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A Dissertation Submitted In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements For

The Degree of Bachelor of Architecture

Submitted by
Roll No. BARCH/15014/14
Under the Guidance of
(Ar.) Md. Danish

Department of Architecture and Planning

Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Patna Campus
April 2018
List of figures
1.2. Services in an CONVENTION CENTRE
1.3. Importance of Hvac
1.4. Definition of Hvac
1.5. Factors affecting thermal comfort
1.6. Determining loads
1.7. Types of air conditioning system
Room and Split air conditioners
Packaged air conditioners
Central air conditioners
Variable refrigerant volume air conditioners
1.8. Chilled beam


2.1. Aims and Objectives
2.2. Scope and Limitations

With central systems, the primary conversion from fuel such as gas or electricity takes place in
a central location, with some form of thermal energy distributed throughout the building or
facility central energy source (electricity or gas) and provides final heating and cooling to the
space to be conditioned.
HVAC systems are classified as either self-contained unit packages or as central systems. Unit
package describes a single unit that converts a primary system are a combination of central
supply subsystem and multiple end use subsystems. This dissertation aims to study the type of
air conditioning system used in convention centres.

The dissertation has been a great experience in terms of learning and self-development. There
are many people I would like to acknowledge .They have been directly or indirectly involved in
this research dissertation. Without the necessary help and guidance of the Department of
Architecture, BIT Mesra, it would have been impossible to realize the conjecture. I am thankful
to the Head of the Department.
I also express immense gratitude towards Ar.Md.Danish, the dissertation Coordinator for the
year 2018, for being a very dedicated mentor for the Dissertation. His analytical approach
helped me to strengthen my understandings of important concepts and motivated me to
improve my dissertation with every next stage.

Fig .1- Basic operation cycle of air conditioning

Fig.2 – Room air conditioner
Fig.3- Split air conditioner
Fig.4-VRV system
Fig. 5- Chilled beam
Fig.6- power consumption breakdown of building
Fig.7- HVAC power consumption


Convention is the name given to a general or formal meeting of a legislative body, social or
economical group in order to provide information on a particular economic situation and in
order to deliberate and consequently, establish consent on policies among the participants,
usually of limited duration with set objectives but no determined frequency.”
-Lawson Fred, Congress, Convention and Exhibition facilities: planning design and
(Architectural press: London, page 9)

The term Convention is widely used in much discipline. A ‘Convention’ word in general can
be defined as
 A large formal assembly of a group with common interests, such as a political party or
trade union
 The persons attending such an assembly
 (U.S. politics) An assembly of delegates of one party to select candidates for office
 (Diplomacy) an international agreement second only to a treaty in formality
 A telecommunications convention
 Any agreement, compact, or contract
 The most widely accepted or established view of what is thought to be proper behavior,
good taste etc.

Convention – A large meeting of member of profession, a political party, etc.

Center - A place or an area where a lot of people live, a place where a lot of business and
cultural activity takes place
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary
7thedition, Oxford University Press

A convention is not simply a space for looking at or listening to a performance. A successful

convention for live performance supports the emotional exchange between the performer and
the audience, and between members of audience. Thus conventions are usually general
sessions, mostly information giving, often formed around a particular theme or subject matter
of topic interest and increasingly accompanied by exhibits. In addition to need for large halls &
auditoriums required for the plenary sessions, most conventions break down into smaller
groups to deliberate on particular matter of issue.
Convention Center-
A large civic building or group of buildings designed for conventions, industrial shows, and the
like, having large unobstructed exhibit areas and often including conference rooms, hotel
accommodations, restaurants, and other facilities. (www.dictionary.reference.com)A
convention center is generally defined as any property used in connection with a convention or
meeting center, or similar facility, including auditoriums, exhibition halls, facilities for food
preparation and serving, parking facilities, and administrative offices. A number of states have
passed legislation enabling public funding to be used for convention centers in an effort to
attract tourism and businesses to the local economy.
Services found in information technology park are Architectural, Civil, Electrical, HVAC,
Structural designs, Development/ Environmental, Fire safety, Water supply.
Electrical services-
- Earthing
- Lightning system
- Emergency lightning system
- External lightning system
Fire safety services-
The main resources for Fire Fighting System would be Fire Hydrant System, Automatic
Sprinkler System with static storage, and piping, wet risers and stand pipes along, with the
pumping system. Fire extinguishers and signages shall be provided as per the National Building
Code (NBC).


