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'&''.

,g-
L
L 4-4.4 Designfor a columnwlth Inte.mediaterestralnt

L. Checkwhethe.section203 x 203 x 52UCS 275adequate


4-12b€low.
for thecolumnillushatedin Figu.e

t' 4-800kN /

I
L ,v,= lotNrn
I I >.*Y,9'a
M,'mkN

q!P"
/'
r{11
illt
, *l
/.
.rt"*
h,;". . ,i'-t* #4
&-r\lU 14
t)J.*
,,.' 16l

lr ll . ' , ta+,,

.,,
. Both.rdsrr. pin-jointd ---T
I '-t).
ngor.4-I2 I''
SectionPropertietfor 203 x 203 x 52UCS 275
D = 206.2,T= l2.srrtttt,
A.= 66,4cto|2, ry = 5.l6cm,Df- 8.16,
rx= 8.90cm,
dh = 20,1,z,= sto.mt,zr= 174p11'13,3,= S, = 264".r
568on3,

SecIion CIassif ic,'tiorr o.(


=
Sincef 12.5mm =
< l6nnlpy 275N/mm2 Table ll
t'*t chrk'x'
/ t?<\G ,
6 =fr?sj =to' [\ ''h 1 egai'-r.',
* *'
b tr - 8 - t <
1\'{:tr',.,t ltNy
6 4 0=e 4 o , t hf lea n g ies c t a s3s, r
:'* r'
',*1"-=-!o!l
" =or:a L&)
a,+st?,,a, thl lttifl
A'Py. 66.4xl0' Yr.t I
ri1( /" a'fn-a''-' :^-( 7t
r?o:Y;- - 63.e6
)2y-= > 4oe
t i-" =.(t.i
.. . = k.i ok., .
?,f,rul
.tou,,,-l

t' l+2r7

.'. &F ;r t9 ,v(


I
lr*r, '{', is
L

.i
> d/t = 2O.l mcr*rcrrrl
/

Slendemess
Tbc columnendat levellhce is pid-jointcdon minor.xis.nd {igilFifrd !t
rrljor aris. Duc to th€ colurE is continuousat lcvcl two,thcrrshaintlhqr i8
rigid, thereforc,
assumcd
nlr
Ir. =N,OooO
- 4?0&nm tloD

Let = 0'85 x 3000

\r'r
- 2550mm

chcck for bothx .xi8 .nd y axis:


\ .
LpJ r^ = 4@189.0
= 47.19
Lal rt - 25595t.,
= 49.42 I

tr.'
For )^= 4d11\,andp, = 27SNlrrmr2,
pn=2#lt]r.ml Trble 24 (r)
For \= 49.42,.]ndp.r- 275Ntmr?,p,y - 22lNlmm2 Trbl€ 24(c)
Takethe lesserofpq andp"r, thercfor€p. = 22lN/nfi'?

ComprcssiwCapocity
cl.4J A
' = 66.4x tG x 22t x.t0-t,.1
= r 467.44kN> F" +@kN ok
,J.
EquiwlentSlendemqs
),Lf = 0.5L1r.,= 0.5 x 3ffi0151.6 cl.4.7:l
. =2e.97

Fot py = 275Nlmrn2.nd tlr = 29.07, from Trble 16, Pb= 275N/mm'? T.ble 16
Mt :A>4=275x5lOx1!' cl. 43.6.4
= l40.25kNm

20
l - '
1.0 Introductionto StructuralSteelDesign
l ' .

1.1 What Structural Steel is?


Jlleel- is a man-rnademetal containing95oloor morc iron. The remainingconstitueotsaresmall
amountsofelement$derived
from themw malerialrusedin themakingoflhe steel,as
well as otherelemenlsaddedto improvecertaincharacteristics
or ptoperties
ofthe
prcduct.

Structure- is ai artificial building which consistsof oneor more elementsanangedin ccrtain


form, in order to resistthe subjectedforcesstablyand no excessivedeformation.

Stntcturalsteel- steelin vadousshapes


andformsutilizedto suplrortloadsandresistthevadous
forcesto which a struclureis $ubierted.
ii'l "
,ii '

1,2 Why steel?


L
Adv)ntages:
I l. Iligh slrcnglh-'lhe highstr€nglhof sleelperunit ofweightmeansdcadloadswill be
L
snall. This fact is ofgreatimportance
for long-span
bridges,tall buildings,andfor
l stuctureshavingpoorfoundation
condition.
I
2..Unifornity-Thepropcrtiesofstccldonotchangeapprecisblywithtimeasdothoseofa
reinfor€ed .-
concretesftucture.
3, r1aslr.iD,- Steelbehavecloserlo designassumplions
thanmostmaterialsbecause
il
followsHooke'slaw up to fairly highstress.
4. Duclility -lt aanwithstand
extensive delormation
wilhoutfailureunderhightensile
It is freefrornsuddenfailure.Thelarged€fleclioD
stresses. occurredwhenit ov€rloaded
, ]
givesvisibleevidence ingfailu.e('tim€ for run').
of irnp€nd
5. Addilionsllt exislingslrrct!.?s New bayor evennewwingscanbeaddedto exisLing
steelframebuilding.
6. Timesaving Duelo nocufinglime
andlcaffolding
tinre,thesDeed consrnrct()n
ofsLeel
far fanerthanthe(un(rerc(r'rslruclion.

\
7. Flexibiw in fabricatton - The sectiongcomety, sttngth, and other propcnics could bc
conhollcd flcxibly stld accuratcly.
8. Theafer-denolished vahe - Stc€lis highly rrusablq thc scrapvaluc is llso high evcn
thoughnot rcusablcsiD its cxisdng form.

Disadvartages
l. Mainlenancecosts- Most stccl .Ic susccptiblcto conosior whan frccly crpogcdto air
.nd watcrandmusttbercforcbcpcriodicallyteatcd.
2. F reprooling - The sffiglh ofstccl will bc trcrnendo8ly rcducedduring cncouniering
high lemperaturs(e.9. WTC tragedy).High costmay be rcquircd or providiog advancc
fircproofiDgsystemto thcbuilding.
3. Svscqtibilityto buckling- Thclong.( ard sl.ndcrcrcompr.ssion
mcmbcrs,lhegrcater
thedarg€rofbuckling.
4, Fadgte- Thesbeagthmaybcftduccdifthc steclis subjected
to a largenumberofskess
reve$alsor cvento a largenumberofvarirtionsofsltEssofthe samecharactor
(i.c.
t€nsionof compression).

1.3 Deslgn

1,3.1WhatDeslgnfor?
Deirgnis a process
by whichanoptimumsolutionis obtoined.
L anydesigrLcertsincriteriamust
beeslrblishadlo evaluatcwhethdor not anoDtimumhasbcci achicv€d,

Aimtof&ructural D.sign(BS 5g5l-l:2Un2L.1,1,1-Theoimof structural dcs;gnshouldbe


provide,with dueregardto ecooomy,a structurecapablcoffulfilling its intcndcdfunctionand
sustaining
thespcciliedloadsfor its iDtcnded
lifc. Thcdesignshouldfacilitatcsafcfabrication,
transport,handlingandcrcction.It shouldtakeaccountofthc nccdsof futurEmaintenancc,
final
demolition,
recycling
andreuseofmstcrials.

I
1.3.2The TheodesBehind
Structumlst€eldesigncouldbe basedolroneofthe followingtheories:
- Elastic design -hfioduced sinc.o1932.The sbuclureis analyzedusing€lastictheory,
and the selectionof sectiol size is bas€don lhe lirnit strcssallowed in BS 499.
- Plasticdesign -The tbeory is basicallysimilat lo the elasticdesign,but it coversthe
.memb€rbehaviorbeyonddr€yield poinl.
- Limit statesdesign- Adoptedby BS 5950.It considersall conditionsin reality where
possibly causethe failur€ and usability of the shuctlre.

1.3.3LlmltSiatesConceptsIn Design
(2.13):
statedin Bs 5950"1:2000
Structurcsshouldbe designedby consideringthe limit statesbcyond which they would bccome
unfil for their intendeduse.Appropriatepartial facto$ shouldbc applicd to providc adequate
dcgrcesofreliability for ultimatclimit statcsandserviceability
limit states.

, 1.3.4Ultimate Llmit States


Ultimatelimit statesconcernthesafetyof thewholepan ofihe str,ucture,
e.g.sirength(including
' generalyielding,rupture,bucklingandforminga mechanism),
stabilityagainstovcrturningand
-- sway stability, fracturedue to fatigueand brittle fraclure.

A structureis said in this statewbenpart or whole structurefailed or collapsc.

1.3.5 ServiceabilltyLlmit States


limit stalesco[espondto limits beyondwhichspecifiedservicecriteriaareno
Scrvi€eability
longermet,e.g.deflection,vibration,wind induccdoscillationanddurability.

A structur€failedin salisl,ingserviceability
limil slateis nol collapse,but it will cause
. urpleasanteflects to the user,or induc€th€ defectsofstructure. The defectsmay reducethe
durability or strengthof the stucturcs in long€rterm.

F
1.3.6 PartialSafety Factors
ThepartialsafetyfactoFareusedlo provideadequate
degrces
ofaeliabilityfor thedesign-ll
could beapplied througl multiply or divide the charactcristicv.lues of coDsiderations.
The
overall factor is the productofpartial safetyfactors.lD any desigr, the overall factor hasto cover
thevariabilityof:

Trbl.l{ Faclof! in d8ign

1.0for r. l.? for U,


Lording n . tr is thc prodlct ofz and /r. This valuc is dcpend

Shctuml perfornance on th. ttpc oflold and th€ load combimtion


'sec ncxrseclionfor tunler informltion

1.3.7DeslgnStrength

Detign SrrenEth= CharacleristicSlrength x h

Designstrcngthis thevalueusedin designwhichhighreliabilityis required,Normally,the/d


will rcduccor characterislic
strengthoftbe materialdueto theproduclionconsideralions.
For
steel,factors1.0and 1.2havebeenusedlor lhecharacteristic
yield strengthandcha.racteristic
ofsteelproduction.
ultimatestr€ngthduelo thebighconsistency

1.4 DesignProcedure
L Planning-Eslablishmentofthe functionsfot whichthestrucuremuslsewe.Sc!criteria
againstwhichto measure
lbe resultingdesignfor beinganoplimum.
2. Preliminary slructural conJiguration Anangementofthe elementsto sewe thc sel
firnctions.
3. Establishmenlof the loads- ldentiry the loadsto be carriedby the structure.
4. Prelininary memberselection-Basedon lhedecisions
ofprevioussteps,selectthe
mcmbersizesto satisryanobjectivecriterion,suchas lcastrveightor cost.
5. , rdryrrr -' Strucluralanalysisjovolvingmodelingthc loadsandlhe slrucluralframework
lo obtaininternallorcesandanyd€sireddeflections.
6. Evaluation- Are ^ll shengthand servicability requirementssatisfiedand is the result
optimum?Comparethc r€strltwith Fedeterminedcriteria.
.' 7. Redesr?r Repetitionofany part ofthe previousstepsfound necessaryor desirableas a
resultofevaluation.
8. Final decision- The detemination of whetheror not an optimum designhasbeen
achieved(drawing).

