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3-1

CHAPTER 3

DESIGN FOR DISTILLATION COLUMN

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Distillation is most probably is the widely used separation process in the chemical industries.
The design of a distillation column can be divided into several procedures:

1. Specify the degree of separation required: set product specification


2. Select the operation conditions: batch or continuous: operating pressure
3. Select the type of contacting device: plate or packing
4. Determine the stage and reflux requirements: the number of equilibrium stages
5. Size the column: diameter, number or real stages
6. Design the column internals: plates, distributors, packing supports
7. Mechanical design: vessel and internal packing

The separation of liquid mixtures by distillation is depends on the differences in the volatility
between the components. This is known as continuous distillation. Vapor flows up to column
and liquid counter-currently down the column. The vapor and liquid are brought into contact on
plates. Part of the condensate from the condenser is returned on the top of the column to
provide liquid flow above the feed point (reflux), and part of the liquid from the base of the
column is vaporized in the reboiler and returned to provide the flow.
3-2

3.2 Chemical Design

The purpose of this distillation column is to separate the component mixture. Basically,
components which are Propanal, DPE, water, 1-Propanol, Ethylene, Carbon Monoxide,
Hydrogen and Ethane are to be separated to the bottom stream. These components will go
through another distillation process. The feed is fed to the distillation column at 1.82 bar and
293K. The products at the top column leave the column at 1 bar and 357.36K. The products at
the bottom column leave the column at 1.6bar and 382.35K. 1-Propanol and DPE were chosen
as the key components being 1-Propanol as the light key component while DPE as the heavy
key component.

Distillation column with perforated tray has been chosen. Basically, this is the simplest
type. The vapour passes up through perforations in the plate, and the liquid is retained on the
plate by the vapour flow. There is no positive vapour liquid seal, and at low flow rate liquid will
weep through the holes reducing efficiency. The perforation is usually small holes.

3.2.1 Complete Diagram

The composition of the inlet and outlet streams for distillation column is shown in table 3.1:

Table 3.1 Summary of the inlet and outlet composition

Feed Top Bottom

Component Molar Molar Molar


Mole Mole Mole
Flow Rate Flow Rate Flow Rate
Fraction Fraction Fraction
(kmole/h) (kmole/h) (kmole/h)

1-Propanol 257.94 0.9768 1.2283 0.4853 256.7 0.9815

Water 2.2373 0.0085 0.45993 0.1817 1.7774 0.0068

Propanal 1.4473 0.0055 0.7767 0.3068 0.6706 0.0026


3-3

Dipropyl Ether 2.3986 0.0092 0.0118 0.0047 2.3868 0.0091

3.2.2 Bubble and Dew Point Temperature

To estimate the stages, and the condenser and reboiler temperatures, procedures are required
for calculating dew and bubble points. By definition, a saturated liquid is at its bubble point (any
rise in temperature will cause a drop in a liquid form). It can be calculated in terms of equilibrium
constant, K.

Bubble Point : 𝑦𝑖 = 𝐾𝑖 𝑥𝑖 = 1.0 (3.1)

Dew Point : 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑦𝑖 / 𝐾𝑖 = 1.0 (3.2)

Table 4.2 below shows the constants of Antoine equation for each component. (RK Sinnot,
1999) where the constant value for each component is taken from HYSYS.

Table 3.2: The Antoine Constant

COMPONENT a b c d e f

1-Propanol 79.5 -8.29×103 0.00 -8.9096 1.82×10-6 2.00

Water 65.9 -7.23×103 0.00 -7.18 4.03×10-6 2.00

Propanal 80.9 -6.51×103 0.00 -9.82 6.79×10-6 2.00


Dipropyl
96.7 -7.45×103 0.00 -1.24 1.08×10-5 2.00
Ether

Antoine equation:

𝐵
ln 𝑃𝑜 = 𝐴 − + 𝐷 𝑥 ln 𝑇 + 𝐸 𝑥 𝑇^𝐹 (3.3)
𝑇+𝐶

𝑃𝑜
𝐾𝑖 = (3.4)
𝑃𝑇
3-4

Estimation of feed temperature, 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑦𝑖 / 𝐾𝑖 = 1.0

By using the goal seek method in the excel program, with constant operating pressure at feed is
1.6 bar, the calculated temperature is 363K. The data shown in Table 3.3:

Table 3.3: Calculation of Bubble Point at Feed Stream

O.P
COMPONENT ln Pi Pi (kPa) Xi Ki Yi=KiXi
(kPa)
1-Propanol 5.19 179.42 0.9768 182 0.99 0.962939

Water 5.07 159.48 0.0085 182 0.88 0.007448

Propanal 6.54 692.20 0.0055 182 3.80 0.020918

Dipropyl Ether 5.23 186.62 0.0092 182 1.03 0.009434

TOTAL 1.00000

Hence, the bubble point temperature is 386.36 K

By using the goal seek method in the excel program, with constant operating pressure at top is
0.5 bar, the calculated temperature is 60K. The data shown in Table 3.4:

Dew Point Temperature (top column) 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑦𝑖 / 𝐾𝑖 = 1.0

Table 3.4: Calculation of Dew Point at Top Column

O.P
COMPONENT ln Pi Pi (kPa) Yi Ki Xi=Yi/Ki
(kPa)
1-Propanol 3.59 36.41 0.4853 50 0.73 0.67

Water 3.54 34.59 0.1817 50 0.69 0.26

Propanal 5.44 231.56 0.3068 50 4.63 0.07

Dipropyl Ether 4.01 55.25 0.0047 50 1.10 0.004

TOTAL 1
3-5

Hence, the dew point temperature is 345.56 K

By using the goal seek method in the excel program, with constant operating pressure at bottom
is 1.6 bar, the calculated temperature is 376K. The data shown in Table 3.5:

Bubble Point Temperature (bottom column) 𝑦𝑖 = 𝐾𝑖 𝑥𝑖 = 1.0

Table 3.5: Calculation of Bubble Point at Bottom Column

O.P
COMPONENT ln Pi Pi (kPa) Xi Ki Yi=KiXi
(kPa)
1-Propanol 4.69 108.95 0.9815 110 0.99 0.97

Water 4.59 98.45 0.0068 110 0.89 0.01

Propanal 6.20 490.93 0.0026 110 4.46 0.01

Dipropyl Ether 4.85 127.18 0.0091 110 1.16 0.01

TOTAL 1

Hence, the bubble point temperature is 372.33 K

3.2.3 Determination of Relative Volatility

The equilibrium vaporization constant K is defined for a compound by

𝑌𝑖
𝐾𝑖 = (3.5)
𝑋𝑖

Where, Yi = mole fraction of component i in vapour phase


Xi = mole fraction of component i in liquid phase

The relative volatility, α which is needed in the calculation is defined as


𝐾𝑖
𝛼𝑖𝑗 = (3.6)
𝐾𝑗
3-6

Where i and j represent the components to be separated


From Ideal system, Raoult’s law,

Pi = PiXi (3.7)

The relative volatility of two components can be expressed as the ratio of their K value,
𝐾𝐿𝐾
𝛼𝑖𝑗 = (3.8)
𝐾𝐻𝐾
Where, KLK = Light key components
KHK = Heavy key components

