© All Rights Reserved

8 vues

© All Rights Reserved

- Sample Problem #18
- Chapter 3 - Distillation Column Design
- Distillation Process
- Distillation
- Demethanizer Operation
- 22865
- Crude Distillation
- Final Report
- LT HC Process
- Ammonia and Its Uses
- Distillation Column Design
- Equilibrio Etilenglicol y Agua
- INTERWsZ
- Intermolecular Forces and Solids and Liquids
- Distillation
- CD Theory Handout
- 2014 Continuous Distillation Group 28 251114 Edited 2.0
- 288817724 Shell Tube Heat Exchanger
- 485848_634183496451357500
- Distillation Column Design

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 54

CHAPTER 3

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Distillation is most probably is the widely used separation process in the chemical industries.

The design of a distillation column can be divided into several procedures:

2. Select the operation conditions: batch or continuous: operating pressure

3. Select the type of contacting device: plate or packing

4. Determine the stage and reflux requirements: the number of equilibrium stages

5. Size the column: diameter, number or real stages

6. Design the column internals: plates, distributors, packing supports

7. Mechanical design: vessel and internal packing

The separation of liquid mixtures by distillation is depends on the differences in the volatility

between the components. This is known as continuous distillation. Vapor flows up to column

and liquid counter-currently down the column. The vapor and liquid are brought into contact on

plates. Part of the condensate from the condenser is returned on the top of the column to

provide liquid flow above the feed point (reflux), and part of the liquid from the base of the

column is vaporized in the reboiler and returned to provide the flow.

3-2

The purpose of this distillation column is to separate the component mixture. Basically,

components which are Propanal, DPE, water, 1-Propanol, Ethylene, Carbon Monoxide,

Hydrogen and Ethane are to be separated to the bottom stream. These components will go

through another distillation process. The feed is fed to the distillation column at 1.82 bar and

293K. The products at the top column leave the column at 1 bar and 357.36K. The products at

the bottom column leave the column at 1.6bar and 382.35K. 1-Propanol and DPE were chosen

as the key components being 1-Propanol as the light key component while DPE as the heavy

key component.

Distillation column with perforated tray has been chosen. Basically, this is the simplest

type. The vapour passes up through perforations in the plate, and the liquid is retained on the

plate by the vapour flow. There is no positive vapour liquid seal, and at low flow rate liquid will

weep through the holes reducing efficiency. The perforation is usually small holes.

The composition of the inlet and outlet streams for distillation column is shown in table 3.1:

Mole Mole Mole

Flow Rate Flow Rate Flow Rate

Fraction Fraction Fraction

(kmole/h) (kmole/h) (kmole/h)

3-3

To estimate the stages, and the condenser and reboiler temperatures, procedures are required

for calculating dew and bubble points. By definition, a saturated liquid is at its bubble point (any

rise in temperature will cause a drop in a liquid form). It can be calculated in terms of equilibrium

constant, K.

Table 4.2 below shows the constants of Antoine equation for each component. (RK Sinnot,

1999) where the constant value for each component is taken from HYSYS.

COMPONENT a b c d e f

Dipropyl

96.7 -7.45×103 0.00 -1.24 1.08×10-5 2.00

Ether

Antoine equation:

𝐵

ln 𝑃𝑜 = 𝐴 − + 𝐷 𝑥 ln 𝑇 + 𝐸 𝑥 𝑇^𝐹 (3.3)

𝑇+𝐶

𝑃𝑜

𝐾𝑖 = (3.4)

𝑃𝑇

3-4

By using the goal seek method in the excel program, with constant operating pressure at feed is

1.6 bar, the calculated temperature is 363K. The data shown in Table 3.3:

O.P

COMPONENT ln Pi Pi (kPa) Xi Ki Yi=KiXi

(kPa)

1-Propanol 5.19 179.42 0.9768 182 0.99 0.962939

TOTAL 1.00000

By using the goal seek method in the excel program, with constant operating pressure at top is

0.5 bar, the calculated temperature is 60K. The data shown in Table 3.4:

O.P

COMPONENT ln Pi Pi (kPa) Yi Ki Xi=Yi/Ki

(kPa)

1-Propanol 3.59 36.41 0.4853 50 0.73 0.67

TOTAL 1

3-5

By using the goal seek method in the excel program, with constant operating pressure at bottom

is 1.6 bar, the calculated temperature is 376K. The data shown in Table 3.5:

O.P

COMPONENT ln Pi Pi (kPa) Xi Ki Yi=KiXi

(kPa)

1-Propanol 4.69 108.95 0.9815 110 0.99 0.97

TOTAL 1

𝑌𝑖

𝐾𝑖 = (3.5)

𝑋𝑖

Xi = mole fraction of component i in liquid phase

𝐾𝑖

𝛼𝑖𝑗 = (3.6)

𝐾𝑗

3-6

From Ideal system, Raoult’s law,

Pi = PiXi (3.7)

The relative volatility of two components can be expressed as the ratio of their K value,

𝐾𝐿𝐾

𝛼𝑖𝑗 = (3.8)

𝐾𝐻𝐾

Where, KLK = Light key components

KHK = Heavy key components

Table 3.6

𝑲

COMPONENT K 𝜶=

𝑲𝑯𝑲

Table 3.7

𝑲

COMPONENT K 𝜶=

𝑲𝑯𝑲

3-7

= 0.6636 (0.8534)

= 0.753

The Fenske’s Equation (1932) can be used to estimate the minimum stages required at total

reflux. The derivation of the equation for binary system and applies equally to multi-component

system. The minimum number of stages will be obtained from this equation:

X X

Log[(X LK )]d [( XHK )]b

HK LK

Nmin = (3.9)

Log αLK

0.73 0.0091

Log[( 1.1 )]d [( )]

= 0.9815 b

Log 0.753

= 17.94

= 20 stages

Colburn (1941) and Underwood (1948) have derived equations for estimating the minimum

reflux ratio for multicomponent distillations. The equation can be stated in the form:

𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝑖,𝑑

= 𝑅𝑚 + 1 (3.10)

𝛼𝑖 − 𝜃

3-8

Where,

component, usually the heavy key

𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝑖,𝑓

=1−𝑞 (3.11)

𝛼𝑖 − 𝜃

Where,

condition of the feed

The value of θ must lie between the values of relative volatility of the light and heavy keys and is

found by trial and error.

𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝑖,𝑓

=0

𝛼𝑖 − 𝜃

Table 3.8

3.9 -0.07

Therefore, θ = 3.9

3-9

Table 3.9

3.9 9.35

Rm + 1 = 9.35

Rm = 8.35

𝑅𝑚

= 0.8931

𝑅𝑚 + 1

𝑅 2

= = 0.66

(𝑅 + 1) 3

Using Erbar – Maddox correlation (Erbar and Maddox, 1961) from figure 11.11 (Coulson and

Richardson, Volume 6, page 524),

𝑁𝑚

= 0.74

𝑁

18

N=

0.74

= 24.3

2 3 4 5

R

24.3 21.43 20.69 20.22

N

3-10

The optimum reflux ratio will be near to 4. Therefore, the optimum reflux ratio will be taken as 4

while the actual stage is 21.

2

𝑁𝑟 𝐵 𝑥𝑓,𝐻𝐾 x𝑏,𝐿𝐾

𝐿𝑜𝑔 = 0.2606 log (3.10)

𝑁𝑠 𝐷 𝑥𝑓,𝐿𝐾 x𝑑,𝐻𝐾

Where,

2

𝑁𝑟 2.531 0.0092 0.395

𝐿𝑜𝑔 = 0.2606 log

𝑁𝑠 261.5 0.9768 0.00382

𝑁𝑟

= 0.993

𝑁𝑠

Nr + Ns = 24

0.993Ns + Ns = 24

1.993Ns =9

3-11

Nr = 15

Where,

1 1

𝐿𝑂𝐺 µ𝑎 = 𝑉𝑖𝑠𝐴 𝑥 − (3.12)

𝑇 𝑉𝑖𝑠𝐵

Viscosity

Mole fraction Coefficient Viscosity

Component Log µ𝒂 µ𝒂 × 𝒙

feed, x (mNs/m2)

A B

Where,

3-12

= 55.44 %

Plate and overall column efficiencies will normally be between 30% to 70%. (Coulson and

Richardson’s, volume 6, page 547)

Molecular Mole Fraction Liquid Density

Component

Weight Feed Distillate Bottom (kg/m3)

= 60.118 kg/kmol

= 50.739 kg/kmol

= 60.191 kg/kmol

3-13

3.2.8.2 Density

Top Product :

ρL = 𝑥𝐵,𝑖 𝜌𝑖 (3.14)

= 823.51 kg/m3

ρv = 𝑥 𝑥 (3.15)

𝑉𝑆𝑇𝑃 𝑇𝑂𝑃 𝑃𝑆𝑇𝑃

ρv = 𝑥 𝑥

22.4𝑚 3 /𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 357.21𝐾 1𝑏𝑎𝑟

= 1.731 kg/m3

Bottom Product:

ρL = 𝑥𝐷,𝑖 𝜌𝑖 (4.16)

= 804.04 kg/m3

ρv = 𝑥 𝑥 (4.17)

𝑉𝑆𝑇𝑃 𝑇𝑂𝑃 𝑃𝑆𝑇𝑃

ρv = 𝑥 𝑥

22.4𝑚 3 /𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 382.2𝐾 1𝑏𝑎𝑟

= 3.071 kg/m3

Using Sugden (1924), equation 8.23 (Coulson and Richardson’s, volume 6, page 335)

4

𝑃𝑐(𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑣

𝜍= 𝑥 10−12 (3.18)

𝑀

3-14

Where,

Where,

Mole Fraction

Pch

Component

Distribution Distillate Bottom

3-15

= 177.28097

= 148.30792

65.01 969.64−4.928 4

Top Column, 𝜍 = 𝑥 10−12

21.98

= 67.965683 N/m

Bottom Column, 𝜍 = 𝑥 10−12

20.04

= 15.27159545 N/m

Where,

R = Reflux ratio

Hence,

Vn = 261.5 (2.531 + 1)

= 923.36 kmole/hr

= 923.36 – 261.5

3-16

= 661.86 kmole/hr

Where,

Hence,

Lm = 661.86 + 264.1

= 925.96kmole/hr

Where,

Hence,

Vm = 925.96 – 261.5

= 664.46kmole/hr

The equation for the operating lines below the feed plate:

𝐿𝑚 𝑊

𝑌𝑚 = 𝑋𝑚 + 1 − 𝑋𝑤 (3.24)

𝑉𝑚 𝑉𝑚

925.96 261.5

𝑌𝑚 = 𝑋𝑚 + 1 − (𝑋𝑤)

664.46 664.46

261.5

= 2.058(Xm + 1) – 664.46

(𝑋𝑤)

The equation for the operating lines above the feed plate:

𝐿𝑛 𝐷

𝑌𝑛 = 𝑋𝑛 + 1 − 𝑋𝑑 (3.25)

𝑉𝑛 𝑉𝑛

3-17

661.86 261.5

𝑌𝑛 = 𝑋𝑛 + 1 − 𝑋𝑑

923.36 923.36

𝐿𝑛 𝜌𝑉

𝐹𝐿𝑉 𝑇𝑜𝑝 = (3.26)

𝑉𝑛 𝜌𝐿

1.731

= 0.72

823.51

= 0.033

𝐿𝑚 𝜌𝑉

𝐹𝐿𝑉 𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 = (3.27)

𝑉𝑚 𝜌𝐿

3.071

= 1.39

804.04

= 0.09

The overall height of the column will depend on the plate spacing. Plate spacing from 0.15m to

1.0m are normally used. The spacing chosen will depend on the column diameter and the

operating condition. Close spacing is used with small - diameter columns, and where head room

is restricted, as it will be when a column is installed in a building. In this distillation column, the

plate spacing is 0.5m as it is normally taken as the initial estimate recommended by Coulson

and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6.