1.5 DesignGode:BS 5950-1:2000


The fulf nameis: ,RSJ9J0-l:20U StructuraluseoJsteel\9orkanbuilding- Part 1: CodeoJ
praclicefor design- Rolled and weldedsecliorr. The standardgivesrecommendationsfor the
ste4lworkusinghot rolledsteelsections,
designof stsuctura.l flats,plats,hot finishedstructural
hollowsectionsandcold formedstructural
hollgw sections,
in buildingandalliedstucturcsnot
specil'lcallycovercdby otber standards.

' cl. 2.2.1:


Staledin BS 5950-1:2000
.- All relevantloadsshouldbe considered
sepantelyandin suchrealisticcombinations
as to
'
compisethemostcrilicaleffectson theelements
andthestructure
asa whole.

The characteristicload is the representation


ofthe real load, which defined as:
The loadwith lhe 95o^probability ofnot being exceededthroughout its liletine
ano
Characleistic Load =h'erage load - L64 x Standard Deviation

Cenerally,the loadingsrequiredto be consideredin designincludesdead load, live load, wind


load, load due lo temperaturechangesand earihquakeand ground-watcrloading.

The chamcteristicdeadand imposedloadsusedin designshouldcompriseto the BS 6399-l and


BS 6399-3; wind loadsshould bc determinedfrom BS 6399 or CP3:ChV:Part 2.
1.6.1 DeadLoads (Gk)
Dead load is assumednot be changedthroughoutlhe building life time. It includesself-weightof
thestucturalelemerlssuchasbeams,;olumns,slabs,etc;non-structualelemenlssuciiaswalls,
finishes,permanent
inslalledinstruments,
servicefacilitiesetc.

1.6.2 Live Loads (Qk)

Live loadis rcpresenting


thc loadssubjcctto significantch.nging,c.g.hum.n,rain,fumiturc,
partitions,equipmenls
semipennanent suchascmn€sandothermachinery
etc,In design,ils
valueis varyingwith thefrnctionof thercom.All imposedloadsarcbasedoDexpericnce
wifiin
theconstruction
industryandlhe statistical
analyses
ofobseryedcases. l

1.6.3Wind Load(Wr)
Wind loadingis considered
in a buildingdesignsuchthatthcbuildingis not susc€ptible
to be
overtumedor upliftedby thewind force.In CP3:ChV:Part2, theb6sicwind speedis initially
delermined to thelocationof thebuildinS,thenthisvalueis reducedby includingthc
appropriate
factorsconsidering
thetopography, buildings,heightabovegrcundlevel,component
sunounding
sizeandpcriodofexposure,

1.6.4 DeslgnLoad(F)
Il is theproductobtainedby rnultiplying
Designloadis thevalueusedin designcalculations-
characteristicload and appropriatepartial safetyfactorcin orderto incleasethe.€liability.

1.6.5LoadCombinations
Loadson anyslructuremustbe anangedin desigtlso thatthemaximumfore€.ormomentis
achievedat thepoint in thestructure
beingconsidered.

A summaryof loadaombinarion partialsaf€tyfactorsis pmvidedin the


includingcorresponding
rablebclow:
l

Trblc l-l Lod combin.lion .lrd de.lg! lo.d

D6ig'l lo.d
Ultimic lirnit st|t D€td + Impo.cd t.4Gr+t.6Qr
D..d + \rrind l.ocr+ tSrr
Dc.d+Impos.d+\ryid t.2q+ L2A+ t.2w\
Scniccsbil;tylimil stltc D..d + ltrposcd 1.06r+ l.0O
D.!d + Wind l.ocr+ r.0wr
D..d+Impo3.d+Wind l.oci+0.8Ct+03n

Trblc l-i Approprhl. d.rd lo.d ofvrrlour m{erlit

Mrt.rhl

.sb6tos or zink slidca

Rcinfor.€d concrclc laycr

- loofin
Wei8ht of roof rulsas with 4.5n spscinSto €rch othcr rnd th. spln k:
- 7.5h 0.0075kN/m'
0.00?5lN/rf
0.0085kN/m'
0.1Y0tN/m1
0.145kN/m'l
0.170kN/rn'
200mn thicl coBunor concrctcblo.l
- Solid 4.35kN/m?
2.90lN/m'

Bricks225mmwih oncsidc

Brick I l2t'h with 2.50


25mm thick icFazz. or 0.50
Slecl

0.6 kN/h'?
r.2skN/#
d tm thick)
23.6
Reioforced
concrctcslrb:
- I50mm 1.8kN/n2
- 250mn 6.0 kN/m'?
- 300mm 7-2 tN/m'z
loommlbick

0-6 kN/m7
0.9 kN/m'
Trbl. I-{ E!.mpl. ofl'||por.d bdr (doPlrd f]!m BS (}9} P.rt t! lroa)

ttrt ?|Frnd td..,i-rtbatdrq lodair'r td6'


arr bu.1 rcdi d!.knd.l .hb..d c.rful rt h

Edlo ffi+ nDlo. 6rl.' to led .d t. nr. i*tn|ht rh.

Cdmd ti|.her hrorti. ,n


Dinint bB, l.o!t.,Ullhd 'e' 2.0
2n

C6no.., ldh,.r'' .t in, hodi.a., lootb.[t ., .r. t.0


LO
rlF r. hr.! &d d*a

Eoikr ffi& m|d l6h|' l.n t6.d E , dE Ir. n*|nila dF 1t

A.&rtt .d rnior 6r.d Hin|, d.e t tl ,,0

Ar& lr rEr vi$ n*d 6thr

Caddont [.ll*.y!,.t.i6, hidi.!r, t drtb.artc

tn
Dii'lrt tunr, tM!r.. billird Fm 2.0
2,O
2n

om.- FI9t.r.t(ollL.'t .L)

E l'a.ad, Dror mn.t i. rhr hd |nr li!. i*hrnrad.

Ccitor., h.ltw.ya .rc. .ubjct ro lo.d sFE fiD n!.D 5,0


sDw&, Dh s ph..Ld rchi.hl rblLrr nd th. liL

FiL DrB filli'A ud tMs! p*r

Corldotr t ll$.tr n.ir* Ldir& 6ottridt r, .t

otlc. $|n trd copuEE d lihilr.qliDml

L*d.lo.in {imldin3 c{liP|E t), kiLhd,lDn.Lic 3.0


L
L
L" 1.7 StructuralSt6olElements
l. PlrlSirdcr
L'- 2, Bc.'trl
3. Colo,nr
t ' 4. Bncirlt
L 5. Foun&lioh

L (r) Mr||l-.lor.y

L
6. Trur!

L 7. Crmcgird.r
8, Found.lion
9. Purlin
L
I O) slnsL tlorcy
L
ngurc l.l Elem.ntrlr ril.d Stru.torc

t. Figure I showslhc eleoents in thc converfionalsteelsfuchfe. The elerD€ntsa!e:


I '
l. Searr - Supportofsl.b|. ltg major firnction is to resistthe bendingmomentand sbcar.
L
2, Tres/bracing-Usd to enhoncethe swaystability, They only resistaxial forc.s cifhcr

I tensronor comprcssron.
3. Colwru - A eqticrl momberto cs!ry axial corDplessionforce.

L 4. PurliLt -'fl]e- m.mbcls which tsaNfeninglhe forcesfrom .oofto rooftruss€.s.


5. ln-l.'jes - An osscmblyofsmall cl€mcntsto act as a whole unit, normally usedfor long
spanvertical load support
L 6. Connection- Bolting ard welding,in orderto connectmembeNtogelher.Thc connection
could be rigid, semi-dgidor nominalpinned.
L
l . '

IL .

L
r l
t
J
1.8 Propsrtlesof Steel

1.8.1 D6lgn Str.ngth A/


ln BS 595G1:2000Clrblc 9),lh. stuoturalsLElis catc8oiiz.dinto lht a 8t!do! Fgirding !o ib
dcsig! ib!r|gfh,A. Th.y !r! S 275,3355andSil50.Srccl5275 b thcmild slctl whicl nF6t
cgrnoonlyulcd in sicclconsEuctions.

Thc d6ign slrcogthA i8 trk€o.s l.oyr butnot grcatr lhrtl U/t 2, whrrc L andU. |r.
rcap.ctivclythcminimumyicld st ngthlnd $c rdninur! tcnsilcstlngth spocificdin Elsvant
sistdrrd (BS 595F2).Tb f. ad U. sndp, aredcpictcdin tbcfigurc bcloi;
prDducr

ng!r. l-l D,l&J nr...-rtrd! crllr tor atrrc|lrrl rdn d.d .bt.li.d irod r t6dlt t d

t0

4
L
L
1..
L.
L"
L
L Flgrrt l-, ld.|lr.d dli.?dllh curv. of Btl 595e

L T.bl. 16 Ttro !..t co|'mrly u!.d rtcl 8rd.A

L Sa.d grd. Thlchc L.. tllr or .qorl to Dal8n..I.!gl|r,

s 275 t6 273
L . 40 265

I
L . ' 'l,8.2 OtherPropertlos

L' Forlhs ql.sticprgpqrtiesofst€cl,thafollowingshouldbcu6€d:


- Modulusof elasticity E - 2O5kNlnm'z
- Shearmodulus e=Etl2(t+v)l
L - Poi8son's
ratio v = 0.30
- Coclficientoflincar thcnrDlcxparNion
L (b thcambicDttcmpqaturcnngc) a= 12x l0'per'C

L
L.
l "
I
L ll

L
t!
1,9 Section
The conventioralsectionsbapcsarc depictedin the Figure 2 bclow. You sbouldobservethe
sccoonson:
l. ls the sectionin one-piaceform? Or consistsofs€vdal pieces?
2. The shapeofthe comers,is il angledor filleted?
3. Theslimnessofthe section.
4. label ofdimcnsions.
b,