3.2.3.1 Top Column

Table 3.6

𝑲
COMPONENT K 𝜶=
𝑲𝑯𝑲

1-Propanol 0.7300 0.6636

Water 0.6900 0.6273

Propanal 4.6300 4.2091

DPE 1.1000 1.0000

3.2.3.2 Bottom Column

Table 3.7

𝑲
COMPONENT K 𝜶=
𝑲𝑯𝑲

1-Propanol 0.9900 0.8534

Water 0.8900 0.7672

Propanal 4.4600 3.8448


3-7

DPE 1.1600 1.0000

Average relative volatility of the light key to heavy key;

αLK = Top α (Bottom α)

= 0.6636 (0.8534)

= 0.753

3.2.4 Minimum Number of Stages Using Fenske’s Equation

The Fenske’s Equation (1932) can be used to estimate the minimum stages required at total
reflux. The derivation of the equation for binary system and applies equally to multi-component
system. The minimum number of stages will be obtained from this equation:

X X
Log[(X LK )]d [( XHK )]b
HK LK
Nmin = (3.9)
Log αLK

0.73 0.0091
Log[( 1.1 )]d [( )]
= 0.9815 b
Log 0.753

= 17.94

= 20 stages

3.2.5 Minimum Reflux Ratio

Colburn (1941) and Underwood (1948) have derived equations for estimating the minimum
reflux ratio for multicomponent distillations. The equation can be stated in the form:

𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝑖,𝑑
= 𝑅𝑚 + 1 (3.10)
𝛼𝑖 − 𝜃
3-8

Where,

αi = the relative volatility of component i with respect to some reference


component, usually the heavy key

Rm = the minimum reflux ratio

Xi,d = concentration of component i in the tops at minimum reflux

and θ is the root of the equation:

𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝑖,𝑓
=1−𝑞 (3.11)
𝛼𝑖 − 𝜃

Where,

Xi,f = the concentration of component i in the feed, and q depends on the


condition of the feed

The value of θ must lie between the values of relative volatility of the light and heavy keys and is
found by trial and error.

As the feed at its boiling point q = 1

𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝑖,𝑓
=0
𝛼𝑖 − 𝜃

Table 3.8

Component Xi,f αi αiXi,f θ estimate (αiXi,f)/(αi - θ)

1-Propanol 0.9768 0.7600 0.7424 3.9 -0.2364

Water 0.0085 0.7000 0.0060 3.9 -0.0019

Propanal 0.0055 4.0300 0.0222 3.9 0.1705

DPE 0.0092 1.0000 0.0092 3.9 -0.0032

3.9 -0.07

Therefore, θ = 3.9
3-9

Table 3.9

Component Xi,d αi αiXi,d θ estimate (αiXi,d)/(αi - θ)

1-Propanol 0.4853 0.76 0.3688 3.9 -0.1175

Water 0.1817 0.7 0.1272 3.9 -0.0397

Propanal 0.3068 4.03 1.2364 3.9 9.5108

DPE 0.0047 1 0.0047 3.9 -0.0016

3.9 9.35

Taking equation 3.10,

Rm + 1 = 9.35

Rm = 8.35

𝑅𝑚
= 0.8931
𝑅𝑚 + 1

Specimen calculation, for R = 2.0

𝑅 2
= = 0.66
(𝑅 + 1) 3

Using Erbar – Maddox correlation (Erbar and Maddox, 1961) from figure 11.11 (Coulson and
Richardson, Volume 6, page 524),

𝑁𝑚
= 0.74
𝑁

18
N=
0.74

= 24.3

For other reflux ratios

2 3 4 5
R
24.3 21.43 20.69 20.22
N
3-10

The optimum reflux ratio will be near to 4. Therefore, the optimum reflux ratio will be taken as 4
while the actual stage is 21.

3.2.6 Feed Point Location

Feed point location can be found using Kirkbride (1944) equation:

2
𝑁𝑟 𝐵 𝑥𝑓,𝐻𝐾 x𝑏,𝐿𝐾
𝐿𝑜𝑔 = 0.2606 log (3.10)
𝑁𝑠 𝐷 𝑥𝑓,𝐿𝐾 x𝑑,𝐻𝐾

Where,

Nr = no. of stages above the feed, including any partial condenser

Ns = no. of stages below the feed, including the reboiler

B = molar flow bottom product

D = molar flow top product

Xf,HK = concentration of the heavy key in the feed

Xf,LK = concentration of the light key in the feed

Xd,HK = concentration of the heavy key in the top product

Xb,HK = concentration of the heavy key in the bottom product

2
𝑁𝑟 2.531 0.0092 0.395
𝐿𝑜𝑔 = 0.2606 log
𝑁𝑠 261.5 0.9768 0.00382

𝑁𝑟
= 0.993
𝑁𝑠

Actual number of plates is 24

Nr + Ns = 24

0.993Ns + Ns = 24

1.993Ns =9
3-11

Nr = 15

So, feed inlet is at stage 9 from bottom.

3.2.7 Efficiency of Distillation Column

Overall column efficiency is given as:

𝐸˳ = 51 − 32.5 log (µ𝑎 𝜍𝑎 ) (3.11)

Where,

µ𝑎 = the molar average liquid viscosity, mNs/m2

𝜍𝑎 = average relative volatility of the light key

To find the viscosity of the flow:

1 1
𝐿𝑂𝐺 µ𝑎 = 𝑉𝑖𝑠𝐴 𝑥 − (3.12)
𝑇 𝑉𝑖𝑠𝐵

Table 3.8 Viscosity of the mixture

Viscosity
Mole fraction Coefficient Viscosity
Component Log µ𝒂 µ𝒂 × 𝒙
feed, x (mNs/m2)
A B

1-Propanol 0.9768 951.04 327.83 -0.32859 0.46926 0.4584

Water 0.0085 658.25 283.16 -0.54418 0.28564 0.0024

Propanal 0.0055 343.44 219.33 -0.63690 0.23073 0.0013

DPE 0.0092 410.58 219.67 -0.75852 0.17438 0.0016

TOTAL 1.16 0.4637

Where,

𝐸˳ = 51 − 32.5 log (µ𝑎 𝜍𝑎 )


3-12

= 51 – 32.5 log (0.463674405 x 0.787)

= 55.44 %

Plate and overall column efficiencies will normally be between 30% to 70%. (Coulson and
Richardson’s, volume 6, page 547)

3.2.8 Physical Properties

3.2.8.1 Relative Molar Mass (RMM)

RMM = ∑ (component mole fraction x molecular weight) (3.13)

Table 3.9 Liquid Density


Molecular Mole Fraction Liquid Density
Component
Weight Feed Distillate Bottom (kg/m3)

1-Propanol 60.1 0.9768 0.4853 0.9815 803.4

Water 18.015 0.0085 0.1817 0.0068 1000

Propanal 58.08 0.0055 0.3068 0.0026 810

DPE 102.18 0.0092 0.0047 0.0091 725

Feed, F = 0.9768 (60.1) + 0.0085 (18.015) + 0.0055 (58.08) + 0.0092 (102.18)

= 60.118 kg/kmol

Distillate, D = 0.4853 (60.1) + 0.1817 (18.015) + 0.3068 (58.08) + 0.0047 (102.18)

= 50.739 kg/kmol

Bottom, B = 0.9815 (60.1) + 0.0068 (18.015) + 0.0026 (58.08) + 0.0091 (102.18)

= 60.191 kg/kmol
3-13

3.2.8.2 Density

Top Product :

