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Faculty of Humanities and Education
School of Education
Postgraduate Coursework Accountability Statement
(To be completed by student)


COURSE CODE: EDFA 5200 TITLE: Leadership – Group Summary



1. We hereby certify that we are the authors of the attached item of coursework and that all
materials from reference sources have been properly acknowledged.

2. We understand what plagiarism is and what penalties may be imposed on students found guilty of
plagiarism. [See UWI Examinations Regulations 97 (i)- (iv) and 103 (i) for both an explanation of
plagiarism and the penalties.]

3. We certify that this paper contains no plagiarised material.

4. We certify that this is our work and that we did not receive any unfair assistance from others
(including unauthorized collaboration) in its preparation.

5. We certify that this paper has not previously been submitted either in its entirety or in part within
the UWI system or to any other educational institution.

6. In the case of group work, I certify that the work that is the responsibility of each member of the
group has been clearly indicated and that where no such indication has been given, I take the
responsibility for the work as if it were the section of the paper for which I am solely responsible
and that I have not collaborated with any members of the group to breach the University’s

……………………………………. 13/01/2018
Signature (signed on behalf of team) Date



(i) Cheating shall constitute a major offence under these regulations.

(ii) Cheating is any attempt to benefit one’s self or another by deceit or fraud.

(iii) Plagiarism is a form of cheating.

(iv) Plagiarism is the unauthorized and/or unacknowledged use of another person’s intellectual efforts and
creations howsoever recorded, including whether formally published or in manuscript or in any typescript
or other printed or electronically presented form and includes taking passages, ideas or structures from
another work or author without proper and unequivocal attribution of such source(s), using the
conventions for attributions or citing used in this University.


(i) If any candidate is suspected of cheating or attempting to cheat, the circumstances shall be reported
in writing to the Campus Registrar. The Campus Registrar shall refer the matter to the Chairman,
Committee on Examinations. If the Chairman so decides, the Committee shall invite the candidate for an
interview and shall conduct an investigation. If the candidate is found guilty of cheating or attempting to
cheat, the Committee shall disqualify the candidate from the examination in the course concerned, and
may also disqualify him/her from all examinations taken in that examinations session; and may also
disqualify him/her from all further examinations in the University, for any period of time and may
impose a fine not exceeding Bds $300.00 or J$5000.00 or TT$900.00 or US$150.00 (according to
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the Committee may hear the case in the candidate’s absence.

The University of the West Indies, St Augustine

School of Education
Post Graduate Diploma in Education, 2017- 2018
EDED 5200
Educational Leadership - Group Summary

Alicia Massiah- 01707913

Anderson La Barrie - 02755511
Jonathan La Barrie - 05705579
Sheldon Maharaj - 815006714

Dr. Freddy James
Dr. Rinnelle Lee-Piggott


One of the most examined phenomena in research is that of leadership. For decades,

numerous theories of leadership have been posited as there is keen interest in defining the term

across several disciplines. A search on the term yields a plethora of definitions, which suggests

there is no true clarity as to what leadership really is. Harris (2005), citing Cuban (1988) suggests

that over 350 leadership theories makes it one of the most difficult concepts to define. The study

of educational leadership has similarly generated great interest. O’Donoghue & Clarke (2010)

lament despite the large number of studies available, the search for one theory of leadership proves


The importance of school leadership has been stressed by several researchers as it is a

prime factor in improving school effectiveness. Leadership makes the difference and determines

if a school is effective or ineffective. Bush (2007) states there is great interest in educational

leadership because of the belief that the quality of leadership has significant impact on school and

student outcomes. Leithwood et al. (2004) opine effective education leadership makes a difference

in improving learning and is second only to classroom instruction among all school-related factors

that contribute to what students learn at school.

Definition of Educational Leadership

There is no one definition for leadership that can be considered as the ideal. Many theorists

have attempted to validate the need for one type of leadership over the other, in many instances

recognizing the need for a blend of actions rather than those working in isolation. Cuban (1988)

links a definition of leadership with the ability of a leader to affect change. He further states that

leadership is about influencing others to achieve desired goals. Bush (1998) attributed his

definition to values and stresses a clear segregation between leadership and management.

However, he believes that there should be a balance between leadership and management to have

effective operation in any educational institution.

Sergovanni (1991) in his contribution on moral leadership also agrees that such partnership

of both moral and managerial is required to develop a learning community. Bush (2003) in his

examination of the varying leadership models, highlights the dynamics of agreeing on a definition

for leadership. Classifying them into nine models, he showed the variation in styles and his

inability to have an agreed definition. However, it can be said from his contributions that

educational leadership is the ability to influence change, has its own value and beliefs systems and

exists where support and commitment is amassed by the staff, stakeholders and other members of

the community.

The Leadership Management Debate

A popular topic in leadership discourse is that of the leadership versus management

paradox. Bush (2007) indicates that the key debate has been whether educational leadership is a

distinct field or simply a branch of the wider study of management. Like research on the definition

of leadership, the leadership versus management debate offers various perceptions. One of the best

known and most widely influential individuals on the subject of management, Peter Drucker,

famously said, “Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right thing.” Rear

Admiral Grace Hopper, one of the U.S. navy’s great leaders, indicated that the two were different

concepts. Hopper believed, “You manage things; you lead people.”


