efficiency of information perception.
A monitor that is twice as large (as measured by the number
of pixels) can improve worker productivity by 30 percent. The
goal is to smartly arrange the elements to increase information
density without overloading humans. A one-liner is a concept
that doubles down on visibility. The shorter the message, the less
eye movement, the better the perception. Understand who will
be using the HMI and how they work. Less-skilled operators often
use large tools to operate displays and get impatient if the screen
response time is not fast. 

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Seven techniques for effective alarm display

Alarming is one of the core tasks of an HMI. To execute that task which can affect the perception of red and green, color cannot
effectively, developers need to make careful decisions about be used as the sole indicator of alarms.
what to display, how to display it, and what functionality may be
included. 4. Use pictorial changes Any color change must be
supplemented with a pictorial change and, if the alarm is critical,
1. Have a strategy. Alarming needs to have a well- an audible alert. Pictorial changes could include shape changing,
articulated strategy. Alarms must be used for conditions that a change in the position of an indicator, having additional text
require intervention and must have a clear corrective action or objects appear on an alarm. Flashing of alarms that have
associated with each one. Anything else should not be an alarm. not been accepted is very irritating and stressful and should be
avoided.
2.Show alarms on all pages Alarm status for the overall
plant, preferably organized into groups, should be visible on 5. Avoid auto changes Similarly, automatic changing of
every screen and there should be a simple navigation route to displays should be avoided—to have a page disappear when you
access the screen containing additional details about the alarm. are working on it is irritating and, in extreme cases, a cascade of
alarms can produce so many screen refreshes, an operator can
3. Use color wisely The alarm colors should follow the be locked out of the system.
safety convention: Red = stop, prohibition, danger; Yellow =
caution, risk of danger; Green = safe condition; Blue = mandatory
action. As one in 12 men have some form of color-blindness,

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continued

Seven techniques for effective alarm display

6. Leverage audibles…sort of. Audible alerts can be


very useful, especially if the system is able to create multiple
tones and pitches. These tones can be used to transmit the
importance of an alarm. Research has shown that a high-pitched,
fast-pulsing sound automatically conveys urgency; a lower-
pitched, slow-pulsing sound is less urgent. Be aware that the
effectiveness of audibles will vary depending on ambient noise.
Operators may be wearing hearing protection or be hearing
impaired, so this should only be considered an augmentation,
rather than a replacement for a visual alarm.

7. Choose an obvious location. Whatever convention


is used, alarms should be placed where they can be easily seen,
such as along the top of the screen. 

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Six questions to ponder when choosing a motor

The correct choice of motor (surprise!) depends upon the 2. Do you need full torque at zero or low speed?
needs of the application. With the increasing sophistication One of the drawbacks of a basic vector motor is that it cannot
of drive technologies, designers have more choices than ever develop full torque at zero or very low speed. Add an encoder,
for positioning applications. Below, we outline some factors to however, and it can. The key is the level of resolution required by
consider when choosing among AC vector motors, servo motors, the application. For low-resolution positioning, the vector motor
and stepper motors: with closed-loop feedback will do the job. An encoder will add
cost and complexity to the system but the aggregate cost over
1. How tight are your positioning requirements? time may still be lower than the servo-motor alternative. For
Servo motors used to be the go-to solution for motion, but for applications with higher-resolution needs, consider either a servo
applications with modest positioning requirements, AC motors motor or a stepper motor.
with AC flux-vector drives might be a better fit. The drives require
complex algorithms for control, making them more expensive 3. Do you have a high-performance positioning
than a standard drive for a DC servo motor. That said, DC motors application? Servo motors are the gold standard. They will
have brushes and tend to be more expensive to maintain a more always outdo vector motors and deliver better acceleration and
prone to failure than AC motors. If the performance meets your top-speed characteristics compared to stepper motors.
application requirements, you may discover that the vector motor
is a more economical solution in the long run. 4. Do you need to hold your position? Stepper motors
offer holding torque, unlike servo motors, which need some sort
of brake for vertical applications.

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continued

Six questions to ponder when choosing a motor

5. Do you want simple? Stepper motors can operate open- 6. Are you dealing with a high magnetic field?
loop (without an encoder). The trade-off is that they can suffer Consider a piezoelectric motor. They offer high speeds and
from lost motion, and without an encoder on the system, there both linear and rotary motion. When built with non-magnetic
will be no way to detect this. Your application has to be flexible housings, they deliver effective performance even in multi-tesla
enough that this does not matter. magnetic fields. 

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12 guidelines for selecting motors and drives


Motors and drives are two of the foundation components of any
automated system. Here are a few tips and best practices for 3. Think system. When doing an equipment upgrade,
choosing a motor and drive that will get the job done: think of the drive train as an integrated system and choose
components with similar efficiency ratings. It makes no sense to
1. Accurately size motors… All too often, the rule of couple a high-efficiency pump to an inefficient worm gear. The
thumb is to start with the previous motors and add a cushion. motor used to drive the load could be half the horsepower with
Over several generations of a platform, this leads to well a more efficient gear reducer because of the reduced energy
oversized motors. Most motion control manufacturers now losses.
feature motor sizing calculators on their websites. Just gather
some information about your application and use the software 4. Match firmware. When changing a drive, make sure the
to determine the motor you need. firmware of the drive or motion controller matches the one you
are replacing.
2. …or at least use the speed-torque diagram.
Selecting a motor needs a bit more than just calculating the 5. Go for intelligence. When you want to improve uptime,
maximum rotational speed and torque. The useful way to assess think about replacing standard IEC electromechanical motor
a motor is by drawing a speed-torque diagram of the load and starters with an intelligent overload with a hybrid contactor. Now
the maximal allowed speed-torque diagram of the motor (as you have the best of both worlds—a programmable, intelligent
defined for continuous operation). If the diagram of the load overload that has motor load feedback (alarm back to operator
characteristics is fully enclosed by the diagram of the motor as well as shutdown parameters) with a hybrid contactor. The
characteristics, the motor is adequate. hybrid contactor extends the time between end-of-life motor

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continued

12 guidelines for selecting motors and drives

switching by a factor of 10. The intelligent overload will remain in agitator motor or a chiller compressor, take special care to
service indefinitely. place the drive in a hardware panel installed in a dust-free
location, preferably air-conditioned. A better solution for harsh
6. Consider VFDs. Instead of operating an AC induction environments that have maintenance people with minimum
motor at top speed and adjusting the speed of the load skills might be a magnetically coupled drive with variable-speed
mechanically, for example with a control valve, consider a option. Magnetically coupled drives have the advantage of
variable-frequency drive (VFD). It will save energy and prolong decoupling vibration and potential overloading of the motor
the lifetime of the motor. It will also eliminate the need for or driven equipment due to the air gap between the motor
a valve, reducing costs, points of failure, and maintenance. shaft and the other shaft, which can reduce costly damage to
Examples include include pumps, fans, and blowers. mechanical seals.

7. Do your homework. Always check for the proper 9. Focus on economical sparing. Avoid the temptation
rating and proper type of drives or motors for different type of to size a motor separately for each axis. Try to standardize motors
application. Ask the supplier about the fail-safe function of the and drives around a few sizes. This will minimize your spares
system and always check for proper grounding of the system. inventory. Also, instead of stocking multiple spare cards for
Make sure you inform the supplier about the features you want the drive, keep one spare module. This will be an economical
and the process to be controlled. solution.

8. Beat dust with magnetic coupling. For variable-


speed control of rotating equipment, such as drives for an

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continued

12 guidelines for selecting motors and drives

10. Avoid common drive pitfalls. The reliability of the 12. Aim for good housekeeping. Keep motors and
core components, such as the PLC or a variable frequency drive, drives clean and free of foreign contaminants to keep them
in a control system is important. Drive failure may be caused running for a long period of time. Don’t use the cord as a leash
by many factors: PCB calibrating, IC chip failure, mishandling when you are carrying the motor around. 
during installation, operating environment, etc. Even though the
manuals of some drives claim that using certain technologies,
such as MOV, common-mode choke, common-mode capacity
and others, can make the drive more EMI compatible, it can also
make them easier to damage.

11. Try manual mode. The manual mode, which allows


maintenance to check if one specific motor has a problem or
not, is usually forgotten. If the motor will not run correctly,
put the drive into manual and run the motor for a short time.
This eliminates the drive from the problem and points to the
controller or, if local control does not work, the drive could be
suspect.

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Six things to know about the new higher


efficiency motors
On June 1, 2016, the Integral Horsepower Amended Motor motor, don’t be surprised if you have to make adjustments in the
Rule of the US Department of Energy went into effect. With the mounting.
exception of a few specialty motors, nearly all continuous-duty
AC induction motors manufactured for sale in the United States 3. Be prepared for higher weight and price. In
must now meet NEMA Premium Efficiency standards. Here’s what addition to adding more copper to the windings, manufacturers
that means for users: may switch from aluminum rotors to copper rotors. All of
these changes add weight. They also add cost. Using thinner
1. It’s not your problem. The rule applies only to what laminations in the rotor and stator to reduce eddy-current losses
manufacturers are allowed to produce going forward. As a user, also contributes to higher prices.
you can buy any motor available to you. You do not have to swap
out your existing Energy Efficient motors for the new versions. 4. The bigger the motor, the less extreme the
change. Larger motors are inherently more efficient than
2. Expect a different form factor. Loss in AC induction smaller motors. Their larger size allows the use of larger-diameter
motors comes from resistive losses in the rotor and stator wire.
windings, as well as eddy currents and hysteresis in the
laminations. As resistance in the windings is a function of wire 5. Be prepared for different speed. AC induction
diameter, using thicker wire produces a more efficient motor. motors suffer from slip, a delay of motion caused by the amount
That means that a Premium Efficiency motor is likely to be larger of time required to induce the magnetic field in the rotor. As a
than its Energy Efficient counterpart. If you are replacing an older result, the rotor field “chases” the stater field. The more efficient

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 132 / 252

We Make Automation Easy. continued

Six things to know about the new


higher efficiency motors

the motor, the smaller slip. This means for two motors with
the same nominal speed, the Premium Efficiency motor will
be faster than the Energy Efficient motor. Be sure to take
this into account in your designs.

6. Consider a permanent-magnet DC motor


and drive. For low-speed applications, you may find that
a permanent-magnet DC motor/drive combination will
be cheaper than a high-pole-count AC induction motor
operated with a variable-frequency drive. You may also get
IDEC, Your Automation Partner a smaller form factor from this solution. 
When you switch to IDEC’s full-line of automation products, you’re getting all the features that you
need… without the hefty price tag and the never ending support costs. In addition to our high
standard of quality and advanced technology, you get our commitment of exceptional service and
support.
Our Field Sales Engineers are trained to provide technical expertise and cost-effective solutions
that help you build more efficient machines and increase your bottom line. We work with you to
deliver personalized solutions, so your design engineers can enjoy more versatility and more
choices for their automation needs than ever before!
When you are ready to upgrade, choose IDEC… your partner for automation solutions.

ASK

http://Automation.IDEC.com www.IDEC.com/usa 800-262-IDEC www.IDEC.com/contactus


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continued

Six things to know about the new higher efficiency motors

PERFORMANCE PACKED INTO COMPACT DRIVES

Advancements in today’s AC drives, including compact drives,


• C ommunications. Seek compact drives with multiple communica-
require that engineers more thoroughly review how drives with tion options, dual port connectivity supporting ring topologies
new, performance-enhancing features can contribute to automation with device-level ring (DLR) functionality, and support for other
projects. open industrial networks.
Selecting a compact drive still requires an understanding of the
most appropriate control technology—volts per hertz, sensorless
• S afety. Seek embedded safety as a standard feature to help pro-
tect personnel and equipment, meeting ISO 13849-1 standards
vector, etc.—but while those control technologies have remained with ratings up to and including SIL 2/PLd Cat 3.
relatively unchanged over the past decade, there have been dra-
matic technological leaps in other areas. • Programming. Seek simple local and programmable automation
controller (PAC)-integrated programming to reduce development
Similar to trends in consumer electronic products, compact drives
time. Features such as descriptive scrolling text on LCD human
now pack more intelligence and user-focused design in smaller sizes.
interface modules (HIMs) and intuitive software with standard
Engineers tasked with implementing an automation project need
connectivity help speed up drive configuration.
to understand the latest compact drive features and how the right
mix of features can ease data sharing, improve safety, minimize • P hysical size. Seek compact, modular designs that allow simul-
programming and installation time, and, ultimately, lower total taneous configuration and installation while offering flexible
overall cost. mounting options with small footprints, high ambient operating
temperatures and low clearance requirements, saving valuable
To find a compact drive that can do more and maximize value, engi-
panel space.
neers should examine features in the following four key areas:

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Seven key points for applying servo drives,


motion controllers and PLCs
Technology advances in servo drives have made them the that can quickly pay for itself, especially for users who run
workhorses of motion control. Here are some recommendations multiple format sizes on the same production line.
for implementing servo drives:
3. Why use motion controllers? Everyone knows some
1. Don’t fear servos. There are many different levels PLCs can do lots of things, and that includes motion control.
of positioning and motor controls now. Some basic variable However, separate motion controllers persist because they
frequency drives can even be used to do what could have perform combined servo and stepper motion control and are
been done only with coordinated drive systems in the properly coordinated as a high-performance system with the
past. So don’t be wary of servo technology. They are now same servo drive supplier. Companies that produce motion
more cost competitive with auto-tuning, which makes them controllers design them specifically to increase a machine’s
straightforward to implement. output with improved accuracy. Trying to use a PLC to address
registration or robot-type control, plus handle recipe data, may
2. Quick changeovers. Machine setup and changeovers require additional PLC programming capability and time vs.
lead to lost production time and inefficient production. some motion controllers. Past experience on such applications
Changeovers can vary from minutes to hours. Consider using says it’s best to use the optimal tool for the job. And with the
low-voltage servo drives with built-in encoder, controller or latest motion/machine controllers with built-in IEC 61131-3
removable memory units, specifically designed for auto-format functionality or other straightforward programming capability,
settings and quick changeovers. Using a customer-friendly servo you can have the best of both worlds.
drive for quick changeovers and machine setup is an investment

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continued

Seven key points for applying servo drives, motion controllers and PLCs

4. Over-sizing wastes energy, cost and panel 5. Document requirements. When building dedicated
space. Some of the biggest energy wasters on a machine are automation with motion control, whether you source it out or
frequently overlooked. Over-sized servo drive/motor systems, not, it is extremely important to understand the system you are
for example, cause machines to consume more energy than building and the functionality that you intend it to have. There
necessary—something that can easily be avoided through proper are different levels of motion control, especially if using a PLC
design. End users often underestimate the returns from energy- as the primary logic controller. For example, on an indexing
efficiency investments, since it costs more up front and may take a assembly station that used a servo drive to index large assembly
few years to achieve payback. As a result, they often inadvertently pallets from one station to the next, the controls company
build in extra long-term, ongoing costs by overlooking details used an incremental encoding servo drive system rather than
when sizing machine components. When sizing a machine, an absolute encoding system. This error crept in because
the entire motion profile is important, not just speed and load. the original rationale for using an absolute system was not
Having a detailed and accurate profile of needed motion can documented. Consequently, in an emergency stop situation, the
pay dividends. Typically, a less precise profile will lead to an over- indexing system would stop and then want to do a complete
sized servomotor. This means that the energy consumption of the index, starting from its current point. Had absolute encoding
system will be higher than needed. The key to getting the motion been used as originally planned, recovery from an e-stop would
profile right is properly calculating velocity, continuous vs. peak have been very simple. If the expected functionality had been
torques, acceleration, and matching load and motor inertias. properly documented, additional complexity would not have
Further, refine the profile by accounting for cycle times. How long been added to what should have been a simple solution.
does the system have to move from one point to the next, and
how long can it take to complete the entire trajectory?

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continued

Seven key points for applying servo drives, motion controllers and PLCs

6. Minimize vibrations. The latest vibration suppression


LOAD TO MOTOR INERTIA RATIOS—IMPROVE
algorithms in some servo drives can actually minimize vibrations RESPONSE TIME
from occurring on overhung loads and in the machine base
without additional sensors. These vibration suppression Calculating an inertia ratio is often overlooked by newcomers to servo
algorithms, combined with auto-tuning and filtering, can allow sizing, but is arguably the most important factor in determining the
for high-performance motion without complicated mechanical performance of a servo system. Inertia ratio is calculated by divid-
damping or heavy bracing. ing the load inertia by the motor inertia. Lower load-to-motor ratios
improve response times, reduce mechanical resonance and minimize
power dissipation.
7. Reduce wiring, space. By using common DC and/
or multi-axis servo drives, OEMs can reduce wiring, energy An inertia mismatch of greater than 10:1 can produce oscillations and
consumption and panel space. These systems use regenerative extended settling times. To prevent overshooting and oscillations with
energy to power other axes, rather than wasting this energy very large mismatches, the control gain may have to be reduced. A
as heat in the electrical enclosure. Panel space is reduced by motion system with a load-to-motor inertia less than 10:1 can reach
up to 30 percent, while wiring is reduced by up to 50 percent, a set speed or move into position in less time than one with a ratio
compared to a traditional single-axis servo system architecture.  greater than 10:1. Large inertia mismatches require higher current to
drive the motor, thus they dissipate more power. For example, a mis-
match of only 5:1 will dissipate six times more power, and it gets worse
as the load inertia increases.

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16 secrets to selecting and implementing sensors


in industrial applications
The successful application of sensors depends on selecting the 3. Load cells important. No one gives load cells the credit
right technology for the application, the variables of the product they deserve when it comes to level measurement in tanks. They
being sensed and the conditions in the operating environment. work great for batch measurement applications when using a
hinged tripod tank mounting arrangement: two legs with hinges,
1. Measuring range. When choosing a sensor (pressure, the third with a load cell in compression. Use a panel meter with
temperature, analog, etc.), the measuring range should directly discrete output to give an output when the set point is reached.
correspond with the physical measuring range in order to This also works well for providing a low-level alarm in applications.
obtain the most accurate reading and optimum sensor lifespan. The load cell and controller can make it simple to automate the
For example, to measure 0-10 psi pressure range, a pressure process in the future.
transducer with a sensing range of 0-10 psi is most suitable. Same
concept applies for voltage or resistance analog signals. 4. Need flexibility. When choosing a sensor, consider whether
it provides the flexibility required, such as features that adapt to
2. Weather watch. Be aware of environmental conditions changing product. In this case, consider capacitive sensors, which
when installing equipment. As an example on one project, are sensitive to more colors and materials than others, and in many
the intake air ducts on air handler units were installed facing cases are less expensive than ultrasonic sensors.
southwest, with no grating or gooseneck. The ducts faced Lake
Ontario and would be susceptible to lake-effect snow. If the ducts 5. Select for technology, conditions. The most common
filled with snow, it would impair the operation of the air handler mistakes in sensor applications include failing to select the most
and the sensors within the ductwork. appropriate sensing principle/technology for the task, and failing

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continued

16 secrets to selecting and implementing


sensors in industrial applications

to consider the full range of expected operating conditions.


For example, although a capacitive proximity sensor can
detect metals, in general an inductive proximity sensor
would be a better choice. Ambient light, temperature, dirt,
vibrations or other conditions can affect sensor. An example
of failing to consider operating conditions would be to install
a sensor rated for a maximum temperature of 70 degrees
C in an area where temperatures can reach 85 degrees C or
higher. In this case, the sensor may experience premature
failure or may exhibit unstable operation, such as locking
on or locking off. Additionally, sensor life can be extended
in harsh environments when used with accessories that are
designed to protect the sensor.