-:
r
'
l l
H
-Er,
l
'
l ffi _ *t. _r1n-l
r f [ |
T [
d lI d l t l l l , "J-ll-1
,[-Tl; t *F -J-Tr
l
N|,
I *+J {-flJ r |--E
*il* t tr
4
I i-r
l l - '

LLt l-rJt-

',1lnilf
fr
I ._.r--*r.
0l+

t o,l t ,,1
llHlJl L
RHS

r--]
,IL,
-rr =

tl
L

FlSurc l-a Dlmlllolt ofnriou. r..don

L Thc sectionscouldb€ hot-rclledor weld€dsection.For hot'rolleds€otions,


thesection
geom€hicalpropeniesconcemedin structuralsleel dcsignare describedin termss oh as area
(l), web thickncss(r), flangethickness(7), root radius(rr), toe radius(r:), secondmomentof
area(1,-',/ry),radiusof gyration(1-1,r"-r),elagticmodulus(2,.o Zy.y),plasticmodulus(&.,,

; Sr_!), elc. Tableofpropeniea provide a quick and clear refer.ncc to obtain all thescand other

importantinformationof a section.
Somefeatures
ofthe steelsectionsarepresented
in thetableb€low:

T.bl€ l{
l

D,B"kCnr
Columr,pilcs DrBxkSm
3. Anglcs

5.Channls
6- R€ct oSularhollowsccrioN D , B . t

13
1.10 Reference
l. SamuelH. Marcus(198t) BasicsofsbucturalSteclDcsign(SccondEditioo),Reslon
PublishingCompany,
Inc,,U.s.A.
(1990),STEELSTRUCTIJRE,S:
2. Charle G. Salmot,Johr!E. Johnson Dcsigntnd
Bchsvior,&nphasizingLoadandRcsistuccF;ctor Dcsign(ThirdEditioo),Haryer&
Row,Publisbcrs,
Ncw YorL
3. L. J. Monis, D. R. Plum(1988),Stsuctural
StcclworkDcsigr to BS 5950,LoneJnan
Scicntilic& T€cbrical,UK.
4. JackC. Mccormac(1981),Sruc al SteelDcsign(ThirdEdition),H.rpcr & Rov,
Ncw York
Publishers,

1 4 "
L
t
L 2.0 Glassification of Gross-sections
L 2.1 Why Classlfy?
- To determinrvrhclh€rlocalbucklingin{lucnc* thcir capacity,wilhoutcslculatiq tlreir-'
L loc.l bucklingrc6istoncc.

L
L Compr..!.d

L corpr!3!€d

L ...-.'-

7
L -/.;,'

L
L In8!..2-l Lcrl buctI[g

L 2.2 Clessificatlon
A coftplete cross-sectionshouldbe classifiedacaordingto lhe higltcst (leastfavorable)classof
L its compressionelemerts.The classesare:

L ClassI plastic: Cross-seclionswith plaslic hinge rotation capacity


Class1 sectionreachcsplastic momcnl resistanccand mainlainsmomcntresistancefor
L considq:dblerotalion. Its r/f andd/, \€lues sre the smrllest amongall lhc sectronclasses.
Its locd capacityis basedon plastic modllus-

L
I
I
L

L
Closs2 cot pacr: Cross-s*liois wirt dastic rnonenl ca4ciry
Class2 scctiodalso rcachcsplasticrnoDentrEsigtucc but dgcsoot msiDtrid rllomcr Esistonor
for vcty muchrotation.
Its locrl caplcityis basedon plaglicmodulus.

Aoss 3 seml.compact:Cross-setionsin whichthe strersa, ,he drem. @rrptstlonfibre cat


rqch thedetign ttrength, bt t theplattic r omentcap@ity cannotbe deteloped
Clrss 3 scctionrcachcsib clasticrmmant rcsislatcc, Dotplasticmomantrlsistrlcc; and its
cryacity fslls arvry rapidly altrt rhc icld poinl
Its locrl crpacity i! barcdoo chstic moddus,

Class1 sleader: Cross-salionsin \9hich is nece$ary to natz etqlici, allowoficefor the efats oI
localbucHing
Class4 srctiondocsnotcvcnrrachits clasticmomcntrasislrnoc,

Thr failun;modcJolrll thcs€s€ctionclass€saI. dcpictcdin thc6gurcbelow:

E
E
u"
ttr- Pllslic moms rcsistmc.
.9
rv. = Ehs$c nomcot r!.ilrbncc
{

Robtion

n8ut. 2-2 Ti. fd|!r! mod. of v.rlou, !.qlon clr...r


2.3 Stress Block

Cl$r I .nd Cltt! 2


I Cl.rr 3
SS5950n:2000

Ch5.4
BS5950-lil9O

Flgurc 2-3 Slr.a! block ofv$lor! racllor clarlc3

Class I andClass2 sectionsare bas€don plastic srcss distribution,wherethc Class3 is basodon


tle elasticstrcssdiskibution.

For class4 se.tion, thcre arc two approachcsto determincthe yi.ld shessofthe section.The BS
(lcduceddcsignstrcngthmethod,staledin BS 5950-l:2000cl. 3.6.5
approach
5950:1990
Altemativemethod)downratcdlhedcsignyield srressuntil thestrrssblockshapejustb€com€s
is quiE conservalive
theclass3. Thisassumplion sincetheineffectiveofthe w€b,whichfolces
thesectionio be olass4,rcducesthed€signyield strcssofwholc sectionincludingtheOang.s.ln
thedcsignyi.ld stressofthe
BS 5950-l:2000,theeffeativcareamethodis usedto determine
sections.As shownin the figurc abov€,lhe stre,ssremainedis lhe dc.signyicld stre$. To rcfl€ct
the instability in the compressionzone,(at the web in thc c€s€)an ar€3is ignored.Both melhods
arepemittedin theBS 5950-l:2000,but generallyhe ncwBS dilcctstheus€ofeflbclivearea
approach.

2.4 Internaland OutstandElements


A distincdonis staledin BS 5950-1:2000cl. 3.5.1betweenthefollowingtypesofel€ment:
a. Outstandelementsattacbedto an adjacentelemenlat one edgeonly, lhe othcr edgebeing
free;
b. Inte al elementsatt^chedto other elementson both longitudinaledgesand including:

t
- *f€trcomprisinginrcrn.l clqDenlspcrpcrdiqdar to lhc axis ofboding
- *Fl.nges comprisirg interDil clcrncntsp.rallcl to lhc rxir ofbcnding.
. 'VeblFlongq conprising internal elet@ns' rlran wcbs/oangcswhich dtrchcd to othcr
elcricnts on both longiMinal cdgcs.
Od.tDd

'"*"liE*,-, T Oui'bnd

*"
l-F"'sG
wcb
Intcrml

||fo"'*-]l""b
J:L_ ll=
(D Nofrld c|..

Wcb conpriling i .rD.l fhrg. conlirLlnf


Fl$g. nol co prising cldn€nt, but Fnll.l !o i crnd clcmcn!htt
tlr. |xir ofb.nding: p.rpcldi4hr b thc
rri! ofb.odinS
W.b compri!. !o intcnbl

pc(padttuhr lo illc axi3


. ofbsnin8

(ll) Orly w.b L lnt rI l.lcncri (Il) Eolhw.b d fl.rg..r.lr||.rml


.l.d|.rl
':
Flg| . 2{ Irr.rr.l Dd ora.|Id d.4.|ro
2.5 Limiting Width-to-thicknessRatiosin Table 11 BS 5950-1:2000
Trbt. ll - Litntts wldll to thlctndi ritlor for r.cllons oth.r lhrn CHS rnd RIIS

OqBrrid.ld.nl of @hD..!.ion Rollcd&crion

htmrl.Lrc of onF!3sion

I Eo.
.U | +.,

(aoit qitc.i! lhould h. $tirltcd)


eg'c d doubl. $81.t wilh lh. conporEr.B
ecFnLd, ui.l cmprcslion
(All thE c.it$i5 sh@ldt $lbfrcd)
lcs ofu lrdc in conLc|backrcb.ct in .

!n 3nd! with il! b&k in continuout


; _
r T-s.dion, rolldl o. curfro'n !

Dilmlids t 4 d rdd / $c &fircd i! FisuF t. Fd ! bor 36lior D .nd rlrc flD8! diMliotu dd d lnd r.E w.D
dirhrion3, *h.'. ln. dinindioi b.twn sb! ud flb86 d.pcn& upon eh.ilE lh. bor rcclion ir beii lbout il' Djor
lrir or its rninordi3. s€ 3.5.1.
Th. p.drcr* .. (27tlp,f t
For t wcb of ! hrbdd setid 6 lhould bc tm.d 6 ih. dcai8nstcngth pr of th. nbgca.
Tl'. 3rr.s r.rio3r, &d /, @ d.tiid in !.5J,

Flgure2-5T.bl. I I h BS595&l:2000

2.6 Stross Ratiosfor l- and H-sectionswlth Equal Flanges


Providcdin cl. 3.5.5,
_'bu-l<r,<l
r' =
dtp*

As is the*grosscrossscclionalarca;
d is theweb depth;
is the axial comprcssion(negativefor teNion);
is the designshengthoftbe web (butpr- Spzr);
is ihe designstrengthof the flanges;
t is the v/ebthickness.

. 3.4.I 6rc crcs-*tion proFnid shdld bc d.rcftincd f@ th. 3Fcifi.d sh.Fd .rd noninrl diffrrions of tlE m.mb..
of .L|m1. Hol.s for bolts should Dr b. d.duct d, bnt duc 10.llow.n@ should b. D.d. for lrr8.r oFring3i Mat.rial us.d
el.ly in sDlic6 or as battnr shouldnot bc ircl!(H.

2.7 Effgctlve Plastic Modulus and Effoctive Area

2.7.1 EffectivePlastic Modulus, S"n


ln BS 5950-1i2000,therearctwo allematives
to delermine
thelocalcapacityof clsss3 sections.
They ar€:
- basedon thesection'selasticmodulus(or sectionmodulus),
Z whichis conservaiive
or;
- bas.d on lhc effectiyeplaslic modulus,whichmore appropriatcto the actualbehavioroflhe
steel

Theeffectiveplasticmodulusis thepathwaybetweenelaslicmodulusandplasticmodulus.It
indicatestheextentofthe graphline between
ilp andillEin Figure2-2.The largerth€ratio/, (or
olthe web),thehigheryieldpointcouldbe gained.
Oe lqsserthe slendemess

As ancxamplc,lct us considerthemomentcapacity;fclass 3 sectionasshownin theFigure2-5.