ρL = 𝑥𝐵,𝑖 𝜌𝑖 (3.14)

ρL = 0.4835(803.4) + 0.1817(100) + 0.3068(810) + 0.0047(725)

= 823.51 kg/m3

𝑅𝑀𝑀 𝐵 𝑇𝑆𝑇𝑃 𝑃𝑂𝑃


ρv = 𝑥 𝑥 (3.15)
𝑉𝑆𝑇𝑃 𝑇𝑂𝑃 𝑃𝑆𝑇𝑃

29.167 𝑘𝑔/𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 273𝐾 1𝑏𝑎𝑟


ρv = 𝑥 𝑥
22.4𝑚 3 /𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 357.21𝐾 1𝑏𝑎𝑟

= 1.731 kg/m3

Bottom Product:

ρL = 𝑥𝐷,𝑖 𝜌𝑖 (4.16)

ρL = 0.9815(803.4) + 0.0068(100) +0.0026(810) + 0.0091(725)

= 804.04 kg/m3

𝑅𝑀𝑀 𝐷 𝑇𝑆𝑇𝑃 𝑃𝑂𝑃


ρv = 𝑥 𝑥 (4.17)
𝑉𝑆𝑇𝑃 𝑇𝑂𝑃 𝑃𝑆𝑇𝑃

58.988𝑘𝑔 /𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 273𝐾 1.6𝑏𝑎𝑟


ρv = 𝑥 𝑥
22.4𝑚 3 /𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 382.2𝐾 1𝑏𝑎𝑟

= 3.071 kg/m3

3.2.8.3 Surface Tension, σ

Using Sugden (1924), equation 8.23 (Coulson and Richardson’s, volume 6, page 335)

4
𝑃𝑐𝑕(𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑣
𝜍= 𝑥 10−12 (3.18)
𝑀
3-14

Where,

σ = surface tension, MJ/m2 or (dyne/cm)

Pch = Sugden’s parachor

ρv = Vapor density, kg/m3

ρL = Liquid density, kg/m3

M = relative molecular weight

For mixture, σm = σ1x1 + σ2x2 + ….. (3.19)

Where,

σm = surface tension mixture

σ1 , σ2 = surface tension for mixture

x1 , x2 = component mole fraction

Table 3.10 Pch Distribution


Mole Fraction
Pch
Component
Distribution Distillate Bottom

1-Propanol 148.3 0.4853 0.9815

Water 31.3 0.1817 0.0068

Propanal 165.4 0.3068 0.0026

DPE 299.5 0.0047 0.0091

Pch at top = 𝑥𝐷,𝑖 𝑃𝑐𝑕𝑖

= 0.4853 (148.3) + 0.1817 (31.3) + 0.3068 (165.4) + 0.0047 (299.5)


3-15

= 177.28097

Pch at bottom = 𝑥𝐵,𝑖 𝑃𝑐𝑕𝑖

= 0.9815 (148.3) + 0.0068 (31.3) + 0.0026 (165.4) + 00.0091 (299.5)

= 148.30792

Calculation of surface tension:

65.01 969.64−4.928 4
Top Column, 𝜍 = 𝑥 10−12
21.98

= 67.965683 N/m

59.04 1019.01− 0.325 4


Bottom Column, 𝜍 = 𝑥 10−12
20.04

= 15.27159545 N/m

Above feed point:

Vapor flow rate: Vn = D(R + 1) (3.20)

Where,

D = Distillate molar flowrate

R = Reflux ratio

Hence,

Vn = 261.5 (2.531 + 1)

= 923.36 kmole/hr

Liquid down flow: Ln = Vn – D (3.21)

= 923.36 – 261.5
3-16

= 661.86 kmole/hr

Below the feed point:

Liquid flow rate: Lm = Ln + F (3.22)

Where,

F = Feed molar flowrate

Hence,

Lm = 661.86 + 264.1

= 925.96kmole/hr

Vapour flow rate: Vm = Lm – W (3.23)

Where,

W = Bottom molar flowrate

Hence,

Vm = 925.96 – 261.5

= 664.46kmole/hr

The equation for the operating lines below the feed plate:

𝐿𝑚 𝑊
𝑌𝑚 = 𝑋𝑚 + 1 − 𝑋𝑤 (3.24)
𝑉𝑚 𝑉𝑚

925.96 261.5
𝑌𝑚 = 𝑋𝑚 + 1 − (𝑋𝑤)
664.46 664.46

261.5
= 2.058(Xm + 1) – 664.46
(𝑋𝑤)

The equation for the operating lines above the feed plate:

𝐿𝑛 𝐷
𝑌𝑛 = 𝑋𝑛 + 1 − 𝑋𝑑 (3.25)
𝑉𝑛 𝑉𝑛
3-17

661.86 261.5
𝑌𝑛 = 𝑋𝑛 + 1 − 𝑋𝑑
923.36 923.36

= 0.72 (Xn + 1) – 2.01 x 10-3

𝐿𝑛 𝜌𝑉
𝐹𝐿𝑉 𝑇𝑜𝑝 = (3.26)
𝑉𝑛 𝜌𝐿

1.731
= 0.72
823.51

= 0.033

where 0.72 is the slope of the top operating line.

𝐿𝑚 𝜌𝑉
𝐹𝐿𝑉 𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 = (3.27)
𝑉𝑚 𝜌𝐿

3.071
= 1.39
804.04

= 0.09

where 1.39 is the slope of the bottom operating line.

3.2.9 Determination of Plate Spacing

The overall height of the column will depend on the plate spacing. Plate spacing from 0.15m to
1.0m are normally used. The spacing chosen will depend on the column diameter and the
operating condition. Close spacing is used with small - diameter columns, and where head room
is restricted, as it will be when a column is installed in a building. In this distillation column, the
plate spacing is 0.5m as it is normally taken as the initial estimate recommended by Coulson
and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6.
3-18

The principal factor that determines the column diameter is the vapor flowrate. The
vapor velocity must be below that which would cause excessive liquid entrainment or high-
pressure drop. The equation below which is based on the Souder and Brown equation,
Lowenstein (1961), Coulson & Richarson’s Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 556, can be
used to estimate the maximum allowable superficial velocity, and hence the column area and
diameter of the distillation column.

𝜌𝐿 − 𝜌𝑣 0.5
𝑈𝑣 = −0.171𝑙𝑡 2 + 0.271𝑙𝑡 − 0.047 (3.28)
𝜌𝑣

0.5
969.64 − 4.928
= −0.171(0.5)2 + 0.271(0.5) − 0.047
4.928

= 2.8173 m/s

Where,

Uv = maximum allowable vapor velocity based on the gross (total) column cross

Sectional area, m/s

lt = plate spacing, m (range: 0.5 – 1.5)

3.2.9.1 Diameter of the column

4𝑉𝑤
𝐷𝑐 = (3.29)
𝜋𝜌𝑣 𝑈𝑣

Where Vw is the maximum vapor rate, kg/s

15870 𝑘𝑔 1 𝑕𝑟
𝑉𝑤 = 𝑥
𝑕𝑟 3600 𝑠

= 4.41 kg/s
3-19

4(4.41)
𝐷𝑐 =
𝜋 4.928 (0.64)