6. More sensor tips. If changes are required, ensure


proper calibration and document it in the software changes
in the DCS. A built-in display unit for local monitoring of
process data is recommended. Follow selection guides
and material. Install the sensor in a proper rack/enclosure

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continued

16 secrets to selecting and implementing sensors in industrial applications

if the dust level is high. Put proper tags at the site to guide When available, digital output equivalents are usually worth the
servicing. After commissioning, put the instrument on continuous additional purchase price for overall lower cost of ownership.
monitoring/trending to make sure readings are correct and
the calibration is accurate before handing it off to operations 9. Beware of blues. Too often, engineers select the sensor
personnel. (Jeanne, make this one last.) they know best for every job. In many cases, this presents no
problem. At other times, it can be a real headache. For example,
7. Faulty cables. When replacing a “bad” sensor in an existing when using diffuse-type photoelectric sensors, color variations
field application, be sure to also check the condition of the quick- can cause serious sensing issues. This is especially common with
disconnect cable or cord set. In many cases, the pins or sockets blue targets, as they tend to absorb rather than reflect the light
are weakened or corroded, leading to intermittent operation. emitted from the sensors. A good solution for this problem is
Replacing only the sensor may temporarily restore electrical normally to use barrier-type sensors, such as through-beam
contact, but it will certainly fail again because the root cause, or retro-reflective sensors. These can pose other problems,
a faulty mating connector, has not been corrected. Depending however, when there is insufficient space for mounting, since
on the cost of the sensor being replaced, this can be a pretty both technologies require mounting either a sensor or reflector
costly situation when in fact a relatively inexpensive replacement on both sides of the process. Another good solution for such an
connector cable could have solved the problem in the first place. issue is a background suppression sensor. This approach normally
uses either a fixed or an adjustable mechanical angle as a means
8. Digital lowers costs. If linear or proportional output to control what is considered acceptable in terms of distance
sensor devices are needed, avoid analog field devices to minimize from the sensor via the amount of light reflected at one particular
cost and support issues for shielded cables and grounding. receiver of the usually two or more located in the sensor housing.

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continued

16 secrets to selecting and implementing sensors in industrial applications

However, with irregularly shaped items, this technology can also of safety applications and can provide any configuration and
be problematic due to light scattering. For instance, bottles and especially any IP level.
cans with the rounded surfaces can trigger the sensors, especially
when it is not possible to mount the sensor perpendicular to the 12. Check construction materials. Proper material
process due to space limitations. As a result, the sensor can false of construction for the service environment is important. With
trigger. New sensor technology can solve these issues. Sensors so many options, choose the most common and agreed upon
that perform as a retro-reflective sensor, without requiring a materials for longer service life. Once ordered, confirm that the
reflector, can handle the variations in color, and irregularly shaped material of construction is what you requested before installing.
or spaced objects. Rather than the traditionally required reflector,
the sensor uses a wall or a piece of the machine as a reflector. 13. Verify vendor claims. Most manufacturers appeal to
Any object that interrupts the beam between the sensor and the engineers regarding the high reliability of instruments and sensors
target triggers an output. these days. To verify that the claims are true, check the facts with
3rd party reviews and award programs for best practices. Practice
10. Real-time processing. Decoupling measuring circuits summarizing the information as if someone wanted you to qualify
from microcontrollers will enable real-time processing of parametric your decision on the brand and model. If it doesn’t happen on
time series along the entire operational process and provide the job, do it anyway. It’s a true professional practice and you
integrated monitoring of multiple potential failures or malfunctions. get better every time you do it. Engineering reviews (voice of
experience, lessons learned) help to verify the required precision
11. Supplier history. When it comes to sensors, especially has been followed if interlocks, alarms and safety critical devices
safety sensors, the key is finding a supplier that has a long history are to be used with the sensor.

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continued

16 secrets to selecting and implementing sensors in industrial applications

Operating environment critical factor


Don’t overlook critical details about environmental to internal condensation than others.
conditions when choosing a photoelectric sensor. Typical
selection criteria include sensing range, electrical output, 2. Is it an extremely dusty environment? This can be
connection type, etc. However, in order to get the best particularly challenging if the sensor is mounted looking up.
results, sometimes users need to go beyond these basic Consider mounting the sensor to look down. Another option
criteria and include other critical details. These factors often would be to select an infrared LED sensor, which is better at
end up as some of the most important considerations. seeing through dust and fog than a standard red LED sensor.
Sometimes users will even direct an air purge at the lens to
1. Are there sudden temperature changes (condensation prevent accumulation of dust or particles.
can build up on the lens)? Some sensors are more immune
» CONTINUED ON PAGE 142

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 142 / 252

continued

16 secrets to selecting and implementing sensors in industrial applications

3. Are the sensors mounted outdoors? It is important to enclosure rating. Consider hygienic requirements in sensor
know the maximum and minimum temperatures to which selection, since these are becoming more popular in the
the sensor will be exposed. For extreme environments, food and beverage industry.
an internal or external heating or cooling unit may be
necessary. Sometimes a heating unit is advantageous to 5. Is the sensor exposed to direct sunlight? During sunset or
reduce frost or fog build-up on the exterior of the lens. sunrise, for example, the sun might shine directly into the
receiver of a sensor and give a false output. Reduce the risk
4. Will the sensor be exposed to wash-down conditions? of this happening by using a hooded bracket to minimize
Choose an enclosure with the appropriate NEMA/IP interference. 

14. Check the range. Make sure the sensor is appropriately Alleviate them with parallel stations.
sensitive. Target the midpoint of a sensor’s scale for the intended
operating condition, since the sensor’s range is important. The 16. System confidence. Check the functional specs when
application is only as good as the detail you bring to the table. selecting safety-instrumented systems. Failure rates (MTBFs) are
very critical in keeping confidence in a system high. Maintenance-
15.Eliminate bottlenecks. In-motion weigh scale systems intensive calibration and servicing requirements should be
can create a bottleneck in an automated shipping and delivery line. recognized. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 143 / 252

12 tips for selecting and sizing


pneumatic and hydraulic components
In today’s typical manufacturing facility, hydraulic and pneumatic movement, provided the application requirements fall within
systems serve as the primary means of power for most cylinders, an electric actuator’s performance capabilities. This technology
tooling and even some drive systems. They can be operated in has advanced rapidly over the last five to 10 years, with
high-temperature as well as high-radiation industrial environments vast improvements in functionality, including more precise
where most electronic instruments will not function properly. movement and even built-in sophisticated controls.

Volumes of material exist on proper system design, proper sizing 3. Valve sizing. Correct sizing of components, including
of components, circuit design, valve and control technologies, as piping, valves and actuators, can improve the productive
well as other design considerations. However, here are a few tips capacity of pneumatic systems. Valve sizing is particularly
you may not find in the textbooks: important. If the flow capacity is too small, it can have a negative
impact on production cycles. If you want to improve production
1. Flow vs. pressure. When dealing with pneumatics, it is cycle time and quality, then proper sizing is critical.
critical to understand the difference between pressure and flow.
Too often operators compensate for starved flow with increased 4. Align pipelines. If pipelines are not aligned properly at
pressure. It is often best to install oversized supply lines to a the correct angle, as indicated in the installation drawings, there
process in order to ensure the appropriate volume of air. is a great possibility of equipment damage.

2. Use electric actuators. With ever-increasing energy 5. Choose three-position valves. Wherever operators
costs, designers should consider using energy-efficient electric will be working near an operation, a three-position valve is a

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continued

12 tips for selecting and sizing pneumatic and hydraulic components

better choice than a two-position valve. This is because a three- 9. Parallel air. Make sure you have an adequate air supply
position valve will stop the equipment instantly in the event of when using pneumatic technology. Costly leaks are often hard
an emergency. This is in contrast to a two-position valve, which to detect in a noisy plant environment. To avoid failure in the
will first complete the operation before stopping. supply of compressed air on a network, it is important to verify
that the distribution is closed so that the compressed air comes
6. Check temperatures. Be sure to check the surface in parallel and not in series. Inspect tubing, ferrule, connection
temperatures of equipment during preventive maintenance and joints for leakages. Make sure the air being produced is dry.
time and make a record. High temperatures could damage the All air filters should be checked periodically for accumulated
viscosity properties of the hydraulic oil. water drainage.

7. Built-in flow control. When you are using a pneumatic 10. Choose quality tubing. To prevent leaks, use nylon
cylinder in a project, especially in high cycle count projects, use a tubing on machines rather than push-on fittings and PE tubing.
fitting that has a flow control valve built in to make the cylinder The leakage often found with soft tubing is hard to detect in a
last longer. plant environment.

8. Use feedback sensors. Don’t rely on software interlocks 11. Inlet side flow control. In a pneumatic logic circuit
to control pneumatic devices unless you account for the controlling a double-acting cylinder, place the flow controls on
delay caused by physical actuation. 100 ms is a long time in the inlet side of your cylinder depending on the direction of
the computer world. Always back up actuators with electrical travel. Air is compressible and positioning will float if controlled
feedback sensors, redundant if possible. on the outlet. This will also create back pressure.

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Meet the new definition continued

12 tips for selecting and sizing


of „compact controller.“ pneumatic and hydraulic components
CX8000 series Embedded PCs: the cost-effective,
space-saving PC-based control solution.
64 mm
12. Low fire risk. One of the advantages of pneumatic
technology is that it can operate without using electricity.
This minimizes the risk of fire or explosions from sparks or
arc flash events. This technology is particularly useful in
a plant making edible oils or hydrogenating oils or when
using flammable gases in the production process. 
100 mm

www.beckhoffautomation.com/CX8000

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11 considerations for selecting


and deploying industrial robots
As manufacturers embrace the business case for implementing cell doors have safety interlocks and light curtains as needed,
robots, engineers are challenged to design systems using today’s and make sure you make the robot aware of these safety devices
highly complex and increasingly sophisticated robot technology. so it can do the job better. When it comes to designing your
robot cell (electrical and mechanical layout) and programming,
1. Redefining robots. Too much focus on humanoid always consider safety as your top most priority. This aspect is
robotics is a misplaced definition of objectives. A robot is really even more important given all the codes and regulations for
a modular, autonomous platform combining measuring circuits, robotic safety. For more information on new safety requirements,
active RFID, RF, acoustic, laser and power technologies for in- visit http://awgo.to/026.
situ data processing and real-time communication. Distributed
architectures with this type of robot are revolutionizing 4. Complexity can be barrier. When implementing
industrial automation. robotics, engineers need to ensure the system is scalable,
will mitigate safety and security risks, and has built-in energy
2. Don’t fight the laws of physics. Adjust your management. The robotic system must provide personnel at all
expectations to what the robot is actually capable of doing. levels with access to prognostic and diagnostic data in the same
way discrete and process automation systems deliver operating
3. Safety first. Pay attention to the cell layout from the data. Unfortunately, the complexity of the design process can
operator’s perspective. Fence the area so the operator cannot often be a barrier to achieving the cost savings and efficiency
reach into the cell while the robot is in full motion. Make sure all gains expected with robots.

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continued

11 considerations for selecting and deploying industrial robots

Tips for robotics integration


Whether you’re looking to integrate robotics into existing overall machine footprint.
equipment or scale your control and information platform
to accommodate robots, here are some general tips on the 2. Use a single network technology and a common control
three primary options: and visualization environment. A networked approach
integrates the robot control system with the machine
1. Use a single control platform that can be scaled to control system. This is the most cost-effective solution for
fit a wide range of robotics applications, regardless of quickly integrating robotics into an existing application.
size or complexity. This method allows the highest level Doing so gives the machine’s controller access to the robot’s
of integration because it combines kinematic robot control system, including diagnostics, necessary automation
control within a machine’s controller. All configuration, interlocks, troubleshooting, alarming and reporting.
programming, kinematics, troubleshooting and operations
are performed within a single control platform, which helps 3. Use a common control engine and development
reduce engineering costs, training, maintenance and the environment to help eliminate the need for separate
» CONTINUED ON PAGE 148

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continued

11 considerations for selecting and deploying industrial robots

controllers and systems. This embedded approach to control separate, but helps drastically reduce the machine
robotics integration brings the robot module directly into footprint—by up to 50 percent—because there are fewer
the control platform’s chassis. It keeps machine and robot control boxes on a machine. 

5. Tooling clearance. It is very important to have a clear, emergency maintenance never happens, and temporary, sub-
defined understanding of the type of end effector for your optimal, rigging ends up hurriedly being used.
application so that tooling does not damage in-order production
parts. Selecting a well thought-out end effector will also help 7. Get early feedback. Try and do as detailed a simulation
minimize the teach time on the final program to ensure the as early as you can and show it to the workforce involved in the
proper clearance to run the robot at the maximum speed. process in order to get feedback on possible operational issues.
You may find that there is more going on in the existing process
6. Plan for maintenance. For large robots, make sure than you knew about and that micro-management is necessary.
means for maintenance are included in the original project
scope. A monorail hoist designed in at the start of the project, 8. Zoning for product size. In a robotic pick-and-place
for example, is much cheaper and easier to install than one built system for thermoformed packaging trays, incorporate zoned
years later. Installing a hoist while running requires scheduling, suction cups that can be isolated or turned on and off, to allow
downtime, lost production, etc. Installing a hoist during for various tray sizes.

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continued

11 considerations for selecting and deploying industrial robots

9. Electronic changeovers. Customization is only a


fraction of the normal line production, but the ability to create MECHATRONICS FOR OEMS
electronic changeovers between formats in a small footprint
The perception of robots in the industrial workplace follows a form
streamlines the customization process.
factor that leads users towards a limited amount of mechanical models.
This feels modular, but it’s not mechatronic. Changing the definition
10. Error codes. When you are programming a robot, many of robotics to coordinated axes synchronized by a single software and
lines of code are involved. If you build in your own error codes processor opens up conventional machine design to modular code and
in the program, it is easier to identify where in the program the mechanisms—or mechatronics. OEMs that have adopted this new out-
error has occurred and to diagnose the issue. If it is a new issue, look make robotic machines that are faster, smoother and more flexible,
add it to the list of your error programs. not by changing their mechanics but by changing their approach. The
choice for OEMs is even easier because they need only migrate their
11. Faster remastering. For a robotic cell, design in a control philosophy to those capable of true mechatronics.
location datum point into the cell. Having an independent
datum point outside of the usual work area (still within the robot
work envelop) will allow quick remastering of an axis or robot experience. Witness marks on joints can fall off, and having an
following maintenance. This is critical for users of just a few independent means to establish the coordinate system is a
robots, who don’t typically have a lot of robot axis mastering major time saver. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 150 / 252

12 issues to address in building a successful


machine vision system
As anyone who has been involved in a machine vision project reflections and direct sunlight potential. No matter the camera
knows, approximately 80 percent of the success of a vision attributes or software tools, if the illumination is not right, the
system is related to illumination. Other considerations important project will fail. Before establishing a proposal for a project, make
to the success of a vision project include camera selection, ease sure you understand the illumination needs. Otherwise, you
of programming, availability of technical support and project might end up incurring additional hardware costs that were not
definition. Some tips to get the most out of your machine vision considered in the proposal.
system:
2. Modifications required. Software quality control and
1. Choose the right light. Choosing the right light (LED, quality assurance are essential to project success. Software
halogen, etc.) plus the right color (blue, white, red, IR) and the control is more important than hardware control. Off-the-shelf
illumination technique (dark field, ring light, spot light, bright vision software programs will need to be modified to fit each
field, coaxial) are key for project success. Sometimes you have unique application.
to think outside the box when selecting lighting, like using a
different color light to bring out different features based not only 3. Plan for the future. Before the design and build of
on color, but the wavelength of illumination. For instance, finer a vision inspection system, consider how to make it easy to
detail can be seen better with blue illumination than with red. reprogram and use for future applications. Find out whether
You can play this to your advantage when you want to enhance support is readily available for the camera and lighting.
or reduce contrast. Consider all lighting conditions including Get hands-on programming experience first, then get the

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continued

12 issues to address in building a


successful machine vision system
IT’S TIME WE AMPLIFIED
OUR FIBER MESSAGE programming training. Otherwise you may have trouble
keeping up with the training. The camera resolution and
software are absolutely critical. Don’t purchase a lower-cost,
lower-resolution camera just because it works on this part.
Think of the future. One camera and software manufacturer
has an online users discussion group. That’s very helpful,
with answers often available within minutes of posting.

4. Versatility required. Don’t purchase a system


designed for specific parts (like O-rings) that must be
“programmed” to do your different parts (such as grommets
or seals). There are systems just for O-rings, for example,
that fail miserably on non-O-ring parts. Consider a four- to
six-axis robot to handle parts instead of custom, lower-
cost pick-and-place systems. The cost may be higher, but
the versatility and ability to program different parts is well
worth the added cost.
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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 152 / 252

continued

12 issues to address in building a successful machine vision system

5. Match environment. Vision hardware must be chosen resolution, the higher the camera price. PC-based systems might
precisely for the environment. Optics must match the desired appear as lower cost up-front, but programming time is higher.
field of view. Illumination must be robust. Tested software On the other hand, vision sensors might appear to be higher in
libraries help keep the complexities to a minimum. price at the beginning, but the ease of use lowers the time spent
on programming. PC-based systems are faster than vision sensors,
6. Prepare for upgrades. When considering a vision so they might work better with high-resolution cameras. Selecting
system, always bear in mind the effects of Windows upgrades on the wrong camera for the job will cause the project to fail by
the future of the system. A complete backup image system will making the inspection impossible or unreliable, or will elevate the
give the vision system an additional five years of life. project cost, so the project will not be competitive.

7. The right camera. Choosing the right camera is the next 8. Does the system match application needs? The
big issue in vision projects. The camera resolution, and whether it capabilities of a vision system will vary by the application. For
will be a PC-based or stand-alone unit, is fundamental to providing example, if a vision system was designed for semiconductor
a competitively priced vision project. Higher resolution might inspection, it may not be cost-effective or perform well if you try
provide higher field of view and enhanced image details for the to tune it for a label inspection system in a consumer packaged
inspection, but speed is the trade-off. The higher the resolution, goods application.
the lower the inspection rate will be. The level of detail required
in the inspection (smallest unit to be measured or inspected) and 9. Simple interface. The biggest pitfall in machine vision
the inspection rate will define the correct camera; the higher the projects for detecting defects in manufactured parts is often

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 153 / 252

continued

12 issues to address in building a successful machine vision system

the proper selection of lighting and proper lens selections, as included in any successful installation, when a new machine vision
well as the timing of the strobe controllers on some high-speed system is installed and the camera begins to find defective or out
projects. The next biggest pitfall is ensuring that the interface is of tolerance parts. The time spent working as a team with the
simple enough for the average operator to use with little effort. quality department will ensure success in the future.
Even when a system usually performs flawlessly, problems will
arise sooner or latter. The operator interface should be designed 11. Avoid scope creep. Without a good understanding
to make it simple enough for even a novice operator to learn. It of the project scope, projects can fall into the programmer’s
pays to include the person who will operate the system during the nightmare known as an “endless loop.” With vision products and
design process. software, many things are possible that might lie just outside the
scope/need of customer. It is important to define the scope in
10. Define expectations. Projects can fail because the writing to give everyone (customer and integrator) a clear goal to
system was designed for perfect parts, but it turns out the real work towards and a clear method of testing the results. Whether
parts are less than perfect and the employees loose interest very it is for 3D imaging, NIR (near infrared) or some new algorithm in
quickly in the system. Even when a system is doing what it was the software, it is common to see requests for new items added to
designed to do, the results can be unexpected. The most effective the application. This can be especially true when introducing new
deployments involve several different departments working types of technology as part of a solution.
together a a team to decide what the acceptable standard will
be, after knowing exactly what the production line is actually 12. Extreme detail. It is not enough to merely to want to
producing. Keep in mind that there will be some “bucket time” detect an object and make sure it has the proper number of holes.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 154 / 252

continued

12 issues to address in building a successful machine vision system

Extreme detail is necessary. This ensures a successful solution.