ThemomentcapacityM" providedin theBS 5950:1990
is thehrnctionofmaterialstrengthand
plasticmodulusS or seclionmodulus,Z ln BS 5950-l:2000,theMc couldalternativelybe
determined
by applyingtheS"ffwhichresultsa higherlocal capacityof thesection-
M.

9vz
,..i
o,!

0.0

---- BS !O5O-t:tgdo
- 8E 595l}1: 2o0tt
o.z
C1-. C E ..ir{onp-t
o
0 2 0 4 0 & & r @ l @ l ' q t

:
Flgrr. 2.6Mom.nrcrp.cltyof vrrlousle.tlor clr$llkrtlon!

Thc fomulasof &r areprovidedin cl. 3.5.6as:


For I- or H- sectionswitb equalflanges:
- l

lrr,")'_,
' l1 I p,, ,l
.
s"..n= z" +(s" - z. | ::jir-
.llrt'l
|
buts,.i, < z, +(s, -2, 'lv;-,1
, lb t r - ' I
llP* | -'l
,l
lp,' l
Llp"J
,
IB" 'l
J ,.4--,1
s,", =z, +\s,- z,l p*Y!J-
I
t4-')

ht is thelimiting valueofrllftom TableI I for a class2 compactflang€;


lh* is thetimitingvalueof d/t from TableI I for a class2 compactweb;

hr is the limitingvalueofrllfrom Tablc I I for a class3 scmi-compact


flange;

lj.- is thelimitingvalueofdl, from TableI I fora class3 s€mi-compact


web.
2.7.2 Effsctlve Are8, Adt
lo, Iypi.ol buckliq

- -,-->-+ reqiond lo.qest


dithction

i---
sroll rtafh(lbns
in adq. ragrons

lb) Mn -uiifoflD dishibulion


ot oriol shlsi in
posl - buildhg 'I.de

lc ) Assured unifor't tlrert


dbtnbutionwer on
.lteclrv. Yidlh beff

l d l E f l r r t i v e s e t l i o n l s h c d r dl
hr fypicol Denbers in otiol

e) tffertive secton ( shoalcd


I tor lyp(ol
9lof. girder under soggino notte.l

trtglrr!2-7EfiGcltv.rr.t of . .l.nd.r .l!m.tt

Considera vary thin membcl which is subjcctto cotnpressiveforcesfrom two ofposite


longituditnl endsas showniD Figur. ?-7 O), found that,thc strcssdistributioo is aon'uniform
along the sidearld relarivcly mor. conc€nlrateat the endscomparrdwith tbc middlc Parl' An
erFcclivearcais thc rcducedsresscdsreawhich assumedhasequilibrium total stt*s as wholc ln
BS 595GI :2000,providcd in cl. 3.62, the eflcctive arc. of I- aDdH- sectionsundervanous
are shown in the Figurc 2_Ebelo.*,
circurnstances
"
I
L-

L
L -ff'LT r!n rttr

L
-.{,*{
L
L (.) ,adr!nd.r por. corDr.slo!

L F-Fi

L
$e*si
L
L (b) Eftccllv. crt t.r..lt!j, rrl| ftly .fi..{E !!d.r lo|t rer.rt for dct rmlDlngth. Zdr

0{r T_
L
I
- -'tf-q'6aadiort 0.6,
L
tloslj( n6Jtroloris

L
L (c) rE t crivcwtdth tor ch'r 4 d€nd.r w.l u k !'crt berdlnl

L Flgurs 2.t Er.cllve .r.. of l- .nd H- $.rlorr h pur. coEpr..llon rtrd pur. bcodlng

l20d
I
L
l
pw is the designsfieagthof thc web

I
L

L
2.8 Worked Example for Sectlon Classlfication.

Example2.1
457x 152x 60UBonpurebending.
section
Classiry

Solutton:
Sincecrosr-sectionofthc univeasalbcamis symmetricaboutthc major axis, the neut'sl axis
cxistson thcmid{ep$,
Refer to Tlblc I l, sincelhc flangcsofa univeEal beamis known stable(the flangcsoutstanding
length is lesslhan l5?e), we directly considerthe web (seelh€ Fi$.e 2-5).
With geectation lhat lhc universalbeamis fall into class I , ther€bywc choosi lhc y'/t limit as
806.

Ouared clcn nl ofonFr$ion UT ,r------l 106 trir---l


AT 8t
lnIdlr dcmo ol cMPEsrd bn 2ae 32.
fl!n8c

t N.urrll di!.t nid{.!rh E0t lood 120.


:gg
EO,
1206
r00, | +2r,
l+l.t trur:40.
AriBlcmorsiond

Ar8l., coorp!..3i06(l|lc!o bcrdin8 t06 l5e


(Aob qicd! 8!dld b. elbn.d) 106 156

Fllurc 2-9Pin ot T.blc I I

By adoptingsteelgade S 355, witr the wcb lhickness,/ is 8.0mmwhich lessthan l6rnm, thc
dcsign strcngth,p/ is 355N/mm2.Therefore
6= (2islp)os= e7 st3sro3: 0.88
80d=80 x 0.88= 70.4
Referto tablcofproperties,dhof 457x 152x 60 UB is 5l.0
d/t < 806, thercfore,under pur€ beDding,lhe sectionis classI plastic.

10
I
L

Example2.2
457 x 152 x 60 UB actedwith 700kN axial c@prrssion and bending

Solulion:
Sinceadditionalaxial compressionactedon the section,the ncutral axis is not long€r at mid-
depth;thereforewc efer to 'Geneially' cstegoryin Table I I (seeFigurc 2i).
F- 700x l0!
' = 0.60,-l < r/ S l, ok.
dtp- 407.7x8.0x355

Sincer, is positive, andwe would not expectthe sectiofl$till be class l, thercfore,we choose
100t l00x 0.88 =
40.15 > 4lrt o|(-
l+l.5rr l+1.5x0.50

Since46.15is lessthalltheactuald/t = 48.0,thesectionis not cl.ss 2.

Angl., compBior dll. ro


(Boh cit r'! rhould bc sl

rlgur.2-10Generll,t llmitrforl-.ectlom

Then,try the limit ofclass3:


F. 700x l0r
'
A"p- 1590x355

Limitofclass3:
120€ 120,0.88
69.49 > 4U€- ol(.
l+2/, l+2\0.260

69.49is largerthantheactuald/t = 48,0,thesectionis class3 scmi-compact.


Example2.3
457 x 152x 60uB act€dwith.lE,l0k],1af,i.lcotrpNssion.nd b.nding

Solution:
4 l84oxl0r ^ -^^
' A.pF 75mx355
Limirof Class3:
l2o€ - l2oxo88 - >4oe-o*
44.64
l+2r, l+2x0.683
'i14.64is lcssthanthcactual,/t = 48.0,thca€€rionb clr$,1 dcnder,
.Thc 8€ctioris susccptiblc
to loc.l failur (s€cligurq 2-l).

2.9 Rofarence
l. Drvid Browr (2001),"IntoductionandOvawicwofclrurg.' in BS5950-l:200(P,
hnp://wwN.stcclbiz.orq/frame.asp, Institute,
TheStcelConsruction UK

t2
t%,.
3.0 Beam

.3.1 Definitions
.
' A beamis a structuml memberwhich is subjectto transverseloads, and accordingly mustbc
. designedlo wirhstrandshearand momenl
Functionally, jl exists in the form of:
' - purlin - ca$ias the roof load to the tusses
- raJler - a sloping beamcarrying the roof load to the purlirs.
- lintel - caries thc bricks or othcr masonryacrossthe opeoing madeby a door
or a window.
- joist - one ofclosely spacedbeamssupporting the flooring ofa building.
- ttringer - onc of closely spacedbeamsrunning parallel to tbc roadway and
supportingthe flooring of a bridgc (also called secondarybeatn).
- Jloor beam -rhe largerbeamwhich areperpendicular lo lhc roadwayofthe bridge
or peryendiculartothcjoist ofde building. .. '

totq,'
wo* ^t+t :"lH'frJ"
fi,ii il^f,
*.,,' U-.
-- The termgrid"r is a sptcialnamcusedto indicalea largebeamandpdrhapsone into which
smallcr beamsis framcd. It may be a box girder or a platc girder.

Fromthe term ofposition in whichthe beamplaced,thereare spandrelandgradebam. The


fomer extendaroundthe outsideofthe building,spanningbetweenextemalcolurms,ard
supportsfloorsand curtainwalls.The gradebeamis the lowemosl spandrelbeamofa
buildiig which hasno basement.

tleamstakingtheirnamesirom their shapesareI beams,a rolled steelsections,T bearnsand


L beams.