= 1.33 m

3.2.9.2 Column Area

The column area can be calculated from the calculated internal column diameter

𝜋 𝐷𝑐 2
𝐴𝑐 = (3.30)
4
𝜋 (1.33)2
=
4

= 1.39 m2

4.2.10 Liquid Flow Arrangement

Before deciding liquid flow arrangement, maximum volumetric liquid rate were determined by
the value of maximum volumetric rate

15740 𝑘𝑔 1 𝑕𝑟
𝐿= 𝑥 (3.31)
𝑕𝑟 3600 𝑠

4.372 𝑘𝑔 𝑚3
= 𝑥
𝑠 804.04 𝑘𝑔

= 5.38 x 10-3

Dc = 1.128 m

Based in the values of maximum volumetric flow rate and the column diameter to Figure
11.28 from Coulson and Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 568, the types of
liquid flow rate could be considered as single pass.
3-20

Perforated plate, which is famously known as sieve tray is the simplest type of cross-flow
plate. Cross flow trays are the most common used and least expensive. Sieve tray is chosen
because it is consider cheaper and simpler contacting devices. The perforated trays enable
designs with confident prediction of performance. According, most new designs today specify
some type of perforated tray (sieve tray) instead of the traditional bubble-cap tray. Sieve tray
also gives the lowest pressure drop.

3.2.11 Plate Design

Column diameter, Dc = 1.33 m

Column area, Ac = 1.39 m2

As a first trial, take the downcomer area as 12% of the total

Downcomer area, Ad = 0.12 Ac (3.32)

= 0.12 x 1.39 m2 = 0.1668 m2

Net area, An = Ac - Ad (3.33)

= 1.39 m2 - 0.1668 m2

= 1.2232 m2

Active area, Aa = Ac – 2Ad (3.34)

= 1.39 m2 – 2(0.1668 m2)

= 1.0564 m2

Assume that the hole-active area is 10%

Hole area, Ah = 0.10 Aa (3.35)

= 0.10 x 1.0564 m2

= 0.10564m2
3-21

3.2.11.1 Weir Length

With segmental downcomers the length of the weir fixes the area of the downcomer. The chord
length will normally be between 0.6 to 0.85 of the column diameter. A good initial value to use is
0.77, equivalent to a downcomer area of 15%.

Referring to Figure 11.31 from Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6,
page 572, with (Ad/Ac) x 100 is 12 percents, thus, Iw/Dc is 0.76

Weir length, Iw = 0.76Dc

= 0.76 x 1.33 m

= 1.011 m

3.2.11.2 Weir Height

For column operating above atmospheric pressure, the weir-heights will normally be between 40
mm to 90 mm (1.5 to 3.5 in); 40 to 50 mm is recommended.

Take Weir height, hw = 50 mm

Hole diameter, dh = 5 mm (preferred size)

Plate thickness, t = 3 mm (stainless steel)

For hole diameter = 5 mm, area of one hole,

𝜋(𝑑𝑕 )2
𝐴𝑙𝑕 = (3.36)
4

𝜋(0.005)2
=
4

= 1.9635 x 10-5 m2
3-22

Number of holes per plate,

𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎
𝑁𝑕 = (3.37)
1 𝑕𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎
0.10564
=
1.9635 𝑥 10−5

= 5380.19 holes

≈ 5380 holes

3.2.11.3 Weir Liquid Crest

Check weeping to ensure enough vapour to prevent liquid flow through hole.

15740𝑘𝑔 1 𝑕𝑟
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 𝑥
𝑕𝑟 3600 𝑠

= 4.372 kg/s

Minimum liquid rate, at 70% turndown

= 0.7 x 4.372 kg/s

= 3.06 kg/s

The weir liquid can be determine by using the equation below

2
𝐿𝑤 3
𝑕𝑜𝑤 = 750 (3.38)
𝜌𝐿 𝐼𝑤

Where,

Iw = weir length, m

Lw = liquid flow rate, kg/s

ρL = liquid density, kg/m3


3-23

how = weir crest, mm liquid

At maximum rate:

2
4.372 3
𝑕𝑜𝑤 = 750
804.04 𝑥 1.011

= 20.40 mm liquid

At minimum rate:

2
3.06 3
𝑕𝑜𝑤 = 750
1019.01 𝑥 0.85728

= 18.15 mm liquid

At minimum rate, clear liquid depth,

how + hw = 18.15 + 50

= 68.15 mm liquid

From Figure 11.30, in Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 571,
weep point correlation, K2 = 30.7

3.2.11.4 Weep Point

The purpose to calculate this weep point is to know the lower limit of the operating range ccurs
when liquid leakage through the plate holes becomes excessive. During weeping, a minor
fraction of liquid flows to the tray below through the tray perforations rather than the downcomer.
This downward-flowing liquid typically has been exposed to rising vapor; so, weeping only leads
to a small reduction in overall tray efficiency, to a level rarely worse than the tray point
efficiency. Minimum vapor velocity through the holes based on the holes area.
3-24

𝐾2 − 0.9(25.4 − 𝑑𝑕 )
𝑈𝑕 (min) = 1 (3.39)
𝜌𝑣 2

Where,

Uh = minimum vapor velocity, m/s

dh = hole diameter, mm

K2 = constant

30.7 − 0.9(25.4 − 5)
= 1
(3.071)2

= 8.036 m/s

𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒


𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = (3.40)
𝐴𝑕

4.41 𝑘𝑔 𝑚3
𝑥 0.7 𝑥
𝑠 3.071𝑘𝑔
=
0.10564

= 9.51 m/s

So, minimum operating rate will be above weep point.

3.2.12 Plate Pressure Drop

Maximum vapor velocity through holes:

𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒


Û𝑕 = (3.41)
𝐴𝑕
3-25

4.41 𝑘𝑔 𝑚3
𝑠 𝑥
3.071 𝑘𝑔
=
0.10564

= 13.59 m/s

From Figure 11.34 in Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 576,
for discharge coefficient for sieve plate,

𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑡𝑕𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 3 𝑚𝑚
𝐴𝑡, = = 0.6
𝑕𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 5 𝑚𝑚

𝐴𝑕
𝑎𝑛𝑑 = 0.1
𝐴𝑎

we get Co = 0.74

2
𝑈𝑕 𝜌𝑣
𝐷𝑟𝑦 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑕𝑑 = 51 (3.42)
𝐶𝑜 𝜌𝐿

2
13.59 3.071
= 51
0.74 804.04

= 65.697 mm liquid

12.5 𝑥 103
𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑑, 𝑕𝑟 = (3.43)
𝜌𝐿

12.5 𝑥 103
=
804.04

= 15.55 mm liquid

Pressure drop per plate, ht = hd + (hw + how) + hr (3.44)

= 65.697 + (50 + 18.15) + 15.55

= 149.397 mm liquid
3-26

3.2.13 Downcomer Liquid Back-Up

The downcomer area and plate spacing must be such that the level of the liquid and froth in the
downcomer is well below the top of the outlet weir on the plate above. If the level rises above
the outlet weir the column will flood.