Cameras and smart vision sensors can not only detect objects,
but sense their orientation, shape, size, individual markings and
dozens of other aspects simultaneously. A simple explanation of
the goal is often far short of the desired results. So think clearly
about what your application truly requires, and document it if you
want a successful project. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 155 / 252

continued

12 issues to address in building a successful machine vision system

10 questions to ask
Whether you are new to machine vision or an experienced 5. How can you determine the repeatability of a vision
user, consider the following 10 questions when selecting a system’s gauging tools?
stand-alone vision system:
6. How do you evaluate industrial code reading tools and
1. Does the vision system make it easy to set up applications, what are some specific features to look for?
create custom operator interfaces and administer vision
system networks? 7. What networking and communications features are
available?
2. What is the importance of part location tools, and how
can you assess their performance? 8. What should you know about vision system accessories?

3. Does the vision system have a complete set of image pre- 9. Does the vendor offer a wide range of hardware options?
processing tools? Are they rugged enough for your environment?

4. What should you look for in character reading and 10. Does the supplier provide the support and learning
verification capabilities? services you need? 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 156 / 252

continued

12 issues to address in building a successful machine vision system

Test read rate performance


To evaluate industrial code reading tools, start by measuring run a more challenging read rate test to determine the
the vision system’s reading speed. To do this, present a well- impact of factors such as line vibration, variable lighting
marked code to the vision system and have it read the code conditions and extremely high line speeds on the vision
hundreds of times under pristine conditions to determine system’s reading performance in your application.
the number of reads per minute.
To test this, present a large sample of codes of good, bad
Make sure you have a 100% read rate under these optimized and marginal quality to the vision system. At the same time,
conditions, or you may face problems later when conditions simulate vibration and motion blur by shaking the part and
might be less than ideal. For example, at a production line sliding it back and forth beneath the camera as it acquires an
speed of 2,000 parts per hour, a read rate of 99.7 percent image.
would fail to read the ID codes on 48 parts in just one eight-
hour shift. This test will provide a good initial assessment of how well
the vision system’s read rate will hold up under real-world
After establishing the system’s reading speed, you should production conditions. 

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157 / 252

SECTION THREE:
APPLYING TECHNOLOGIES
TO IMPROVE OUTCOMES
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 158 / 252

Five guidelines for building a successful


data-driven network
Sourced from material supplied by Belden
A Race Car and the Industrial Internet of Things
JEFF LUND Senior director, product line management, Belden’s Industrial IT Division

The assets in your plant and on the factory floor offer enormous 2. Move to the ether. Migrate and/or update your
opportunity for insights that can be leveraged to improve technology to Ethernet and move away from older legacy
operational performance, productivity, and safety. The key is to fieldbus systems or proprietary technologies.
harvest that data and put it in the hands of decision-makers in an
easily-consumable form. To do that, you need a reliable, scalable 3. Aim for the best. Take a look at your network design and
infrastructure that can provide end-to-end security to protect ensure you’re following best practices, such as segmenting into
from the increased threats posed by greater interconnectivity. zones and conduits or employing wireless solutions.

The following five steps will help you get the most out of your 4. Choose layers. Protect your network through a layered
industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) initiatives: approach, with security measures built into each level of the
network.
1. Evaluate your starting point. Determine what you
have, where it lives, what it does, who owns and manages it and, 5. Maintain oversight. Establish ongoing monitoring and
ultimately, where you want to be. troubleshooting to keep up as technology and security threats
evolve.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 159 / 252

The Next Level of Micro PLC! continued


FC6A Delivers the Power of a PAC in a Micro PLC Five guidelines for building a
successful data-driven network

As more devices are connected to the network, there will


be more interconnectivity with the enterprise side of the
business and more users with access to the network. This
increase in users, whether they are internal or external
partners, means more sources of potential infections.
Therefore, it’s critical to address security issues and put
Providing PAC capabilities with ease of programming measures in place to protect your industrial network.
• Modbus TCP and RTU IDEC’s new FC6A MicroSmart PLC provides the power of a PAC in a small
• CAN J1939 CPU form factor, making it an ideal fit for your most demanding applications. The
MicroSmart features the industry’s leading price/performance ratio with the Even if you still feel uncertain about IIoT in general, or
• Email and Text Messages
capacity to handle 520 I/O including up to 126 analog I/O. how technology or security threats might evolve, that
• Built-in Web Page Editor
640kB of program memory handles your toughest control applications, and doesn’t mean you can’t take steps today to be prepared
• 126 Analog I/O programming is quick and easy with IDEC’s WindLDR PC-based software.
for the future. A scalable and secure infrastructure is the
• 640kB programming Remote access is a snap by creating custom web pages configured for
memory remote monitoring and control using simple drag and drop functionality with foundation for enabling you to build whatever network
no HTML programming required, a feature unique in this class of PLCs. application you might need years down the road. 
The FC6A MicroSmart provides competitive advantages via simplified
programming and web page creation, more cost effective end solutions
for your customers, and ease of maintenance via remote access—a set of
features unmatched by any other micro PLC.

Find out more at: http://FC6A.IDEC.com

www.IDEC.com/usa

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 160 / 252

The three layers of network security for IIoT


applications
Sourced from material provided by Red Lien Controls
Network Security for the Industrial Internet of Things
COLIN GEIS Product marketing manager, Red Lion Controls

One of the biggest concerns regarding the industrial Internet 2. Digital controls over user access. The next layer
of Things (IIoT) is the risk of exposing industrial assets to of securing an IIoT network involves user access to control who
unauthorized access. Security should be implemented in layers, has digital access to data at specific locations. Security at this
starting with physical security and equipment access and level includes password policies, role-based access control and
moving on to data protection and transport. This process of access control lists (ACLs). Simply requiring a passcode for access
layered security is similar to the best practices that have been to touchscreen operator panels, or passwords on terminals,
employed effectively with enterprise networks for years. can significantly reduce compromised data by identifying
and logging when and who is accessing equipment. For some
1. Physical separation. Physical security represents an applications, role-based access control or an ACL can limit user
organization’s ability to physically separate equipment from access to sensitive data based on the credentials provided.
non-authorized users. Fences and enclosures represent easy-to- For example, a technician might require in-depth system
deploy solutions that help keep sensitive equipment safe from access, while an operator might only require a small subset of
theft or tampering. Whether the device or equipment is on a permissions to operate equipment.
factory floor or at a remote pumping station, it is important to
limit access to sensitive data.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 161 / 252

continued

The three layers of network security for IIoT applications

3. Secure data transport. Controlling who has access to example of an emerging technology positively impacting
equipment at a site is sometimes the easiest part of securing security for IIoT applications. SDN enables dynamic routing of
sensitive data. A larger challenge is how to effectively collect encrypted information through secure nodes without the need
data across tens or thousands of locations securely and reliably for a dedicated IT team to manage it. Solutions like SDN in an
without requiring a full-time security or IT team. Securing data industrial network, where environmental and backhaul variables
for transport between sites can be accomplished in a number are constantly changing, can help ensure data stays secure and
of ways, but many pose implementation challenges. IPsec, port systems remain operational without IT intervention.
forwarding and open VPN technologies are common ways
to provide remote device access. Though familiar to IT, these Security strategies will continue to evolve as new threats and
methods are more complicated to set up and maintain on the technologies emerge. Though a single security solution doesn’t
operations side of the business. This is why the market needs fit every application, there are common measures that should be
easy-to-use technologies to securely address mass-deployed evaluated to help reduce most threats. Selecting vendors that
sites as part of successful IIoT adoption. offer paths to keep equipment updated with current security
solutions should be a priority. 
Emerging technologies are changing the paradigm of how
organizations approach the implementation and maintenance
of security policies. These technologies provide inherently
more secure communications while simplifying the process of
deployment and management, which can significantly reduce
operational costs. Software-defined networking (SDN) is one

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 162 / 252

Four considerations when choosing a firewall


Sourced from materials provided by Belden Industrial IT
Firewalls: The Crucial Component for Network Protection
JEFF LUND, TOBIAS HEER AND OLIVER KLEINEBERG Belden’s Industrial IT Division

Firewalls are essential for ensuring network security and • P ermitting only approved communications between devices to
increasing system robustness and resiliency. What are firewalls? protect against malicious attacks and device or operator errors.
Firewalls protect networks and devices, such as industrial PCs,
control systems and cameras, from unauthorized access by Though a firewall might sound like a single type of device,
preventing network traffic to or from these systems. They are a firewalls come in many different forms, not only in terms
core element of segmenting a network, and they play a crucial of hardware features and industry approvals but also with
role in any industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) related network different filtering capabilities. That leaves users with the task of
security strategy. determining which type of firewall is best suited for each portion
of the application or environment. Below, find four tips for
Firewalls have a few main goals, including: specifying an effective firewall:

• Protecting any connections between enterprise and industrial 1. Tailor it for your network. Like choosing specific IIoT
networks, and preventing external threats. devices, firewalls should be able to accomplish very specific
tasks that support your custom needs and applications. Select
• C reating barriers within a network to prevent internal issues firewalls that match the unique communications patterns and
from spreading. needs of the devices across the network.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 163 / 252

continued

Four considerations when choosing a firewall

2. Inspect at multiple levels. Depending on where it very timeconsuming and error-prone. Teams need to be able
will sit in your system, the firewall will need various filtering to effectively manage and configure the devices when using
mechanisms. Firewalls used close to machines as part of a zones multiple firewalls. It’s important that firewalls can be centrally
and conduits security strategy should understand industrial monitored by network management tools to keep things
protocols and perform deep packet inspection. In contrast, a running smoothly.
firewall used to secure the perimeter between a remote site
and the Internet should be able to process Internet Protocol (IP) Firewalls are just one component of an effective security strategy
traffic. for companies taking advantage of the IIoT. But don’t downplay
their use— they are the cornerstone that holds a holistic security
3. Make sure it’s robust enough. Depending on model together. Having a solid understanding of the types of
your network environment, firewalls could be subjected to firewalls available and the role each plays results in successfully
extended temperature ranges, significant vibration and other securing the network from a range of internal and external
environmental factors. Ensure any firewall you choose can threats lurking out there. By implementing a holistic defense
withstand harsh environments and that they are compliant with strategy that includes firewalls, you can design networks that
all industry standards and approvals. Selecting a firewall without effectively mitigate threats and defend against the errors and
the robustness required for the application will derail a project vulnerabilities introduced by an ever expanding range of IIoT
very quickly. devices and environments. 

4. Keep it simple. Without a powerful management tool


for simple and mass configuration of firewalls, the tasks can be

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 164 / 252

10 issues to address before you develop an


industrial network
Networks provide the framework for any automation project. The • End-to-end distance requirements
issues are complex and require an in-depth understanding of the
requirements of your process and the nuances of networking • Data delivery reliability
technologies. Here are some suggestions to help you meet the
challenges: • Future proofing to include scalability
1. Multi-vendor problems. If you are connecting devices • Data/network security requirements
from different vendors, try to find out if you are the first to get
these devices talking to each other. If yes, plan for a lengthy • Current on-site expertise
commissioning process. Communication standards may be fine
on paper, but in practice you are likely to have to do a lot of • Ease of architecture
fiddling to get everything working.
• Total cost of ownership
2. Selection factors. When choosing the network topology
and protocol you want to use, remember to evaluate and select 3. Design for the process. When implementing an
according to the following factors: industrial network (be it INDUSTRIAL Ethernet or traditional
fieldbus), be sure to get all affected parties involved during the
• P rocess time requirements initial design. This could include production workers on the plant
floor, IT, engineering and more. One method is to simulate your

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 165 / 252

continued

10 issues to address before you develop an industrial network

product going through the entire production phase, see where 6. Plan for future. Give careful consideration to site
it goes and who interacts with it, what information it needs and conditions and possible changes in those conditions. Design
where that information comes from, as well as what information your network to handle not just current conditions, but also
it produces and where that information goes. Getting all the possible changes. This is a particular requirement in hazardous
affected parties involved will not only get you the best solution, environments like cement and power plants. Don’t jump into
it will make everyone understand that they have an investment implementation in the field without prior design, locating
in the project. equipment and identifying signal paths on plans.

4. Functionality varies by vendor. Understand what 7. Keep things simple. Industrial automation networking
functions and performance your network needs to deliver before is great, but remember to keep things simple. If a few discrete
listening to various sales pitches. The functionality various I/O handshakes would serve the purpose, it might be the best
manufacturers implement, even in standard fieldbus or Ethernet design. Even if a fieldbus segment could theoretically be loaded
systems, can vary substantially. Never make assumptions about to the maximum or use a less-traditional architecture, those
any vendor-specific products. designs could reduce system reliability or make it harder to
troubleshoot in the future.
5. Does your team have fieldbus skills? Select a
fieldbus that can be handled by the software team at your 8. Cost savings. Using fieldbus networks versus traditional
disposal. The greatest fieldbus technology in the world will hardwired I/O systems provides significant savings in terms
fail if the software team does not understand the integration, of material and labor costs. Cost reductions approaching 50
implementation or error handling of the selected product. percent in material and labor on initial setup and a 75 percent

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 166 / 252

continued

10 issues to address before you


develop an industrial network

reduction in labor costs for troubleshooting and start-up


can be expected. Network diagnostics also make error
identification more efficient, reduce machine downtime
and improve production performance.
STRONGER.
9. One size does not fit all. There is no single
FASTER. network (Ethernet is a physical medium, not a protocol)
EASIER. that will work well for all applications. As you wouldn’t use

PROLINE G2 a dump truck designed for strip mining to fill a sand box
for your kids or a pick-up truck to clear the dirt for a new
THE INDUSTRIAL MODULAR SOLUTION interstate, do not try to shoehorn the wrong network for a
function.
• 12-gauge steel frame with a 3500-lb. load rating (1.5 safety factor)
has less deflection under load
• Subpanel has more usable space with a higher load rating of 2000 lbs. 10. Communications security is evolving. Don’t
(2.5 safety factor) rest on the processes and implementation practices you’ve
• Durable materials and components provide long-lasting protection for used for the past 20 years. It’s time to review industry best
your system practices. It’s a good training goal for 2013-2014 to consider
• More flexible installation options with the EZ-Load Mounting System how cyber security evolution should be affecting your
and new horizontal loading option system solutions. 
• Easily access electrical components by removing doors, tops, sides
and/or bases
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Learn more at HOFFMAN.PENTAIRPROTECT.COM/PROLINEG2
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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 167 / 252

Nine ways to build a better plant-floor network

It all comes down to the details. That’s as true for networking as it to the point of failure. These failure points can be associated with
is for every other aspect of an automation project. Here are some the number of Ethernet port connections, the size and frequency
tips for making sure the details are covered with your industrial of data being managed, as well as data addressing in the PLC.
network: The PLC addresses used in data collection, if not contiguous
or near contiguous, can cause excess read/write cycles to the
1. Keep a list. Networked devices have addresses. It is very PLC. Some PLCs can only provide X number of devices in one
important to keep a list that shows the assigned address, the read. If that number is 1k (1024 devices) and you attempt to
product this address has been assigned to and the line/plant read the values of coils 250, 1400, 5000 and 6500 in one cycle,
location where the product has been installed. It is very difficult it can actually create four separate read requests. This results
to troubleshoot many systems because this basic information in performance issues and missing data. Think of the impact if
was not captured, leading to significant equipment downtime. you want to read 250 values! FMEA (Failure Modes and Effect
Once installed, these devices need to be labeled accordingly Analysis) is a great tool to aid in trying to identify things that can
since it is not uncommon to have several identical devices in go wrong.
close proximity. This information should also be part of any
electrical and mechanical drawing. 3. Be aware of security issues. You have to be constantly
aware of the security aspects of your control network. Seek
2. Test to failure. When developing data collection/data cooperation with the IT professionals; you likely have more
passing applications (PLC to PLC, PC to PLC, etc.) using Ethernet, overlap with office systems than you might know.
fieldbuses and especially proprietary networks, it is critical to test

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 168 / 252

continued

Nine ways to build a better plant-floor network

4. Avoid subnetworks. When selecting fieldbus or network 6. Network everything. Nothing is not in the network
architecture, avoid the use of subnetwork systems or anymore. When you implement a new project or a new system,
expandability features that require configuration of expansion the networking criteria are a critical consideration. Every
modules or field devices separately from the PC or PLC. Subnet device needs a communication port or ports, physical media,
components add an additional burden for end-user support and communication protocol and tools to configure, display,
complexity in software (re-tagging/programming) when the diagnose, analysis, etc.
subnet I/O count or type changes.
7. Route separately for reliability. To have a more
5. Buy a network analyzer. When a system using reliable DCS system in factories, use high-quality network and
a fieldbus/industrial network does not work as expected, fieldbus components and make a separate route for network
somehow the network is always blamed: too slow, too many cables. This will help guarantee system performance.
flipped bits due to EMC (electromagnetic compatibility)
issues, etc. Without proper measuring equipment, a network 8. Match media to conditions. There are a variety of
troubleshooter won’t stand a chance of disproving this. Make different types of network connectivity. Choose the media
sure high-quality network analyzers are available, and the real according to the environment and conditions under which this
root cause of the problems will show up very quickly: very often network will operate. As an example, you would not use Cat6
it is application software. A network engineer without a network wire for an Ethernet communication between buildings. Use
analyzer is like an electrician without a multimeter: clueless. fiber instead due to lightning conditions. You could also use
wireless modems instead of fiber when the distances between
buildings are great.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 169 / 252

continued

Nine ways to build a better plant-floor network

9. Protect sensors on mobile equipment. When


using wireless in a dynamically changing production process
where machines or sections of a production line are moved
frequently, protect sensors mounted on machines with
enclosures that prevent workers from removing them. This
solution is also helpful in preventing damage to the sensors
when moving equipment. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 170 / 252

Eight best practices for implementing industrial


Ethernet
Ethernet is everywhere on the factory floor, but standards for technology makes it easy to manage traffic. For a large plant
dealing with it may be lacking. Here are some suggestions for floor, different areas can be zoned for control and monitored
updating your practices: independently. Industrial Ethernet can make media redundancy
very flexible, and the convergence time is very short, often
1. Need industrial IT strategy. With the rapid growth of milliseconds with Resilient Ethernet Protocol (REP) and Device
industrial Ethernet devices, the lack of an industrial IT strategy at Level Ring (DLR).
many companies is becoming a real problem. It’s not uncommon
to have thousands of Ethernet devices on the plant floor, but 3. Maintain standard Ethernet frames. Ethernet is
strategies for data management, security, redundancy, reliability, the future of real-time and long-distance industrial networking.
etc., are often seriously lacking. Start with a basic industrial It is being adopted for many aspects of automation, including
networking standards document, just as you have an electrical, controls and I/Os, servos, safety, configuration and diagnostics,
controls or HMI strategy. Simple rules for implementing Ethernet synchronization and motion. To realize the benefits of these
networks (wired or wireless) save many problems down the road technologies, however, requires a good integration of standard
and support easy expansion in the future. Ethernet frames when selecting an industrial Ethernet
technology. Users mainly select industrial Ethernet because
2. Ethernet is fast, flexible. One of the many benefits they want to fully benefit from Ethernet and its higher-level
of industrial Ethernet is that it can be used to build a very large, functionality, such as web server, diagnostic, firmware upgrade,
widely distributed network compared to many other fieldbus etc.
networks. Classless IP address scheming is important here. VLAN

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 171 / 252

continued

Eight best practices for implementing industrial Ethernet

4. Learn Ethernet. Take the time to learn (through courses the weakest link. Just because you’re using Cat 6 patch cables
or self-taught) the art of Ethernet networking. It’s never going to doesn’t mean that your permanent cable or connector is rated
go away. If you can seamlessly work through VPNs, port forward, for 6.
subnet masks and IP addresses, your job is only going to become
more interesting. 8. Network slowdowns. Most network audits revolve
around a slow or degrading network as new devices are added.
5. Get ready for connectivity. It makes sense to The lack of fundamental understanding of Ethernet architectures
implement all PLCs on Ethernet using protocol converters. This is the most common cause of these issues. Prior to deployment
makes your plant ready with data available on Ethernet for future of an Ethernet-based control system, spend time understanding
connectivity with MES/ERP systems. the data impact of additional devices. It’s also essential to spend
time training staff on Ethernet and associated protocols. 
6. Choose fiber. For Ethernet networks, be proactive about
choosing fiber over copper for primary connections. Distance
capabilities, noise immunity and immensely scalable bandwidth
will pay off quickly.