With referenceio tbe methodof support,lhere is the simple beam, sttryo ed without restraint
- at its endsathe overhangingbea , fieely supportedbut extendedbeyond one or both of its
supports;the cortrlrr.r Z,edm,freely supportedbul extendedover three or more supports;the
'-
fred-end beam,havingils endsfired agains(rotaiion; Ihercstroinedbeam,partiallyfixedat
one or both ends;and the carlilever beatn,v,thichts frxed at one end with no supportunderthe
.
olher(seeFrgure.l l)
I"""""""'
') a a d

Carlilever Fixed-end R6train€d


--T----T-
f-----t
Simplv-suoponed Overhsnq on both .nds

t 1
Continuous

trigur. 3-l B€rn typ.r wirh .ef.r€nc€io them.thodof srpport

Other types ofbeams include compoundbeam,compositebeam,shafi, rail etc. In this chapter,


we only concem on the simply slrpponedbeamwilh full and without lateral restraint.

rlr dt"dE hrn I odq rrrhri \6drb


d 0
3.2.1 Beamswlth Full LateralRestralnt.
Oncea beamisjudgcd firll laleralrestrained,
the laterallorsionalstabilityis assumed
adequate.
The deformedshapeofthe beamis shownin Figurc3-2. The full latemlrestmintmay bs
provided by fle concreiefloor which sufficiently connectedto the beamor; by sulticient
bracingmembe$added.Sevcralconfigurations
oflloor:beam conneclionareshownin Figurc
3-3 (se€alsoc|.4.2.2).
lolxrl ,nrrrFol
-r- hdT
r ' u
l ,
_J-
' . /
.-,.X
. -i,i.
,lo
IL

l_

d
PLtr vlcw

L.
o v
tI 6 ,1
L.
t '
ffi r)
i
I ,
_r*_
| "'f-

L \:-/ S.crb l-I


Fmrl r.Lrv

I ngor.12 Horm rh.p. ot. frl|.lrt r.l-r..tr.h.d b..m

L
L
L
L .
L "
L Flgur. 3-3 Configur.lionr ot ful-lrlrrrlr..trrlncd beim

I
dr
3.2.2 BeamsvelthoutLatsralRestralnt
t A .
L Whena bcamunderloadingis not providedwith full latcralrestraint,its comptession
flange

i to fail by buckling$ideways(latcral-torsional
is susccptible buckling)(sc. Figurc3-4) in the
L mostflexibl€planq therrbythcovcrallmomentcapacity(dev€lop€donly $,ithprovisionof
full late$l restraint)will not.bereachcd.Scveralcxamplesofbcam wilhout lateralrestsaint
l areshoPnin theFiSure3-5.A b€smis alsocategorized
into beamwithoutlateralrcstraintif
or y severalpointsaloogtbobcamalg restraioed. .
i -

IL
I
-
l /
t.'
"(

Flgurc 34 L.t 'rl-tolrlo!.! bnc*Xnt

..rAvtl-
IUB

/zcm. m]*ry
f-
ffi
il tL-4
ll :[ | ,rr rri oc 8i'dq n Dol
ll lts:r E.hiFd L'lnrly
-Hr--- Lc*di rhh.*kd3
ll
llril )
\lF\e*r.,

Slcordny b.h provide L!t6!l Gsb.i ciist a! tbe


l.i!r.l rstlirr t! rb. prirEry bcrm cnd which lixcd Lr
b..'n n d|! cfrrr..tld poilr

Flgur. 3-5 Elrmpl. oflca.rrl r.rtr.lrl


t r o d .U \ )
IL

IL

I* " hir'srybc'm D
I" fc
tL ' Sa:ord.ry bclms

fmtrl v|!r oftl. prllD|rt b.rln


IL

L
I
L
Phn vLt
I PointsA, B,C ed D.6 rqfiincd foh dcfo.rD
l.tfllly byrh.3.cond.ryb.in md llc corbcction
d
L

IL Flgurc 3-5 D.form rh|p. of i bc|m rvfttout tull lrlcnl rdarrlnt

IL Designftciors wbichwill idluencethelatcralstabilitycanbasunmarizedas:


- the lengthofthe rnernberbctweenadequrtelateralrestraints;
l ' - th€shapcof cro6s-section;
- lhe variationofrnoment.long lbebeam;
I - theform ofend reshaintprcvided,
L
- themanaerin which theloadis applied,i.e..totdnsionor coinprBsionflanlta;
I
'lhe designprocedurr
will bediscuSsed
in the@mingsession... i .. .
I
L

L
i
L ,

L
I

L
i
I
3.3 DesignProcedure(General)
The generalstepsin a beamdesigninclude:
For ultimalelimit state
- shear capacity shearforce due to tle designloading must not exceedthe sbearcapacity,
the buckling due to shearaction also should be consideredin some circumslances;
- momentcLpacity - bending momentsdue to the designloading must not exceedthe
momentcapacity. The reduction momentdue to high sbearand lateral toGional buckling
due to insufficient restraint also required appopriate concern;
- local buckling and bean,ng- whm loads or reactionsare applied through the flange to tbc
web,the local resistance
oflhe web shouldnot be exceeded.

For serv,ceability limit state


. delection - lhe dellection due to designloadilg should not exceedthe limits given in
Teble8, BS 5950-l:2001

Thedesignpathshownin Figure3-7belowprovides
a general
viewofthe neces$ary
procedure
in designing
a beam.Thedesigrpathof unrestrained
beafirs presented
is separately
in thenextsession.

h\"b
'
Cht([
(*' S1
C\|$
qii
t)

0 t i

h,*r*r.(qP) dod \d
Y b
Iq.ll
L
L
L. C.bha rbi 6@a.d ||E6r. (.l. r.lj)

L. Da.nniB d..i!r trrc8i {.1llJ)

I
L t).rqEie Ed.n ch.. (.1.!52)

L
L (ct ar3)

L
L
L . (d ajr)

L'-
W.b bdi4 rn bu.llin! cickint

L Gra'3'r) (.l, aJJ)

L (.Lajr)

L
I
I

I Flglr. !-7 Fhw chr]a of r b..o d€lin.

L.
I
L

I
t
3.3.1 Shear Capacity (cl. 4.2.3)

3.3.1.1 Procedure

The shearforce F" shouldnot be geater lban the shearcapacityP, given by:

P"= 0.6p'A,

whercI' is
a) rolled I, H and charmels€ctioni, load parallel to web: tD
b) welded l-sections, load parallel to web: td
c) anyotbercases: 0.94.
,4ois the areaofthat rcctilinear elemeniofthe cross-seclionwhich has the largestdimension
in thcdirectionparallclto lbe shearforce,seeFigure3-8.
6)
i I

{
n
I

\i_/

A,=t(D-k)
L
Seclionl-l

A"=tD
I
Figure3-8Sh€8rrre.,r,

The d/, ratio also needsto be checkeddue to the strengthofthe web will be govemed by its
resistance
to shearbucklingifit is too high.Providedin cl. 4,23, for a rollcd section,the web

should be checkedfor shearbuckling when a//tex ceeasn,[nS t pl wbere the / is the web

deplhclearofthe fillets.

,H[
Jl'.F r*'
l|F .t J, L
(frt-_:.
ly----w-
_*-c. -1F{ - -., *!f -d"t

N=
-
\:J
L
i.i.1.2 I:hcotyBehtnd ( lrlt)

L
'h
I
ngurr '9 A.rum.dD rrr! forb.|rdlng|!d.hc.r h. f||ny-pl.'tlc..ctLn

L This figulr EhowsI s€ctionsubjectto a bcrdingmomrrrtaboutthc msjor axisandshcarforce


parallclto theweb.the beamha6. solid+eb ofuniform thiclards.Ifthc sectionis fully
I pl$tic, the BhcarStiscsrcrtr bq .ssumedto bc unifom.

L Cotrsiderthc cascofa rectionxrilh no mom€ntithc limiting shcsrcapacityis rrachedwhen


theshearstessdownthewcbi3 equaltop,, thed6igD shengthin shcar.

L ThagtrEss
at whichI mstcrialyieldsin shearcin bc relstcdto theyicld shc.gs
in tcn3ion-,by
I
yicld crit riorl. Th.t mo8t8pplicableto stcolshowsthattbeyield slressir shcarequals0.577
timestheyield strrssin tensio!. Roundingup,p" maybetaten as0.6pr.

l .
3.3.2 ltlomentCapaclty

3.3.21 Momenl CapacLyofa FullJaterally RestainedBeam


Thamomertdue!o designloadMshould not bc greaterlhsnthemomentcapacityM. which
obtainedby rhefollowingprocedure:

4\' -' d r.t tlcat (I'|lrnr{


"*-F.3fa4f.\tt
". c.r mr**gza\ror
(*

f*+ fr.r'rt lrt"l4

\ fr*
6nt*'hrq.

.tr
d,t^

I
Theorv
l. Classification SeeChapter2
2. CompareF" with 0.6P" to Whcn a sectionbecomesfully-plastic under lhe
detemine whether the beamis combinedaction ofmoment and shear(se€Figure 3-9),
low shear or high shear part ofthc scction's capacity is ernployedin resistingthe
3. Lo,eshet (F <0.6P') applied shearforce, and the momenl capacity is therefore
'-
for class I and class 2 lessihan lhe fully-plastic moment in the absenceof
M"= prs shear.
- class
3
Mc = p,jz or M" = pS.$ Themethodprovidedin c|.4.5.2 assumes
that the
- class4 flangesare unaffectedby the shearforce, and that when
M. = PyZdt the scctionis fully plastic a unifom shearstress. exists
down the web.
*&rr andao areexplainedin

Chpaler2 (2.7) As a result of shearskess,the mo(imum bendingstress


that the web can sustrin is rcducedbelow lhc yield stress
Eigh sheu (F,> 0.6P,) J, (orp, in design).This reductioncanbe evaluatedby
- for classI andclass2 considering theappropriate yield criterion.It is found
M.= py(S- pS,) thatthe reductionis negligibleuntil the designshear
forceF, exceeds60010
ofthe shearcapacityP".
I R€duction
due I
,
wnere -
I to hilh shear I
|
|
p = l2(F,t P,) _ \2
S is theplasticmodulus;
& is theplasticmodulusofth€
sheararealu

(see4.2.5for details)
M"'|2Pr' ro'r;Pll To avoidineversibledeformationunderserviceability
F'
sunported
beamor cantilever) loads
I
Geed.4.2.s.1)
I

N,'f1e
\.\5 &1:.''eny'
, 1. ht (T=
1 1: Ar),+
hl, r0
$l*\' W,
h'ut .rrt. q,,.r I td ltrQtro'lt"'
'".,*1vr,y*
@1
t'{ry,FD
1"1-.*(e

-::-L
{'qr
|r '*r
J' tr- ' D . . ' ..
\
, E(l)
- b:r
t

d,n

Figure !10 Slrnrnrry of the formuh, of momentc.p.ciiy lor v.rlous crors.i€ctlon crteSory

3.3.3 LocalBuckllngand Bearing


A beamwhichsubjected
to locslloaals
or reactions
is susceptible
to locaibucklingAnd
bearing.It shouldbe checkedafldthewebstillenersshouldbe providedifthe unstiffened
web'slocalcapacity
is insufficient.