- Hvac services are important because HVAC system based on the occupancy levels, we
can reduce their energy consumption by as much as 40%.
- It maintains the comfortable atmosphere to work by decreasing the heat effect as more
heat is generated from the computers. Hence it includes both the exchange of air to the
outside as well as circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important
factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings.
- It can provide ventilation, reduce air infiltration, and maintain pressure relationships
between spaces.
- Healthy, productive, comfortable indoor environment …heating to perimeter spaces
…,cooling to perimeter and core spaces, humidification or dehumidification as needed
,ventilation to occupied spaces in the it park.
- It maintains the comfortable atmosphere to work by decreasing the heat effect as more
heat is generated from the computers.
- It improves the indoor air quality and maintains a higher quality.
- It controls temperature; replenish oxygen and removal of moisture, odours, smoke, heat,
dust, airborne bacteria, carbon dioxide, and other gases. Ventilation removes unpleasant
smells and excessive moisture.
- It prevents stagnation of interior air.
It is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to
provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. Hvac system design is a sub
discipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid
mechanics, and heat transfer.
It is the process of exchanging or replacing air in any space to provide high indoor air quality
which involves temperature control, oxygen replenishment, and removal of moisture, odours,
smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria, carbon dioxide, and other gases. Ventilation removes
unpleasant smells and excessive moisture, introduces outside air, keeps interior building air
circulating, and prevents stagnation of the interior air.
Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning (Hvac) systems have a significant effect on the
health, comfort, and productivity of occupants. Issues like user discomfort, improper
ventilation, and poor indoor air quality are linked to Hvac system design and operation and can
be improved by better mechanical and ventilation system design.
HVAC systems are classified as either self-contained unit packages or as central systems. Unit
package describes a single unit that converts a primary energy source (electricity or gas) and
provides final heating and cooling to the space to be conditioned. Examples of self-contained
unit packages are rooftop HVAC systems, air conditioning units for rooms, and air-to-air heat
pumps. With central systems, the primary conversion from fuel such as gas or electricity takes
place in a central location, with some form of thermal energy distributed throughout the
building or facility. Central systems are a combination of central supply subsystem and
multiple end use subsystems. There are many variations of combined central supply and end
use zone systems. The most frequently used combination is central hot and chilled water
distributed to multiple fan systems. The fan systems use water-to-air heat exchangers called
coils to provide hot and/or cold air for the controlled spaces. End-use subsystems can be fan
systems or terminal units. If the end use subsystems are fan systems, they can be single or
multiple zone type. The multiple end use zone systems are mixing boxes, usually called VAV
boxes. Another combination central supply and end use zone system is a central chillier and
boiler for the conversion of primary energy, as well as a central fan system to delivery hot
and/or cold air. The typical uses of central systems are in larger, multi-storeyed buildings where
access to outside air is more restricted. Typically central systems have lower operating costs
but have a complex control sequence.


Thermodynamic processes take place between the human body and the surrounding thermal
environment. Our perception of thermal comfort and acceptance of indoor thermal environment
is a result of the heat generated by metabolic processes and the adjustments that the human
body makes to achieve a thermal balance between our body and the environment.
Projected load for new buildings can be analyzed accurately by using computer simulation.
Hourly simulation models designed for energy analysis, calculate hourly cooling loads from
detailed building geometry, scheduling, and equipment data.


There are 4 primary types of heating and cooling systems: Split systems, Hybrid systems, Duct
free split systems and Packaged systems.