3-18

The principal factor that determines the column diameter is the vapor flowrate. The

vapor velocity must be below that which would cause excessive liquid entrainment or high-

pressure drop. The equation below which is based on the Souder and Brown equation,

Lowenstein (1961), Coulson & Richarson’s Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 556, can be

used to estimate the maximum allowable superficial velocity, and hence the column area and

diameter of the distillation column.

𝜌𝐿 − 𝜌𝑣 0.5

𝑈𝑣 = −0.171𝑙𝑡 2 + 0.271𝑙𝑡 − 0.047 (3.28)

𝜌𝑣

0.5

969.64 − 4.928

= −0.171(0.5)2 + 0.271(0.5) − 0.047

4.928

= 2.8173 m/s

Where,

Uv = maximum allowable vapor velocity based on the gross (total) column cross

4𝑉𝑤

𝐷𝑐 = (3.29)

𝜋𝜌𝑣 𝑈𝑣

15870 𝑘𝑔 1 𝑟

𝑉𝑤 = 𝑥

𝑟 3600 𝑠

= 4.41 kg/s

3-19

4(4.41)

𝐷𝑐 =

𝜋 4.928 (0.64)

= 1.33 m

The column area can be calculated from the calculated internal column diameter

𝜋 𝐷𝑐 2

𝐴𝑐 = (3.30)

4

𝜋 (1.33)2

=

4

= 1.39 m2

Before deciding liquid flow arrangement, maximum volumetric liquid rate were determined by

the value of maximum volumetric rate

15740 𝑘𝑔 1 𝑟

𝐿= 𝑥 (3.31)

𝑟 3600 𝑠

4.372 𝑘𝑔 𝑚3

= 𝑥

𝑠 804.04 𝑘𝑔

= 5.38 x 10-3

Dc = 1.128 m

Based in the values of maximum volumetric flow rate and the column diameter to Figure

11.28 from Coulson and Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 568, the types of

liquid flow rate could be considered as single pass.

3-20

Perforated plate, which is famously known as sieve tray is the simplest type of cross-flow

plate. Cross flow trays are the most common used and least expensive. Sieve tray is chosen

because it is consider cheaper and simpler contacting devices. The perforated trays enable

designs with confident prediction of performance. According, most new designs today specify

some type of perforated tray (sieve tray) instead of the traditional bubble-cap tray. Sieve tray

also gives the lowest pressure drop.

= 1.39 m2 - 0.1668 m2

= 1.2232 m2

= 1.0564 m2

= 0.10 x 1.0564 m2

= 0.10564m2

3-21

With segmental downcomers the length of the weir fixes the area of the downcomer. The chord

length will normally be between 0.6 to 0.85 of the column diameter. A good initial value to use is

0.77, equivalent to a downcomer area of 15%.

Referring to Figure 11.31 from Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6,

page 572, with (Ad/Ac) x 100 is 12 percents, thus, Iw/Dc is 0.76

= 0.76 x 1.33 m

= 1.011 m

For column operating above atmospheric pressure, the weir-heights will normally be between 40

mm to 90 mm (1.5 to 3.5 in); 40 to 50 mm is recommended.

𝜋(𝑑 )2

𝐴𝑙 = (3.36)

4

𝜋(0.005)2

=

4

= 1.9635 x 10-5 m2

3-22

𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎

𝑁 = (3.37)

1 𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎

0.10564

=

1.9635 𝑥 10−5

= 5380.19 holes

≈ 5380 holes

Check weeping to ensure enough vapour to prevent liquid flow through hole.

15740𝑘𝑔 1 𝑟

𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 𝑥

𝑟 3600 𝑠

= 4.372 kg/s

= 3.06 kg/s

2

𝐿𝑤 3

𝑜𝑤 = 750 (3.38)

𝜌𝐿 𝐼𝑤

Where,

Iw = weir length, m

3-23

At maximum rate:

2

4.372 3

𝑜𝑤 = 750

804.04 𝑥 1.011

= 20.40 mm liquid

At minimum rate:

2

3.06 3

𝑜𝑤 = 750

1019.01 𝑥 0.85728

= 18.15 mm liquid

how + hw = 18.15 + 50

= 68.15 mm liquid

From Figure 11.30, in Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 571,

weep point correlation, K2 = 30.7

The purpose to calculate this weep point is to know the lower limit of the operating range ccurs

when liquid leakage through the plate holes becomes excessive. During weeping, a minor

fraction of liquid flows to the tray below through the tray perforations rather than the downcomer.

This downward-flowing liquid typically has been exposed to rising vapor; so, weeping only leads

to a small reduction in overall tray efficiency, to a level rarely worse than the tray point

efficiency. Minimum vapor velocity through the holes based on the holes area.