If theappropriatc is provided
cormection pointof members,
at theinteraction theconnection
lo thewebstiffening,
mayb€conhibutcs therefore
thechecking
for localbucklingand
bearinecouldbeavoided.

failu.ear thcjoint
Bcaringfailureat
themid span

(r) C!sc! wherc chdkiog r.quircd

(b) Ctse wbere oo chcckinsrcquircd

Figu.e 3ll Clses w[ere fhe checkingof local bmklitrg aDdbc.ritrg could bc avoidcdand rould nor bc
rvoided

lt
The sd{lbearing letrglh ,r should be taken as the length ofsupport tbat cannot deform
apFeciablyin bend!{rg.It is assumedthat the load disperse.rat 45'thIough the section
elemenlswhich arefirmly fixed togetler. Pmvided in cl, 45.13, the stiffbearing shouldbe
takendsindicatedin theFisue below

b=t+ t.6,+27 b r = t +l . 6 s + 2 7 b!-t+T+O.8r-g ,r=0.5D.+r+0.8r,a

Flgur€3-12Stttfb.irlngl.rgth

3.3.3,2 Bearing Capacity ofan Andifrcned Web(seeFigurc 3,11 (a))

Givenby cl. 4.5.2.1,the bearingsti{fenersshouldbe providedwherethe local compresstve


force & applied through a llange by loadso. reactionsexceedslhe bearing capacityPbvofthe
web at the web-to-flange
unstilTened connection.

Pr" =@t+nk)rpr*,

= 5 exceplat the endofa member;


= 2 + 0,6 b./k,btJIn S 5 at the endof a member;

k = f+ r for a rolledI- or H- section;


k = Ifor a weldedI- orH- seclion;
br is lhe still bearinglength;
b. is the dislancelo thenearestendofthe memberfrom the cnd ofstiffbearing;
is the root radius;
T is the ilangelhickness;
t is the web thickness
is thc designslrenglholthe web

l2
L

I
3.3.3.3 Bttckllng Cagacity olan Unstillcadcd lleb
B*llinr a d. d|d ofb.r

l ' a+t"r.t6l riM ui


L

l!
Flgurc3-13lrc.t buctlht
l Strtadin cL 4.53.1,lhc load.carryingsifrcocr ehouldboprovidcdwh6o the local
forccFr applicdthroughI flalgc by r lord or reactio!exocds thcbuckling
compr€ssivc
rcsistanccofthc web.

It- lfthc nangcthpugh whichthe loador rcactioni8 lpplied is elfectivclyrBtrainedsgEinstbofi


a) lotaiionalElative to thcweb
i b) la&ralmovamqntrclativeto thcwcb
thcnprovidedthatth€distancca.ftom theloador Eaclionto thencanersndofthe mctnberis
I at lcast0.7d(s€eFigura3-14),thcbucklingrcsislanceof th€unsitiffencdwcb shouldb€taken
L ,.
rs & givcnbyl q ) oid
I t- lF-
I
f,==-f6- E
' y 1
l\ot + nkF h.'\

whcrc,
d is rhcdcpthofthe wcb;
Pw is thebesringcapacityofthe unstifrcncdwcb at thc web-to-Ilangeconnection
L

L lf thedistanced. from theloador rcactionlo thc ncarerendof themernbcris lessthan0.74


lhe P, is givqr by: o.< otd.

n="#ffio'
lq

1L?t(i t<- l-)l"lLf


ll , t'..' tb t^t'l
l,V f,f t4*t
f

t3
' fl
Vcry looC

I-
Rcactioo
l l ^ o - r +- 0 . 7 d 2 5 e ,
t.ad Jl4+nl)d -'
J L -
L.o.la

nt|rr. :|-la & |od .ppropd.t lormdr for bftklbg n lttMc.

3.3,4 Deflec-tlon
The deflectionsbouldb€cbeckcdundrr lhc srrviccsbilityloo& i!| tbemostadvcrsc
andcombinstion(seeTsblc l-2 in Chapt]er
ana|rgcmant l). Thelimitationsofdcllcction aI€
givenin cl, 2.5.2andT.ble 8 in BS 5950-l:2000,Somcdlta 8rssbownin thc Tablcbelolv:
, . ' I
Irbh }l D.tL.{o! llmltl|loo h T.blc 8

^, y.rtical detetion ofban d". .o inpotd load


CrndlcYcrs L.ngth/l80
B.im! carryi4 pl.$.r or othcrbrittlc fnbh Spin/3d)
Othli bcrms(cxc.pt Fdins fid 3h;ting rails) Sp|d200

l4
Restrai Beam
Figure3-15

Onc way slab ed two way slab J


dac' ortbc,/trdj.

t . t r '
<-><->

\ A /

<-ts{+

Figure3-15Sltb arrungemenlof. multi-storeyprojdt


3.4.1 Designfor BeamUD.F H t l.tV + Ittrt
t4
.. bY(4(.i t t' ( tt)
Thc rclevantdataare:
a '\|+'
Concrcre slab(I50mm) = 3.8kN/m2 17.0.

Finishcs = 0.skN/m'z
lrt " Ln hry.4,Pcjl)
Cladding = t3kN/m2
= l.0lN/m2 o.9l Flw .
Cciling
Total toad \+ * = 63li.l/m2

sellwcigbtorbcarntl = 0.7kN/m

Live load \t = 2.5tl.Vrn'(offica for gcueralusc)


Uscstcclgndc 3 275
Thc bean is fully restaincdby thcconcreteslab,ro lateral-torsional
bucklingcheckrrquhcd.

LoadinC
5m--l
/r ,2 x (tq.zolt .I!.):2 x (0.5(l + 5)x 2 - l2rf

Ta\ ,A
s | .>--',1 |
D6ign fo.d - l.Act+ l,6Qr
- 1,4(6.3x 12+0.?r5)+L6(2.5x 12)
- 158.74k].1

.4rc
'r..1 F, - 158.14n
- 79.37tN

| 1,"r"
fdr
r45
M- - (of trpczjum load)+ (oft!3t|rguhi brd)
/ r\ 9f
- | 3 - l x o a : l x r l . a x5 . 3x 1 2 +I 6 x l 6 r 5
l. 240-o4r,J d"
(t.4'0.7)xs'
+
8
= 93.07kNn

..un|.r=[t-,*'.V
l\24{r_4u

IEur. 116 Lo.dinton bal. 2/DF

PrelimixaryBeamSizing
tbeweb thicknesslesslhan l5mm, thereforethep, - 2?5N/mm'
AssurD€ Tible 9
Assumethebeamis eitherclassI or class2, thercfore
M a1O?wlrlt
s- p\ zt>

"" ,,t ., 3,, l6


t
L

L Fro tablcsofprop.rtirs,try 254x t46 x 3luB whcr!.q*= 396cm'


^
L . SectionCtatsricdton t t t
/
Sinc!r= 8.68m< l6m!/-P"=n'Nho'F2 g\p* r v''t- T.bL ll
I
L , =(?zl'l*=,.0-
\27s)
t '
t/? = 8.493q, thc 0ogc is cl.8s I plistio
d/t - 35.9< 804 bc wd i8 oLseI pl.ltio

L .. Thc pl.$ic d6ign b valid for dcaigninglhis scctioo

L Stt'.,"Carety
P, =o.so,+-o.€@Dto-')D
--t7:
cl, aJ3
= 0.6x 2?5x (0.9x-6Ji (251.5- 2o))x l0-'
L - 209.?0kN
&>Fv-79.37kN ok
L
MoDEx Cqetv
I 0.6lDv= 0.6 x 209.70= l25.t2kN > F' = 79.37N, Irr rbear c|.,L2.5
'm4 = pys=215 x 396 ' 10" - l08.90kNm
I 1.2p,/Z= t.2x 275x 353x lO-!= I l5JO.Nm
L
M"< l2hz ok
I ' 14 - l08.90ld.Im>,t/M - 93.07k1.1n ok
L
Ifth€ €|ld ofb€an iotohcd:
I Singli ,brched(w wc'k.,l cxnDplc6.3.t in Chapt r O
f'1'"
fl
r = 30mm;']\'= I lolnm cl. {.2"5.4
L Rcduced.|: = I2t08257dn'
R.ducrd cenuoid(iom top) = 16l .39rm t4
L Rdtlccl Z - 128/0,8057
r"r"
tl6l.39 = ?9362nm1
- p&-275 x 79362x lo':2t.82k}.lrn
Mda -F\ x N-79.37 r ll0 x lor - 8.73kllm<14 ok
L .
Doubly tbtchcd
t :
L tr" =p,"rt lc-zls x e: x2lt.g', tf t 6- t3.4okNrn
> -ty'od ok

L l7

L
Local BearingCapacity
Tbe erd connectionis shownin Figue 3l I, no checkingoflocal bucklingand
bcaringrequircd.

Delection
Tb. designloadfor deflectionch€ckingis I .0 x Live load = 2.5kN/m'
Tbcrcforg th€ deflcctionis:
- - )
- l4a'-5f w: = {ax0.a'-5f {n2' 2.5)lo'x5000! = -^
4r = it{:AA; 06''"1
Itqr -t;);;0=;6ix 4440xrd
Thclirnirationof deflcction4i. = 1360 = l3.9mm Trble 8

4- < 4i. Ok

3.4.2 Deslgnfor BoamD/l-3


Chcckwbeth€r457 x l9l x 98t B gradeS 275 is adcqurtcfor bcamD/l-3 in Figurc3-15.
Loading

TI
I
L

Flg!.. J-lt B.rt' DA-3

Dead load oftriangular arca = 63kN/m'?

