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Section A: Families and Households

Oct/Nov 2002

1. (a) Describe the functions of the family.


(9)

(b) Evaluate the view that the family in modern industrial societies has lost some
of its functions 16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, how the structure of the family has been affected by
industrialization.
(9
)
(b) Assess the contribution of feminist theories to an understanding of
relationships in families. (16)

Oct/Nov2003

1. (a) Describe, with examples, the ways in which the family is linked to the economy
in society. (9)
(b) Evaluate the claim that the process of industrialization leads to the decline of
the extended family.
(16)

2. (a) Describe the main changes that have occurred in the distribution of power
within families in the last 100 years.
(9)

(b) Outline and assess the implications for society of the changes you have
outlined in your answer to part (a).
(16)

Oct/Nov2004

1. (a) Describe, with examples, the diversity of family forms that may be found in
societies today. (9)

(b) Evaluate the claim that the extended family is of declining importance in
modern industrial societies.
(16)

2. (a) Describe, wit examples, changing fertility patterns in modern industrial


societies over the last 100 years.
(9)
(b) Evaluate the view that control of female fertility is the key to the status of
women in the family and the wider society
(16)

Oct/Nov2005
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the meaning of kinship.
(9)

(b) ‘In modern industrial societies functions that were once carried out by the
family are now carried out by the state’ Evaluate this claim.
(16)

2. (a) Describe the factors that influence fertility rates.


(9)

(b) Assess the view that in modern societies matrifocal family types are becoming
the norm. (16)

Oct/Nov2006

1. (a) Describe, with examples, what is meant by status in relation to the family.
(9)

(b) ‘The family is an institution of the state ideological apparatus’. Assess this
view. (16)

2. (a) Describe, with two examples, what is meant by structure in relation to the
family. (9)

(b) Evaluate the view that high levels of divorce in modern industrial societies are
the result of a decline in the status of marriage.
(16)

Oct/Nov2007

1. (a) (i) Define the term household.


(3)
(ii) Identify and describe two types of household
(6)

(b) Evaluate the view that in modern societies family life is characterized by
diversity (16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term canalization


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of canalization.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the view that in modern societies family life is no longer patriarchal.
(16)

Oct/Nov 2008
1. (a) (i) Define the term patriarchy.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of patriarchal family structures.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the clam that families in modern industrial societies are increasingly
democratic (16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term cohabitation.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of socially approved living
arrangements between adults, other than cohabitation.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the claim that industrialization has resulted in the formation of
nuclear family structures.
(16)

Section B: Education

Oct/Nov 2002

1. (a) Describe the effects of poverty on educational achievement.


(9)

(b) ‘The role of education is to legitimize inequality’. Assess this view.


(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the types of pupil subcultures that can be found in
schools (9)

(b) ‘Factors within schools are the main influence on educational achievement’.
Assess this view. 16

Oct/Nov 2003

1. (a) What are the major influences on female education?


(9)
(b) Evaluate the proposition that the educational achievements of females are
based on their socialization.
(16)

2. (a) Describe the role of two different education systems with which you are
familiar. (9)

(b) Evaluate the proposition that education systems disproportionately benefit the
most powerful in society.
(16)

Oct/Nov 2004

1. (a) Describe, with examples, how education may lead to social mobility
(9)

(b) Evaluate the view that education helps maintain ruling class domination
(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the ways in which cultural background may limit the
educational achievements of some pupils.
(9)
(b) Evaluate the extent to which factors within schools may influence educational
outcomes. (16)

Oct/Nov 2005

1. (a) Describe the ways in which schools can help form of a pupil’s identity
(9)

(b) Evaluate the importance of factors outside of school in influencing pupils’


educational achievements
(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples the way in which the hidden curriculum operates
within schools. (9)
(b) ‘The most influential factor in determining a pupil’s educational achievements
is their school sub-culture’. Assess this statement.
(16)

Oct/Nov 2006

1. (a) Describe, with two examples, what is meant by cultural deprivation in the
context of education.
(9)
(b) Evaluate the claim that ethnicity is the most significant factor in determining
educational achievements in modern industrial societies.
(16)

2. (a) describe, with two examples, what is meant by pupil sub-culture


(9)

(b) ‘In modern industrial societies the groups who control knowledge determine
which pupils will achieve academic success.’ Assess this view.
(16)

Oct/Nov 2007

1. (a) (i) Define the term cultural capital.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of cultural capital in relation to
education. (6)

(b) Evaluate the view that the most significant influence on educational
achievement is social class.

(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term hidden curriculum


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of the way the hidden
curriculum can influence educational achievements.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the claim that girls are disadvantaged in the education system in
modern industrial societies.
(16)

Oct/Nov 2008

1. (a) (i) Define the term meritocracy.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly two examples of meritocratic education systems.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the claim that education is the key to social advancement
(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term hidden curriculum.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of the way in which the hidden
curriculum operates.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the claim that those who control the curriculum determine who will
achieve educational success.
(16)