Take hap = hw – 10 mm

= 50 – 10

= 40 mm

Where, hap = height of the bottom edge of the apron above the plate

2
𝐿𝑤𝑑
𝑕𝑑𝑐 = 166 (3.45)
𝜌𝐿 𝐴𝑚

Where,

Lwd = liquid flowrate in downcomer, kg/s

Am = either the downcomer area, Ad or the clearance area under the downcomer, Aap

whichever is smaller, m2

Area under apron,

Aap = hap x Iw (3.46)

= 0.04 m x 1.011

= 0.04044 m2

Where, Aap = the clearance area under downcomer

As this less than Ad = 0.1668 m2, equation 11.92 (Coulson and Richardson’s, Volume 6, page
577) used Aap = 0.04044 m2
3-27

2
4.372
𝑕𝑑𝑐 = 166
804.04 𝑥 0.04044

= 3.00 mm

3.2.14 Backup on Downcomer

hb = (hw + how) + ht + hdc (3.47)

= (50 + 18.15) +149.397 +3.00

= 220.547 mm

hb < ½(plate spacing + weir height)

0.2205 m < ½(0.5 + 0.05) m

0.2205 m <0.5 m

So, tray spacing = 0.5 m is acceptable (to avoid flooding).

3.2.15 Residence Time

Sufficient residence time must be allowed in the downcomer for the entrained vapor to
disengage from the liquid stream, to prevent heavily “aerated” liquid being carried under the
downcomer. A time at least 3 seconds is recommended.

𝐴𝑑 𝑕𝑏𝑐 𝜌𝐿
𝑡𝑟 = (3.48)
𝐿𝑤𝑑

Where,

tr = residence time, s

Lwd = liquid flowrate in downcomer, kg/s

hbc = clear liquid back up in the downcomer, m


3-28

0.1668 𝑥 0.2205𝑥 804.04


𝑡𝑟 =
4.372

= 6.764 s

tr is greater than 3.0 which is recommended so tr is satisfactory.

3.2.16 Perforated Area

From Figure 11.32, Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 527, for
the relaxation between angle subtended by chord, chord height and chord length:

Iw/Dc = 1.011/1.33

= 0.76

θ = 98°

Ih/Dc = 0.18

Angle subtended at plate edge by unperforated strips

= 180° - 98°

= 82°

Mean length, unperforated edge strips

= (Dc – weir height) x π x θ/180°

= (1.33 – 0.05) x π x 82°/180°

= 1.832 m

Areas of unperforated edge strips, As

= mean length unperforated edge x weir height

= 1.832 x 0.05

= 0.0916 m2
3-29

Mean length of calming zone = Weir length + Width of unperforated strip

= 1.011 + 0.05

= 1.061 m

Area of calming zone = 2 x (weir height x mean length calming zone)

= 2 x 0.05 x 1.061

= 0.1061 m2

Total area available for perforation, Ap :

= Active area – (area of unperforated edge + area of calming)

= 1.0564 – (0.0916 + 0.1061)

= 0.8587 m2

Ah/Ap = 1.0564/0.8587

= 0.123

From Figure 11.33, Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 528, the
relation between hole area and pitch,

Ip/dh = 2.7; satisfactory, which is within 2.5 to 4.0

3.2.17 Column Size

The column height will be calculated based on the given below. The equation determines the
height of the column without taking the skirt or any support into consideration. Its determination
is based on the condition in the column.

Column height = (No. of stages – 1) x (Tray spacing ) + (Tray spacing x 2) + (No. of stages – 1)
3-30

x (Plate thickness)

= (24 – 1)(0.5) + (24 – 1)(0.003)

= 11.57 m

By adding 10% safety factor so the column height are 12.7 m ≈ 13 m

3.2.18 Plate Design Specification

Table 3.10 Summary of Plate Design


Item Value
Column Diameter, Dc 1.33 m
No. of Plates 24 plates
Plate Spacing 0.5 m
No. of Stage Feed from bottom, F1 9
No. of Stage Solvent from bottom, F2 24
Plate Thickness 0.003 m
Total Column Height, Ht 13 m
Plate Material Stainless Steel
Downcomer Area, Ad 0.1668 m2
Column Area, Ac 1.39 m2
Net Area, An 1.2232 m2
Active Area, Aa 0.10564 m2
Hole Area, Ah 0.010564 m2
No. of Holes 5380 units
Weir Length, Iw 1.011 m
Weir Height (standard) 0.05 m
3-31

3.3 Mechanical Design

3.3.1 Introduction

Several factors need to be considered in the mechanical design of distillation column such as

1. Design pressure
2. Design temperature
3. Material of construction
4. Design stress
5. Wall thickness
6. Welded joint efficiency
7. Analysis of stresses
a. Dead weight load
b. Wind load
c. Pressure stress
d. Bending stress
8. Vessel support
9. Insulation

3.3.2 Column Design Specification


Operating pressure = (1.82 – 1) bar
= 0.82 bar

Take as 10% above operating pressure


Design pressure = 0.82 x 1.1
=0.902 bar
= 0.0902 N/mm2

Design temperature = 113.36°C

Take as 10% above operating temperature


Operating temperature = 113.36 x 1.1
= 124.694°C
3-32

3.3.3 Material of Constructions


Selection of suitable material must be taking onto account the suitability of material for
fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with the process
environment. In this case, the material used in the construction of the distillation column is
carbon steel as the material as it is the most used material in industry. For this material, the
design stress at 150°C is obtained from Table 13.2 for the typical design stresses for plate.

Design stress, f = 115 N/mm2


Tensile strength = 360 N/mm2
Join factor =1
Diameter vessel, D = 1330 mm
Operating pressure = 0.0902 N/mm2
Insulation, mineral wool = 75 mm thick

3.3.4 Vessel Thickness


The minimum thickness of column required and other designs are calculated based on equation
below:

𝑃𝑖 𝐷𝑖
ℯ= 3.49
2𝐽𝑓 − 𝑃𝑖

Where,
e = minimum thickness of the plate required
Pi = internal pressure, N/mm2
Di = internal diameter, m
f = design stress, N/mm2
J = joint factor

Therefore, minimum thickness required,


0.0902 𝑥 1330
ℯ=
2 1 (115) − 0.0902
= 0.522 mm
≈ 0.6 mm
3-33

A much thicker wall is needed at the column base to withstand the wind and dead weight loads.
As a first trial, divide the column into five sections, with the thickness increasing by 2 mm per
section. Try 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mm. The average wall thickness is 5 mm. Take the first trial as 5
mm.

3.3.5 Heads and Closure


Hemispherical, ellipsoidal and torispherical heads are collectively referred to as domed heads.
They are formed by pressing or spinning, large diameters are fabricated from formed sections.
Torispherical are often referred to as dished ends. After comparing the thickness of all heads,
torispherical head had been chosen because of operating pressure for this below 10 bars and
suitable for liquid vapor phase process in inconsistent high pressure. The thickness of
torispherical head can be calculated below:

𝑃𝑖 𝑅𝑐 𝐶𝑠
ℯ= 3.50
2𝐽𝑓 + 𝑃𝑖 (𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)

Where,
Rc = Crown radius = Dc
Rk = Knuckle radius = 0.06 Rc
= 0.06 x 1330
= 79.8 mm
Cs = Stress concentration
1 𝑅𝑐
= 3+
4 𝑅𝑘

1 1330
= 3+
4 79.8

= 1.77

0.0902 × 1330 × 1.77


ℯ= 3.51
2 1 (115) + 0.09(1.77 − 0.2)
= 0.923 mm

Round up to 2 mm
3-34

For welding purposes the thickness of head were taken as same thickness of the vessel, = 2
mm. It’s matching to joint factor were taken as 1.