Room Air Conditioners-
It cools rooms rather than the building. They provide cooling only when needed room air-
conditioners are less expensive to operate than central units, even though their efficiency is
generally lower than that of central air-conditioners.
Individual room or simply individual air conditioning systems employ a single, self-contained
room air conditioner, a packaged terminal, a separated indoor-outdoor split unit, or a heat
pump. A heat pump extracts heat from a heat source and rejects heat to air or water at a higher
temperature for heating. Unlike other systems, these systems normally use a totally independent
unit or units in each room. Individual air conditioning systems can be classified into two
Room air conditioner (window-mounted), packaged terminal air conditioner (PTAC), installed
in a sleeve through the outside wall.
The major components in a factory-assembled and ready-for-use room air conditioner include
the following: An evaporator fan pressurizes and supplies the conditioned air to the space. In
tubeand-fin coil, the refrigerant evaporates, expands directly inside the tubes, and absorbs the
heat energy from the ambient air during the cooling season; it is called a direct expansion (DX)
coil. When the hot refrigerant releases heat energy to the conditioned space during the heating
season, it acts as a heat pump. An air filter removes airborne particulates. A compressor
compresses the refrigerant from a lower evaporating pressure to a higher condensing pressure.
A condenser liquefies refrigerant from hot gas to liquid and rejects heat through a coil and a
condenser fan. A temperature control system senses the space air temperature (sensor) and
starts or stops the compressor to control its cooling and heating capacity through a thermostat.
The difference between a room air conditioner and a room heat pump, and a packaged terminal
air conditioner and a packaged terminal heat pump, is that a four-way reversing valve is added
to all room heat pumps. Sometimes room air conditioners are separated into two split units: an
outdoor condensing unit with compressor and condenser, and an indoor air handler in order to
have the air handler in a more advantageous location and to reduce the compressor noise
indoors. Individual air conditioning systems are characterized by the use of a DX coil for a
single room. This is the simplest and most direct way of cooling the air. Most of the individual
systems do not employ connecting ductwork. Outdoor air is introduced through an opening or
through a small air damper. Individual systems are usually used only for the perimeter zone of
the building.

Split Air Conditioner-

In a split-system central air-conditioner, an outdoor metal cabinet contains the condenser and
compressor, and an indoor cabinet contains the evaporator. In many split system air-
conditioners, this indoor cabinet also contains a furnace or the indoor part of heat pump.

1. Interior noise and size of the internal unit can be greatly reduced due to the external location
of the compressor.
2. The water collected can be pumped to the outdoor unit using a pump, avoiding the need to
drain water from the indoor unit periodically when running in cooling mode.

1 .Surface exterior to the building, such as a balcony must be provided for the external
compressor unit to be located.
2. Most split system air conditioners do not introduce outside air for ventilation, and only
perform a temperature control function.
3. It is, however, possible to add ventilation ducting to some split systems, so that they do bring
fresh air into the room.
4. Also Split ACs are costlier than Window ACs.


In packaged air-conditioners, the evaporator, condenser, and compressor are all located in one
cabinet, which usually is placed on a roof or on a concrete slab adjacent to the building.
This type of air-conditioner is typical in small commercial buildings and also in residential
buildings. Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the building’s exterior wall
or roof to connect with the packaged air-conditioners, which is usually located outdoors. This
combination of air-conditioner and central heater eliminates the need for a separate furnace
Unitary packaged air conditioning systems can be called, in brief, packaged air conditioning
systems or packaged systems. These systems employ either a single, self-contained packaged
unit or two split units. A single packaged unit contains fans, filters, DX coils, compressors,
condensers, and other accessories. In the split system, the indoor air handler comprises controls
and the air system, containing mainly fans, filters, and DX coils; and the outdoor condensing
unit is the refrigeration system, composed of compressors and condensers. Rooftop packaged
systems are most widely used. Packaged air conditioning systems can be used to serve either a
single room or multiple rooms. A supply duct is often installed for the distribution of
conditioned air, and a DX coil is used to cool it. Other components can be added to these
systems for operation of a heat pump system; i.e., a centralized system is used to reject heat
during the cooling season and to condense heat for heating during the heating season.
Sometimes perimeter baseboard heaters or unit heaters are added as a part of a unitary
packaged system to provide heating required in the perimeter zone. Packaged air conditioning
systems that employ large unitary packaged units are central systems by nature because of the
centralized air distributing ductwork or centralized heat rejection systems. Packaged air
conditioning systems are characterized by the use of integrated, factory-assembled, and ready-
to-use packaged units as the primary equipment as well as DX coils for cooling, compared to
chilled water in central hydronic air conditioning systems. Modern large rooftop packaged units
have many complicated components and controls which can perform similar functions to the
central hydronic systems in many applications.