3-24

𝐾2 − 0.9(25.4 − 𝑑 )

𝑈 (min) = 1 (3.39)

𝜌𝑣 2

Where,

dh = hole diameter, mm

K2 = constant

30.7 − 0.9(25.4 − 5)

= 1

(3.071)2

= 8.036 m/s

𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = (3.40)

𝐴

4.41 𝑘𝑔 𝑚3

𝑥 0.7 𝑥

𝑠 3.071𝑘𝑔

=

0.10564

= 9.51 m/s

Û = (3.41)

𝐴

3-25

4.41 𝑘𝑔 𝑚3

𝑠 𝑥

3.071 𝑘𝑔

=

0.10564

= 13.59 m/s

From Figure 11.34 in Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 576,

for discharge coefficient for sieve plate,

𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 3 𝑚𝑚

𝐴𝑡, = = 0.6

𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 5 𝑚𝑚

𝐴

𝑎𝑛𝑑 = 0.1

𝐴𝑎

we get Co = 0.74

2

𝑈 𝜌𝑣

𝐷𝑟𝑦 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑑 = 51 (3.42)

𝐶𝑜 𝜌𝐿

2

13.59 3.071

= 51

0.74 804.04

= 65.697 mm liquid

12.5 𝑥 103

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑒𝑎𝑑, 𝑟 = (3.43)

𝜌𝐿

12.5 𝑥 103

=

804.04

= 15.55 mm liquid

= 149.397 mm liquid

3-26

The downcomer area and plate spacing must be such that the level of the liquid and froth in the

downcomer is well below the top of the outlet weir on the plate above. If the level rises above

the outlet weir the column will flood.

Take hap = hw – 10 mm

= 50 – 10

= 40 mm

Where, hap = height of the bottom edge of the apron above the plate

2

𝐿𝑤𝑑

𝑑𝑐 = 166 (3.45)

𝜌𝐿 𝐴𝑚

Where,

Am = either the downcomer area, Ad or the clearance area under the downcomer, Aap

whichever is smaller, m2

= 0.04 m x 1.011

= 0.04044 m2

As this less than Ad = 0.1668 m2, equation 11.92 (Coulson and Richardson’s, Volume 6, page

577) used Aap = 0.04044 m2

3-27

2

4.372

𝑑𝑐 = 166

804.04 𝑥 0.04044

= 3.00 mm

= 220.547 mm

0.2205 m <0.5 m

Sufficient residence time must be allowed in the downcomer for the entrained vapor to

disengage from the liquid stream, to prevent heavily “aerated” liquid being carried under the

downcomer. A time at least 3 seconds is recommended.

𝐴𝑑 𝑏𝑐 𝜌𝐿

𝑡𝑟 = (3.48)

𝐿𝑤𝑑

Where,

tr = residence time, s

3-28

𝑡𝑟 =

4.372

= 6.764 s

From Figure 11.32, Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 527, for

the relaxation between angle subtended by chord, chord height and chord length:

Iw/Dc = 1.011/1.33

= 0.76

θ = 98°

Ih/Dc = 0.18

= 180° - 98°

= 82°

= 1.832 m

= 1.832 x 0.05

= 0.0916 m2

3-29

= 1.011 + 0.05

= 1.061 m

= 2 x 0.05 x 1.061

= 0.1061 m2

= 0.8587 m2

Ah/Ap = 1.0564/0.8587

= 0.123

From Figure 11.33, Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 528, the

relation between hole area and pitch,

The column height will be calculated based on the given below. The equation determines the

height of the column without taking the skirt or any support into consideration. Its determination

is based on the condition in the column.

Column height = (No. of stages – 1) x (Tray spacing ) + (Tray spacing x 2) + (No. of stages – 1)

3-30

x (Plate thickness)

= 11.57 m

Item Value

Column Diameter, Dc 1.33 m

No. of Plates 24 plates

Plate Spacing 0.5 m

No. of Stage Feed from bottom, F1 9

No. of Stage Solvent from bottom, F2 24

Plate Thickness 0.003 m

Total Column Height, Ht 13 m

Plate Material Stainless Steel

Downcomer Area, Ad 0.1668 m2

Column Area, Ac 1.39 m2

Net Area, An 1.2232 m2

Active Area, Aa 0.10564 m2

Hole Area, Ah 0.010564 m2

No. of Holes 5380 units

Weir Length, Iw 1.011 m

Weir Height (standard) 0.05 m

3-31

3.3.1 Introduction

Several factors need to be considered in the mechanical design of distillation column such as

1. Design pressure

2. Design temperature

3. Material of construction

4. Design stress

5. Wall thickness

6. Welded joint efficiency

7. Analysis of stresses

a. Dead weight load

b. Wind load

c. Pressure stress

d. Bending stress

8. Vessel support

9. Insulation

Operating pressure = (1.82 – 1) bar

= 0.82 bar

Design pressure = 0.82 x 1.1

=0.902 bar

= 0.0902 N/mm2

Operating temperature = 113.36 x 1.1

= 124.694°C

3-32

Selection of suitable material must be taking onto account the suitability of material for

fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with the process

environment. In this case, the material used in the construction of the distillation column is

carbon steel as the material as it is the most used material in industry. For this material, the

design stress at 150°C is obtained from Table 13.2 for the typical design stresses for plate.

Tensile strength = 360 N/mm2

Join factor =1

Diameter vessel, D = 1330 mm

Operating pressure = 0.0902 N/mm2

Insulation, mineral wool = 75 mm thick

The minimum thickness of column required and other designs are calculated based on equation

below:

𝑃𝑖 𝐷𝑖

ℯ= 3.49

2𝐽𝑓 − 𝑃𝑖

Where,

e = minimum thickness of the plate required

Pi = internal pressure, N/mm2

Di = internal diameter, m

f = design stress, N/mm2

J = joint factor

0.0902 𝑥 1330

ℯ=

2 1 (115) − 0.0902

= 0.522 mm

≈ 0.6 mm

3-33

A much thicker wall is needed at the column base to withstand the wind and dead weight loads.

As a first trial, divide the column into five sections, with the thickness increasing by 2 mm per

section. Try 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mm. The average wall thickness is 5 mm. Take the first trial as 5

mm.

Hemispherical, ellipsoidal and torispherical heads are collectively referred to as domed heads.

They are formed by pressing or spinning, large diameters are fabricated from formed sections.