3.3.6 Weight Loads


The major sources of the dead weight loads are:

1. The vessel shell


2. The vessel fittings: manhole, nozzles
3. Internal fitting: plates, heating cooling coils
4. External fittings: ladders, platforms, piping
5. Auxiliary equipment which is not self supported, condensers, agitators
6. Insulation
7. The weight of liquid to fill the vessel.

3.3.6.1 Dead Weight of Vessel


Dead weight of vessel can be calculated by using equation below:

Wv = 240 x Cv x Dm x (Hv + 0.8 Dm)t x 10-3 kN (3.52)

Where,

Wv = total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as plates


Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, man ways and internal supports.
(In this distillation column, take Cv as 1.15)
Dm = mean diameter of vessel
= (Dc + t) m
= (1.33 + 0.007)
= 1.337 m
Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m
t = wall thickness, m

Wv = 240 x 1.15 x 1.337(13.0 + 0.8(1.337)) x 0.007


= 36.34 kN
3-35

3.3.6.2 Weight of Plate, Wp


From Nelson Guide, page 833 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; take contacting plates, 1.2
kN/m2 (for typical liquid loading). The total of weight of plate determine by multiply the value with
number of plate design.

𝜋𝐷 2
𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 =
4
2
3.142 × 1.33
=
4
= 1.3895 𝑚2

Weight of plate = 1.2 x 1.3895


= 1.6674 kN

Where, 1.2 is factor for contacting plates including typical liquid loading in kN/m2

Thus, for 24 plates = 24 x 1.6674


= 40.017 kN

3.3.6.3 Weight of Insulations


The mineral wool was chosen as insulation material. By referring to Coulson & Richardson,
Chemical Engineering Design, Volume 6, page 833,

Density of mineral wool, ρ = 130 kg/m3


Thickness = 75 mm
= 0.075 m
Volume of insulation, Vi = π x Di x Hv x thickness of insulation
= (3.142)(1.33)(13.0)(0.075)
= 4.074 m3
Weight of insulation, Wi = Volume of insulation x ρ x g
= 4.074 x 130 x 9.81
= 5196.07 N
= 5.196 kN
Double this to allow for fittings, 10.392 kN
3-36

3.3.6.4 Total Weight


The total weight is the summation of dead weight of vessel, weight of accessories and weight of
insulation:

Total weight = Wv + W ρ + Wi (4.53)


= 36.34 + 40.017 + 10.392
= 86.749 kN

3.3.7 Wind Load


A wind loading must be designed to withstand the highest wind speed that is likely to encounter
at the site during the life of the plant. From the British Standard Code of Practice BS CP 3: 1972
“Basic Data for the Design of Buildings, Chapter V Loading: Part 2 Winds Load”, (Sinnot, 1999),
a wind speed of 160 km/h (100 mph) can be used for preliminary design. For cylindrical column,
semi-empirical equation can be used to estimate the wind pressure:

Pw = 0.05 x uw2 (3.54)

Where,
Pw = wind pressure, N/m2
uw = wind speed, km/h

Pw = 0.05 (160)2
= 1280 N/m2

Mean diameter, including insulation = Di + 2(t + tins)


= 1330 + 2(7 + 75)
= 1494 mm
= 1.494 m

Loading (per linear meter), Fw = PwDeff


= 1280 x 1.5
= 1920 N/m
3-37

𝐹𝑤 𝐻𝑣 2
𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡, 𝑀𝑥 =
2

1920 × 132
=
2
= 162240 Nm
= 162.24 kNm

3.3.8 Analysis of Stresses of Vessel

3.3.8.1 Pressure Stress


Thickness is taken as 9 mm as maximum.

1. Longitudinal stresses due to pressure is given by:

𝑝𝐼 𝐷𝑖
𝜍𝐿 = (3.55)
4𝑡
0.0902 × 1330
=
4 × 9
= 3.332 N/mm2

2. Circumferential stresses due to pressure are given by:

𝑝𝐼 𝐷𝑖
𝜍𝑕 = (3.56)
2𝑡
0.0902 × 1330
=
2 × 9
= 6.665 N/mm2

3.3.8.2 Dead Weight Stress


Dead weight stresses is significant for tall columns. This stress can be tensile for points below
the column support or compressive for points above the support. Dead weight stresses are
given by:

𝑊
𝜍𝑤 = (3.57)
𝜋 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡𝑖 𝑡
3-38

86749
=
𝜋 1330 + 9 × 9
= 2.29 N/mm2 (compressive)

3.3.8.3 Bending Stress


The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on location and are given by:

𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖
𝜍𝑏 = ± + 𝑡 (3.58)
𝐼𝑣 2

Where,
Mx = Total bending moment
Do = Outside diameter
= Di + 2t
= 1330 + 2(9)
= 1348 mm
Iv = Second moment area
𝜋
= 𝐷𝑜 4 − 𝐷𝑖 4 (3.59)
64
𝜋
= 13484 − 13304
64
= 1.358 x 1011 mm4

162240 1330
𝜍𝑏 = ± + 9
1.358 x 1011 2
= ± 8.052 x 10-4 N/mm2

3.3.8.4 The Resultant Longitudinal Stress


The resultant of longitudinal stress is the summation of longitudinal stresses, dead weight
stresses and bending stress.

𝜍𝑧 = 𝜍𝐿 + 𝜍𝑤 ± 𝜍𝑏 (3.60)
For upwind,
𝜍𝑧 = 3.332 + (−2.29) + 8.052 x 10
= 1.031 N/mm2
3-39

For downwind,
𝜍𝑧 = 3.332 + −2.29 − 8.052 𝑥 10−4
= 1.041 N/mm2

Therefore, the greatest difference between the principles stresses,


𝜍𝑧 = 𝜍𝑕 − 𝜍𝑧 𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑 (3.61)
= 6.665 − 1.041
= 5.624 N/mm2

The value obtained is well below the maximum allowable design stress which is 115 N/mm2

3.3.8.5 The Resultant Bulking Stress


Local bulking will normally occur at stress than that required buckling the complete. A column
design must be checked to ensure that the maximum value of the resultant axial stress does not
exceed the critical value at which buckling will occur.

t
Critical buckling stress, σc = 2 x 104 (3.62)
Do
9
= 2 x 104
1348
= 133.531 N/mm2

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure
𝜍𝑤 + 𝜍𝑏 = 2.29 + 8.052 x 10-4
= 2.291 N/mm2

Since the result of maximum compressive stress is below the critical buckling stress of 157.07
N/mm2. Thus, the design is satisfactory.

3.3.9 Vessel Support Design


The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and weight of the vessel;
the design temperature and pressure, the vessel location and arrangement; and the internal and
external fittings and attachment. Since the distillation column is a vertical vessel, skirt support is
used in this design.
3-40

A skirt support consists of a cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of the vessel. A
flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations. The skirt may be welded
to the bottom, level of the vessel. Skirt supports are recommended for vertical vessels as they
do not imposed concentrated loads on the vessel shells; they are particularly suitable for use
with tall columns subject to wind loading.