7. Speed issues. It is important to understand that the


operating frequency of the core switches will determine the
speed (throughput) of your network. Educate yourself on switch
and network compatibility issues. Your network is only as fast as

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 172 / 252

Four tips for dealing with wireless latency and


bandwidth issues
More and more, systems engineers are taking advantage of unicast is destined for only one device. Wireless access points
industrial wireless technologies to reduce the amount of cabling transmit multicast traffic at a minimal rate to ensure that all
in their designs. There are some issues to be aware of, however, listening clients will be able to receive the traffic. This results in
when replacing dedicated connections with wireless links: low aggregate bandwidth over the wireless AP as it has to lower
its transmit rate down from the maximum.
1. Need latency tolerance. Today’s wired Ethernet
connections are full duplex. This means that each end device can 3. Low bandwidth requirements. Make sure that
both transmit and receive at the same time. On the other hand, your application’s bandwidth requirements are low enough to
wireless technologies such as 802.11a/b/g/n are half duplex. be satisfied by the lower rates. Many designers overlook these
This means that when any one device is transmitting, all other points and experience problems when moving to wireless
devices must wait. Make sure that your application is designed solutions. Being aware of the limitations of wireless technology
to be tolerant of the latency introduced due to the half duplex can ensure that your upfront design will work in a wireless
nature of wireless. deployment.

2. Control multicast traffic. When implementing wireless 4. Don’t take shortcuts with wireless. Consider the
technology in factory automation projects, be aware of any entire system design and the support lifecycle of the system
multicast traffic coming from PLCs or producer devices. Multicast before choosing technology and vendors. Time spent up front
traffic is handled differently than unicast traffic by wireless on site surveys, path loss calculations and fade margin will pay
access points. Multiple devices can receive multicast traffic, while dividends when it comes time for installation. Design in fade

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continued

Four tips for dealing with wireless latency and bandwidth issues

margin. Wireless is very reliable when well designed, but if you


don’t design in appropriate fade margin you’ll have problems in
the future.

5. Be prepared for surprises. The factory floor is packed


with noise sources. Changes to equipment or the presence of
materials that can block the signal can interfere with even the
best design. Even something as seemingly simple as a new
microwave in the break room can create a headache. When
problems appear, the first thing to ask is what has changed. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 174 / 252

How network management systems aid firmware,


configuration updates
As technology advances, automation projects today are deployed, it can become challenging and time-consuming.
becoming more and more complicated. Many times engineers
are focused on the design of the end application and fail to The order in which the network devices are updated can make
spend enough time thinking about the ongoing needs of the a big difference in the connectivity of the network and needs to
network. be planned out as well. Another common problem is failure to
plan how configurations of your network devices will be backed
Today’s automation projects are always connected to some up after changes are made. You want to ensure that when a
sort of network. A reliable network is an integral part of the device needs to be swapped out, its configuration can be quickly
successful automation project. If you fail to plan for the growth installed on the replacement device with no ambiguity as to
of the network or plan the management aspect of it, the project which features to enable.
is bound to run into problems down the line when it is too late
to change things. Over time, as new functionality is added to the system, changes
may be required to the network topology. Unfortunately, hand-
Most network devices contain firmware and need to be updated drawn documents of network diagrams are the last thing to get
for security patches or increased functionality over time. updated and often get overlooked. This can lead to problems
Failure to plan for how firmware updates will be accomplished later on when new systems engineers are assigned to maintain
in the running system can lead to misconfiguration and long the project. In addition, the ability to generate an inventory
downtimes. When you only have a few devices deployed, this report that details the exact devices on your network can aid in
can be a simple task to accomplish. When you have many upgrading and maintaining the network.

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How network management systems aid firmware, configuration updates

In order to manage these kinds of tasks, include an NMS, or


network management system, in your systems design up front.
An NMS should be capable of not only managing a single
vendor’s equipment, but should include third-party devices as
well. Make sure that your NMS has the capability to discover
devices added to the network. It should also be capable of auto-
topology, which can document the connectivity in the system.
Firmware upgrade and device configuration and documentation
must also be present to ensure ease of maintenance.

Including an NMS also provides for ongoing monitoring of


network availability and stability. Having the capability to look
at the availability of network links can help to isolate problems
in the network before they become critical. It’s also important
to have the ability to replay network conditions after a problem
occurs. This can aid in isolating the root cause. Planning for these
tasks up front will help lower the maintenance costs for your
system. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 176 / 252

Six strategies for creating a secure


industrial network
Security and safety are the same word in many languages. You managed network with a good IT strategy as a starting point for
can’t have a secure system unless you know who’s running the network security.
equipment and what they’re doing. There’s an incredible overlap
between safety and security. They’re both about identifying the 2. Collaboration rules. Keep a logical separation between
bad things that can happen, and finding ways to minimize the enterprise and control networks, including the addition of
chances that they will. In the IT world, it’s about information a firewall between. The policies for the enterprise network
confidentiality. On the plant floor, it’s all about the safety of people cannot be the same for control networks. The two systems have
and the process. Here are some ideas for improving security in an different performance requirements, reliability requirements,
industrial environment: operating systems and applications, risk management goals,
security architectures, security goals and different assumptions
1. Pay attention to the basics. Network security can be a about security. By discussing these differences and gaining an
complex topic. Most IT security experts say the implementation understanding of each group’s expectations and priorities, IT
of basic security features available on network devices solves and control engineers within an organization can develop a solid
over 90 percent of concerns. Basic tools such as port security, foundation for communication and cooperation. IT and control
VLANs, routed interfaces and simple firewall features can stop the engineers should define a role list to avoid misunderstandings.
majority of malware and intrusions. As a simple practice, use a Collaboration should be the rule, not the exception. On the plant

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Six strategies for creating a secure industrial network

floor, use network equipment designed specifically for industrial accessibility, lockable PLC panels, server rooms), hazard protection
applications. (fire, floods, EMI, etc.), a disaster recovery plan and other features
as appropriate to the needs and concerns of your business.
3. Be on your guard. As with functional safety, the objects
involved in security are not only devices or equipment. There are 5. Defense-in-depth. In the past, industrial network security
human factors as well. Security is more challenging than safety, was accomplished through air gaps. Essentially, this relied on
because it’s always in a state of dynamic change. New malware, having physically separated or isolated systems to protect plant
viruses, worms and tools arise every day. Defenders need to be equipment and networks from the rest of the world. This type of
awake all the time. In an industrial environment, it’s more difficult security resulted in industrial systems with software that wasn’t
than in an office environment. The plant is not allowed to shut kept up-to-date with the latest security patches, as well as pockets
down its process. So policy, procedures and cooperation are very of unsecured networking equipment. Now these systems are
important in implementing an industrial security strategy. slowly becoming connected to public networks for the purposes
of remote administration, programming and monitoring, making
4. Develop a security policy. In addition to malware them vulnerable to many threats. In order to protect these
issues, implementation of a security policy should also include: networks, a defense-in-depth strategy should be deployed. This
an authentication mechanism, data backup procedures, off- type of defense protects in several places, such that bypassing a
site backup of electronic media, physical protection (such as single security device does not provide unfettered access to the

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Six strategies for creating a secure industrial network

rest of the network. A defense-in-depth provide an in-depth defense against many


strategy should provide secure remote attacks aimed at industrial systems. Protect
access through the use of VPN gateways to your network at the site level, internal zone
provide encrypted access at the external and cell levels.
boundaries. The internal zone boundaries
should employ firewall and network 6. Prioritize your efforts. Every
address translation. This can limit the control system has one or more assets that
scope of access by an internal action such would seriously impact production, safety
as a phishing or a virus introduced by a or the environment if successfully attacked.
trusted device inside the network, such as These might be the SIS (safety integrated
Protecting control systems
accessing a malicious external website. It system) in a refinery, the PLC controlling For more information about protecting
industrial control and SCADA systems
can also provide critical device protection chlorine levels in a water filtration plant or
from security threats, download the
by isolating malfunctioning devices from the RTU in an electrical substation. Plant
white paper at
broadcasting packets to the entire network personnel know what really matters in an
and creating a denial of service. Employing operation. If these assets are aggressively http://awgo.to/020
an industrial VPN/NAT/firewall/router protected, the chance of a truly serious Source: Tofino Security
at multiple places in your network can cyber incident is massively reduced. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 179 / 252

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Six strategies for creating a secure industrial network

Security threats confront every


manufacturing plant
Network security is becoming a more important issue. which are planned and intentional. Now consider the cost
With manufacturing facilities becoming more wired and impact if the facility was maliciously shut down, or if only
automated, as well as accessible from outside the facility, one operation in the facility was disrupted. The cost could be
external security is becoming an issue that in the past was devastating.
typically not even a consideration.
With all of the eavesdropping and international espionage
Security, from both outside and from within the facility must in the news, it is becoming more important to secure the
now be incorporated as part of any automation project. automated facility and protect operations from outside
Consider how much cost is involved when the production interests (including foreign governments). Cost is becoming
facility is shut down for standard maintenance operations, less an issue when compared to the potential damage that
» CONTINUED ON PAGE 180

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Six strategies for creating a secure industrial network

could be caused by a breakdown in security. Don’t skimp by In addition, there are security threats from within the facility.
using cheap security software. A hack or virus in a system These can be as innocent as an accidental modification to
can cause the entire business to be compromised. a production program or as intentional as a disgruntled
employee. While many security issues can be solved by
External access is only one security consideration. What if better human behavior, there’s no way to guarantee that the
an outside interest gained access to your operation solely behaviors threatening your facility will actually change.
for the purpose of accessing your information without your
knowledge? Gaining access to your product manufacturing Take all of these threats into account when developing
process, your supply chain and other aspects of your a security plan. Considering the risks to your business, it
production could provide invaluable information to an shouldn’t be difficult to justify implementing a security plan
unscrupulous competitor. All of these factors and potential for your facility. 
threats should more than justify the cost of implementing a
security plan for your facility.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 181 / 252

Seven details to remember when


implementing network security
Network security is absolutely necessary for today’s industrial and servers—to reduce traffic where it is not required. Access
networks. Failure to restrict access can be disastrous. Access to to the management interface of your network switches can also
your network by untrained persons can lead to misconfigured be controlled. Utilize an accessible IP list to limit administrative
network devices. Access to unsecured ports can lead to network access to your network devices. This list will only allow
loops being accidentally created. Here are a few security details to connections to the management interface of a switch from a
keep in mind when constructing your network: list of pre-selected IP addresses. To further prevent access to
the management interface, a separate management VLAN can
1. Keep production running. Recovery and uptime are be created for this purpose as well. However, many industrial
the critical priorities on the factory floor. Make sure security networks operate in a single VLAN with a flat IP scheme. Creating
systems function in a familiar way so that people on the separate VLANs can introduce a bit more complexity into the
plant floor who are used to dealing with control systems can average system, but the accessible IP list can often provide just
understand them. For example, don’t create a security system the right amount of protection along with the desired simplicity.
that shuts down the equipment if a panicked operator enters the
wrong password in an emergency situation. 3. Use managed switches. Design your network with
managed switches, which allow data flow control and reduce loads
2. Divide VLANs. Separate your production floor assets on the network. These devices contain a management interface
from the management functions (office computers, reception that will give you great control over their operation, as well as
door locks, etc.) using different VLANs. It’s often useful to divide limit access to the network. Unmanaged switches do not provide
the production network into three sections—PLCs, HMI users any type of control and allow any device to be plugged into the

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Seven details to remember when implementing network security

network. Managed switches also allow the network designer to of a network. Loop prevention protocols include the spanning
disable any unused ports. This prevents unauthorized devices from tree variations such as rapid spanning tree. For industrial
gaining access to the network. The ports can either be disabled or applications, these can be too slow, but optimized solutions
be configured to use a central RADIUS server, which can control such as TurboChain and broadcast storm prevention (BSP) can
access to them using 802.1X. This requires a bit more configuration, provide response time in milliseconds to prevent network loops
but allows for all your network devices to have a single user from occurring. These features can be used to prevent a malicious
database that is centrally administrated, rather than have to manage denial of service outage from occurring as well as prevent an
user names and passwords on individual switches. Make sure you accidental Ethernet cable loopback.
change the default admin password of the switch. It typically comes
set to a default and many fail to change it. It goes without saying 5. Look for redundancy and robustness. Having
that this is a big problem and it should always be changed. equipment that is easy to disrupt makes an attacker’s job easier.
All network components, including cabling, cabinets and active
4. Guard against network loops. Many industrial equipment, need to be industrially hardened, resilient and have
networks are designed with redundant paths in the system and high mean-time-between-failure (MTBF) ratings because of
already employ a redundancy/loop prevention mechanism. This the harsh environments found in an industrial facility. Active
is also a feature of a managed switch. Without loop prevention components in an industrial network, such as switches and
protocols, any port can be connected with an Ethernet cable routers, need to support industrial redundancy technologies
back into another port on a switch and create a broadcast and the level of redundancy required for your production needs.
storm. This can cripple the switch as well as the network. This This will keep operations going in the event of malware or other
kind of problem can also be tricky to track down and flush out network intrusions.

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Seven details to remember when implementing network security

6. Early network warning system. Integrating security 7. Optimize firewalls to protect the right
with industrial control systems is critical for both support and protocols. Firewalls should be optimized to secure SCADA
security event monitoring in a network. Using such a system will protocols such as Modbus and OPC, rather than email or web
facilitate the detection of unusual activity on the network, an area traffic, which have no place on a plant floor system. Products
that is typically poorly done in the industrial automation world. that inspect email and web traffic simply add cost and
Plant personnel need to be immediately alerted if a read-only complexity to the security solution. Design your security system
remote operator station suddenly tries to program a PLC. Waiting to handle very wide power ranges, since the plant floor often
for the IT team to analyze the event the next day is too late. has dirty power. 

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continued

Four key steps to planning your wireless network


Running a reliable and secure industrial network is a top priority 1. Wireless data collection: Do you have an area that
for engineering, operations and IT. In order to achieve this, more someone visits frequently to manually collect data? Is there an
devices are being connected to each other and to external area that should be on your energy management system, but
systems, creating the rise of the IIoT and making the task of isn’t? Is there a remote device you’d like to gain visibility to?
protecting control networks more complicated than it has been
in the past. Wherever data is being manually collected today, wireless data
collection can be a more efficient option. This could include
The benefits of increased connectivity come with concerns of energy monitoring systems, condition monitoring information
greater potential for cyber attacks or accidental cyber incidents. (e.g., fan or motor vibration, balance) and any remote devices
Though concerns are legitimate, it is partially misinformed (e.g., sensors, motors, valves) that exist.
because of the assumption that older automation protocols are
secure. Regardless of whether fears stem from an outdated frame 2. Remote video monitoring: Do you have unmanned
of reference or from true security risks, it is common sense make network equipment that is difficult to access? Does your plant or
the most of wireless networks while keeping the principles of facility have remote areas that are challenging to access?
cybersecurity in mind.
A live video feed can help monitor these remote areas, as well
No matter where you are on the Industrial Internet of Things as hard-to-reach equipment. Monitoring hazardous areas,
path, adopting wireless technology will be a big part of it. Given and potentially detecting dangerous situations early, can also
that reality, here are a few key points to consider: contribute to increased workplace safety.

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Four key steps to planning your wireless network

3. Mobile workforces: What efficiencies could you realize solutions can satisfy these business needs. But you must realize
by having any data at your fingertips, no matter where you are? that not every company is the same when it comes to wireless
technology deployment. 
Improvements to worker productivity are possible with remote
management and control of all systems and process—whether
it’s a worker walking a manufacturing floor with a tablet device
or a network manager checking the status of an unmanned
system at a different location. Essentially, you can take the
control room with you.

4. Backing up wired connections: Do you have a


particular area of the network that’s troublesome, or a piece of
equipment that has caused a network failure?

Wireless technology can provide redundancy for wired systems


and help ensure a network stays up and running despite
potential failures, for instance, due to a broken cable.

If you want to network places you’ve never networked before,


or collect data from new or isolated locations, industrial wireless

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 186 / 252

The three biggest concerns in


wireless cybersecurity
There are many factors to include when designing a wireless • Determine who should help with the risk assessment (consider
network. For example, you should consider the amount of data IT personnel, an executive, and a person from each type of job
being transferred, as well as the how many nodes or devices need in your company).
to be connected—both today and in the future. Critical to your
plan is considering the level of security that’s required, and taking • Identify critical assets. 

steps to ensure your network is protected:
• Prioritize and list the largest risks for each asset.
1. Start with a risk assessment. The first principle of
cybersecurity is to understand your network’s level of risk and • Prioritize the list of industrial security assets. 

rate the state of cyber defenses at your facilities. Purchasing these
assessments from third parties can be costly. However, you can • Determine and rate existing protection measures. However,
implement a zero-cost industrial security risk assessment. While don’t stop analyzing your risk after you’ve completed these
this might not be for everyone, it can be a viable option for a steps—no security measures are 100 percent foolproof. The
company that can’t afford a third-party assessment, but also can’t best security requires that you monitor, evaluate and improve
afford to do nothing. your plans regularly to ensure current measures are working
effectively and to recognize new or developing risks to your
The steps for implementing a zero-cost industrial security risk network.
assessment include the following:

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The three biggest concerns in wireless cybersecurity


2. Plan a defense-in-depth strategy. After completing 3. Protect the crown jewels first. Lastly, you must
the risk assessment, you need to create a plan to secure your prioritize the crown jewels. What are the crown jewels? Think
network. The most effective approach is defense in depth (DiD), of the systems that would cause a complete disaster for your
which includes multiple layers of defense distributed throughout network if they were shut down (either unintentionally or
the control network. maliciously). Protecting the crown jewels means focusing your
protection efforts on your most important assets.
A well-developed DiD strategy includes:
Control systems have become complex and difficult to protect at
•M
 ultiple layers of defense instead of relying on a single point of all times, so use the method that the smart IT teams are using and
security. focus your resources on securing those assets that really matter to
the survival of the company.
Differentiated layers of defense, ensuring an attacker can’t access
all subsequent layers after getting past the first. Don’t let the complications brought on by IIoT’s increased
connectivity or the high cost of formal risk assessments keep
• C ontext- and threat-specific layers of defense— meaning each you from protecting your network effectively. By taking the right
layer is optimized to deal with a specific class of threats. steps to understand your threats, choosing a layered approach
to your security, and prioritizing your most important assets,
• A network protected by using a DiD strategy adds security you can successfully protect your network in our increasingly
solutions inside the control system, limiting the impact to the connected world.
zone where the problem began, and using alarm messages to
pinpoint the zone and the source of the problem.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 188 / 252

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The three biggest concerns in wireless cybersecurity

With redundant communications, high-speed data transfer and


firewall protection, wireless technology has made great strides.
With these considerations, a custom network infrastructure
that taps wireless technology can be designed with the right
specifications or needs in mind. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 189 / 252

17 considerations for I/O engineering success


The days when every device in an automated system had to are voltage or current, any handshaking requirements and dry
be installed using multiple wires are over. While proper system contact digital or higher-level communication. It seems simple,
design can still be challenging, technology advances in I/O have but one key component that doesn’t match up with the I/O you
greatly reduced engineering and installation time and the wiring select can cause big headaches.
errors that once caused frustrating delays in the commissioning
of new automated equipment. 4. Field electronics. Ensure that I/O electronic interfaces
can be implemented directly in the field, allowing you to replace
1. Motion needs deterministic I/O. Try to have the junction box multi-conductor back to the equipment, rack
deterministic data transfer. If motion is I/O-sensitive, then you or MCC room. Field electronics need to be G3 rated per ISA
need deterministic I/O to synchronize to the motion task, so that standard (S71.04).
events happen in the same time interval.
5. Shorten commissioning. I/O allocation plays a key
2. Quick connections. When selecting a terminal block for role in reducing the commissioning duration of an automation
your control cabinet, look for one that has pre-built jumpers that project, followed by appropriate loop testing prior to start of
can be installed quickly. This will save time later. commissioning activities.