Torispherical are often referred to as dished ends. After comparing the thickness of all heads,

torispherical head had been chosen because of operating pressure for this below 10 bars and

suitable for liquid vapor phase process in inconsistent high pressure. The thickness of

torispherical head can be calculated below:

𝑃𝑖 𝑅𝑐 𝐶𝑠

ℯ= 3.50

2𝐽𝑓 + 𝑃𝑖 (𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)

Where,

Rc = Crown radius = Dc

Rk = Knuckle radius = 0.06 Rc

= 0.06 x 1330

= 79.8 mm

Cs = Stress concentration

1 𝑅𝑐

= 3+

4 𝑅𝑘

1 1330

= 3+

4 79.8

= 1.77

ℯ= 3.51

2 1 (115) + 0.09(1.77 − 0.2)

= 0.923 mm

Round up to 2 mm

3-34

For welding purposes the thickness of head were taken as same thickness of the vessel, = 2

mm. It’s matching to joint factor were taken as 1.

The major sources of the dead weight loads are:

2. The vessel fittings: manhole, nozzles

3. Internal fitting: plates, heating cooling coils

4. External fittings: ladders, platforms, piping

5. Auxiliary equipment which is not self supported, condensers, agitators

6. Insulation

7. The weight of liquid to fill the vessel.

Dead weight of vessel can be calculated by using equation below:

Where,

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, man ways and internal supports.

(In this distillation column, take Cv as 1.15)

Dm = mean diameter of vessel

= (Dc + t) m

= (1.33 + 0.007)

= 1.337 m

Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m

t = wall thickness, m

= 36.34 kN

3-35

From Nelson Guide, page 833 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; take contacting plates, 1.2

kN/m2 (for typical liquid loading). The total of weight of plate determine by multiply the value with

number of plate design.

𝜋𝐷 2

𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 =

4

2

3.142 × 1.33

=

4

= 1.3895 𝑚2

= 1.6674 kN

Where, 1.2 is factor for contacting plates including typical liquid loading in kN/m2

= 40.017 kN

The mineral wool was chosen as insulation material. By referring to Coulson & Richardson,

Chemical Engineering Design, Volume 6, page 833,

Thickness = 75 mm

= 0.075 m

Volume of insulation, Vi = π x Di x Hv x thickness of insulation

= (3.142)(1.33)(13.0)(0.075)

= 4.074 m3

Weight of insulation, Wi = Volume of insulation x ρ x g

= 4.074 x 130 x 9.81

= 5196.07 N

= 5.196 kN

Double this to allow for fittings, 10.392 kN

3-36

The total weight is the summation of dead weight of vessel, weight of accessories and weight of

insulation:

= 36.34 + 40.017 + 10.392

= 86.749 kN

A wind loading must be designed to withstand the highest wind speed that is likely to encounter

at the site during the life of the plant. From the British Standard Code of Practice BS CP 3: 1972

“Basic Data for the Design of Buildings, Chapter V Loading: Part 2 Winds Load”, (Sinnot, 1999),

a wind speed of 160 km/h (100 mph) can be used for preliminary design. For cylindrical column,

semi-empirical equation can be used to estimate the wind pressure:

Where,

Pw = wind pressure, N/m2

uw = wind speed, km/h

Pw = 0.05 (160)2

= 1280 N/m2

= 1330 + 2(7 + 75)

= 1494 mm

= 1.494 m

= 1280 x 1.5

= 1920 N/m

3-37

𝐹𝑤 𝐻𝑣 2

𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡, 𝑀𝑥 =

2

1920 × 132

=

2

= 162240 Nm

= 162.24 kNm

Thickness is taken as 9 mm as maximum.

𝑝𝐼 𝐷𝑖

𝜍𝐿 = (3.55)

4𝑡

0.0902 × 1330

=

4 × 9

= 3.332 N/mm2

𝑝𝐼 𝐷𝑖

𝜍 = (3.56)

2𝑡

0.0902 × 1330

=

2 × 9

= 6.665 N/mm2

Dead weight stresses is significant for tall columns. This stress can be tensile for points below

the column support or compressive for points above the support. Dead weight stresses are

given by:

𝑊

𝜍𝑤 = (3.57)

𝜋 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡𝑖 𝑡

3-38

86749

=

𝜋 1330 + 9 × 9

= 2.29 N/mm2 (compressive)

The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on location and are given by:

𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖

𝜍𝑏 = ± + 𝑡 (3.58)

𝐼𝑣 2

Where,

Mx = Total bending moment

Do = Outside diameter

= Di + 2t

= 1330 + 2(9)

= 1348 mm

Iv = Second moment area

𝜋

= 𝐷𝑜 4 − 𝐷𝑖 4 (3.59)

64

𝜋

= 13484 − 13304

64

= 1.358 x 1011 mm4

162240 1330

𝜍𝑏 = ± + 9

1.358 x 1011 2

= ± 8.052 x 10-4 N/mm2

The resultant of longitudinal stress is the summation of longitudinal stresses, dead weight

stresses and bending stress.

𝜍𝑧 = 𝜍𝐿 + 𝜍𝑤 ± 𝜍𝑏 (3.60)

For upwind,

𝜍𝑧 = 3.332 + (−2.29) + 8.052 x 10

= 1.031 N/mm2

3-39

For downwind,

𝜍𝑧 = 3.332 + −2.29 − 8.052 𝑥 10−4

= 1.041 N/mm2

𝜍𝑧 = 𝜍 − 𝜍𝑧 𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑 (3.61)

= 6.665 − 1.041

= 5.624 N/mm2

The value obtained is well below the maximum allowable design stress which is 115 N/mm2

Local bulking will normally occur at stress than that required buckling the complete. A column

design must be checked to ensure that the maximum value of the resultant axial stress does not

exceed the critical value at which buckling will occur.

t

Critical buckling stress, σc = 2 x 104 (3.62)

Do

9

= 2 x 104

1348

= 133.531 N/mm2

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure

𝜍𝑤 + 𝜍𝑏 = 2.29 + 8.052 x 10-4

= 2.291 N/mm2

Since the result of maximum compressive stress is below the critical buckling stress of 157.07

N/mm2. Thus, the design is satisfactory.

