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Curriculum development has a broad scope because it is not only about the
school, the learners, and the teachers. It is also about the development of society in

In today’s knowledge economy, curriculum development plays a vital role in

improving the economy of a country. It also provides answers or solutions to the world’s
pressing conditions and problems, such as environment, politics, socio-economics, and
other issues of poverty, climate change, and sustainable development.

There must be a chain of developmental process to develop a society. First, the

school curriculum, particularly in higher education, must be developed to preserve the
country’s national identity and to ensure its economy’s growth and stability. Thus, the
president of a country must have a clear vision for his people and the country as well.

For instance, in the Philippines, if President Aquino would like the country to
become the Asia-Pacific’s tourism hub, then the school curriculum must be developed
along that line. Curricular programs for higher education can be crafted in such a way
that it will boost the tourism industry. For example, different models may arise such as
edu-tourism, eco-tourism, cultural tourism, medo-tourism, biz-tourism, techno-tourism,
agri-tourism, archi-tourism, among others.

If universities have curricular programs that are innovative and in demand in the
local or global markets, many students even from foreign countries will enroll. A higher
number of enrollees would mean income on the part of the universities. As a result, if
the income is big, it can be used for teachers’ promotion, scholarship, and
remuneration. It can also be used in funding research and development endeavors, and
in putting up school facilities, libraries, and laboratories.

I believe that the country’s economy can improve the people’s way of life through
curriculum development. And to develop it, curriculum experts or specialists should
work hand in hand with lawmakers such as senators and congressmen, the local
government officials, governors, mayors, among others. Likewise, business
communities and industries, and other economically oriented players in society may be
engaged in setting and implementing rules and policies for educational reforms.

Hence, curriculum development matters a lot in setting the direction of change in

an organization, not only at the micro but also at macro levels. As long as the goals and
objectives of curriculum development are clear in the planner’s mind, cutting-edge
achievements in various concerns can be realized.

Definitions of Curriculum • the total effort of the school to bring about desired
outcomes in school and out-of-school situations • A sequence of potential experiences
set up in school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of
thinking and acting • A structured set of learning outcomes or task that educators
usually call goals and objectives. (Howell and Evans 1995) • Is the ‘what’ of teaching •
Listing of subjects to be taught in school • A document which describes a structured
series of learning objectives and outcomes for a given subject matter area • Includes
specification of what should be learned, how it should be taught, and the plan for
implementing/assessing the learning

Curriculum Planning A Curriculum Plan is the advance arrangement of learning of

opportunities for a particular population of learners A Curriculum Guide is a written
curriculum • A process whereby the arrangement of curriculum plans or learning
opportunities are created. • The process of preparing for the duties of teaching, deciding
upon goals and emphases, determining curriculum content, selecting learning resources
and classroom procedure, evaluating progress, and looking toward next steps.

Curriculum Development • The Process of Selecting, Organizing, Executing and

Evaluating learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities and interests of the
learners and the nature of the society or community. • Is a place or workshop(s) where
curriculum materials are gathered or used by teachers or learners of curriculum
Resource Unit- A collection or suggested learning activities and materials organized
around a given topic or area which a teacher might utilize in planning, developing, and
evaluating a learning unit. Curriculum Laboratory

The Progressive School • Conceives the curriculum as something flexible based on

areas of interest • LEARNER-CENTERED, having in mind that no two-persons are alike
• Factor of motivation is INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENT believing that learners are
naturally good. • Role of the teacher is to STIMULATE direct learning process • Uses
LIFE EXPERIENCES APPROACH to fit the student for future social life • Constant
revision of aims and experimental techniques of teaching and learning are imperatives
in curriculum development in order to create INDEPENDENT THINKING, INITIATIVE,
• Measurement of outcomes are devices TAKING INTO CONSIDERATIONS SUBJECT
Progressive • Listing of subjects, syllabi, course of study and list of courses or
specific discipline can only be called curriculum if these written materials are actualized
by the learner • Total learning experiences of the individual • All experiences children
have under the guidance of teachers Caswell & Campbell • Experiences in the
classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher and also learned by the
student Marsh &Willis • Body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for
the students to learn • Synonymous to ‘course study’ • ‘Permanent studies’ where the
rule of grammar, reading, rhetoric, logic and mathematics for basic education are
emphasized Hutchins • Most of the traditional ideas view curriculum as written
documents or plan of action in accomplishing goals Essentialist