3. Match specifications. It’s important to know all the 6. Delay layouts. The design team working on the project
information about any components you are interfacing to when should not begin the planning and layout drawings for
you develop specifications for a project. If others are supplying distributed I/O in the facility until all equipment OEMs have
parts, find out whether they are NPN or PNP, if analog signals provided general arrangements. Provide the team with an overall

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17 considerations for I/O engineering success


scope on what these cabinets are called by name, and what area I/O systems. The options now available to the designer are
of the facility each will handle. Timing of this design phase with limited mostly by hardware price point, once you understand
the upfront engineering will save time and money. the purpose, location and lifecycle issues. Just because a thing
can be done, however, does not mean that it should. Remote
7. Leave room for expansions. Make sure your new I/O options, for example, are growing, which can reduce
control cabinets have plenty of room for all I/O points needed in wiring and terminal block needs in some cases by over 50-80
that cabinet. Also allow room for expansions that will be required percent compared to what was available just 10 years ago. But
for unanticipated changes and upgrades In the future. For I/O serious thought has to be given to proper documentation and
wiring, plan to label the parts of the circuit wiring that connect training of plant personnel to repair and maintain the system
to the I/O points from that side of the devices with the program and prevent downtime. The documentation should include
addresses. This will lessen the time needed for your techs to troubleshooting methodology in addition to part number,
troubleshoot issues with those circuits later on. The rest of the manufacturer, MAC address, etc. The control software should
circuit labeling should be based on the print line numbers. also be integrated with the remote I/O layout to allow for either
remote troubleshooting or status information. If these simple
8. Diagnostics. Make use of the built-in diagnostic things are not properly accounted for and implemented, the
information provided by most I/O systems. Good information for actual usage of the remote I/O may not be worth the savings.
the operator can save you a lot of production time.
10. Display I/O status. Always represent the I/O status on
9. Bundle commons. Make sure all commons are bound the HMI display to allow fast identification of a communication
together to avoid transient voltage fluctuations and erratic problem in the remote I/O. This will reduce reaction time and
signals. There are many design pitfalls to avoid when developing allow factory personal to more easily provide service.

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17 considerations for I/O engineering success


11. Support protection. Use an I/O technology that has will cause issues over time. The idea of retightening based upon
support for both IP20 and IP67 protection in all signal types the manufacturer’s recommendations will actually cause the
needed. This would include illuminated LED ring key operator blocks to be stressed and contribute to more failures over time.
stations, pneumatic valve controllers and operator stations that
eliminate hard-wired push buttons and indicators. Link them all 14. Weather protection. The design for input, output
on a single digital fieldbus. or any other modular devices must have a protective type
of material to protect against weather exposure and other
12. Require plug-in wiring. While plug-in I/O modules environmental conditions. This weather-protective material will
are common today, some suppliers still offer wired modules. definitely extend the lifecycle of the device.
Whenever there is a module failure, it takes about 10-15
minutes to replace a module with terminal wiring. This 15. Is it off? Recognize that electronic outputs are not
increases plant downtime. Always insists on I/O modules with completely de-energized when switched to the off position.
plug-in wiring. While more expensive, the initial capital cost Final elements such as pilot solenoid valves need a turn-off level
for pre-built termination assemblies is more than offset by higher than the output turn-off level; otherwise, the solenoid
the saving on engineering, construction and commissioning. valve will not turn off.
These factoryassembled, tested, certified and proven modules
eliminate much of the typical design, construction and startup 16. Provide spares. Design to the I/O requirements but
headaches. allow an additional 20 percent to serve as design spares in case
of failures during commissioning or surprise requirements.
13. Don’t retighten. It may seem counter-intuitive, but
continuing to check terminal blocks to make sure they are secure

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17 considerations for I/O engineering success

17. Configuring intelligent devices. Users of modern REMOTE/IO PITFALLS


control systems can place their I/O close to their sensors and
actuators and transport information to a higher-level controller There are many design pitfalls to avoid when developing I/O systems.
over a fieldbus cable. The cost-savings is tremendous compared The options now available to the designer are limited mostly by
to the days when hundreds of field devices had to be wired hardware price point, once you understand the purpose, location and
back to a central controller with multiple wires per device. Today lifecycle issues. Just because a thing can be done, however, does not
engineers can consider IO-Link to gain similar benefits when mean that it should. Remote I/O options, for example, are growing,
wiring complex end-devices. IO-Link-enabled devices not only which can reduce wiring and terminal block needs in some cases by
help reduce wiring costs, but the technology allows users to over 50-80 percent compared to what was available just 10 years ago.
configure intelligent field devices from multiple vendors over But serious thought has to be given to proper documentation and
a fieldbus network. This eliminates the need for an engineer or training of plant personnel to repair and maintain the system and
technician to use a vendor-specific handheld device connected prevent downtime. The documentation should include troubleshooting
to the sensor for calibration or configuration procedures. If you methodology in addition to part number, manufacturer, MAC address,
have ever tried to calibrate a capacitance level probe on a large etc. The control software should also be integrated with the remote I/O
tank, you know the challenges of this procedure. Being able to layout to allow for either remote troubleshooting or status information.
calibrate a device over a fieldbus network greatly simplifies the If these simple things are not properly accounted for and implemented,
process.  the actual usage of the remote I/O may not be worth the savings.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 193 / 252

Five steps to achieving functional safety

There was a time safety resided in the components safety relays, 1. Assess hazards and risks. Review machine/design and
pressure mats, light curtains, etc. Any time sensors indicated processes to identify hazardous operations. Quantify the risk of
inappropriate conditions, the relays would cut power to the hazardous conditions occurring during operations.
machine. Today, the focus is on functional safety, in which safety
is defined and executed in the function of the machine. Safety 2. Mitigate risk. Develop a strategy to reduce risk by
is not a question of which components are attached to the designing it out; adding safety measures; or by developing
machine but how the machine is designed to operate as a whole. procedures, information for use (alarms, signals, etc.), and
training to enable personnel to remain safe during risky
tAlthough functional safety is designed to protect workers, operations. Software applications exist for safety planning and
it has an essential side benefit of reducing downtime and monitoring to simplify the process.
increasing productivity. Organizations frequently find that safety
investments can pay for themselves. 3. Implement functional safety. Build the machine,
focusing on best practices including safety-rated components,
Europe has led the functional safety effort with the development redundant design, protection against common-cause and
of a family of functional safety standards. Efforts are underway common-mode failure, etc. Safety PLCs and/or safety drives can
to develop and apply functional safety standards in the be used to place a motor in a safe state any time an enclosure
United States, as well. Here, we list the key steps involved in is breached, for example. These safe states can include options
implementing functional safety on a machine. like Safe Direction and Safe Speed that enable operations to
continue without compromising employee safety.

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Five steps to achieving functional safety

4. Verify and validate safety. Test and confirm that ESSENTIAL SAFETY STANDARS
safety system operates as designed.
Each of the steps above must be conducted according to the corre-
sponding safety standard. This includes specific standards for tasks like
5. Document and achieve certification. risk assessment and verification. Do your research to ensure that you
choose the standard that applies to the specifics of your system, indus-
try, application, and geographic area. The following functional safety
standards are key:

• IEC EN 61508: Primary functional safety standard, defines safety


integrity level (SIL) framework.

• IEC 61511: Functional safety standard focused on safety instrument


systems for the process industry

• IEC 62061: Machine-based functional safety standard for safety-


related electrical, electronic, and programmable electronic control
systems. Details the implementation of IEC 61508 for different ap-
plication sectors and machine designs.

• ISO EN 13849: ISO version of functional safety standard. Defines


safety performance level (PL).

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 195 / 252

Seven Safety Functions That Can Save You Money

There was a time safety meant electromechanical relays that 1. Safe Torque Off (STO): Removes power to the motor
cut power to the equipment anytime an operator hit the e- stop but leaves the drive energized. This puts the equipment in a safe
button. Although this was effective, it was hard on equipment state while making it faster and easier to restart.
and often more extreme than circumstances warranted.
Frequent stops cause premature failure in the safety relays. 2. Safe Stop 1 (SS1): This controlled stop enables
Restarting equipment added delays and extended costly equipment to be slowed before STO is invoked. It is an active
downtime. braking operation that can safely and more effectively stop
equipment with high kinetic energy.
Today, the modern crop of safety standards such as EN/IEC
62061, EN/ISO 13849-1 and IEC61800-5-2 enable equipment to 3. Safe Operating Stop (SOS): Drive holds motor in a
invoke safe states as defined by the function of the system. This static position to within a certain tolerance defined for the drive.
functional safety is implemented by safety-enabled drives and Torque to the motor is not removed; the motor is just held to
PLCs. Functional safety makes it possible to protect workers and zero speed.
equipment while minimizing the impact of those measures on
operating costs and productivity. Here are a few of the key safety 4. Safe Stop 2 (SS2): Controlled braking ramp, once again,
functions that you should know about: suitable for equipment with high kinetic energy. SS2 is typically
followed by SOS, rather than STO.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 196 / 252

continued

Seven Safety Functions That Can Save You Money

5. Safe Brake Control (SBC): Controls an external holding 7. Safe Direction (SDI): Restricts drive signal so that
brake in conjunction with safety drive. Typically applied to loads motion takes place in a single direction. This can enable
on vertical axes. operations involving workers to take place at higher speeds, for
example pulling a gripper away from the operator at full speed
6. Safely Limited Speed (SLS): Sets a maximum speed because the direction of motion does not present a risk. It can
at which the drive can run the motor. Useful for protecting also be used for maintenance operations like cleaning rollers.
operators when they are working in close proximity to These can be conducted as clean-and-jog procedures but with
equipment. It enables them to use the power of the motor to SLS and SDI, the rollers can be commanded to rotate away from
assist them in clearing jams without placing them at risk. the operator at a low speed to enable continuous cleaning.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 197 / 252

Ten human factors to consider when developing


safety systems
People will do whatever they have to do to get the job done, with, you’re actually inviting them to override the safety system
even if that means evading systems designed to keep them safe. in order to get their jobs done. End users should make sure
Engineers who design safety systems need to keep that fact top they see a new machine operate with all the safety features
of mind. Here are some tips for dealing with the human variable: functioning before they accept the machine.

1. Understand human nature. It is not enough to rely 3. Maintain productivity. In surveys, the top response
on industry standards to develop machine safety. You must among workers who override safety systems is that they
work with the manufacturing crews. They have so much insight needed to maintain productivity. Make sure the safety system
into what people are actually going to do to improve their is designed so that it is not a productivity bottleneck. That
throughput and efficiencies, even if it requires them to work will eliminate the temptation for operators to bypass safety
around safety systems. It’s just human nature. By communicating measures and put themselves at risk.
and observing your workforce, you will be able to develop more
robust machine safety systems that will still allow for efficiency 4. Safety education. Machine safety is primarily an
as well as protect your workforce. education issue. Convincing the end customer about the
advantages of safety is difficult, but not impossible. Most end
2. Don’t invite overrides. When designing a safety users view safety systems as a detriment to production, when
system, it’s essential to understand how an operator or the opposite is the case. Good safety principles and finding
maintenance technician needs to interact with a machine. It a vendor who has the products and expertise to assist is 90
you make the safety system too extreme or complex to deal percent of the battle.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 198 / 252

continued

Ten human factors to consider when developing safety systems


5. Operator safety. Wherever operator safety is required, seriously impaired and, even worse, unsafe conditions may
you need to ensure that it is a foolproof and mistake-proof arise. Bringing their viewpoints into the design review process
system. There’s no room for a safety failure because of operator will help eliminate costly surprises during the testing or rollout
mistake or negligence or bypassing of a few sensors. Also, phases. By conducting proper meetings and maintaining
while interlocking equipment, always consider the adjacent clear communication with all impacted personnel, project
equipment if it is sequence-related to the equipment. There have management is demonstrated and confidence is instilled in the
been many incidents of hand injury because the operator forgot management of change.
to put the adjacent equipment in manual mode before adjusting
his machine’s setting. 7. Pay now, or pay later. Saving someone from injury by
paying for training courses is better than losing production due
6. Get real feedback. Arrange cross-functional meetings. to an injury or downtime from faulty equipment.
This means real meetings that have a purpose, where everyone
contributes and that result in good documentation. This is key 8. Is it needed? Make sure you are on the same page as
to having a safe approach when integrating controls, interfaces the machine builder or system integrator when making design
and other automation gear that enhance the workplace. It is decisions about machine safety. A lot of money can go towards
easy to create a negative condition when upgrading, especially guarding, only to find that the machine will be in a secure
when it’s a poorly supported or poorly organized project. area that cannot be accessed during operation. On the other
Without representatives assembled to discuss every interacting side, the end user should not cut costs by eliminating machine
department’s needs (such as training, maintenance, service, safety features just because they don’t understand the need for
emergency conditions, etc.), the project’s purpose will not implementing safety systems.
be properly communicated, the buy-in for the change will be

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 199 / 252

continued

Ten human factors to consider when developing safety systems

9. Networked vs. hardwired safety. When designing


a modern, network-based safety system, it is important to first
understand the fundamental differences and advantages of
networked vs. hardwired safety. Without this understanding, the
resulting system does not take full advantage of the power of
microprocessor-based safety control and may end up using more
hardware than necessary.

10. Interlock considerations. Always find out the


design and operating parameters of the equipment before
implementing safety interlocks in the logic. Determine the trade-
off between process conditions and equipment specs before
selecting the tripping level. Ensure regular checking of the logic
to find if some interlock has been bypassed. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 200 / 252

Five priorities in designing safety systems

Functional safety takes more than standards Machine safety design should always be done with the
understanding of how and when to compartmentalize (partition)
A misunderstanding between management, operators and machine safety. This helps to avoid the nightmarish outcome
maintenance personnel over just what “safety” constitutes is that maintenance and/or operator personnel have to jump over
one of the most consistent pitfalls to functional safety. OSHA is a or bypass some safety features that do not affect actual human
regulatory body, not an industry resource. OSHA can give advice, safety or the safe operation of the equipment in order to meet
issue fines and warn, but functional safety can only be delivered deadlines or make necessary repairs. This almost invariably leads
with proper understanding, training and commitment, combined to a permanent bypass or short that can eventually cause real
with an atmosphere generated by management that encourages harm.
and demands safety in equipment, operators and maintenance
personnel. When in design, each machine must be reviewed for safety. This
review should be performed with operators, maintenance, the
Machine safety systems are too often overly complicated and OEM and the engineer. Once the machine is reviewed, perform
designed, constructed and documented poorly. When designing the same review as an overall interlock from machine to machine.
safety features, understand that trying to make something Getting everyone’s input and buy-in is critical in having the safety
foolproof is foolhardy. of the line maintained and understood without being avoided or
“jumped” out.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 201 / 252

continued

Five priorities in designing safety systems


In any automation project, safety should always be your first effect on safety. Typical examples include workers removing
priority, because for your business to be successful, you need to guards or leaving things open that should be closed or even
consider human safety first, and then cell safety next. You never removing parts that seem to be getting in the way. Next thing
want operators or engineers to be hurt during production. Here you know, accidents happen and someone gets hurt. Safety
are some up-front considerations in designing safety systems: and productivity are linked in an obvious way in industrial
environments. New machine safety regulations deal with
1. Careful integration. How automation cells are integrated productivity and safety together, encouraging engineers and
with other equipment is a key priority in designing safety designers to consider performance and safety at the same time.
systems. If careful planning is not considered, you will end up This systems-oriented approach seems to work better in the long
crashing equipment and causing downtime. Safe design extends run because it emphasizes the fact that when people get hurt,
through the spectrum of mechanical design, from what types the production process slows dramatically or even stops.
of devices are selected to how they are wired, how they are
programmed and how they are indicated to the operator. Never 3. Risk assessment. Perform a risk assessment during the
approach a design from a strictly functional standpoint. It doesn’t initial design of the system, rather than it being an afterthought.
pay to add safety features as an afterthought. Risk assessment determines what level of risk management
should be built into the process or machine. You may be able to
2. Link safety and productivity. Many times, machine save money and floor space, as well as increase productivity and
operators will make changes to machines in order to make the safety, by choosing the product best suited for the application.
process run “easier” or “faster” so that they can keep up with
production schedules. It may seem as if they are enhancing 4. Safety priorities. Any safety-instrumented system
productivity, but these types of changes may have a negative is designed in the following order of priority: health and

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 202 / 252

continued

Five priorities in designing safety systems

environment, assets and production. The processes are 5. Look for balance. Safety should be a key part of
categorized as safety critical and mission critical. The SIS (Safety engineering and design. Engineers always need to play the
Instrumented System) should be designed to comply with the devil’s advocate and consider what could go wrong rather than
required SIL (Safety Integrity Level), as derived by HAZOP (Hazard be optimistic. The term “making things idiot proof” may not be
and Operability Studies). When the initial system design demands politically correct, but should be the mantra of the engineering
a SIS with a SIL, then the design should be revisited to reduce the community. There is usually a high cost associated with striving
hazards to the level where the minimum SIL practicable can be to achieve this, so a balance needs to be struck between being
used. SIL is not for the whole system, but should be achieved for fully protected and using accepted safety practices. Sometimes it
each and every loop. is better to use simple mechanical or structural stops and guards
rather than complex safety systems or instrumented interlocks. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 203 / 252

Eight tips for the technical side of safety systems

From new standards for functional safety to making sure that an 3. Key features for safety systems. Low PFD
e-stop will actually stop everything on a machine, these practical (probability of failure on demand), equivalent to the long-
recommendations address the details of a safety system: accepted TMR (triple modular redundant) benchmark standards,
in either simplex or redundant configurations. Low STR (steps
1. Functional safety. Functional safety, as defined in IEC to reproduce) that meets or exceeds the TMR standard when
61508, is a totally new methodology in automation. It’s based implemented in dual configuration. Exceptional hardware fault
on two main principles: 1. It’s a systems approach. Sensor - tolerance in dual configurations. Safety modules independent
controller - actuator, every component should have the same from the logic solvers. For machines with safety systems offering
SIL/PL. Otherwise, it makes no sense. 2. System/product lifecycle these features, availability has been estimated as high as 99.9999
idea. Today’s safety does not mean tomorrow’s safety. Functional percent.
safety needs a procedure to implement it continuously.
4. Identify risks. Deep dive into Process Hazard Analysis
2. Validate the safety code. Determine each failure mode (PHA) to identify the risks underlying a process. Apply layer-
and validate that it fails to a safe state. Just because the logic of-protection (LOPA) analysis to rate the SIL level and guide
tells you to turn an output on or off when running, does not the SIF design according to IEC 61508/61511. Understand all
necessarily mean it will return to the correct state if there is a aspects of the safety lifecycle before proceeding with design and
fault. It needs to be verified. implementation.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 204 / 252

continued

Eight tips for the technical side of safety systems

5. Send robots home. When programming a robot that technology. They can be very useful for maintenance and for
has the potential for a crash situation and relies on an operator troubleshooting because they can be installed in a manner that
to manually move the robot out of position, program in flags or will satisfy everyone, from the operator to OSHA.
position steps. Then create a program called “home.” After each
critical move/step of your robot in the program, to avoid other 7. Discharge capacitors. On older AC and DC drives, even
machinery or tooling, use a variable, such as “pos,” and assign when locked out, make sure capacitors are fully discharged
it a numeric or other value like zero as the home value. When before removing the front panels and working within the drive.
you create the home program, you can run it and have a series
of “if” statements. For example, if “pos” = 10, then do this. Now 8. Stop everything. Don’t allow OEMs to place e-stop
you know where the robot was positioned when it crashed and buttons on their consoles if they do not stop all equipment in
you can provide a safe route automatically to exit its current the immediate vicinity. 
position and into a safe home position. Make sure to clear your
“pos” values or set them to zero once you make it to the “home”
position. Now the main program can be run from the beginning,
without any worries.