De3d load of rectangular area = 6.3kN/rn'

Dead load transferrcd from 2/D-F = (6.3 x 12 + 0-7x5y2 - 39.55kN

Self-weightofbeam = 0.7kN/m BS 6399

o k4t7 . o vt*. tdd t8, ,


'
t) , .tew/ )rt'\ ^ , L t , \ ' )' . o.fw wtF
vlu, I ti'
dtt taj,(ifl' ,Q r!l''
l)t, (te'l 4r thl '
6 Ftlts' w&^A, ^y(t{tl_,

;;.;,'il'*r" ' 01(u4''L^.'c^''"t) . l.jY rr l_


= {t-t'l.t'\^
-.-..., r+terr { l'(qo)
I
.;7!*1 a&l.rt .
Live lo6dofhiangular ar€a = 2,51N/m2(office for generaluse)
= {.o{.}.I/rn'?
;?rn'*
Live loodof rEctangularar€a (conidor)
,-(t+ ln I
Live loadfansferfcd from 2/D-F = (2.5x l2)2: rskN
tl.rf <>
lr'i = 2 x (triangulsrarea)=2 \2 t 2 - 8mz
l..d = (rcctangufararca):8 x 3.5n: t4m2
Dcsignload(poinlload) = 1.4x 39.55+ 1.6x 15= 79.37t11
Designload(tianglcs) = 1.4x (6.3x E)+ 1.6x (2.5x E)- l02.s6H{
Designlord (rcctangl€) = 1.4x (6.3x 14)+ 1.6x (4.0x 14)- 213.08kI,1
- 1.4x0.7 x8=7.84
Designload(self-w€ight) F L2.

foad -79.37+ 102.56+213.08+7.U


Totald€sign
= 402.85kN v
F, = 402.85/2
= 201.43kN
(atsuppon) I,G
-, , * - _ w r * L .- | | * L
4 t
'. w * * L
8
-. v8* L ''tY4*!l-ar1
tlyitu+tf84J.+w*
(
w, rr'{,1
l-,
-t"!rb' -- lL
. t;

f-^ -- 102.56+213.08+7.8418
o+ (rlft,
L 2 j4 . Iri?
- 482.22$'lm
Q,r.r , r, l' ?Lz
kN;,, = lskN - k.it N
TrianSuld lold Aa - 63LN Dri
lZ - 2.5l}i/n'

Rcct$8u!ff lo.d D, - 6JlN/#i


lZ - 4.olilum'
Sclt-$ti8hl of b.dm 0.7kN,/m

l A6dWtuwddldEffi

lrb- f ro*{ vcul

I; = 201.43kN ,lo1 4 'r'*tlrr'rc)


,r b.o'(!$o +ll lT
M-. at sarncpoint
bt.}l 14
-F'"=20r.43kN . sr-|t/,
l - ' F, - rt-
Figurc J-ta lr.dilg dl.gr.ds
(
{ t .,. f lWii4 (

\+\ P"i+zf
*)Pl D'r''(t) +
L *XtnT'
\Jt,t t'1"
L
/"i11
SinceZ= l9.6mm > l6rnm,pr= 265Nltfttr2 Trble I I
/;;r \",
' . F =l --:- | =1.O2.
\265)
blf = 4.g2.7l.- 8.ls,thc llangeis classI plastic
.', 4 i = 3 5 . 9 !e O e -8 l . 5 O , t h e wicsbc l a s Is p l a s t i c
.1Thi blasic dcsignis valid for designingthis section
. .
, ( 0 )?c
SlParCopoctty t - tr.rr l[rn'.
' (secFigurre3-19 for the confiSurationofend conncction) 1dql"" ) rlv
t
. P" = 0,6pyA, - 0.6p.ttD cI. 4.2.3
: 0.6r 265 x (l I .4 '< 467.4)t to4
\y.'cW'r'
ev1'!l
. =862{*tt pt'
' P, >Fr= 201.43kN

Otfumnl/D B.$n,/D-p Coh,fviyDe:,j/


l fI ll rl ' o o \ ' n
la - Y rl,2
l-l 1es
!) H r-r $*
.-
\ Fttur.3-19 CoDDcdoDrrloDgbaD Dn-! o[qt
tu A tL- .hl n*+t'l
. LlonentCapaity
t'[u ll'u pointofMtu (scrtheshear
cnnut.nigh shearcfrectontheinteraction
Il/Qrp >r,liagam. n Figu4q.l.,t
s) 'o53r
'
O..6Pt=0.6t Adffi = 5n'.4}i"{ > F' = 2Ol.43kN, Low rhG.r
t .1- f|rL
"*'"' M"=P's=2es" Z9 10-3 - s9o.95kNm
'
x t96t)
. l.zp,Z?t,2"265 r to'3-623.28kNm
'
M;< t.2p!z 2 (tu )|\,? 1u,1 (t10w) ok
' M. = 590.95kNm>
M* = 482.22kIn Ok
' .t11412 tb
.fuu l,a-n
Webbecrring
The b€amis connectedat the cndsasthe configurstionshownin Figure3-20. It
is susccptible10local bcaringandbuckling,thusthc checkingis required.
k :T+r=19.6+10.2.
:29.8 fo" )f,
Use | 50 x 75 t lol- for endbcaring l"* ' (6'{ n t ) t l v Figurcl3
r-- )1 o{ Iln l g - ' t + r n r ^ . , "
t 'q.y^^
20

K 14f
- ll{ + (.,>. nd
L
L br = r+ r+ 0.8r-c= l0+ l0 + 0.t x ll -20
= 8.Emm(Notc:th€r, ?snd r 6rElhc dimcrBiorrg
for rhcetglc)
L b. = 0.O0nm
= 2 + O.6tJ*=2 + 0.6xttz1.9
L ,,1>
- (bt + nl) t '54f $.8 +tx 29.t)x to.6,265 x ttt
' !tc'
J
-5-\ ?

L = lh.l3F7Prt-ttt
Pba>r' " 201.43kx
z tS tJ +n
Ind.qr||ttl
--v-
. . . \

t,bj -i34\\
L
L rr lA

L ,fivr,
-llTrr
L Ftrlt i2C lha.ll of tl. .6il conr..dor
V1- ?n lf : ( '"r)
L thc 150x ?5| lol, rvith200x 100x l5L (r = l5nu|Lr- I
Now,rcplacc
h : t + T + 0 . 8 f - g = 1 5 +1 5 + 0 . 8 x1 5 - 2 0
-------::'--

t
l t\"Y't'
L P6,
= 226n t\oo
-(h+r*)rpr,=Q2r2x29.8), t t . 4x 2 6 5 xl 0 l
- 246.51kN
L Pbq>.P"=201.43kN

L WebBacHing
ChcckwhcthEra. < 0.7d cL{5.3
L ^.1
'g;6
L cl9
(.)'
L u{'
$\

L
Figurc }'21 a. *o
lo-'",Ju
L *'* il**
..\:$"s'
L
L
/-,A\
a. ( - bfiy'22t2
- llmm
O1.l =0.7 ' 4W.9
- 285-53mm> ac- llmm
Thardorg uscthc fonnula

D _a, +0.7d 25et e


t.u J6.;aE'*
ll 1rr.fi'
*l+Mt 25xl.M,xllA -.- --
r.rrnrfs,l(n + 2x29.8)r,v7.9
= 203.96kN

qi-
&>F,-201.,13tN

Dcr.crlort
ok

TI|ad.rign lord for dc4k tior clEotingis


1.0x Livc lo6d- 1.0x t x 2.5= 20kl.Ifor tl|c biangles;
1,0x 4.0x 14- tdd{ fo. th. rlct Dglc;.nd
1.0x lskN fof lhc poht lord
Tb!.cfoF,tlc dcffcotioni!:

, _wq.L' . svq,L' . pL'

_l*1,E,,.svd, pll'
1r'3s4'4slEr
f2o 5x56 l5l 8ood
L7! 384 ,l8J205x45?00
x l0l
= 7.I9nn
-4b - /360 = t00u36o= n .22r','I
Thclinitltion of dcflectiotr T.bL t

4* < 4r,' ok

n
L
L 3.4.3 tlesign for Beamcrl-3
I Assunrct[c point loodon thc mid spat is t'arsfcrcd frorn . coluen 152r lJ2 x
23UC; througha lomn-ddck bcarinSpadas shos'nin Figu? 3-2f. Ch.ck
wh.drcr ihc 533 x2l0x l22lJB is adoqulto.
L
LodhB

1
L
'

L Hrrf,c3-22t.nCn3

L D!.d udform dishibutcdlo6d = 63kN/m?


D.ad lo.d rransfcrcd frorn colurbn = 6lllN
I
L Self-weightofbcan = o,7kl.fin
Livc load (oncsidc is for ofiic. usc) = 2.51N/rn2
Liw lood (oncsidc is coridor) = 4.0k}.I/rnr
L
Livc loadbaDsf€rftdfton 2/D-F = (2.5 x l2)D = l5kN

I
la2x I x 3.5t2=28ftt'
t Thc loaddishibutiooin F.c{st coDcrctcis only onc w.y
Il

Dcsienlo.d (poimload) - 1.4x 39.55+ t.5 x 15= 79.37kN


I
L D€sigtrftDL = 1.4x (6.3x 28) + 1.6x (4.0x 28)= 126.16kN
D6isn load(sef-wcighO = 1 . 4 x 0 . 7 x 8 - 7 . t 4 .
IL
Totrl dcsignfold = 79.37+ 426.16+ 7.84
= 513.37kN
L F, = 513.37D
- 256.69kN(rt sulport)
I
L v**L
-,, * - _wF'"I
4 8
t ; _fw *w.^,"1!
2 j 4
1 -

I
=frr.r',
*o'utufg
L 2 )4
- 584.90k1.1m

Iion CIdssiftcaIion
Sec
SioccI- 2l.3mrn > l6mn! A - 265N/mm'z T|blc ll
/Tz<\ot
e =l:--l = t - 0 2-
\265)
blT= 4.97<9s=9.16, tbcllrtrgei8cl.ss I plastic
dh - 37-2 < 806- 81.5Qthcwcb is classI plastic
. . ThcplasticdeBignis valid for dcsigninglhis scction

ShearCap@lty
h = 0.6p,A" = 0.6p,tD cl,4.23
= 0.6x 265x (12.8x 5,f4.6)xt0',
= I108.36kN
&>I'"=256.69kN ok

Mofient Capacity
6cc* thehigh sheareffecton lhc intersctionpoint of,tl-, (sc€theshear cl.4,2S
diagramin Figur€3-18)
0.6&=0.6 x 878.86= 527.3Ik}.I > & = 256.69kN, Low shefi
M.- pr' -265 x 32OO x I0 r - &l8.00kl.lm
l.2prz= 12 x 265x 2800x l0'! = 89O.4kNm
M. < l.2pyz ok
ttc = 848.001d.1m
> ry* = 584.90k1.1m ok

Webbearw Gt theend)
Tbc beamis connectcdal thecnd6asthc configurationshownir Figur€3-20.lt cl. 4.5.2
to localbearinga!|dbucklin&rhuslhe checkingis rcquired.
is susceptible
h =T+r-21.3+12.1
=34
Use200x 150x l8L(r= l8mm,r: l Smm)
bt = t + T + O . 8 rg- = l 8 + l 8 + 0 . 8x 1 5 - 2 0
= 28mm
IL-
I
L D" = OOOmrn
n =2+0.6b,/k=2+0.6xOR4
I
L
Pb, - (bt+ n*)rpr*=(28+ 2 x 34)x 12.8x 265x lo-t

t = 325.63h.1
&*>&=256.69IN Ok
I
L
Veb bearin1kt lhe nid spaa)
1
L,

I
L

I 533x2t0r l22UB
L

I
L

I f,lgurr}1l tr rt orldao|n
I
k =14

t ' bt = 152.4+ 2t lO
= 172.4

L Pu, = (bt + nk)tpt,= (t72.4+ 2 x 34)x 123 x 265x l0r

\
- 8l5.43klr
L Pb*>F,-256.69kN ok
I
L
WebBucklinBbt theend)
I Checkwhathera" < 0.7d cL4.53
L
a. = bl2=28D
= l4mln
I
O.1d =0.7 x 476.s
l . ' = 333.55n8n>.ac= l4mm
Therefore,uscthe fomula
a. +o 1d
I
L
'^
^
,.4dJ6.;ry'*
25el