Different Theories • Conflicting philosophies of education have influenced curriculum

principles and practices • A number of ‘self-evident educational truths’ in the past are
now seen to be rather educational myths; such as teachers know, children or learners
don’t; all learners should be treated alike • Fundamental concepts of some curricula
have changed • In many areas, new methodologies: programmed instructions, computer
assisted instruction, tutorials, large and small group instruction, and a variety of
individualized instruction procedures have been developed. • subject matter for the
mind, with priority in value of literature, intellectual history, ideas of religion, philosophy,
studies • Observable facts, the world of things • School’s dependence on scholasticism •
Another curriculum stresses the importance of experience-process • A recent curricular
emphasis is that of existing choice. The learner must learn skills, acquire knowledge,
and make decisions.

1. Recommended Curriculum

Perhaps you have asked these questions: Why should I take all these subjects and
follow the course flow religiously? Why is there a need to implement the K to 12?The
answer is simple! The Ministry of Education, the Commission on Higher Education, or
any professional organization can recommend and implement a curriculum.
In the Philippines, for example, what is being implemented by the Department of
Education (DepEd) or the Commission on Higher Education (CHEd), is an example
of a recommended curriculum.

In some cases, a law making body like the congress and the senate, or a university
or a school can recommend a subject, a course, or any academic program which is
deemed necessary for national identity and security, for environmental protection and
sustainable development, among others.

2. Written Curriculum
This refers to a lesson plan or syllabus written by teachers. Another example is the
one written by curriculum experts with the help of subject teachers. This kind of
written curriculum needs to be pilot tested or tried out in sample schools to determine
its effectiveness.
3. Taught Curriculum
This is about the implementation of the written curriculum. Whatever is being taught
or an activity being done in the classroom is a taught curriculum. So, when teachers
give a lecture, initiate group work, or ask students to do a laboratory experiment with
the their guidance, the taught curriculum is demonstrated. This curriculum contains
different teaching styles and learning styles to address the students’ needs and
4. Supported Curriculum
Instructional materials, such as textbooks, audio visual materials, blogs, wikis, and
others are examples of support curriculum. Other examples are playgrounds, zoos,
gardens, museums, and real life objects. It is called supported curriculum because it
helps teachers implement a written curriculum thus enables the students to become
life-long learners.
5. Assessed Curriculum
When students take a quiz or the mid-term and final exams, these series of
evaluations are the so-called assessed curriculums. Teachers may use the pencil
and paper tests, and authentic assessments like portfolio and performance based
assessments in order to know if the students are progressing or not.
6. Learned Curriculum
This type of curriculum indicates what the students have actually learned. This can
be measured through learning outcomes. A learning outcome can be manifested by
what students can perform or do either in their cognitive, affective or psychomotor
domains. The learning outcome can be determined by the results of the tests, and it
can be achieved by the students through the use of learning objectives.
7. Hidden Curriculum
This refers to the unplanned or unintended curriculum but plays an important role in
Now, let’s discuss some classroom implications of the different types of curriculum by
taking the following situation as example.

Let’s assume that you are a college student taking up Bachelor of Secondary
Education, major in English. Your course or degree program is a recommended
curriculum prescribed by CHED. The syllabi given to you by your teachers are the
written curriculum. When your teachers start to teach, that is a taught curriculum. And
when they ask you to use the internet and search information about a given topic, this is
a supported curriculum.

Furthermore, teachers need to evaluate your performance. So, when you are
given a test or exam that is the assessed curriculum. The results of the assessed
curriculum will determine what you have actually learned – and that is the so-called
learned curriculum. However, it can affect what will be taught and assessed by your
teachers, and eventually may affect what you will learn.
To sum it up, curriculum is not only about a course or a simple listing of subjects but it is
the total learning experience of students as indicated by the seven types of curriculum.