6. Consider magnetic locks. Magnetic lock systems


have come a long way and they really simplify the way you can
design and safeguard a machine. Interlocks are built in and they
are a little harder to bypass than previous generations of the

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 205 / 252

continued

Eight tips for the technical side of safety systems

DON’T OVERLOOK SAFETY DISTANCE CALCULATIONS

The safety of a machine is not guaranteed by simply using a safety laser Consider also the stop time of the entire system. Realize that the stop
scanner in an application. A safety distance calculation needs to be time may include more than just the stopping of the machine. The time
considered to ensure the correct use and functionality of the scanner it takes for the scanner to react, for the stop signal to travel to the ma-
device. chine, for the machine to actually come to a stop and any other delays
must be considered. These delays may be small, but can have an impact
The safety distance calculation will help determine the size of the safety on the overall size required for the safety field.
field or the distance a scanner plane is mounted from a hazard. How will
the device be mounted? Will it be scanning vertically or horizontally? The stop time of the machine will also be used in calculating the safety
If it is vertical, the scanner plane may have to be mounted farther from distance. By implementing this calculation into your design of a safety
the hazard, similar to a light curtain. laser scanner, you will be on your way to properly complying with stan-
dards and achieving greater employee safety.
More commonly, if it is mounted with a horizontal plane, there may be
a chance for reach-over, which would require a larger-sized safety field.
These two possibilities are called the Depth of Penetration and are a
part of the safety distance calculation.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 206 / 252

Wiring, safety PLC programming critical to


machine safety performance
Some common pitfalls in machine safety have to do with not Once you have designed your system, you must program it.
wiring devices correctly. Many devices today can cover a range Pay special attention to what the controller allows you to do in
of safety levels, such as SIL 1 through SIL 3, but have different the safety code. A safety PLC can add many benefits that can
wiring methods. Diagnostic coverage is extremely important help the system be more flexible and increase production. On
with safety and incorrect wiring or an incomplete understanding the other hand, it has to be programmed and must be tested
of the wiring requirements could lead to a lower safety level or a for correct operation during the machine’s commissioning
system that does not work at all. phase. This is a very important step and is often overlooked. Be
sure to inject faults into the safety system to ensure that your
Be sure to follow the manufacturer’s recommended wiring configuration and code give you the desired response.
practices and understand the diagnostics that are performed on
the circuit. Having two devices that perform diagnostics of the A safety PLC can add great benefits to the automation project,
same type may cause the system to not work. An example would but it also can add scan time that may affect the response time
be cross-wire detection where the PLC card checks the circuit by of the safety system. It is important to understand this and to
sending out a pulse on the wire and detecting that pulse back select the right hardware. The response time is very important
on the input. If the device that it is wired to the PLC card does in safety and could make a machine that appears to have all
not pass the pulse through, then the I/O module may fault. This its safety bases covered not respond fast enough to a person
could be corrected by selecting the right devices or a simple working in a highly dangerous area.
hardware setup change. Either way, you need to understand how
safety works.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 207 / 252

continued

Wiring, safety PLC programming critical to machine safety performance

Make sure you document your safety system, from risk


assessment to the testing and checkout phase. Integrated safety
is very flexible and can give great benefits, but pay attention
to the wiring and configuration of the devices. And remember,
time is distance and the scan time may affect the response of
your system on a high-speed machine with close approach
boundaries. 

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208 / 252

SECTION FOUR:
APPLYING TECHNOLOGIES
TO IMPROVE OUTCOMES
FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 209 / 252

Develop a strategy for asset management

When beginning an asset management process, go slowly and to include all the factors, such as operator and maintenance
deliberately with the understanding that it is a process rather training, ease of repair and usage of equipment, which will affect
than an event. Ensure, by free trial runs if possible or in-depth throughput of product, cost of product and cost of using the
research or observation, that the software you purchase for asset.
tracking, generating work orders, inventory control and lifecycle
costs are what you will actually use and not too much or too Develop a program to demonstrate that proper purchasing,
little. operating and maintenance practices are a revenue-generating
process. This will help management realize that ROI is much
After that hurdle has been crossed, you are just beginning a true more than simply purchase price, labor and materials. 
asset management program. Reliability is related to predictive,
proactive maintenance and knowing when and how to run to
end of life. This understanding can rarely be obtained quickly
or simply. Set yourself up for success by using the boots on the
ground as a primary source of input for what works and doesn’t
work. Track, report and verify constantly and consistently.

If the people who make the financial decisions are not onboard,
your program will fail. Cost things correctly, comparing the cost
of maintenance vs. the purchase of new equipment. Make sure

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 210 / 252

Five best practices for more reliable asset


management
Effective asset management requires operating and maintaining (SOPs), the asset has become unsupported. As is often said, it’s
equipment at optimum efficiency. While software is now not over until all the paperwork is in the system. Having proper
widely used to monitor plant systems, human knowledge and a PMs with good procedures is one of the most important aspects
commitment to following best practices are still the foundation of this. Service technicians, whether in-house or contracted,
for achieving the benefits of asset management programs. vary in skill level. By having the testing procedure in hand with a
proper frequency, confidence is established; someone is taking
1. Automate data collection. Data collection is the care of the system. Evidence of service is a requirement these
key to success for asset management. Automating the data days and this PM procedure is the foundation of that evidence.
collection is a must vs. relying on manual data collection Documented service completes the evidence, but a system that
methods such as paper-based logs on clipboards. If data is is producing efficiently and effectively is the best indication that
coming primarily from people logging data manually, data will the system is well maintained.
suffer as well as the goal of improving the equipment.
3. People, not just software. Asset management
2. Catalog capital purchases. If anything is purchased in software has extensive functionality, but to get real benefits
capital fashion, it only makes sense to catalog the asset properly. from it requires dedicated human resources. Those resources
Without cataloging the asset into a maintenance program, also need to be well educated (engineer or high-grade tech),
with all the technical detail and corresponding preventive motivated and have the power to drive maintenance resources
maintenance (PM) requirements, recording it properly into the accordingly. It takes management commitment to providing the
plant’s drawing system or into the active operating instructions proper resources to make asset management programs work.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 211 / 252

continued

Five best practices for more reliable asset management

4. Take a balanced approach. There are many


approaches to asset management. The difficulty comes in how
to balance these approaches. An engineer looks at a machine
and its capacities. An accountant looks at a machine and its
worth. There are many software packages available that will
assist in combining both perspectives. What is very important is
how you track items like downtime. From a technician’s point of
view, it’s about keeping a machine running, not about doing the
paperwork. For the engineer and accountant, it’s about having
data that can be used to justify replacement or upgrading of
equipment on the floor. The bigger the company, the more
important this becomes.

5. Clean sensing lines. Always blow down transmitter


sensing lines on a yearly basis, especially steam. This small tip
can avoid transmitter manifold blocking. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 212 / 252

Four considerations for monitoring


equipment assets
Monitoring and diagnostics are critical factors in asset halt production. The rapid rate of technology evolution makes
management programs. Here are four recommendations for it nearly impossible to stay current with all the options that
creating more effective monitoring systems: engineers and designers have today. Technology now allows
real-time monitoring of machine status, error conditions, the
1. Phase in implementation. If you are connecting temperature of vital components, speed, current draw and a
several pieces of equipment to a remote monitoring system, wealth of other data that an engineer can provide via an HMI or
first connect a few strategic ones and run for several days to other device. With so much information potentially available,
understand issues in the environment or with connectivity, user designers need to assist end users in determining exactly what
expectations, usage patterns, etc. Once you get this feedback information is critical to their operation and the best way to
and fine-tune the system, scaling is not that difficult. But if you present the information. Interaction with the end user is vital.
start directly with all the assets, this would just multiply any The engineer must have a thorough understanding of the
problems. customer’s performance criteria, diagnostics requirements
and problem resolution procedures. Time spent obtaining this
2. Identify diagnostic priorities. Gone are the days information lays the foundation on which the rest of the project
when automation included diagnostic systems that were solely is often based.
driven using binary code triggered by I/O. Today’s manufacturing
environment demands real-time status monitoring and 3. Monitor system. If you are going to collect data from
diagnostics. Trial-and-error diagnostics will no longer suffice for machines using PLCs, you need to include some level of system
problem identification when it comes to resolving issues that monitoring. It may be as simple as a “ping” test to the PLC or a

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 213 / 252

continued

Four considerations for monitoring equipment assets

bit toggle where the application sets or resets a bit. In any case, collection can be simplified by using a PLC with the transmitter
the communications link should be monitored and alerts created and relays in one node. The controller can switch the relays and
when they fail. The alert can be as simple as a line-side machine collect the vibration information from the corresponding pumps
alarm or sending an alert email to a group email for IT and or motors. 
technicians, or even to a centralized operations center monitor.
Monitoring and notification do not need to be complex to be
effective.

4. Shared transmitters. Using real-time vibration


monitoring on large or critical rotating equipment can provide
maintenance staff with valuable information on the health of
their assets. However, continuous monitoring of one pump or
motor may not be required. In most applications it is acceptable
to monitor one rotating asset for a short period of time, say for 5
minutes, and then use the same transmitter to monitor several
other motors or pumps. With this arrangement you will still
need sensors on each piece of equipment, but they can share
one transmitter, reducing costs. A system can be engineered to
use several tandem piezo acceleration sensors wired through
relays so that the transmitter monitors one device at a time. Data

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 214 / 252

Four tips for calibrating equipment

Good calibration practices are an essential part of managing 3. Match transmitter output. When calibrating the
your equipment assets. Here are four tips on proper calibration instrument loop connected to a digital read-out device, it is a
techniques: good idea to fix the read-out measured value and match the
transmitter output, or call it output-vs.-input calibration.
1. Secure connections. When completing calibrations on
thermocouples, pressure transducers and other devices, if you 4. Calibration reminders. An easy way to keep up with
have to unwire the device to put it in a hotwell, make sure you calibration and monitoring systems is via software designed for
get the connections back correct and secure. this purpose (for example, Gage Track). By having a master gauge
for every item, when calibration is due you can send it out to be
2. Calibration expertise. Verify values of actual process recertified per ISO standard. 
data before making calibrations. Calibration should be provided
by trained personnel with very accurate equipment. To maintain
calibration, it is essential that the operator be fully trained on
the use of the equipment. Many individuals have learned bad
habits over time in using equipment and their inability to use it
properly causes a lot of equipment damage.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 215 / 252

18 recommendations for building effective


manufacturing IT systems
Information technologies are giving manufacturers powerful 3. Virtual redundancy. Look to redundancy through
tools for improving their processes, productivity and profitability. virtualization. It is not just a concept that holds for office IT;
Here are some ideas for making manufacturing IT systems more it is very well suited to manufacturing IT. Backup, recovery,
flexible and reliable. simulation, external support (shipping the machine setup to a
supplier or specialist support) processes can all be improved
1. Data model. Most of these technologies are dependent with server virtualization.
upon a rigorous data model. So putting that model in place first,
and understanding the source, importance and use of the data, 4. Build a wall. It is imperative to separate production
is critical. For manufacturing IT systems, it’s setting expectations networks from office networks. This is because production
about what the product can and cannot do, how it can scale, systems do not need access to the Internet and the office
what performance and refresh rates should be, and what data environment does. If a connection must exist, it should be only
types and databases it can interface with. through a firewall gateway system.

2. Common structure. When implementing a multi-site 5. System requirements. It is crucial that developers
MES it is very important to identify common business processes meet and actually listen to the stakeholders. Depending upon
and standardize them across all sites (as far as possible). This will scope and complexity, a number of meetings may be required.
ensure a common data structure and reporting at a central level. You generally cannot expect people to be able to convey all of
their thoughts and gain a clear understanding in one sitting. As
a requirements document is being developed, keep end-user

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 216 / 252

continued

18 recommendations for building effective manufacturing IT systems


priorities in mind. Too often, functional and design requirements 8. Programming languages. Focus on flexibility,
creep into what should be a straightforward requirements expandability and the opportunity to choose what high-level
document. If the requirements document is developed by the programming language meets your company’s needs. The
system integrator, make sure you fully understand, “own” and industry has evolved to where manufacturing programming
sign off what’s in it. languages are no longer the only solution for automation. High-
level languages such as C++, C#, Visual Basic and MatLab, for
6. Start slow. If you are implementing a manufacturing example, can now accomplish this.
intelligence product and are able to create customizable reports,
don’t go out and develop all reports in advance. Implement only 9. Powerful cellular. Many companies don’t fully
a few and start collecting data. Let users get a feel for what is understand the capabilities of Industrial Cellular technology.
possible and then sit with them to collect report requirements. New cellular routers include standard features such as I/O
control, protocol converters, seamless network integration,
7. Cultural barriers. Data is worthless. Information is routing, NAT, firewall and cloud interface, all with LTE speed. The
invaluable. Converting data to actionable information is the goal. major commercial hurdle is that cellular carriers don’t have solid
When developing an information project, you have to consider relationships with control engineers, so major decision-makers
the entire scope. IT consulting firms do an awesome job of are just ignorant of the capabilities. Wireless Ethernet or wireless
building the user requirements, but can miss the connections serial radios certainly have their place, but a deeper knowledge
to the plant floor equipment and processes. Automation of cellular applications could be an industry changer.
integrators understand the plant floor, but can miss the scale and
scope of the user requirements and scalability requirements. The
issues are typically cultural, not technical.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 217 / 252

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18 recommendations for building effective manufacturing IT systems

10. MES Interface. When designing your manufacturing 13. Nurture expertise. Creating a department and slots for
to enterprise connectivity strategy, nothing is more important information engineers is critical for manufacturing excellence.
than reliable data access. It is not uncommon to experience Selection, nurturing and management of computer science,
network failures and lose critical data. Make sure to have a “Plan information technologists and electrical engineering teams,
B” in place, such as storing the data locally to be forwarded once (preferably electrical engineers with a minor in computer science
connection to the database is restored. Using an IT connectivity or communications) will be needed to achieve a well-designed
appliance that resides in the rack along with the automation manufacturing control and data acquisition stream
controller will ensure continuous information collection even
when the connection to the IT system is interrupted. 14. Follow ISA88. Read the manual on ISA88 batch
implementation. Ensure that your physical model has been
11. No hard-coded access. Manufacturing databases, in rigorously tested/debated/challenged before you commence
addition to being on separate and isolated subnets, should also coding
avoid hard-coded database access. Adopt standard Windows
passwords, which are subject to frequent change. This reduces 15. Establish rules. Connections between automation and
the number of passwords a technician needs to memorize and IT involve dealing with different groups of people: automation
allows for logging and accountability for changes. engineers and managers, IT managers and engineers,
network engineers and others. To avoid difficulties, define
12. Scheduling. The scheduling function (or dispatching the management rules (who decides about what), technical
function) is the most important thing for implementing a interfaces (what data, what performance) and cybersecurity, as
manufacturing IT system. well as operating modes in case of failure.

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18 recommendations for building effective manufacturing IT systems

16. Understand databases. The engineering and 18. Use the cloud. There are different reasons why
operational communities need to understand what databases companies are not using cloud technology. Often they don’t
are and aren’t and how powerful they are for data analysis. There know much about it and consequently they have many
is a tendency to fear the complexity of databases and regress to questions and lots of fear about data security, authentication
using spreadsheets. Spreadsheets have their place when small and reliability. A transition to the cloud needs lots of work
amounts of data need to be manipulated. When there is a large and the easiest way is to show the references, let people have
amount of data to be analyzed, databases are the only way to complete access to the management of the application and only
practically house and analyze information. With the right tools, use/gather data which are not critical in order to build trust. Start
nearly unlimited amounts of data can be summarized, analyzed with limited data sets. Typically, critical application data is not
and reported very quickly. put in the cloud; it’s mostly used for aggregated data used in
automated reports and analysis.
17. Use intermediate database. Good, basic design of
relational databases is critical for both performance and flexible
extraction of information. Using an intermediate reporting
relational database for summarizing high-speed historian data
prior to reporting, trending and creating dashboards can offer
the best of both.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 219 / 252

22 ways to get the most out of OEE and lean


manufacturing disciplines
Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) and lean manufacturing rework, thereby increasing throughput in quality. Before building
have won many converts. These two disciplines are frequently a lean cell, talk to your operators, quality people, manufacturing
linked because they provide a systematic way to design engineers and process engineers. Get their input, hold meetings
manufacturing processes, measure their efficiency and identify and keep them in the loop throughout the project. They are the
problems. Here are some tactics to get the most out of your lean main stakeholders who will eventually approve of your cell.
and OEE initiatives:
3. Lean management. Lean manufacturing is a powerful
1. Accessing data. One of the great challenges when concept when employed correctly. The problem is that with
executing a project to gather and report OEE metrics is easy lean, along with other methodologies, one size does not fit all.
access to manufacturing equipment status. The obstacles may Managers can get caught up in how it improved this company
include islands of automation or even equipment that’s not or industry, and then try to implement it internally. What they
automated. Don’t expect that all equipment information is fail to do is penetrate the details of why it worked, what support
available via existing automation systems. Be prepared to install structure is required and how that translates to their internal
simple data acquisition systems to gather the necessary data to business. Lean is as much about management engagement in
track OEE. daily operations as it is about the methodology.

2. Stakeholder input. Lean manufacturing is critical in 4. Measure the right things. Nothing is worse than the
today’s global economy because it helps you drive your output wrong input. OEE is not always a KPI metric in batch operations.
(product efficiency) higher while maintaining low defects and If you speed up the drying process, for example, the OEE goes

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22 ways to get the most out of OEE and lean manufacturing disciplines

down, but you will be making more product in a shorter period 7. Too lean? If you operate with vendors that are stationed in
of time. areas with a high potential for natural disasters, think carefully
about being too lean with your supplies. You’ll need to plan
5. Visual management. Visual management, including for alternative routes and suppliers. Another area that has to
large display screens on the factory floor, are an effective tool be monitored is the amount of time for production to meet
for OEE programs, letting both managers and workers easily customer need. Sometimes manufacturing is too lean and when
monitor the metrics of production lines and track KPIs. Displays there’s a sudden demand, the slow ramp to manufacture can
harness natural human competitiveness. In one experience, cost more money than producing stock.
once data was displayed it started a race between shifts to drive
up OEE. Without any management intervention there was a 20 8. Business support. Make sure the business has
percent increase in productivity. Among the most useful KPIs adopted and fully understands OEE. This can be a huge change
to display: count (good or bad), reject ratio, operating speeds, management nightmare if not well-entrenched prior to the
takt (cycle) time, downtime and OEE (availability multiplied by project (or as part of the project execution). Lean manufacturing
performance and quality) for determining resource utilization. can also be applied to service disciplines, not just product
manufacturing, mostly with only minor adaptations. Look
6. Increase uptime. Lean manufacturing is a very important to these techniques and principles to streamline your own
factor in a production plant. Just by placing materials at the processes and eliminate waste.
point of use within the production floor area, you can increase
production uptime. This is just one small adjustment that will
fine-tune the flow of your product.