The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and weight of the vessel;

the design temperature and pressure, the vessel location and arrangement; and the internal and

external fittings and attachment. Since the distillation column is a vertical vessel, skirt support is

used in this design.

3-40

A skirt support consists of a cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of the vessel. A

flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations. The skirt may be welded

to the bottom, level of the vessel. Skirt supports are recommended for vertical vessels as they

do not imposed concentrated loads on the vessel shells; they are particularly suitable for use

with tall columns subject to wind loading.

Θs = 90°

Material of construction = Carbon Steel

Design stress, f = 115 N/mm2

Young’s modulus = 200,000 N/mm2

Skirt height, hs =4m

Skirt thickness, ts = 9 mm

Joint factor = 0.85

Approximate weight, W approx = (π/4 x Di2 x Hv) x ρL x 9.81

= (π/4 x 1.332 x 13) x 804.04 x 9.81

= 91 492 N

= 91.492 kN

= 178.241 kN

Bending moment at base skirt, Ms = 0.5 x Fw(Hv + Hs)2 (3.63)

2

= 0.5 x 1.92(13 + 4)

= 277.44 kNm

3-41

4 𝑀𝑠

𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑘𝑖𝑟𝑡, 𝜍𝑏𝑠 = (3.64)

𝜋 𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 × 𝐷𝑠 𝑡𝑠

4 × 162.24 × 103 × 103

=

𝜋 1330 + 9 × 1330 × 9

= 12.888 N/mm2

𝑊𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑥

𝜍𝑤𝑠 𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑡 = (3.65)

𝜋 𝑡𝑠 (𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 )

152092.43

=

𝜋 × 9(1128 + 9)

= 4.731 N/mm2

𝑊

𝜍𝑤𝑠 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 = (3.66)

𝜋𝑡𝑠 (𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 )

84749

=

𝜋 × 9(1330 + 9)

= 2.291 N/mm2

Maximum σs (tensile) = σbs + σws test (3.67)

= 12.888 + 2.416

= 15.304 N/mm2

= 12.888 – 2.291

= 15.179 N/mm2

Take the joint factor, J as 0.85

Where θs = 90°

15.304 N/mm2 < 115 x 0.85 sin 90°

3-42

σs (compressive) < 0.125 E(ts/Ds) sin θs

2

15.179 N/mm < 0.125 x 200000(9/1330) sin 90°

2

15.179 N/mm < 169.17 N/mm2

Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion; gives a design thickness, ts of 11 mm.

The type of this equipment is assumed to be completely satisfactory thus the corrosion rate is

0.25 mm/y. Since the operation of this equipment is assumed to be operated for 20 years, thus

the corrosion rate will be added:

0.25 mm/y x 20 = 5 mm

The design thickness must be added with the corrosion rate, gives actual design thickness, ts of

16 mm.

The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the skirt base ring

(bearing plate). The moment produced by wind and other lateral will tend to overturn vessel. A

variety of base ring designs is used with skirt supports. The simplest types, suitable for small

vessel, are rolled angle. The preliminary design of base ring is done by using Scheiman’s short

cut method. Scheiman gives the following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the

anchor bolts.

2. Minimum number of bolts = 8

3. Use multiple of 4 bolts

4. Bolts pitch should not be less than 600 mm

Circumference of bolt circle = 2200π

Closest multiple of 4, Nb = 16 bolts

3-43

Fw = 1920 N/m

Ms = 162.24 kNm

Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing

= Circumference of bolt circle / 600

= 2200π / 600

= 11.52

≈ 12 bolts

𝜋 × 3.2 × 103

𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔 = = 773.32 𝑚𝑚 (𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑦)

13

1 4 𝑀𝑠

𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎, 𝐴𝑏 = × − 𝑊 (3.69)

𝑁𝑏 𝑓𝑏 𝐷𝑏

1 4 × 162240

= × − 86749

13 𝑥 125 3.2

= 71.416mm2

4𝐴𝑏

𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑟𝑜𝑜𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = (3.70)

𝜋

71.416 × 4

=

𝜋

= 9.536 mm

4𝑀𝑠 𝑊

𝐹𝑏 = 2 + (3.71)

𝜋𝐷𝑠 𝜋𝐷𝑠

Where,

Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, Newtons per linear metre

Ds = skirt diameter, m

3-44

4 × 162240 86749

𝐹𝑏 = 2

+

𝜋 × 3.0 𝜋 × 3.0

= 32.157 kN/m

𝐹𝑏 1

𝐿𝑏 = 𝑥 (3.72)

𝑓𝑐 103

Where,

Lb = base ring width, mm

fc = the maximum allowable bearing pressure in the concrete foundation pad, which will

depend on the mix sed, and will typically range from 3.5 to 7 N/mm2 (500 to 1000 psi)

32157 1

𝐿𝑏 = 𝑥

5 103

= 6.4314 mm

This is the minimum width required; actual width will depend on the chair design. Actual width

required (Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 849, figure 13.30)

= Lr + ts + 50 mm

= 76 + 16 + 50

= 142 mm

32157

𝑓′𝑐 =

142 × 103

= 0.226 N/mm2

3 𝑓′𝑐

𝑡𝑏 = 𝐿𝑟 (3.73)

𝑓𝑟

Where,

Lr = the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring, mm

tb = base ring thickness, mm

3-45

fr = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm2

3 × 0.226

𝑡𝑏 = 76

140

= 5.29 mm

The chair dimensions from figure 13.30 for bolt size M24.