In central air-conditioning systems, cooling is generated in a chillers and distributed to air
handling units or fan-coil units with a chilled water system. This category includes systems
with air-cooled chillers as well as systems with cooling towers for heat rejection.
Central hydronic air conditioning systems are also called central air conditioning systems. In a
central hydronic air conditioning system, air is cooled or heated by coils filled with chilled or
hot water distributed from a central cooling or heating plant. It is mostly applied to large-area
buildings with many zones of conditioned space or to separate buildings. Water has a far
greater heat capacity than air. The following is a comparison of these two media for carrying
heat energy at 68°F (20°C):
The heat capacity per cubic foot (meter) of water is 3466 times greater than that of air.
Transporting heating and cooling energy from a central plant to remote air-handling units in fan
rooms is far more efficient using water than conditioned air in a large air conditioning project.
However, an additional water system lowers the evaporating temperature of the refrigerating
system and makes a small- or medium-size project more complicated and expensive. A central
hydronic air conditioning system consists of an air system, a water system, a central
heating/cooling plant, and a control system.

Air System
An air system is sometimes called the air-handling system. The function of an air system is to
condition, to transport, to distribute the conditioned, recirculating, outdoor, and exhaust air, and
to control the indoor environment according to requirements. The major components of an air
system are the air-handling units, supply/return ductwork, fan-powered boxes, space diffusion
devices, and exhaust systems. An air-handling unit (AHU) usually consists of supply fan(s),
filter(s), a cooling coil, a heating coil, a mixing box, and other accessories. It is the primary
equipment of the air system. An AHU conditions the outdoor/recirculating air, supplies the
conditioned air to the conditioned space, and extracts the returned air from the space through
ductwork and space diffusion devices. A fan-powered variable-air-volume (VAV) box, often
abbreviated as fan-powered box, employs a small fan with or without a heating coil. It draws
the return air from the ceiling plenum, mixes it with the conditioned air from the air-handling
unit, and supplies the mixture to the conditioned space. Space diffusion devices include slot
diffusers mounted in the suspended ceiling; their purpose is to distribute the conditioned air
evenly over the entire space according to requirements. The return air enters the ceiling plenum
through many scattered return slots. Exhaust systems have exhaust fan(s) and ductwork to
exhaust air from the lavatories, mechanical rooms, and electrical rooms. The NBC Tower in
Chicago is a 37-story high-rise office complex constructed in the late 1980s. It has a total air
conditioned area of about 900,000 ft2 (83,600 m2). Of this, 256,840 ft2 (23,870 m2) is used by
NBC studios and other departments, and 626,670 ft2 (58,240 m2) is rental offices located on
upper floors. Special air conditioning systems are employed for NBC studios and departments
at the lower level. For the rental office floors, four air-handling units are located on the 21st
floor. Outdoor air either is mixed with the recirculating air or enters directly into the air-
handling unit. The mixture is filtrated at the filter and is then cooled and dehumidified at the
cooling coil during cooling season. After that, the conditioned air is supplied to the typical floor
through the supply fan, the riser, and the supply duct; and to the conditioned space through the
fan-powered box and slot diffusers.

Water System
The water system includes chilled and hot water systems, chilled and hot water pumps,
condenser water system, and condenser water pumps. The purpose of the water system is (1) to
transport chilled water and hot water from the central plant to the air-handling units, fan-coil
units, and fan powered boxes and (2) to transport the condenser water from the cooling tower,
well water, or other sources to the condenser inside the central plant. In Figs. 1.1 and 1.2, the
chilled water is cooled in three centrifugal chillers and then is distributed to the cooling coils of
various air-handling units located on the 21st floor. The temperature of the chilled water
leaving the coil increases after absorbing heat from the airstream flowing over the coil. Chilled
water is then returned to the centrifugal chillier for recooling through the chilled water pumps.
After the condenser water has been cooled in the cooling tower, it flows back to the condenser
of the centrifugal chillers on lower level 3. The temperature of the condenser water again rises
owing to the absorption of the condensing heat from the refrigerant in the condenser. After that,
the condenser water is pumped to the cooling towers by the condenser water pumps.