Type of support = Straight cylindrical skirt


Θs = 90°
Material of construction = Carbon Steel
Design stress, f = 115 N/mm2
Young’s modulus = 200,000 N/mm2
Skirt height, hs =4m
Skirt thickness, ts = 9 mm
Joint factor = 0.85

3.3.9.1 Weight of the Skirt


Approximate weight, W approx = (π/4 x Di2 x Hv) x ρL x 9.81
= (π/4 x 1.332 x 13) x 804.04 x 9.81
= 91 492 N
= 91.492 kN

Weight of vessel, W = 86.749 kN

Total weight = 91 492 kN + 86.749 kN


= 178.241 kN

3.3.9.2 Analysis of Stresses of Skirt

1. Bending moment of skirt, Ms


Bending moment at base skirt, Ms = 0.5 x Fw(Hv + Hs)2 (3.63)
2
= 0.5 x 1.92(13 + 4)
= 277.44 kNm
3-41

2. Bending stress of skirt, σbs


4 𝑀𝑠
𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑘𝑖𝑟𝑡, 𝜍𝑏𝑠 = (3.64)
𝜋 𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 × 𝐷𝑠 𝑡𝑠
4 × 162.24 × 103 × 103
=
𝜋 1330 + 9 × 1330 × 9
= 12.888 N/mm2

3. Dead weight stress in skirt, σws


𝑊𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑥
𝜍𝑤𝑠 𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑡 = (3.65)
𝜋 𝑡𝑠 (𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 )
152092.43
=
𝜋 × 9(1128 + 9)
= 4.731 N/mm2

𝑊
𝜍𝑤𝑠 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 = (3.66)
𝜋𝑡𝑠 (𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 )
84749
=
𝜋 × 9(1330 + 9)
= 2.291 N/mm2

4. Resultant stress in skirt, σs


Maximum σs (tensile) = σbs + σws test (3.67)
= 12.888 + 2.416
= 15.304 N/mm2

Maximum σs (compressive) = σbs - σws operating (4.68)


= 12.888 – 2.291
= 15.179 N/mm2

5. Criteria for Design


Take the joint factor, J as 0.85
Where θs = 90°

σs (tensile) < fs J sin θs


15.304 N/mm2 < 115 x 0.85 sin 90°
3-42

15.304 N/mm2 < 97.75 N/mm2


σs (compressive) < 0.125 E(ts/Ds) sin θs
2
15.179 N/mm < 0.125 x 200000(9/1330) sin 90°
2
15.179 N/mm < 169.17 N/mm2

Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion; gives a design thickness, ts of 11 mm.

The type of this equipment is assumed to be completely satisfactory thus the corrosion rate is
0.25 mm/y. Since the operation of this equipment is assumed to be operated for 20 years, thus
the corrosion rate will be added:

0.25 mm/y x 20 = 5 mm

The design thickness must be added with the corrosion rate, gives actual design thickness, ts of
16 mm.

3.3.9.3 Base Ring and Anchor Bolts


The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the skirt base ring
(bearing plate). The moment produced by wind and other lateral will tend to overturn vessel. A
variety of base ring designs is used with skirt supports. The simplest types, suitable for small
vessel, are rolled angle. The preliminary design of base ring is done by using Scheiman’s short
cut method. Scheiman gives the following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the
anchor bolts.

Refer to Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 848.

1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm diameter should not be used.


2. Minimum number of bolts = 8
3. Use multiple of 4 bolts
4. Bolts pitch should not be less than 600 mm

Pitch circle diameter, Db = 3.2 m


Circumference of bolt circle = 2200π
Closest multiple of 4, Nb = 16 bolts
3-43

Bolt design stress, fb = 125 N/mm2 (Scheiman, 1963)


Fw = 1920 N/m
Ms = 162.24 kNm
Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing
= Circumference of bolt circle / 600
= 2200π / 600
= 11.52
≈ 12 bolts

𝜋 × 3.2 × 103
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔 = = 773.32 𝑚𝑚 (𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑦)
13

1 4 𝑀𝑠
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎, 𝐴𝑏 = × − 𝑊 (3.69)
𝑁𝑏 𝑓𝑏 𝐷𝑏
1 4 × 162240
= × − 86749
13 𝑥 125 3.2
= 71.416mm2

Use M24 bolts (BS 4190:1967) root area = 353 mm2

4𝐴𝑏
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑟𝑜𝑜𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = (3.70)
𝜋

71.416 × 4
=
𝜋

= 9.536 mm

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length:


4𝑀𝑠 𝑊
𝐹𝑏 = 2 + (3.71)
𝜋𝐷𝑠 𝜋𝐷𝑠

Where,
Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, Newtons per linear metre
Ds = skirt diameter, m
3-44

4 × 162240 86749
𝐹𝑏 = 2
+
𝜋 × 3.0 𝜋 × 3.0
= 32.157 kN/m

The minimum width of the base ring:


𝐹𝑏 1
𝐿𝑏 = 𝑥 (3.72)
𝑓𝑐 103

Where,
Lb = base ring width, mm
fc = the maximum allowable bearing pressure in the concrete foundation pad, which will
depend on the mix sed, and will typically range from 3.5 to 7 N/mm2 (500 to 1000 psi)

32157 1
𝐿𝑏 = 𝑥
5 103
= 6.4314 mm

This is the minimum width required; actual width will depend on the chair design. Actual width
required (Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 849, figure 13.30)
= Lr + ts + 50 mm
= 76 + 16 + 50
= 142 mm

Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation,


32157
𝑓′𝑐 =
142 × 103
= 0.226 N/mm2

The minimum thickness is given by,

3 𝑓′𝑐
𝑡𝑏 = 𝐿𝑟 (3.73)
𝑓𝑟

Where,
Lr = the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring, mm
tb = base ring thickness, mm
3-45

f’c = actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm2


fr = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm2

3 × 0.226
𝑡𝑏 = 76
140

= 5.29 mm

The chair dimensions from figure 13.30 for bolt size M24.

Skirt is to be welded flush with outer diameter of column shell.

3.3.10 Design of Nozzles


There are three nozzles in the distillation column, which are nozzles in feed inlet, top product
outlet and bottom product outlet. By assuming that the flow of the pipe is turbulent flow,
therefore to determine the optimum duct diameter is:

Optimum duct diameter, dopt = 293 G0.53ρ-0.37 (3.74)

Where,
G = flowrate, kg/s
ρ = density, kg/m3

The material construction used for nozzles is carbon steel pipe.

3.3.10.1 Feed Stream

G = 1.587 x 104 kg/h


= 4.4083 kg/s
ρmix = 778.66 kg/m3
dopt = 293 (4.4083)0.53 (778.66)-0.37
= 54.77 mm
≈ 55 mm

𝑃𝑠 𝑑𝑜𝑝𝑡
𝑁𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒 𝑡𝑕𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠, 𝑡 = 3.75
20𝜍 + 𝑃𝑠
3-46

Where,
Ps = operating pressure
σ = design stress at working temperature

0.0902 × 54.77
𝑇𝑕𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑛𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒: 𝑡 =
20 125 + 0.0902
= 0.002 mm

So, the thickness of nozzle = corrosion allowance + 0.002


= 2 + 0.002
= 2.002 mm

3.3.10.2 Top Stream

G = 128.5 kg/h
= 0.0357 kg/s
ρmix = 1.709 kg/m3
dopt = 293 (0.0357)0.53 (1.709)-0.37
= 41.08 mm
≈ 41 mm

𝑃𝑠 𝑑𝑜𝑝𝑡
𝑁𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒 𝑡𝑕𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠, 𝑡 =
20𝜍 + 𝑃𝑠

0.0902 × 41.08
𝑇𝑕𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑛𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒: 𝑡 =
20 125 + 0.0902
= 0.00148 mm

So, the thickness of nozzle = corrosion allowance + 0.00148


= 2 + 0.00148
= 2.00148 mm
3-47

3.3.10.3 Bottom Stream

G = 1.574 x 104 kg/h


= 4.372 kg/s
ρmix = 695.2 kg/m3
dopt = 293 (4.372)0.53 (695.2)-0.37
= 56.88 mm
≈ 60 mm

𝑃𝑠 𝑑𝑜𝑝𝑡
𝑁𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒 𝑡𝑕𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠, 𝑡 =
20𝜍 + 𝑃𝑠

0.0902 × 56.88
𝑇𝑕𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑛𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒: 𝑡 =
20 125 + 0.0902
= 0.0021 mm

So, the thickness of nozzle = corrosion allowance + 0.0021


= 2 + 0.0021
= 2.0021 mm

3.3.11 Flange Design

The flange class number required for a particular duty will depend on the design pressure and
temperature and the flange material. The flange design is from the typical standard flange
design in Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 863, figure 13.37.