There are three nozzles in the distillation column, which are nozzles in feed inlet, top product

outlet and bottom product outlet. By assuming that the flow of the pipe is turbulent flow,

therefore to determine the optimum duct diameter is:

Where,

G = flowrate, kg/s

ρ = density, kg/m3

= 4.4083 kg/s

ρmix = 778.66 kg/m3

dopt = 293 (4.4083)0.53 (778.66)-0.37

= 54.77 mm

≈ 55 mm

𝑃𝑠 𝑑𝑜𝑝𝑡

𝑁𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒 𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠, 𝑡 = 3.75

20𝜍 + 𝑃𝑠

3-46

Where,

Ps = operating pressure

σ = design stress at working temperature

0.0902 × 54.77

𝑇𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑛𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒: 𝑡 =

20 125 + 0.0902

= 0.002 mm

= 2 + 0.002

= 2.002 mm

G = 128.5 kg/h

= 0.0357 kg/s

ρmix = 1.709 kg/m3

dopt = 293 (0.0357)0.53 (1.709)-0.37

= 41.08 mm

≈ 41 mm

𝑃𝑠 𝑑𝑜𝑝𝑡

𝑁𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒 𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠, 𝑡 =

20𝜍 + 𝑃𝑠

0.0902 × 41.08

𝑇𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑛𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒: 𝑡 =

20 125 + 0.0902

= 0.00148 mm

= 2 + 0.00148

= 2.00148 mm

3-47

= 4.372 kg/s

ρmix = 695.2 kg/m3

dopt = 293 (4.372)0.53 (695.2)-0.37

= 56.88 mm

≈ 60 mm

𝑃𝑠 𝑑𝑜𝑝𝑡

𝑁𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒 𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠, 𝑡 =

20𝜍 + 𝑃𝑠

0.0902 × 56.88

𝑇𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑛𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒: 𝑡 =

20 125 + 0.0902

= 0.0021 mm

= 2 + 0.0021

= 2.0021 mm

The flange class number required for a particular duty will depend on the design pressure and

temperature and the flange material. The flange design is from the typical standard flange

design in Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 863, figure 13.37.

Feed Stream

Flange Raised face Drilling Boss

dopt d1 Bolting

D b H d4 f No d2 k d3

65 76.1 160 14 32 110 3 M12 4 14 130 100

3-48

Top Stream

Flange Raised face Drilling Boss

dopt d1 Bolting

D b H d4 f No d2 k d3

25 33.7 100 14 24 60 2 M10 4 11 75 50

Bottom Stream

Flange Raised face Drilling Boss

dopt d1 Bolting

D b H d4 f No d2 k d3

50 60.3 140 14 28 90 3 M12 4 14 110 80

Summary of design distillation column are shown in table below:

Pressure Vessel

Operating Pressure, Po 0.11 N/mm2

Design Pressure, P1 0.19 N/mm2

Operating Temperature 90 oC

Design Temperature 99 oC

Column Material Carbon Steel

Safety Factor 10%

Design Stress 115 N/mm2

Head and Closure

Types Torispherical Head

Crown Radius, Rc 1.128 m

Knuckle Radius, Rk 0.0677 m

Joint Factor, J 1

Cs 1.77

Minimum thickness, e 10 mm

Column Weight

Dead weight of Vessel, Wv 10.52 kN

Weight of Plates, W p 32.384 kN

3-49

Total Weight, W t 53.752 kN

Wind Speed, Uw 160 km/h

Bending Moment, Mx 210.0429 kN/m

Insulation Material Mineral Wool

Insulation Thickness 75 mm

Skirt Support

Type of Support Straight Cylindrical Skirt

Material of Construction Carbon Steel

Young’s Modulus 200,000 N/mm2

Approximate Weight, W approx 152.092 kN

Total Weight 205.844 kN

Bending Moment, Mx 328.2 kNm

Skirt Thickness, ts 9 mm

Skirt Height, Hs 4m

Stiffness Ring

Critical Buckling Pressure for Ring, Pc 140 N/mm2

3-50

The purchased cost of the equipment is calculated using equation below (Turton et al., Analysis,

Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processess, 3rd Edition, page 906):

where,

Volume = 𝜋𝐷 2

= (3.142)(1.33)2(13)

= 72.25m3

= 4.73

Cp° = $ 53 751.28

3-51

𝑃 +1 𝐷

+ 0.00315

2[850 − 0.6 𝑃 + 1 ]

𝐹𝑃,𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 = (2.0)

0.003

0.0902 + 1 (1.33)

+ 0.00315

2[850 − 0.6 0.0902 + 1 ]

𝐹𝑃,𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 =

0.003

The bare module factor for process vessel (Turton et al., Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of

Chemical Processess, 3rd Edition, page 927):

From Table A.3 (Appendix A), the identification number for carbon steel vertical process vessels

is 18.

= $ 121 028.03

Use correlation:

Therefore,

3-52

645.5

𝑛𝑒𝑤 𝐶𝐵𝑀 = 121 028.03 ×

297

= $ 263042.40

= RM 802 279.32

Column height = 13 m; Column diameter = 1.33 m, Area = 5.56 m2; Number of trays = 24

= 3.92

Cp° = $ 8 275.15

The bare module cost for sieve trays (Turton et al., Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical

Processess, 3rd Edition, page 930, Table A.5):

Where,

N = number of trays

For N≥ 20, Fq = 1

From Table A.6 (Appendix A), the identification number for stainless steel sieve trays is 61

Hence, from Figure A.19 (Appendix A), bare module factor, FBM = 1.8

3-53

CBM = (8275.15)(24)(1.8)(1)

= $ 208 533.79

Use correlation:

Therefore,

645.5

𝑛𝑒𝑤 𝐶𝐵𝑀 = 208 533.79 ×

297

= $ 453 227.48

= RM 1 382 343.81

Thus, the total cost for distillation column = RM 802 279.32 + RM 1 382 343.81

= RM 2 184 623.13

3-54

REFERENCES

R. K. Sinnot. 2003. Chemical Engineering Design. Vol 6, 3rd Ed, Elsevier Butterworth

Heinemann.

