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[1] “Edge Detection and Image Segmentation : Two sides of the same coin” by Victor
Boskovitz and Hugo Guterman(0-7803-3796-41976 $10.00 ©1997 IEEE)

An auto-adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy segmentation and edge aetection architecture is

presented. The system consists of a multilayer perceptron WLP) network that performs image
segmentation by adaptive thresholding of the input image using labels automatically
preselected by a fuzzy chstering technique. The proposed architecture is j2 edforward, but
unlike the conventional MLP the learning is unsupervised. The output status of the network is
dmcribed as a fuzzy set. Fuzzy entropy is used as a measure of the error of the segmentation
system as well as a criterion for determining potential edge pixels.

Fig. Proposed System

[2] “Coin Recognition based on Geometric Features” by Burak Benligiray and Halil Cakir
(978-1-4799-7075-9/15/$31.00©2015 IEEE)

In this study, it is aimed to count the total amount in an image of coins using machine
vision methods. The extrinsic parameters of the camera whose intrinsic parameters are
already known are estimated relative to the plane on which the coins lie. Textural details are
removed from the image using bilateral filtering and circles are detected. Reciprocal points
from the detected circles are back projected using the estimated pose. By calculating the
metric diameters of the detected coins, the coins are recognized and counted.


COUNTING” by Dhanabal.R,Saratkumar Sahoo, Bharathi V (978-1-4673-7386-
9/15/$31.00 c 2015 IEEE)

Processing enhancement of a digital Image is really important now a day, as it plays a

crucial role in mobile technology, multimedia, medicine and several DSP applications. The
solution to enhance the quality of systems linked to image processing is hardware based
processing of an image by using FPGA’S. In this, a discussion about implementation of circle
detection and coin counting is done by changing brightness, threshold and contrast of a
digital image and simulated result by the help of a language for description of hardware,
verilog was done. Algorithm for step wise implementation of Brightness manipulation,
Operating Threshold and Contrast stretching is implemented which gives an efficient
implementation than normal edge detecting kind of counting coins.

In current day scenario in the area of medicine, arts and services depending upon
multimedia digital processed image is diversely used. The no of objects of an image can be
found out by counting no of pixels in an image. For the purpose of counting and finding out
the objects in any image the image should be counted initially so that an object can be
counted easily. The advantage of counting of an image helps us for processing of an image
depending on which a corresponding application of an image can be done. Sharpening of an
image includes to sharpen image characteristics like boundaries, edges or contrast. By
adopting above mentioned techniques an analysis of an image can be made. Image bettering
consists all the above mentioned techniques.

There are two different elements for bettering images. Those are spatial frequency and
spatial domain approaches. The approach based on frequency based on image transformation
based upon mathematical transformation and spatial domain approach depending on pixel.
The unpretentious but useful bettering image operations in spatial domain are filtering,
contrast stretching, transfiguration of image negative, calculation of brightness, equalization
of histogram, operation on threshold and operation on filtering. All the above given
techniques are described as the image processing point operations on image. The filtering
based on high pass and low pass will be considered in frequency domain section. The benefit
of bettering an image is its maneuverability.

[4] “ Prompt Indian Coin Recognition with Rotation Invariance using Image Subtraction
Technique” by Vaibhav Gupta, Rachit Puri, Monir Verma (978-1-4244-9190-2/11/$26.00
©2011 IEEE)

This paper detects Indian coins of different denomination. The spiraling business
transaction at vending machines and automated systems working on token have spurred better
coin recognition techniques saddled with increased robustness. These techniques facilitate
transaction making it easier in all forms of trade. Keeping all the essential factors in mind a
system has been created which recognizes coin based on image subtraction technique. The
process performs 3 checks (radius, coarse and fine) on the input image. The stated subsequent
checks enable the technique to endorse Rotation Invariance, thus obviating the need of
placing the coin at a certain angle. Also, the technique does away with the requirement of
placing the front face of the coin up. Subtraction between the input object image and database
image is performed. Further, plotting the resultant values gives minima which if less than a
standard threshold establishes the recognition of the coin. Results of MATLAB based
simulations have been reported.

[5] “Coin recognition system based on a neural network” by Gabriel V. Iana and Cristian
Monea (978-1-4799-5479-7/14/$31.00 ©2014 IEEE)

The purpose of this paper is to design an electronic system which can identify coins
by detecting the sound generated when they hit a hard surface, using a neural network.
Generally, coin identification in vending machines is done using magnetic or optical
methods. This paper focuses on the acoustic method, in which coin recognition is based on
the detection of the coin’s natural frequencies. The frequencies of these vibrations depend on
the object’s properties (mass, shape, material type), and remain the same as long as these
properties do not change, thus being used as acoustic fingerprints. Also, this method permits
recognition of fake or deteriorated coins, because they have different properties. The
principle applied in this paper can be used for the recognition of numerical sequences
produced by other objects.