Central Plant
The refrigeration system in a central plant is usually in the form of a chillier package. Chillier
packages cool the chilled water and act as a cold source in the central hydronic system. The
boiler plant, consisting of boilers and accessories, is the heat source of the heating system.
Either hot water is heated or steam is generated in the boilers. In the NBC Tower, the
refrigeration system has three centrifugal chillers located in lower level 3 of the basement.
Three cooling towers are on the roof of the building. Chilled water cools from 58 to 42°F (14.4
to 5.6°C) in the evaporator when the refrigerant is evaporated. The refrigerant is then
compressed to the condensing pressure in the centrifugal compressor and is condensed in liquid
form in the condenser, ready for evaporation in the evaporator. There is no boiler in the central
plant of the NBC Tower. To compensate heat loss in the perimeter zone, heat energy is
provided by the warm plenum air and the electric heating coils in the fan powered boxes.
Control System
Modern air conditioning control systems for the air and water systems and for the central plant
consist of electronic sensors, microprocessor-operated and -controlled modules that can analyze
and perform calculations from both digital and analog input signals, i.e., in the form of a
continuous variable. Control systems using digital signals compatible with the microprocessor
are called direct digital control (DDC) systems. Outputs from the control modules often actuate
dampers, valves, and relays by means of pneumatic actuators in large buildings and by means
of electric actuators for small projects. In the NBC Tower, the HVAC&R system is monitored
and controlled by a microprocessor-based DDC system. The DDC controllers regulate the air-
handling units and the terminals. Both communicate with the central operating station through
interface modules. In case of emergency, the fire protection system detects alarm conditions.
The central operating station gives emergency directions to the occupants, operates the
HVAC&R system in a smoke control mode, and actuates the sprinkler water system.


VRV is a multi and direct expansion type air conditioning system that one outdoor unit can be
connected with multiples of indoor units. The amount of refrigerant can be changed freely
according to the load in the indoor unit because inverter compressor is used in the outdoor unit.
Zoning in a small office is easily made possible with indoor unit whose minimum capacity is
very small. Energy conservation is easily handled because individual indoor unit can stop and
start its operation as needed.
VRV means Variable Refrigerant Volume System, where Cooling is controlled & monitored by
Refrigerant Flow Volume to the Indoor Units. Any Type & any Capacity of Indoor Units can
be connected to Single Same Outdoor Unit. Single Refrigerant Piping for each System Only
Two Pipes per System. Individual Controls for Indoor Units & Centralized Zonal Control is
possible. Less Volume of Refrigerant is required. Inverter Compressors with Standard
Compressors provides wide range of Temperature settings option & +/‐ 0.5C on Set Temp is
attained by this system.
With Multiple Compressors in Outdoor Units operating in sequence, Life Cycle of compressors
are extended than the average life cycle of any compressors. Zero Downtime of System during
the failure of any compressors, since there is automatic switchover to other compressors,
thereby the system doesn’t stop while in operation. During Maintenance period, the system can
continue working while there is maintenance of compressors of particular module. Low Power
consumption due to Inverter technology, where the power is calculated as per to usage of
indoor units & corresponding percentage of outdoor unit operating. Compactable to any BMS
network. Flexibility in system where in any additional indoor units can be connected in
future to the same Outdoor Units provided there is spare capacity present in Outdoor units.
Inverter Compressors, Variable Speed Fan Motor, DC Sine Wave Motor provides a greater
durability & reliability to the system whenever there is partial load or full load. Less number of
Outdoor Units. Compact Design hence Less Space Required on the roof . Ex: 24TR
Condensing Unit needed only 2.9sqm footprint area. Higher COP for the System means less
electricity is used resulting in greater energy efficiency.
With DC Fan Motor, Efficiency improvement by 40% especially at lower speed. With Aero
Fitting Grills & Aero Spiral Fans low noise is achieve with large airflow & new shape of fans
promotes spiral discharging airflow resulting in reduced pressure loss. Single Wiring is
required per System & looped to all the indoor Units per system. Copper Pipes for R410A
refrigerant Gas is quiet smaller diameter compared to standard copper pipes for other
refrigerant gas. With Power Proportional Distribution (PPD) card, power consumption of each
flat can be calculated irrespective of the flats connected to same Condensing Unit.