Felder, R. M. & Rousseau, R. W. 2000. Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes. 3rd Ed,

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Levenspiel, O. 1999. Chemical Reaction Engineering. 3rd. Ed, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Perry, R. H. & Green, D. W. 1998. Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook. 7th Ed, McGraw-Hill

International Edition.

Ludwig, E. E. 1995. Applied Process Design. Vol.2, 3rd. Ed, Gulf Publishing Company.

- Sample Problem #18Transféré parDozdi
- Chapter 3 - Distillation Column DesignTransféré parmapua_09
- Distillation ProcessTransféré parjim_joven
- DistillationTransféré parnarayanarajudvs
- Demethanizer OperationTransféré parHoustonAbductee
- 22865Transféré pardhavalesh
- Crude DistillationTransféré parachioka
- Final ReportTransféré parPinak Chowdhury
- LT HC ProcessTransféré parguhadebasis
- Ammonia and Its UsesTransféré parFatema Khatun
- Distillation Column DesignTransféré par903352
- Equilibrio Etilenglicol y AguaTransféré parAza Lg
- INTERWsZTransféré partalhawasim
- Intermolecular Forces and Solids and LiquidsTransféré parAllen A Espinosa
- DistillationTransféré parManoj Khanal
- CD Theory HandoutTransféré parSupriya Kadam
- 2014 Continuous Distillation Group 28 251114 Edited 2.0Transféré parArati Vera
- 288817724 Shell Tube Heat ExchangerTransféré pardonya
- 485848_634183496451357500Transféré parTiar_Rahman_9553
- Distillation Column DesignTransféré parTouhidBinAnwar
- Reflux DeterminationsTransféré parRajesh
- 1-s2.0-S1877705816310700-mainTransféré parKhuleedShaikh
- Phenomenon Driven Process DesignTransféré parmurdanetap957
- Fenton's process applied to wastewaters treatment.pdfTransféré parDedi Teguh
- 0104-6632-bjce-32-1-0247Transféré parXagust
- 3-4_Ungerer (1)Transféré parNor Rahila
- Destilacion ReactivaTransféré paringjcastillo12
- CondensationEvaporation_2013.pdfTransféré parShams Shams
- E 41 - 92 R03 _RTQXTransféré parabualamal
- sunfur recovery process.pdfTransféré parvuongcoi102

- Chapter 2 DcTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Chapter 5,Separator and Distillation ColumnTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- CHAPTER 8Transféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- 12Transféré parSalihin Fhoozi
- Chapter 5- Chemical DsgnTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- CHAPTER 5.T-102(5.4).pdfTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Report Duty FormTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Stream TableTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Rubrics for Dp2-StudentsTransféré parAddison Juttie
- molecules-20-17339Transféré parHyung Sholahuddin Alay
- Dampak Used OilTransféré pardaralextiany
- Salaries & Wages Survey Report, Malaysia, 2015Transféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- n-Propanol_M5579_2016_05Transféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Walther 2016Transféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Payback Period TemplateTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- cepci_2011_pyTransféré parWiwin Wjy
- DiplomatTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- PropanolTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Malaysia Country Report for PetrochemicalTransféré parvinysp
- Nikhi SharmaTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Week 6 PTTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Week 5 EIATransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Week 4 AduanTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Week 3 BTTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Week 1 & 2 GinaTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- 1403231561-Guidelines for Packaging Labelling and Storage of Scheduled Wastes in Malaysia.pdfTransféré parknabpsho
- Chin Et Al. 2013-RSERTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- BiogasTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin
- Biotechnological UtilisationTransféré parSyukri Zainuddin

- 154 U-4 Magnetic MaterialsTransféré parsarath_sarath_chandu
- Quality Control and Testing of MilkTransféré parKetaki Dalal
- ProductionTransféré parJulhamEfendi
- ammoniaTransféré parSmith Ibeh
- Science Form 3 Chapter 9Transféré parNoor Azila
- ETAG018 Fire Protective Products Part1 General en 2013 04Transféré parTiago Marcante
- Pip Over DriveTransféré parKeith King
- BR Matacryl WPM_GB.pdfTransféré parNevena Delibasic
- Tatanama Senyawa KompleksTransféré parWidi Srimulyani
- Carbomastic 90 PDSTransféré parRiyaz Basheer
- Tabel Plat BajaTransféré parAlbertus Adelio Aldo
- 6CH05 June 2011Transféré parareyouthere92
- 1-s2.0-S0308814614001678-mainTransféré parVeronica An
- Therapeutic Drug MonitoringTransféré parMohammad Adib
- Cantilever With Uniformly Distributed Pressure-Static 1(Bending and Elongation)-1Transféré parliton
- An_Introduction_To_Surface CHEMISTRYTransféré parAbir Roy
- Undesireable particlesTransféré parCuculina4
- A Review of the Time Dependent Behaviour of Line Pipe SteelTransféré parPrakhar Deep Kulshreshtha
- Ndt Supply Iqi e747Transféré parSander Duque
- Chapter 10 PsychrometryTransféré parsnmurugesan
- NEN3650-1 Sec 1 Chapters 1-7Transféré parJONI101
- MECH 320 - Comsol Tutorial-1.PDFTransféré partKc1234
- Jee-mains Test Paper - 05Transféré parApex Institute
- plasma and the discovery of the electronTransféré parapi-282529907
- Bending Capacity Analysis of High-strength Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Environmentally Friendly Synthetic Fiber CompositesTransféré parrifky07
- Kontima SlidingTransféré paroneakshay
- Chemical Wear Analysis of a Tap-hole on a SiMn Production FurnaceTransféré parMortaza Mohseni
- 4.7 Acid-Base Equilibria (1)Transféré parMehreenSaeed
- The Chemistry of Corn Into AlcoholTransféré parbpsat
- Angus Amp 90 TdsTransféré parTomek Deka