Day & Sammons (2013) state there is a distinction between the focus or concerns of

educational leadership and management. The distinction is as follows:

Leading Concerns Management Concerns

Providing Vision Ensuring that management practices reflect

leadership actions

Developing consultatively a common Carrying out restructuring so that the school

purpose organisation is more effective and efficient

Facilitating the achievement of Making sure the organisation is running smoothly

educational and organizational goals

Working creatively with and Collaboratively designing and carrying out

empowering others strategic plans

Having a future orientation Meeting accountability requirements

Yukl (2013) states there is a continuing controversy about the difference between the two

and that no one has proposed that leadership and management are the same but the degree to which

they overlap is a source of contention. Researchers such as Bennis & Nanus (1985) and Cuban

(1988) make clear distinctions between leadership and management. Bennis & Nanus (1985) see

the leader as focusing on a vision, concerned with the values, commitment and aspirations of an

organization while a manager operates on the physical resources of an organization. Cuban (1988)

considers leadership as effecting change whereas management is part of maintenance. Leaders

influence and motivate others to achieve goals while management is the efficient and effective

maintaining of organizational arrangements. Cuban (1988) does however also stress that no special

value is attached to either as in different situations; one can be called upon to be either.

In Day, Harris and Hadfield’s (2001) study of effective school leadership, a sharp

distinction was made between management and leadership which saw management linked to

systems and paper while leadership was about development of people.

There are however alternative views to the division of leadership and management. One

view is that leadership and management are overlapping concepts. Lumby (2001) advocates an

‘androgynous’ approach that does not see both concepts as opposites. Bush (2007) postulates that

leadership and management must be given equal prominence if schools are to operate effectively

and achieve their objectives.

Thorpe (2014) argues that the division of leadership from management has negative

implications for improving education and focus ought to be placed on running schools rather than

terms such as administration, management and leadership.

The writers of this paper acknowledge that leadership and management are distinct areas

with different functions, but both are important. Leaders are at times managers and vice versa,

therefore, the paradox never ends.

Leadership Theories

Lee-Piggott (2017) states there is no one unifying theory of educational leadership as there

have been several theories advanced over years. O’Donoghue & Clarke (2010) indicate the study

of leadership has steadily progressed, being examined from several lenses. As a result, there are a

myriad of leadership theories. Some of these theories are:

The Great Man Theory The Situational Leadership Theory

The Trait Theory The Contingency Theory of Leadership

The Skills Theory The Transactional Theory of Leadership

The Style Theory The Transformational Theory of Leadership

The Leader-Member Exchange The Servant Leadership Theory

Managerial Leadership Instructional Leadership

Moral Leadership Invitational Leadership

Interpersonal Leadership Distributive Leadership

Leadership Approaches

Lee-Piggott (2017) contends that leadership is both about practice and approach, in other

words, it concerns what the individual does and the strategy he employs while doing so. The four

leadership styles or approaches are:

Directive Collaborative

Authoritarian Laissez-Faire

Attributes and Values of a Successful Leader

James (2015) states that the early study of trait theories (1940’s-1950’s) suggests that

leaders exert power because they possess qualities, traits or characteristics, which differentiate

them from less effective leaders. Stogdill (1948) reviewed 124 studies of leadership and classified

the personal factors associated with leadership into the following five categories:

Capacity Achievement Responsibility Participation Status

• Intelligence • Scholarship • Dependability • Activity • Socioeconomic
• Physical • Knowledge • Initiative • Sociability position
characteristics • Athletic • Persistence • Cooperation • Popularity
• Alertness accomplishment • Aggressiveness • Adaptability
• Verbal • Self- • Humor
facility confidence
• Originality • Desire to excel
• Judgement

James (2015) went on further to show that later studies in trait theories shifted focus to the

relationship between leader traits and leader effectiveness. A second generation of studies by

Stogdill (1974) concluded trait variables that are currently associated with effective leadership

have been categorized into three groups. These categories are;

Personality Work Motivation Skills

• Self-confidence • Task • Technical
• Stress tolerance • Interpersonal needs • Interpersonal
• Emotional maturity • Values • Conceptual
• Integrity • High Expectations • Administrative
• Intelligence

Day (2001) states leaders’ values are also linked to the degree of leadership success they

experience. Good schools are driven by leaders who are passionate about making a difference in

the lives of the children in their care. This passion is built on core values and beliefs that are

essential to successful leadership. Leithwood et al. (2004) categorized values and beliefs of

successful school leaders as follows:


Basic human General moral values Professional values & Social and political
values • Equity and social Beliefs values and beliefs
• Respect justice • High expectations and • Teamwork
• Happiness • Inclusivity standards of • Commitment to
• Moral performance the school’s
responsibility • Discipline and vision
• Equal professionalism • Community
opportunities • A passion for learning involvement
• Commitment to and achievement
pupils and staff • Participation of all
stakeholders in the
• Quality teaching and
environment for
• Image of the school
Lee-Piggott (2017) in her work on educational leadership emphasized that a leader’s

attributes and values are linked to the success he/she possesses. Her work classified successful

school leaders' traits/attributes and dispositions into the following categories:

Personal Qualities Motivation Dispositions

• Openness • Achievement needs • Courage
• Self-confidence • Passionate about work • Willingness to take
• Internal locus of control • Highly committed risks
• Innate goodness emotionally • Resilience
• Other-centeredness • Highly motivated • Hope
• Humility • High energy levels • Moral purpose
• Readiness to learn from • Determined
others • Persistent
• Open-mindedness • Industrious

Cognitive Abilities Social Appraisal Skills

• Cognitive flexibility • Being good listeners
• Creative and lateral • Having a good sense of
thinking humour


Leadership continues to be phenomena to which there is no clear-cut definition. It exists in

various forms, adapting to the needs of the environment with its own belief systems and values.

What can be said is that good leaders seek the best interest of all stakeholders, hoping that their

action will cause positive changes in society.


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College for School Leadership

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4 (1)

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