I
25

IL-
f4+333.55 25x1.02x12.8
325.63
f67.r0 J(28+z*4w6s
- 258.90h,1
P'>&=256.69krN ok

YebBUCHW@tmidswi)
a.>O,7d
- 25et
.1\Ot+ nr p
25x| .02x12.8
325.63
J(28+ s '34hi6.s
= 496.94kx
&>&=256.69kN ok

Ddlectiotl
Thc d6iqn lo.d for dcflectionch.ckingis 1.0x Livc lo,ad= I.0 x I l2kN for thc
UDL rod I .0 x | 5k].{for point lord.
Thcrcfore,thc deflectionis:

" pLt
* --sw.*,{,".Lt -.
3uEI 4BEI Trble 8

-;-sr-,-.-, rl/
-1.
384 48lrr
lsxll2 lsl Sooor
| 384 48l2o5x 762oox
lo'
'=
5.80mm
Thelimitationof deflectiord;' = 1669 = 3994y3
60= 22.22tntrJn
4n- < di' ok

3.4.4 An ExampleUslngb.

Check that the bearing capacityandbuckling resistanceof lle web ate adequate
at tbe location of lhe applied load and at the support.

26
Il-

L -T
--:L

1
L .
513r2IOr tOI t B S355,r! - 345N/nhr

L.
I
l--l'.r----l-------
+,-,,,-
L

L nSure 3.24Thr .Dd b.ir.lr3

L Beaing capadty
D. - Sorntn .L 45,2
k =T+r:17.4+12.7
= 30,lmm
,1 =2+O.6bJk
=2+0.6x50/30.1
It-
= 3.0
Pu* -(rr + rt) tpr* = (100+ 3.0x 30.1)x10.8x345x lO-!
I
= ?09kN
Pb,>&=238kN ok
L , .. .'];:

II BucHingresi.stance
Clrcckwhetherd. < 0.7d cl. ,1.53

I a" = 50+ 50= I00mm


o.1d=0.7x 476.s- 3!3.6r,]dn
Sinceac < 0.7d, the buckling resistancePi is givao by
I
"^ =--:dm'*
a . + o . 1 d 2 5 eI

100+333.6 2sx0.89x10.8
66'1.2 J(100+ 3.0x30.1)476.5
= 368kN
&>l''=233k]'{
i
!

27
3.5 DesignProcedurefor a BeamSubjectsto Lateral-torional
Buckling(Not Full Restrained)
The bearnswithout firll latcral restrainarc susceptibleto lateral-toKional buclJing (seeFigure
34 to Figure 3-6).Cenerally, it neednot be checkedseparately(and the buckling resistance
moment M6 may be taken as equal to the relevantmomentcapacity,l/") in the casewhere the
s€ctionitselfhavehigh torsionalcapacity(e.g.CHS,squareRHS or circularor squaresolid
bars), or when the strongerelementof the sectionplacedrightly on the critical bucklbg area,
e.g. bending about the minor axis. Otherwise,the memberssubjectto bending abouttheir
m.jor axis shouldbe checked(seeFigure3-25).The designpathofan unr€skainedbeamis
depicled in Figure 3-26; notice that ii is part of the flow chart depicted in Figure 3-7. The
ultimate moment capacity and shearcapacityshould be checkedbefore the lateral toNional
buckling.

_lt:::Jt I/ "
l1------]]
Bcndingsboutminoraxis
BendinSaboul
najor axis(should
b. ch€ckcd) Not rcquiredio ch€cklatcralbucklingr€sistancc

Itgure 3-25S.ctlon!wh.re n.ed nol bc checked


lt! l crrl torslonrlbuckllngr..lst.nc!

' bdi y, J,{lnrqn,,&h

' l 1

1 . . 1 , . ,h 7 \ 4s.( t)
,!-

,tiqr 616 l,uqf


X
- 4ri hd al n*t crr h) , h*rr1 won *.r
- tu(\ rbgnldldl
fi&ko"

28
L
L
L.
L.
(.t/Ltl)
I
L
DcmirF.ftciE l6a'l

L
L
L t,--*{l

L
L ,
L'.
L
L
L Flllr. $25 D€lgD Drth ofD orrcrtrrln.d b..m

I .
5 L W c ' t tt I ' ?
l .

= ::-

L tli
t.

l ; I rq lk, tg $n ,c'r
I
I

L 29

L
3.5.'l General Principles of LateralTorsional Buckling
Cenerally the lateral torsional buckling ofa beamis govemedby its umestrainedlength and
its slendemess.The lateral torsional biickling occurswhen the bendingmoment.l/ reachesthe
elastic critical moment 11",(see sessioi 3.4-5E(iuivalent Uniform Momerl hlrr for the geneml
formula). In the idealizedcasebeing considercd,failure only oecur by buckling when ,f: M",
or MlM",a |,0.'lhe Figure3- I showslhe idealizedrelatiotrship
betweentheMlM.b Ul.a'.d,
slendemesswith the comparisonofexperimental resultsfor comparativepupose.

0,2 o, o,a o,! I,o 12 l,a o,2 0.. O,a o.. 1,0 r,2 !,4
t!) cslrn.or ot r..t ..t. rrrh u., \r' IE
(.) coDPrdlon 6r l..l {.lr vrlh u, !.1., r Fn.dlr.n.L..t tom ., plol

Flgure3-27Cornprrlson
of t€3ldat. wlthM

Resultedfrom the figurc,thrccdistinctrcgionsofbehaviormay be observed:


. Stockybeamwhich areableto attainMe.with valuesof .4r belowabour0.4
. Beamsofslender lengthwith 2r, aboveabout1.2,which fails at momenlscloseto iy'.,.

. (0.4< ,,l-Lr< |.2) which fails to reacheitherMDor-Mcr


Beamsof iniermediateslendemess
duero rmperfect,ons andjr)ilialout-of-slraiBhlness.
suchas residualslresses

The.idealized
theoryand the findingofthe actualbehavioriD laleral.torsional
bucklingform
the basisofthe designmethodgivenin BS 5950-l:2000.For simplirypurpoie,sonibterms
arc ifltroducedto representthenecessary
pammeters
which will be discussed
in the next
sesslon_

\1r'uvdff

30
- 3.5.2 Effective Length LEand EquivalentSegment Length I-s1
Ifthe lengthoflhe beamis short,the moncnt capacitywill bc limited by ihe attainmentof
plastic momentMb. In other hand,the longestlhe length,the more susceptiblethe beamis to
to lateraltorsionalbucklingmay be limited
lateraltorsionalbuckling.But, the susceptibility
by the end restraintsand the intemediate rcstraints.

Providedin cl,4.3.5,the effectivelengthIE for a beamwithout intemediatereslraint(only


endrestraintavailable,seeFigure3-28)is shownin lhe tablebelow:

' J m
l' -l Section

El€vation

PIat

Flgur€3-28Aslmpl.b€rm*lthoulInt rmcdi.t.lrt.ril relr.lnt

'l'he
,E ofa simplebeamshouldbeobtainedfrom Table 13,takingthe segmentlenglhlrr as
equalto lhe span/, ofthe beam(seeFigure3-2 hclow).

Trblc 3-2 ElT.ctivelcnglb ID for berms withoul iDterhedilie restEirt

CoDdltlon.of re.trrl nr .t supportt Loadine condition


D*(rbuiziDs
Bolh fldgcs tully rcstEined aSainstrotalion 0.tLLa 0.85ZLr

Comprcssion n.nge tully restainedagainsi o.75LL1 o.9LLI


restminlagainsirotation
aboutlongitudinalaxis,as Both flangespaniallyrcstrained againsr 0.82". 0.95ZLr
gjvenin:1.2.2.
Comprersionnansepartiallyreslrained 0.85rlr |.oLLl
asainst rotalion on Dlan.
Borh nans€sfree to rotate on | otlr !.?rs -
PanialtoGionalreshainiagainstrotalion 1.0L11t 2D 1 . 2 L L r+ 2 D
laierallyonresrmined, aboutlongitudinalaxisprovidedby
Borhflan8esfreeto .otate connelion ofboltom flanse to supports.
Padial loBional rcstra'nt againstrotation L2Ln+ 2D |.4LLJ+ 2X)
aboutlongitudinalaxisprovidedonly by
pressureof boftom nange onto supports.
D is thc ove.alldeDfi of th(
i t a b l e l 3 i n t s S5 9 5 0l : 2 0 0 0

31
For thc simpleb€am!with intdncdist! larcrd r€sEaints(DccFigurc3-O, thc& eh<nldbc.
takcoasl-0lrr for normallooding.whcrc
lr.r is thc l€6gthofthe r€lsvsnts€gm€ltbctwc.o
.qiaccntlateralrrsaahl.

For crses*hich includingdif6lnt rq3traill i! botbeodofa !!€mber,Oc Ig shouldbe takeo


asthemcanvalueofboth cndcloditions.

3,5.3 EqulvalantSl6nd6me33,rr
Gcncillly, fonl- andH- scctions(cI 43.6.7),thc.&r is obtaincdusing:
l,-t= uvL,[fv*

in which:
A - L2/r,
whcrc
Ls is thc cffcctivclcngthfor latcf,altolsiottll buckling;
is drcr.diu8of S/ration.bout thc minoraxis;
is thebucklingpanmacr (conscrvatively
0.9for rollcd scctionsIrd l 0 for
wcldcds€ctions;aliemativcly,sec8.23) (c1.43.6.8)
is lhelorsionalindcx(conscrvativ€ly
t ken asD/?1alternalively,s€c8.23) (cl.
43.6J)
is thc ratiodafinedas:
- for classI of class2: 1.0;
- for clais 3: 7413x ot &,./&;
- for class4: z,i/&

3.5.4 Buckllng ltloment Reslstancsf,tb


For I- andH- sections,thebuclling momcutresistaoce
Mbis giveoby:
- for classI or qlosg2:
Mb= PvS,
- for cl.ss 3:
Mu=tuZ, ot
- for class4:
Ma = P&,..tt

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