Chilled beams are predominantly used for cooling and ventilating spaces, where a good indoor
environment and individual space control is valued. They use water to remove heat from a
room and are located in the room space. chilled beams are primarily used in locations where the
humidity can be controlled.They provide excellent thermal comfort, energy conservation and
efficient use of space due to high heat capacity of water used as heat transfer medium. chilled
beam operation is simple and trouble free due to having minimum maintenance requirements.
They also supplement the flexible use of available space, at the same time as the high
temperature cooling and low temperature heating maximizing the opportunity for free cooling
and heating. Operation of the chilled beams is used where the internal humidity loads are
moderate, the primary air is dehumidified and any infiltration through the building is limited
and controlled.

Passive chilled beams (PCB) - A PCB consists of a fin-and-tube heat exchanger,

contained in a housing (or casing), that is suspended from the ceiling . Chilled water passes
through the tubes. Warm air from the space rises toward the ceiling, and the air surrounding the
chilled beam is cooled, causing it to descend back toward the floor, creating convective air
motion to cool the space. This allows a passive chilled beam to provide space cooling without
the use of a fan.

Active chilled beams (ACB) - An ACB also consists of a fin-and-tube heat exchanger
contained in a housing that is suspended from, or recessed in, the ceiling . The primary
difference is that an active chilled beam contains an integral air supply. This primary air passes
through nozzles, which induce air from the space up through the cooling coil. This induction
process allows an active chilled beam to provide much more cooling capacity than a passive
chilled beam. They have pipe connections and a primary air connection. Note that either two-
or four-pipe designs are available. With the two-pipe design, all zones receive either cold water
or hot water. The benefit of the four-pipe design is that some zones can receive cold water for
space cooling, while other zones simultaneously receive hot water for space heating.

Primary air system.- To comply with most building codes in the U.S., outdoor air must be
supplied to each space for ventilation. And since a chilled beam (whether passive or active)
typically does not contain a condensate drainage system, the primary air system must also
maintain the dew point of the indoor air below the surface temperature of the chilled beam to
avoid moisture from condensing on the coil and dripping into the space. Therefore, the purpose
of the primary air system for active chilled beams is to:
1) Deliver at least the required amount of outdoor air to each space for ventilation, and
2) Deliver air which is dry enough to offset the space latent load and maintain the indoor dew
point low enough to avoid condensation on the chilled beams, and
3) Deliver enough air to induce sufficient room airflow to offset the space sensible cooling

Fig .1
Fig. 2


Fig. 5
Fig. 6

2.1 AIMS
To study the different approaches for application of HVAC IN BUILDING


- To provide a comfortable atmosphere to work by decreasing the heat effect as more

heat is generated from the computers .
- To improve the indoor air quality and maintain a higher quality.
- To control the temperature .
- To replenish oxygen and removal of moisture, odours, smoke, heat, dust, airborne
bacteria, carbon dioxide, and other gases.
- To remove unpleasant smells and excessive moisture.
- To prevent stagnation of interior air.


- This study deals with mechanical ventilation in commercial buildings.

- Specifically office building have been chosen .
- It includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air within the
building. it is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air
quality in buildings.
- It can provide ventilation, reduce air infiltration, and maintain pressure relationships
between spaces.
- Healthy, productive, comfortable indoor environment …heating to perimeter spaces
…,cooling to perimeter and core spaces, …humidification or dehumidification as needed
…,ventilation to occupied spaces in the it park.
- It maintains the comfortable atmosphere to work by decreasing the heat effect as more
heat is generated from the computers .
- It improves the indoor air quality and maintains a higher quality.
- It controls temperature , replenish oxygen and removal of moisture, odours, smoke, heat,
dust, airborne bacteria, carbon dioxide, and other gases. ventilation removes unpleasant
smells and excessive moisture,
- It prevents stagnation of interior air.


- General specifications for heating ventilation and air conditioning (hvac) works 2004, by
director general (works) cpwd , nirman bhawan , new delhi.
,Central Public Works Department.
- A thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Master of

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