[6] “Indian Coin Recognition and Sum Counting System of Image Data Mining Using
Artificial Neural Networks” by Velu C M, P.Vivekanadan, Kashwan K R (International
Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 31, June, 2011 )

The objective of this paper is to classify recently released Indian coins of different
denomination. The objective is to recognize the coins and count the total value of the coin in
terms of Indian National Rupees (INR). The system designs coin recognition which uses by
combining Robert’s edge detection method, Laplacian of Gaussion edge detection method,
Canny edge detection method and Multi-Level Counter Propagation Neural Network
(MLCPNN) based on the coin Table 1. In this paper, it is proposed to introduce ML-CPNN
approach. The features of old coins and new coins of different denominations are considered
for classification. Indian Coins are released with different values and are classified based on
different parameters of coin such as shape, size, surface, weight and so on. Some countries’
coins are having same parameters, but with different value. This paper concentrates on affine
transformations such as simple gray level scaling, shearing, rotation etc. The coins are well
recognized by zooming processes by which a coin size of the image is increased. To
implement the coin classification, code is written in Matlab and tested with simulated results.
A method is proposed for realizing a simple automatic coin recognition system more
effectively. The Robert’s edge detection method gives 93% of accuracy and Laplacian of
Gaussion method 95% of the result, the Canny edge detection method yields 97.25% result
and the ML-CPNN approach yields 99.47% of recognition rate.

[7] “An Image-Based Approach to Detection of Fake Coins” by Li Liu, Yue Lu, Ching Y.

We propose a new approach to detect fake coins using their images in this paper. A
coin image is represented in the dissimilarity space, which is a vector space constructed by
comparing the image with a set of prototypes. Each dimension measures the dissimilarity
between the image under consideration and a prototype. In order to obtain the dissimilarity
between two coin images, the local keypoints on each image are detected and described.
Based on the characteristics of the coin, the matched keypoints between the two images can
be identified in an efficient manner. A postprocessing procedure is further proposed to
remove mismatched keypoints. Due to the limited number of fake coins in real life, one-class
learning is conducted for fake coin detection, so only genuine coins are needed to train the
classifier. Extensive experiments have been carried out to evaluate the proposed approach on
different datasets. The impressive results have demonstrated its validity and effectiveness.

[8] “Adaptively undersampled, circular histogram based image processing for rotation
invariant coin detection” by Ago Molder, O. Martens(978-1-4673-2774-9/12/$31.00 ©2012

As in many real time signal processing application in image processing the

computation time and the number of operations is very critical. Correlation as the most
known and most widely used algorithm in image matching has a tendency to grow the
number of operations rapidly when the range of discretion increases. In this paper adaptively
undersampled circular histogram based image processing algorithm for the validation of fast
moving and rotating coins has been developed and evaluated. The combination of adaptive
undersampling and circular area histogram matching makes the method highly accurate and
rotation invariant while significantly reducing the calculations operations needed for the
validation of fast moving and rotating coins. This method has been tested on real euro coins
and the results show that this method is suitable for accurate rotation invariant coin
verification system.


S.Mohamed mansoor roomi, R.B.Jayanthi rajee(978-1-4799-7075-9/15/$31.00 ©2015 IEEE)

Coin identification and recognition and is important to enhance the extended

operation of Vending machines, Pay phone system and coin counting machines. Coin
recognition is a difficult task in machine intelligence and computer vision problems because
of its various rotations and widely changed patterns. Therefore, an efficient algorithm is
designed to be robust and invariant to rotation, translation and scaling. The objective of this
work is to find whether the object is coin or not if so denomination of the coin is found. The
Fourier approximation of the coin image is used to reduce the variations on surface of coin
such as light reflection effect. Then coins can be distinguished by feeding those features into
a multi-layered BP neural network.



1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Problem Definition And Motivation 2
1.2.1 Disadvantages of Existing Method 2
1.2.2 Strategic Solution 2
1.3 Generalize Block Diagram 2
1.3.1 Block Diagram Description 3
1.4 Challenges In Existing System 3
1.4.1 Objectives 4
1.5 Summary 5

2.1 Introduction 5
2.2 Hardware Required 5
2.2.1 Microcontroller 8
2.2.2 Atmega 328/P 10
2.2.3 DC Solenoid 12
2.2.4 DC Motor 13
2.2.5 L293D Motor Driver 16
2.2.6 Infrared Sensor 17
2.3 Software Needed 17
2.3.1 Matlab 19
2.3.2 Arduino IDE 20
2.3.3 Algorithm and Flowchart 23
2.4 Papers/Journals Referred 28
2.5 Summary 29

3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Overall Block Diagram of a System 30
3.2.1 Block Diagram Description 31

3.4.1 Selection Criteria for Sensor 33

3.5 Pin Diagram 34
3.5.1 Pin Diagram Description 35
3.5.2 Memory Size 35
3.6 Software Used 37
3.6.1 Matlab 37
3.6.2 Eagle 37
3.6.3 Arduino 38
3.7 Estimated Results 38
3.8 Summary 38

4.1 Conclusion 40


5.1 Refrences 41