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22 ways to get the most out of OEE and lean manufacturing disciplines

9. Meaningful reports. Data capture is quite easy. 12. Efficiency tool. OEE has to be automated to be
Reporting the data in a manner that helps implement change successful. The data needs to be driven from machine status,
can be challenging. Don’t assume a single report is sufficient. not humans inputting the status. Any manually derived OEE
Different users need different data. And that data must be system can be fiddled with to produce the expected 85 percent
presented to each user in a manner that is meaningful. efficiency rate. Improving systems and automating OEE
measurements may bring into question the accuracy of historical
10. Improvement tool. OEE can be a very valuable tool OEE data. To avoid internal politics, put an amnesty in place and
to identify problems within a process. Ensure that everyone promote automated data as a new way of measuring OEE. On
understands what the three elements are that make up OEE: the other hand, the only reason to use OEE is to help drive an
availability, speed and quality, and how to calculate each. Once improvement process to increase operational efficiency. If that
processes are stabilized, use OEE to drive improvement. isn’t a widely embraced priority, then save yourself lots of time,
money and effort.
11. Software less important. Software selection plays
only a small part in the OEE process, but that is where customers 13. Improving uptime. OEE can help you identify
spend the most time upfront. Operator involvement, the opportunities to improve your total uptime. First, understand
quality of the integration partner and the ability of the controls the categories that OEE represents. Next, determine what things
hardware to collect data are what truly make an OEE project you want to track and how specific you want to be. There isn’t a
successful. set rule as to what that may be. An example may be that under
your performance efficiency category, you list specific pieces
of equipment in an assembly line to track. By breaking down

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22 ways to get the most out of OEE and lean manufacturing disciplines

your categories you will have better opportunities to make 15. Build on current infrastructure. Do not get over
improvements. The last hurdle is how to capture the data used complicated right from the start. Pick a system that leverages
to calculate OEE. Keep it simple and train your people in how to your existing automation infrastructure, and can be expanded
capture the data you need, what it is and why it’s important. and built upon as your needs change in the future. Do one
machine, or one line, or one department, then refine it so that
14. Sharing data. Information is fundamental to making operations, production, and maintenance all have the types of
good business decisions. However, the information must be information they need, then roll out to other areas.
precise and the amount manageable, not overwhelming. When
installing or defining automation products in a production 16. Maintain balance. Lean manufacturing sounds great
line, it is their capacity to share data across the enterprise to accountants and plant managers, but the upshot of the theory
that is important. One of the major causes of failure when can be destructive if not enough product is produced or the
implementing an OEE project is the infrastructure of the lean process creates inefficiency. Remember, there has to be a
automation and inspection controllers (PLC, vision system, etc. balance.
). Vision systems must be able to communicate openly with
other systems, such as OPC Server or databases. Avoid the use of 17. Make Lean work. Lean manufacturing is all about how
products that operate in a closed system and do not provide a an organization can reduce scrap and waste in the production
ready means to share data. process. Evaluate your flow process, such as where product
is placed before the production area or how the product is
transferred to and from the assembly line. If your production line
stops as a result of parts that are not properly staged on the line,

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22 ways to get the most out of OEE and lean manufacturing disciplines

you have a product flow problem. This becomes a bullet point in protocols, try to select a protocol that is compatible with most
making Lean work in you plant and should be addressed. of your existing devices. Establish a long-range standard where
all your future automation equipment must be compatible with
18. Select a champion. When implementing these the selected protocol. In this way, your infrastructure will provide
projects, make sure there is an official project champion who is the correct framework where your OEE project can be easily
very senior in the implementing organization and can be the implemented.
bridge between staff and management. The champion will need
to drive the changes that will be needed to business processes to 20. Win over minds. The first place to start with OEE is not
achieve a successful project. in the machines, but in the minds of the individuals that the OEE
information is going to help. Without their buy-in the project will
19. Common framework. When implementing projects be no more than a pretty notice board.
for OEE, the communications between systems needs to be
reliable, fast and easy to use and maintain. Ethernet has become 21. Vision drives OEE. Improved process efficiency
the standard in communicating data across automation systems. and profitability through OEE improvements are increasingly
The installed based, along with the expertise already existing in important. Machine vision systems and image-based ID readers
most companies, make Ethernet the most appropriate choice. help with three traditional OEE drivers: material handling,
Avoid devices that use only serial connections (RS-232, RS-485) product quality and package integrity. Vision systems for
or proprietary connections. Try to select one industrial protocol sorting, product orientation and tracking, along with robotic
based on Ethernet. Even though there are some protocol guidance, improve material handling efficiency and flexibility,
converters and gateways that allow the conversion between elevate product quality and yield, and ensure package safety

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22 ways to get the most out of OEE and lean manufacturing disciplines

and integrity. In addition to these OEE drivers, machine vision QUALITY


inspection and image-based ID solutions address emerging
brand protection and compliance drivers. They form a key part Quality takes into account Quality Loss, and is calculated as:
Quality = Good Pieces / Total Pieces.
of the foundation to support track and trace, random mass
serialization and traceability applications. OEE
OEE takes into account all three OEE factors, and is calculated as:
22. C-level needs. OEE is great for benchmarking and it OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality.
works perfectly in theory. Many companies use statistical and It is very important to recognize that improving OEE is not
not real-time data from their production facilities to calculate the only objective.
their OEE. Though OEE is easy to understand in theory, in
practice there are many questions, especially how to properly
calculate it if your manufacturing process often changes, is
dynamic or if some machines are used to produce different
parts/products in the same shift. One solution is to use a simple
wireless sensor network to monitor basic functions in real time
and make a monthly C-level business report based on real-time
production data, which makes much more sense then a detailed,
heavy-to-read collection of graphed information. This way you
can adapt the OEE/lean process to a company’s specific needs
and understanding. 

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22 ways to get the most out of OEE and lean manufacturing disciplines

CALCULATING OEE

As described in World Class OEE, the OEE calculation is based on three Time is the minimum cycle time that your process can be expected to
factors: availability, performance and quality. Here’s how each of these achieve in optimal circumstances. It is sometimes called Design Cycle
factors is calculated: Time, Theoretical Cycle Time or Nameplate Capacity.
Availability Since Run Rate is the reciprocal of Cycle Time, Performance can also be
Availability takes into account Down Time Loss, and is calculated as: calculated as: Performance = (Total Pieces / Operating Time) / Ideal Run
Availability = Operating Time / Planned Production Time. Rate. Performance is capped at 100 percent, to ensure that if an error is
made in specifying the Ideal Cycle Time or Ideal Run Rate, the effect on
Performance
OEE will be limited.
Performance takes into account Speed Loss, and is calculated as: Perfor-
mance = Ideal Cycle Time / (Operating Time / Total Pieces). Ideal Cycle

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15 ideas for improving product lifecycle


management
Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) has been described as different functional responsibilities. It allows them to work
an information strategy that allows organizations to work as a in a parallel rather than linear fashion by creating a shared
single team to design, produce, support and retire the products information resource of product and process knowledge. This
they make, while capturing best practices and lessons learned can encourage innovation, improve quality and shorten time to
along the way. Its goal is to improve the quality of products and market for new products.
processes. Here are some suggestions for selecting and using
PLM systems: 3. Lifecycle costs. When evaluating equipment options,
always include lifecycle costs in the equation. In most capital
1. Don’t let tools dictate process. Project teams equipment situations, the upfront cost of the equipment is 2-5
implementing PLM can get lost in the weeds. Have clear results percent of the lifecycle costs, while the rest is the cost to run and
and improvement goals in mind. Don’t let the tools dictate your maintain the equipment.
process; get your process defined first, with any known gaps
resolved. Then look at tools and map them to your requirements. 4. Keep it basic. Remember that hardware and software
It’s not a bad idea to look at tool features to begin with, to make designs have a direct impact on industrial productivity. The most
sure that you are aware of best practices and capabilities that can elegant and complex system design does not help a customer
be leveraged, but don’t let a tool dictate a process. unless it is faster, easier to maintain, uses less energy and,
above all, can be understood by plant maintenance personnel.
2. Fostering collaboration. The most important function Sometimes it is better to sacrifice elegant and complex for
of a PLM system is to foster collaboration among people with basic and simple if the result is a faster, easier-to-maintain

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15 ideas for improving product lifecycle management

manufacturing line. Those who care about manufacturing material costs can be easily tracked to each major piece of
productivity will appreciate it. equipment. This will help you make informed decisions about
whether to replace, upgrade or leave alone each piece. It is also
5. Validation essential. Choose PLM software that is possible with some software providers to use the information to
able to validate the production system in a simulated three- evaluate your techs.
dimensional environment. This allows the risks of failure to be
identified in different parts of the process or equipment. The 8. Digital manufacturing. One element of PLM is digital
software can also be used to determine the best way to lay out manufacturing, an integrated, computer-based system comprised
production lines in order to move material through the factory of simulation, three-dimensional visualization, analytics and
floor. collaboration tools. It’s used to create product and manufacturing
process definitions simultaneously. By enabling product-related
6. Is there a payback? Don’t be afraid to tell others when information to be shared between design and manufacturing
a system is at its end of life. Just because an outdated system is groups, it can reduce the expensive changes often experienced
running today is no guarantee it will be running tomorrow. Strive when faulty product designs reach the manufacturing stage.
to educate operations and management that it’s important to
upgrade as needed. But don’t upgrade just to have the latest 9. Collaborate with suppliers. Collaborate with product
technology if there is no real payback. suppliers to develop a strategy to manage assets in terms of PLM
to maximize an asset’s value and reduce operating costs.
7. Track equipment. If you are looking at new maintenance
software, make sure that downtime, maintenance hours and 10. Update policy. Digital upgrades can become obsolete

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15 ideas for improving product lifecycle management


much faster than previous analog devices. Make sure you have 14. Look for PLM history. Seek a vendor that can show a
put in place a sound software/hardware update policy with your history of support on a given automation product and how long
vendor of choice. Don’t become complacent about upgrades. it was sold and supported. It’s best to find a PLC, PAC or DCS
system that can have a minimum PLM record of 10 years. Some
11. Get to complete. The hardest thing to do is to get to companies can support their manufactured products for well
“complete.” You’ll find that as the system matures and users gain over 10 years.
more experience, they want more features. If you never freeze
scope, you never get complete. If you never get complete, even if 15. Lifecycle conflict. There is a conflict between the
you add all the features requested, then the project will fail. lifecycles of industrial electronic components (shorter lifecycle)
and the typical manufacturing line (longer lifecycle). Newer
12. Rely on vendors. Invest in the expertise of service automation and control components can provide increases
providers or software vendors to assist with implementation. in process efficiency, but to take action you need a plan. By
Otherwise the project winds up taking twice as long and costing upgrading, companies can reduce costs and minimize downtime
twice as much. while also enjoying the benefits that state-of-the-art products
and solutions can bring. 
13. Document it. Always finish as-built project
documentation. Have funds earmarked and dedicated exclusively
to this effort. Keep a continuous record of updates and releases,
so that there are no undocumented updates or fixes. Make
sure you capture the lessons learned along the way during any
automation project and document them in your PLM system.

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16 strategies for achieving your energy


management objectives
Whether your primary goal is to reduce operating costs or Such assessments can help to establish the scope of an effort
achieve your company’s sustainability goals, finding ways to to reduce energy consumption, define key metrics and put
reduce energy consumption requires good tools and good resources in place that can take a holistic view of energy for the
information. organization. Recommendations may include low-investment
modifications, such as shifting maintenance operations to non-
Key steps for getting started: peak times, or may be more involved, such as programming
changes to equipment. Evaluation and prioritization of capital
1. Kick off with an audit Energy assessments and audits improvement
can help companies identify a wide range of changes they can
make to help reduce their consumption. Audits can be simple, An assessment, regardless of scale or scope, should help answer
such as a walkthrough of a building or facility to identify quick- the following key questions:
hit opportunities, or much more detailed efforts. These are
not one-time projects, but rather ongoing efforts to identify • Where am I likely to find quick returns?
variables, such as how seasons might affect production costs and
whether previously implemented improvements are continuing • What key metrics should I put in place?
to perform as planned.
• How can I encourage ongoing improvements?

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16 strategies for achieving your energy management objectives

2. Select the right tools. A comprehensive energy However, you can’t optimize what you can’t measure. Find an
management program is quite challenging, since every aspect easy and cost-effective way to measure your plant’s power usage
of a manufacturing facility is an energy consumer (processing, by area or major equipment group. Measuring without being
packaging, warehousing, utilities and even the building itself ). able to time stamp data lessens the value of the data.
A common mistake is to expect a traditional process or machine
automation system to be pressed into service for energy 4. Make it granular. The value of energy monitoring is
management applications (EMS). Don’t try to make your existing to gather enough data to truly understand what is happening.
software do the job. Placing meters on one or two motors will not give the results you
need. It is better to fully instrument a small area and concentrate
Choose a purpose-built energy analytics package. It will on the results of that pilot project. You will discover low hanging
deliver results faster, in easily consumable form. Customizable fruit that will help you gain support to broaden the initiative
dashboards, make it easy to create displays that deliver the throughout the plant.
information that different job roles can leverage to improve
results. You want to be able to do more than just view Installing energy-monitoring equipment is the first step in
equipment demand is a function of time. You want to be able to enabling true energy management for your plant or process. This
compare energy use from facility to facility, line to line, machine will give you the data needed to:
to machine, even operator to operator.
• Know where your energy is being consumed, in process and
3. Be focused. Concentrating energy improvement programs non-process applications.
on the high usage systems is usually the best place to start.

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16 strategies for achieving your energy management objectives

• Determine schedules of use. may find compressors or pumps left running when they should
be shut down. You might discover equipment scheduled to
• Determine real energy needs. be left idle running at full speed. You may find machines with
a second or two of title time programmed into each cycle. It’s
•M
 anage supply and consumption by schedule and percent by all but impossible to distinguish by sight but adds up over the
shifting time and managing and shedding use. course of a year.

5. Be smart. Apply a current transducer to your load, whether 7. Keep it targeted. Data capture also needs to be strategic.
that is the incoming feed of a building, a line, a machine, or even Monitoring a device just because you can is not just unhelpful,
a motor. You don’t need all new smart components. Adding it’s counterproductive because all of that data clogs up your
sensors to your existing equipment will do just fine. network and fills up available storage. Know how you are going
to use the data before you ever acquire it.
6. Establish a baseline. Once you’ve targeted your first
project, establish a baseline. Gather data from your sensors 8. Break the process into three parts: Once you have
using a data logger. This should encompass not just production the data, you need the aggregation and analysis tools to transfer
lines but facilities and building automation equipment like fans it to a relational database environment where it can be accessed
and blowers, compressors and so on. Data capture needs to be for a range of operations. There are three levels of working with
comprehensive in order to create a full picture of your operation. data: monitoring, analysis, and management. Let’s return to our
energy example:
The exercise is quite likely to include some obvious culprits. You

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16 strategies for achieving your energy management objectives

• Energy monitoring: What energy is being used and how? 10. Track big consumers. Always make sure you have
the means to track the energy performance of large energy
• E nergy analysis: What are the peak consumers? How does consumers. The term “large” can be determined by using a simple
energy usage change over time? Pareto analysis. Make a list of all of your energy users and section
off the top 20 percent. This will identify a large portion of your
• Energy management: Can we put rules and equipment in place energy usage, as well as the focus of your maintenance activities.
so that when equipment exceeds thresholds, it automatically
compensates? 11. Manage idle states. Minimize energy draw during
energy savings idle process conditions.
To accrue savings, you need to follow through on all three.
12. Evaluate power quality. If you are investing in a
9. Be patient. Although low hanging fruit is likely, expect system to measure power usage, you should consider one that
to spend several months establishing a baseline and fully can also measure power quality. Poor power quality can lead to
understanding your assets before you can make an informed increased power consumption, as well as equipment failures.
decision on what equipment to investigate for energy Measuring harmonics in a system will provide you with very
improvement programs. Purpose-built energy management beneficial information and the additional cost for this feature is
applications are available with preconfigured dashboards and relatively little.
built in tools for trending and data analysis.

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16 strategies for achieving your energy management objectives

13. Design for efficiency. When designing industrial 16. Reap side benefits. Energy monitoring doesn’t just
equipment with pumps or fans, require efficiency of operation. help the facilities management department. Other areas like
A lot of energy is wasted due to over-design of this equipment. engineering can leverage the data to harvest insights that will
Engineers often use the same pump-motor specification across improve productivity and reduce downtime.
the plant. This can result in motors being as much as 50 percent
under-loaded in fan operations. • Maintenance: Changes in power consumption by a piece of
equipment can reveal the need for maintenance well before
14. Be a giver. Offer energy capacity back to the grid on the component fails.
request in exchange for incentives.
• Engineering: Differences in power consumption between two
15. Go beyond electricity. Don’t forget factors like identical pieces of equipment can show the effect of different
airflow, temperature, and pressure. If you a drop in compressor settings, assembly practices, or maintenance procedures.
airflow, it could be a leak but it could just as easily be caused by
an issue with a bearing or valves. If a process step mostly uses • Operations: By comparing consumption shift to shift, machine
low flow rates, consider replacing that ixed-speed AC induction to machine, or even plant to plant, managers can develop best
motor and control valve with a motor driven by a variable- practices or identify operators who need additional training. 
frequency drive (VFD). T

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16 strategies for achieving your energy management objectives

ECONOMICAL WAYS TO ACHIEVE SAVINGS

1. Use interns to collect data. It’s fairly simple to identify viable energy 3. Avoid duplication. Many motor control devices now have network
management projects, but it takes real engineering to develop the busi- connections that pass along energy data. There’s no need to duplicate
ness case. If you’re understaffed and strapped cash, reach out to your these data-generating capabilities by installing power monitors over the
local university. You may be able to hire an intern to collect the actual top of intelligent motor control devices.
data points needed to develop a well-founded business case.

2. Take advantage of incentives.


It can often be difficult to find the funds to invest in projects that will re-
duce energy consumption by your plant. Federal, state and local govern-
ments offer a range of incentive and rebate programs for energy saving
projects and using alternative energy sources.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 235 / 252

Three ways to save with your power bill

In these days of lean operations, controlling costs is never far 1. Raise power factor. Power factor is defined as the
from the thoughts of manufacturing organizations. One way to ratio of the real power flowing to the load (kW) to the apparent
do that is by reducing energy consumption. Supported by broad power in the circuit (kVA). It has a value from 0 to 1; the higher,
connectivity, the new breed of energy management software the better, as far as the power company is concerned. Inductive
and sensors makes it easy to uncover hidden sources of energy loads like high-intensity discharge lighting and electric motors
waste and to lower the bills themselves through informed operating at under full load can drag your power factor down.
scheduling. The latter is a particular issue in applications like conveyors,
compressors, and HVAC fans.
Power companies charge for their services based on several
factors: the amount of energy used and the time of day it You can raise your power factor by adding power-factor
is used (peak or off-peak), scaled by demand charge. The correction capacitors to your electrical distribution system. Using
demand charge typically includes both the peak usage during a VFD with a motor to run a pump or a fan at low speed instead
some specified time interval. To make things just a bit more of the control valve will also improve your power factor.
complicated, your power company may also scale up by power
factor, which is a measure of power utilization. While lowering
consumption will obviously reduce your bill, addressing issues
like peak usage and power factor can deliver big savings.

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Three ways to save with your power


bill

2. Lower your peaks. Use best practices to lower peak


demand charges. Work with your facilities to stagger the
starting of equipment and lights. When possible, use soft
starts or VFDs on large-horsepower motors to reduce large
startup currents. If it is a matter of overlapping processes,
see if you can decouple them and push one to a later time.
Peak demand management. Minimizing peak demand,
which triggers higher utility rates or penalties.

3. Schedule strategically. Move energy-intensive


processes to off-peak shifts. That may increase labor costs,
however; perform an analysis to make sure you have a net
benefit. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 237 / 252

Six equipment strategies for cutting costs

1. Energy harvesting. Servomotors basically become recording the motion duration and energy consumption for
generators when they decelerate. Normally, that energy gets every NC block, these tools allow users to easily identify where
dissipated as heat using a braking resistor. Add a capacitor there is potential for improvement.
instead to store the energy for the next time the motor
accelerates. If you have multiple axes, link them together on a 4. Open CT shorting block. When installing and
shared DC bus. A decelerating axis pushes its power back on the commissioning power monitors, make sure to open the CT
bus, where it can be used by the next accelerating axis. shorting block. This will activate the CT so the power monitors
will work.
2. Energy saving mode. When running a drive in “Energy
Saving Mode,” there is often not enough current for the motor 5. Compressed savings Compressed air is an energy
to handle sudden load increases and the drive can fault out on source, but the costs are often buried in the overall electric bill
overcurrent. Since the drive already saves energy, you can skip for a facility. Efficient use of compressed air helps save money
the energy saving mode. and reduces the carbon footprint of the facility. As a rule,
potential savings lie within a range of 10 to 35 percent for energy
3. CNC analytical tools. Intelligent automation solutions costs associated with pneumatic systems, which can be realized
such as CNC control can help reduce energy consumption. by means of improved maintenance of the compressed air
Leading technology companies now offer analytical tools to network, improving air quality and optimizing the performance
optimize energy consumption and cycle times. These tools can of pneumatic systems.
be integrated directly into the NC kernel of the CNC control. By

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 238 / 252

continued

Six equipment strategies for cutting costs

If you want to determine potential savings in compressed air, • Don’t use a VFD if the application doesn’t need to vary speed;
make an airflow consumption and pressure diagnosis of a this will avoid one more element requiring maintenance.
machine in static mode (idle operation) and in dynamic mode
(full operation). Conduct an air leakage audit using ultrasound • Don’t run a VFD at a higher frequency than that of the rated
detection in the tubing, pipes, control devices and actuators frequency of the motor.
in order to evaluate the cost of each air leak. Document each
leak and tag for maintenance. Generally, energy savings can be • Avoid running a motor at less than 30 percent of the rated
identified from leaks that are unknown to the user, as well as frequency using a VFD. You may land into a mismatch of the load
inefficient pressure drops. By optimizing the airflow, you can requirement and the torque requirement on the same motor. 
achieve more efficient operation of the entire production line.