Table 3.12 The Summary of Flange Design

Feed Stream
Flange Raised face Drilling Boss
dopt d1 Bolting
D b H d4 f No d2 k d3
65 76.1 160 14 32 110 3 M12 4 14 130 100
3-48

Top Stream
Flange Raised face Drilling Boss
dopt d1 Bolting
D b H d4 f No d2 k d3
25 33.7 100 14 24 60 2 M10 4 11 75 50

Bottom Stream
Flange Raised face Drilling Boss
dopt d1 Bolting
D b H d4 f No d2 k d3
50 60.3 140 14 28 90 3 M12 4 14 110 80

3.3.12 Summary of Mechanical Design


Summary of design distillation column are shown in table below:

Table 3.13 The Summary of Mechanical Design


Pressure Vessel
Operating Pressure, Po 0.11 N/mm2
Design Pressure, P1 0.19 N/mm2
Operating Temperature 90 oC
Design Temperature 99 oC
Column Material Carbon Steel
Safety Factor 10%
Design Stress 115 N/mm2
Head and Closure
Types Torispherical Head
Crown Radius, Rc 1.128 m
Knuckle Radius, Rk 0.0677 m
Joint Factor, J 1
Cs 1.77
Minimum thickness, e 10 mm
Column Weight
Dead weight of Vessel, Wv 10.52 kN
Weight of Plates, W p 32.384 kN
3-49

Weight of Insulation, W i 5.424 kN


Total Weight, W t 53.752 kN
Wind Speed, Uw 160 km/h
Bending Moment, Mx 210.0429 kN/m
Insulation Material Mineral Wool
Insulation Thickness 75 mm
Skirt Support
Type of Support Straight Cylindrical Skirt
Material of Construction Carbon Steel
Young’s Modulus 200,000 N/mm2
Approximate Weight, W approx 152.092 kN
Total Weight 205.844 kN
Bending Moment, Mx 328.2 kNm
Skirt Thickness, ts 9 mm
Skirt Height, Hs 4m
Stiffness Ring
Critical Buckling Pressure for Ring, Pc 140 N/mm2
3-50

3.4 Costing for Distillation Column

The purchased cost of the equipment is calculated using equation below (Turton et al., Analysis,
Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processess, 3rd Edition, page 906):

log10 Cp° = K1 + K2 log10 (A) + K3 [log10 (A)]2 (1.0)

where,

A = capacity or size parameter for the equipment

K1, K2, K3 = constants in Table A.1 (Appendix A)

3.4.1 Process Vessels

Column height = 13 m; Column diameter = 1.33 m

Material of construction = carbon steel with stainless steel cladding

Volume = 𝜋𝐷 2 𝑕

= (3.142)(1.33)2(13)

= 72.25m3

From Table A.1 (Appendix A), K1 = 3.4974, K2 = 0.4485, K3 = 0.1074

log10 Cp° = 3.4974 + 0.4485 log10 (72.25) + 0.1074 [log10 (72.25)]2

= 4.73

Cp° = $ 53 751.28

Pressure factors for process vessels:

For pressure vessel, when t vessel  0.003m,


3-51

𝑃 +1 𝐷
+ 0.00315
2[850 − 0.6 𝑃 + 1 ]
𝐹𝑃,𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 = (2.0)
0.003

0.0902 + 1 (1.33)
+ 0.00315
2[850 − 0.6 0.0902 + 1 ]
𝐹𝑃,𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 =
0.003

𝐹𝑝,𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 = 8.96 × 10−4

The bare module factor for process vessel (Turton et al., Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of
Chemical Processess, 3rd Edition, page 927):

CBM = Cp°FBM = Cp°(B1 + B2FMFp) (3.0)

From Table A.4 (Appendix A), B1 = 2.25, B2 = 1.82

From Table A.3 (Appendix A), the identification number for carbon steel vertical process vessels
is 18.

Hence, from Figure A.18 (Appendix A), material factor, FM = 1.0

CBM = 53751.28 [2.25 + (1.82)(1.0)(8.96×10-4)]

= $ 121 028.03

Use correlation:

CEPCI for year of 2009 is 645.5

CEPCI for year of 2001 is 397

Therefore,
3-52

645.5
𝑛𝑒𝑤 𝐶𝐵𝑀 = 121 028.03 ×
297

= $ 263042.40

= RM 802 279.32

3.4.2 Sieve Tray

Column height = 13 m; Column diameter = 1.33 m, Area = 5.56 m2; Number of trays = 24

From Table A.1 (Appendix A), K1 = 2.9949, K2 = 0.4465, K3 = 0.3961

log10 Cp° = 2.9949+ 0.4465 log10 (5.56) + 0.3961 [log10 (5.56)]2

= 3.92

Cp° = $ 8 275.15

The bare module cost for sieve trays (Turton et al., Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical
Processess, 3rd Edition, page 930, Table A.5):

CBM = Cp°NFBMFq (4.0)

Where,

N = number of trays

Fq = quantity factor for trays

For N≥ 20, Fq = 1

From Table A.6 (Appendix A), the identification number for stainless steel sieve trays is 61

Hence, from Figure A.19 (Appendix A), bare module factor, FBM = 1.8
3-53

CBM = (8275.15)(24)(1.8)(1)

= $ 208 533.79

Use correlation:

CEPCI for year of 2010 is 645.5

CEPCI for year of 2001 is 397

Therefore,

645.5
𝑛𝑒𝑤 𝐶𝐵𝑀 = 208 533.79 ×
297

= $ 453 227.48

= RM 1 382 343.81

Thus, the total cost for distillation column = RM 802 279.32 + RM 1 382 343.81

= RM 2 184 623.13
3-54

REFERENCES

R. K. Sinnot. 2003. Chemical Engineering Design. Vol 6, 3rd Ed, Elsevier Butterworth
Heinemann.

Felder, R. M. & Rousseau, R. W. 2000. Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes. 3rd Ed,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Levenspiel, O. 1999. Chemical Reaction Engineering. 3rd. Ed, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Perry, R. H. & Green, D. W. 1998. Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook. 7th Ed, McGraw-Hill
International Edition.

Walas, S. M. 1988. Chemical Process Equipment. Butterworths Publishers.

Ludwig, E. E. 1995. Applied Process Design. Vol.2, 3rd. Ed, Gulf Publishing Company.