6. VFDs = Very Big Savings. Variable frequency drives


(VFDs) can convert a motor to variable-frequency performance.
Instead of running a pump motor at full speed and using a
control valve to reduce flow, use a VFD to reduce motor speed
and pump output directly. It saves money and extends the
lifetime of your equipment. The technique can be applied to fans
and blowers, as well. Be sure to follow best practices, though, to
maintain your savings:

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 239 / 252

Four human factors to consider in implementing


energy management programs
1. Involve production, not just facilities understand explanations of what you are offering in energy
management. Involve people responsible for production management so that stakeholders can make educated decisions
processes in energy management activities, since up to 90 for the operation.
percent of energy is consumed by production equipment. They
will help you ensure that proper steps are taken to understand 3. Teach your operators. If you teach your machine
how process energy consumption can be reduced without operators the best practices for energy consumption, you can
affecting the productivity of expensive production assets. The expect to reduce energy costs by 10 percent in one year.
primary reason most companies focus their energy-saving
activities on the facility is that facility management personnel are 4. Make smart choices. Many energy-reduction efforts
often given the responsibility for reducing energy costs. Not only do not have a positive ROI. Choose your battles wisely. A simple
is the facility in their comfort zone, but it’s often the only area total cost of ownership calculation on the back of an envelope
where they have the institutional authority to make changes. can save you time, money and face. 
By involving production, you can address all the areas of your
operation that consume energy.

2. Educate. With energy management becoming ever more


important, it is essential to demonstrate good energy practices
and compliance in your own work. Help users understand
that standards are only a minimum. Provide clear, simple-to-

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 240 / 252

10 tips for switching to predictive maintenance


The primary goal in manufacturing is to keep the line running Frequent routine device checks in the field are no longer
and building salable product. Maintenance has evolved to necessary. Most of the things a technician can do with a hand-
fulfill that mandate. It started with reactive maintenance – held device while standing at the device can now be handled
equipment failed and was replaced. Next, the industry shifted to from the control room or maintenance shop. Checking a device
preventative maintenance, which involves performing service that appears to be malfunctioning can also be done without a
and replacing equipment on a schedule designed to preempt visit to the field.
failures. Today, courtesy of intelligent, networked components,
forward-looking organizations are transitioning to predictive With a few work process changes and a focus on information
maintenance. from intelligent measurement devices, companies can transition
from preventive maintenance to conducting a daily predictive
In predictive maintenance, condition monitoring makes it routine, dramatically improving plant operations and reducing
possible to identify equipment issues before they escalate to full- maintenance costs. Here are some tips for success in making the
blown problems. Tracking energy consumption of an ordinary transition:
motor can turn it into a complex sensor. Abrupt changes or slow
increases can indicate a failing winding or worn bearing before 1. Make the case: Begin keeping a log of unplanned
it becomes critical. In a pumping application, it could indicate downtime, including details on duration and estimated cost.
clogged filters or dry running, before an unexpected filter- This will help you make a convincing ROI argument. Review your
cleaning shutdown is required or before air cavitation damage existing equipment. You may already have functionalities such as
occurs. networked components, data loggers, and analytics software.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 241 / 252

continued

10 tips for switching to predictive maintenance

2. Find a champion: Moving from reactive or preventive 5. Go digital: The 4-20 mA current loop might be the most
maintenance regimes to predictive maintenance requires a common sensor output signal, but it does not provide the
culture shift. Management support is essential to enacting a breadth of information available from digital sensors. A smart
maintenance culture that includes work processes that facilitate digital sensor not only delivers performance data, it can store
the change. This change is more than just a maintenance matter. information like model number and serial number for tracking
and identification. Some digital sensors allow users to change
3. Choose the right hardware: To be successful, parameters remotely, or automatically upload stored parameters
predictive maintenance strategies require intelligent field at startup.
devices, an open communication protocol, and integrated device
and asset management software. 6. Tune out the noise: Predictive maintenance requires
comprehensive instrumentation but the sheer volume of data
4. Become a history buff: Establish a database of from thousands of devices can be overwhelming. It’s a particular
performance metrics to delineate the boundaries of “normal” problem given that a large percentage of readings report
operation. Through subsequent and ongoing performance steady-state conditions. Use data loggers with triggers to sift out
monitoring and recording, small changes in performance that anomalous readings. Look for purpose-built asset-management
occur over time can be detected and investigated before there is software and analytic software designed to help prioritize
a downtime event. information. Many of these software suites include built-in
application libraries and tools to simplify building dashboards.

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 242 / 252

continued

10 tips for switching to predictive maintenance

7. Pick targeted tools: Determine the requirements for type manager (DTM), which automatically provide proactive
your particular application. The needs of an oil rig, for example, device health alerts. Some DTM’s analyze the data to determine
will be very different from a packaging line for consumer probable cause and corrective action, both for the device in the
packaged goods. Look for niche solutions designed for the network.
specific use case of interest.
The Profibus and Profinet International (PI) organization also
8. Consider wireless: Cutting the cord can simplify supports manufacturing process control and asset management.
installation, cut costs, and reduce maintenance. One North Their approach is to leverage the diagnostic and alarm schemes
American oil refinery installed wireless temperature and pressure built into the instruments themselves. Operating parameters
transmitters on pumps for a 90% savings over conventional for instruments are set during calibration or commissioning.
wired devices. Readings that fall outside these thresholds can generate an
alarm.
9. Open up: Several open standards groups have sprung up
to support predictive maintenance with smart components. 10. Be patient: Shifting to a predictive maintenance regime
The FDT Group AISBL, for example, promotes the open, vendor- is a process, not an event. Although you can begin collecting
independent Field device tool (FDT standard to simplify the data within minutes using some hardware and software tools,
configuration of and access to field devices. Each device uses it typically takes 3 to 6 months before the system has sufficient
a vendor-supplied software application known as a device- history to enable truly effective asset monitoring. 

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 243 / 252

continued

10 tips for switching to predictive maintenance

BY THE NUMBERS

Predictive maintenance can deliver big benefits. Consider the results of


a life-sciences company that made the switch:
40% reduction in time spent on maintenance.
yy
Savings of more than $52,000 per year
yy
Component replacement only when indicated by conditions.
yy
Savings of $16,500 per year
yy
Annual maintenance shutdown reduced by half.
yy
The 2010 NPRA Reliability and Maintenance Conference reported that
reactive maintenance costs could be up to 50 percent greater than
planned maintenance.”

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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 244 / 252

VENDOR SELECTION RESOURCE GUIDE Banner Engineering


Beyond the Edge of IIoT:
From Sensors to Solutions
Banner Engineering is a global leader in the field of industrial range of industries and works closely with customers and partners to
automation. Banner's sensors and vision, LED lights and indicators, provide smart, easy-to-use products and solutions that perform at the
wireless and safety products are used by companies worldwide, from highest level.
industry leaders in the Fortune 500 to innovators just entering the Innovations for the Data-Driven
market. Factory – Sensors have long been WEB RESOURCES
Banner is the eyes of the factory, but now the
WHITE PAPER
committed to constant Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) allows What IIoT Means for
improvement and businesses to leverage sensor data in Manufacturing
awgo.to/854
continuous innovation. more meaningful ways. From enabling
Each day, the predictive maintenance to providing
VIDEO
company finds new data for OEE calculations, Banner Vibration Monitoring
and better ways to provides smart solutions that help for Predictive
Maintenance
meet the challenges businesses make better, data-driven awgo.to/855
customers face today, decisions.
ARTICLE
tomorrow, and into the Smart Sensors for Every Challenge The 5 Advantages of
future. Banner’s staff – Problem-solving sensors from Banner IO-Link
awgo.to/856
solves problems for save time and reduce costs by reliably
companies in a diverse detecting the most challenging targets,

COMPANY: Banner Engineering  ADDRESS: 9714 Tenth Avenue North, Minneapolis, MN 55441 USA
PHONE: 1-888-3-SENSOR  WEB: www.bannerengineering.com
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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 245 / 252

VENDOR SELECTION RESOURCE GUIDE Banner Engineering

including clear,
reflective, and Quality Without
multicolored objects. Compromise – Improve
Banner’s smart, quality control and productivity with flexible solutions that meet
powerful sensors your application requirements. Banner’s broad range of solutions
allow manufacturers includes sensors and vision for automated error-proofing; bright, even
to solve more illumination for visual inspections; and LED indicators that ensure
applications with operator and assembler accuracy.
fewer devices, Companies all around the world use Banner's award-winning
reducing inventory products and solutions to increase efficiency, reduce costs, safeguard
and maintenance equipment and protect personnel. Headquartered in Minneapolis,
costs. In addition, MN, Banner has offices, production facilities, and field representatives
IO-Link sensors help reduce unplanned downtime thanks to remote throughout North and South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, and
configuration and monitoring, advanced diagnostics, and auto-device Europe.
replacement. To learn more, visit www.BannerEngineering.com 
Intuitive Safety – Banner combines easy-to-use safety devices with
CONTACT AN ENGINEER
LED indicators to make managing complex safety systems easier and
more visual. From easy-align light curtains to drag-and-drop safety
Contact an engineer to discuss your application
controller software, safety solutions from Banner can be commissioned with an expert.
quickly and help you comply with safety regulations while maintaining
productivity.

COMPANY: Banner Engineering  ADDRESS: 9714 Tenth Avenue North, Minneapolis, MN 55441 USA
PHONE: 1-888-3-SENSOR  WEB: www.bannerengineering.com
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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 246 / 252

VENDOR SELECTION RESOURCE GUIDE Beckhoff Automation


The next step toward Industry 4.0
is PC-based control
systems, and ever-more connected devices via industrial Ethernet
and OPC UA. Many users are already integrating Beckhoff controllers
into their production networks, enabling them to communicate with
databases, perform remote maintenance over the Internet, or request
cloud-based services.
TwinCAT, Beckhoff’s PC-based WEB RESOURCES
control software, also permits the
WHITE PAPER
secure integration of a wide range of
Collaboration Accelerates
connected devices into the control the Internet of Things
and Industry 4.0
system such as: smartphones, tablets,
awgo.to/521
and wearable technologies in the form
SOFTWARE DEMO
of smart watches and data glasses.
Expand your control
Open industrial Ethernet technology programming toolbox
with TwinCAT 3
in the form of EtherCAT and “vendor
awgo.to/522
In the movement toward Industry 4.0, PC-based control technology neutral” solutions via OPC UA are
VIDEO
from Beckhoff Automation provides the ideal toolbox to implement available from Beckhoff to ensure data
System integrated mea-
the leading automation concepts of our time. These concepts include security without restricting connectivity. surement technology
with EtherCAT I/O
the Internet of Things, cloud computing, centralized PC-based control With the Power of One controls
awgo.to/523

COMPANY: Beckhoff Automation  ADDRESS: 13130 Dakota Ave Savage, MN


PHONE: (952) 890-0000  EMAIL: beckhoff.usa@beckhoff.com  WEB: www.beckhoffautomation.com
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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 247 / 252

VENDOR SELECTION RESOURCE GUIDE Beckhoff Automation

philosophy from Beckhoff (one PC-based controller, one software protection to withstand
platform, and one network), leading manufacturers and machine cleaning procedures
builders can make great strides toward establishing meaningful typical in the food and
Industry 4.0 practices while ensuring lean automation designs and beverage industries, for example. 
streamlined system architectures.

Feature-laden solutions
While supporting all IEC 61131-3 programming languages, a
wide range of available computer science/IT programming tools,
and other globally-recognized standards such as OPC UA and
PackML, Beckhoff advances open and leading edge automation
solutions that deliver high performance and efficiency. This includes
numerous industry-specific technologies ideal for increasing machine
performance in applications such as packaging, plastics processing,
CNC, welding, and much more. For example, Control Panel displays
are available in multiple industry variants, as are high performance
EtherCAT I/O solutions, servomotors with One Cable Technology CLIENT CONTACT
(OCT), and gearboxes. In addition, controllers and I/O are available Shane Novacek, Beckhoff Automation
with extended operating temperature ranges for extreme climatic PHONE: (952) 808-6515
conditions such as in alternative energy applications. Durable EMAIL: s.novacek@beckhoff.com
solutions for harsh environments range from IP 65 up to IP 69K

COMPANY: Beckhoff Automation  ADDRESS: 13130 Dakota Ave Savage, MN


PHONE: (952) 890-0000  EMAIL: beckhoff.usa@beckhoff.com  WEB: www.beckhoffautomation.com
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FACTORY & MACHINE Automation Playbook 248 / 252

VENDOR SELECTION RESOURCE GUIDE Opto 22


A Complete IoT-enabled
Automation Toolset
Build your IoT-enabled  Control. Develop applications for process control, SCADA, RTU, or
enterprise: Control, DCS, or interface with existing MES/ERP systems using industrial SNAP
Visualization, and Data PAC controllers and I/O. Bridge IoT communication gaps by fusing OT
Management for the and IT. Connect and automate everything from edge-level sensors to
connected operator, machine process and control systems to the cloud, through a secure platform
builder, and OEM and tools you already know.
 Automate and integrate  Visualization. Design rich mobile
your systems with a global operator interfaces with groov to WEB RESOURCES
industry innovator. Leverage centralize your siloed processes, WHITE PAPER
Opto 22’s 40+ years as an systems, equipment, and data, State of the IIoT for 2017
automation manufacturer. regardless of source. Develop screens http://op22.co/2mTWLOH
Count on easier integration with products based on open architectures once, without coding or debugging,
and non-proprietary technology. Rely on a scalable automation and deploy across your enterprise to WHITE PAPER
platform, from guaranteed-for-life SSRs and I/O to PACs and software any authorized mobile device or PC. Edge Computing Primer:
IoT Intelligence Starts
that can integrate Operational Technology (OT) and Information  Data Management. Parse and at the Edge
Technology (IT) systems. All Opto 22 products are manufactured, report data from the network edge http://op22.co/2lUiukD
developed, and supported in the U.S.A. to cloud-based systems using Opto PRODUCT
22’s PAC Project automation suite. Use IoT Primer
Bridge the gap between
COMPANY: Opto 22  ADDRESS: 43044 Business Park Drive, Temecula, CA  92590 OT and IT
http://op22.co/2lUqwcZ
PHONE: (800) 321-6786  WEB: www.opto22.com
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VENDOR SELECTION RESOURCE GUIDE Opto 22

report by exception to filter out  


low-priority data and focus on In early 2013 Opto
information relevant to your 22 introduced groov, an
specific KPIs and enterprise easy-to-use IoT tool for developing and viewing mobile operator
goals. Reduce programming and interfaces—mobile apps to securely monitor and control virtually any
support time with tools designed automation system or equipment. In addition to SSRs and groov, Opto
for network communication; get 22 is best known for its high-quality I/O and SNAP PAC programmable
vast protocol support and data automation controllers, which include a RESTful API.
analysis out of the box.  
 Take advantage of a unified automation platform for your All Opto 22 products are manufactured and supported in the U.S.A.
enterprise, built from the ground up to make IT and OT convergence Because the company builds and tests its own products, most solid-
simple. Reliable hardware, easy-to-use software, and free support from state SSRs and I/O modules are guaranteed for life. The company is
people who speak your protocol and understand your code: that’s the especially trusted for its continuing policy of providing free product
Opto 22 difference. support, free training, and free pre-sales engineering assistance. 
 About Opto 22:
Opto 22 was started in 1974 by a co-inventor of the solid state
KEY COMPANY CONTACT
relay (SSR), who discovered a way to make SSRs more reliable. Opto
22 has consistently built products on open standards rather than on Kyle Orman
proprietary technologies. The company developed the red-white- Senior Applications Engineer
yellow-black color-coding system for input/output (I/O) modules and PHONE: (800) 321-6786 ext. 3032
the open Optomux® protocol, and pioneered Ethernet-based I/O.

COMPANY: Opto 22  ADDRESS: 43044 Business Park Drive, Temecula, CA  92590
PHONE: (800) 321-6786  WEB: www.opto22.com
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VENDOR SELECTION RESOURCE GUIDE Pentair – Hoffman

A Complete Offering of Equipment Protection


and Thermal Management Solutions
Enclose it. When tested for dust infiltration, thermal cycling, salt fog corrosion, vibration
you make a substantial resistance and many other standards to ensure optimal performance.
investment in your Cool it. Some of Hoffman’s largest value offerings begin with
equipment, you thinking outside the box. Our wide range of thermal management
need to know it’s solutions provide improved efficiency and decreased downtime for
protected. No matter reduced operational costs. Hoffman
WEB RESOURCES
your environment offers louvers, filter fans, air conditioners
or location, you can and thermal electric coolers with VIDEO
Learn about Hoffman’s
count on Hoffman numerous accessories including adapter Commercial Pull Box
who has over 70 plenums to easily upgrade your current Extender
http://awgo.to/789
years of enclosure thermal management solution to the
experience. Our latest Hoffman solution. WHITE PAPER
What is a Modular
products are Monitor it. Paired with our thermal Enclosure and Why Are
developed in world- management solutions comes They Used?
http://awgo.to/790
class test facilities monitoring software in Remote Access
and are rigorously Control (RAC) which provides visibility SERVICE
Explore Hoffman’s Free
Thermal Audit Service
COMPANY: Pentair – Hoffman  ADDRESS: 2100 Hoffman Way Anoka, MN 55303 USA
http://awgo.to/791

PHONE: (763) 421-2240  WEB: www.pentairprotect.com/hoffman


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VENDOR SELECTION RESOURCE GUIDE Pentair – Hoffman

to cooling devices across all global locations of cooling system units. Thus, lowering
from a single network. RAC provides maintenance costs with increased energy Integrate it. When put together, the result
immediate detection of temperature efficiency and reduced instances of failure or is a fully integrated system of enclosures,
fluctuations as well as remote control of need for replacement. thermal management products, moisture
temperature settings for individual or groups Service it. In addition to RAC, Hoffman mitigation and tailored service solutions
has over 6,000 factory authorized technicians that increases equipment life, improves
worldwide. Through a strategic partnership automation equipment performance and
with Johnson-Northwest, Inc., Hoffman increases safety of people, products and
offers localized response, 24/7 – 365 performance.
days a year of service availability, factory- When it comes to protecting your
authorized expertise, the ability to service equipment, Hoffman has you covered.
most competitive products and much Enclose. Cool. Monitor. Service. Integrate. 
more! For our thermal
KEY COMPANY CONTACT
management solutions,
Hoffman also offers a Kevin Clark
variety of service plans Pentair – Hoffman Anoka, MN
from basic to complete PHONE: (763) 422-2622
coverage to meet your EMAIL: kevin.clark@pentair.com
needs.

COMPANY: Pentair – Hoffman  ADDRESS: 2100 Hoffman Way Anoka, MN 55303 USA
PHONE: (763) 421-2240  WEB: www.pentairprotect.com/hoffman
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