Effective Planning of Curriculum

Planning, a complex task, is the most important aspect of curriculum
development. In this early stage, educators should collaborate with parents, community
members, and students. In fact, all stakeholders need to share their expertise in
creating a curriculum based on high standards for student learning.

Changes Brought About By Science and Technology

Moving towards global competitiveness, the Philippines should re-conceptualize
the policies and strategies of ICT in education towards life-long learning, and should
continue to strengthen technology transfer in Science, Math and English. Also, there
has to be a reflection of researches and advances in knowledge in curriculum

Reflection of National and Universal Culture in the Curriculum

The need to understand different cultures is an emergent issue in today's
education and societies as relationships among countries become more intertwined.
This then calls for a curriculum that creates international awareness, understanding of
various cultures, and learning of different opinions and values which can be made
feasible through the incorporation of technology into the curriculum.

Empowerment and Continuous Professional Development of Teachers

This can be done through the promotion of professional development activities
like reflective thinking, action research, and journal writing when confronted with
problems in the classroom; exposure of teachers to the current trends in teacher
education; involvement of teachers in the decision–making process particularly in
curriculum change and in planning the curriculum; training effective trainers (at pre-
service and in-service levels) who will train teachers; raising the awareness of candidate
and actual teachers on the importance of professional development activities.

Staff development of Curriculists

The different parties involved in the development of the curriculum must undergo
in-service training. They should be made fully aware of their role and responsibility in
the curriculum development. They have to work together to develop a well-rounded
curriculum, which includes the learning of different cultures inasmuch as today’s
learners will need to cope with cross-cultural matters and grow into sensible adults who
are fair and just to the global society

Emphasis on Learner Needs and Development Levels

Researches show that the design of the Philippine curriculum appears to be
overcrowded. Learners are faced with seven subject areas everyday. When combined
with the learning competencies required for each grade/year level, this has proven to be
excessive. As a result, science and mathematics content cannot be completed in one
school year. This further leads to, a backlog and a carry-over of the previous year’s
content and competencies to the following school year , which eventually adversely
affects the teaching/learning process. In addition to this, the scope and sequencing of
education (from elementary to secondary level) have also been identified as design
defects where there are content and skills gaps as well as overlaps and duplications.
The overlap and duplication further aggravate the curriculum overload, and the gaps
contribute to the production of half-baked elementary school graduates who are not
entirely ready for secondary school,and of high school graduates who are half –baked
for college education. Moreover, national examinations are focused on only five subject
areas: English, Filipino, science, mathematics and social studies. Very few concepts are
included from the other subject areas.

Effective Implementation of the Curriculum design

There has been massive training of schoolteachers and orientation of school
heads and supervisors for the nationwide implementation of the curriculum; however,
the training programme was not sustained at the regional and division levels; thus the
poor school implementation . There was also lack of instructional materials like
students’ textbooks, and teachers’ manuals, science and vocational subject facilities,
equipment/apparatus and supplementary teaching/learning materials, and computer
laboratories. Too large classes , teacher availability (for the specialized secondary
subject areas) and quality of instructional supervision further hindered curriculum

Monitoring and Evaluation of Curriculum Implementation

The monitoring and evaluation of curriculum implementation is not effectively
done due to the great number of elementary schools .On the other hand, the secondary
schools are rarely visited because supervisors are unable to provide technical
assistance on specialized subject matter. At the regional level , supervisors are subject
specialists, while those at the division level are mostly generalists.

Establishment of Evaluation Procedures and Needs

Qualified evaluators who are capable of using multiple techniques in assessing
the process of evaluation and the learners are needed. This will determine the success
of the evaluation procedures used.
The challenges of basic education: dealing with K-12
An astonishing number of petitions have been presented to the Supreme Court
about a matter that, in the minds of many, should have been settled years ago. I’m not
referring to the Bangsamoro Basic Law here or some other equally momentous piece of
legislation. I’m referring to the implementation of the K-12 law mandated by the 2013
Enhanced Basic Education Act (RA 10533).

And what is the issue being brought before the nation’s highest court? The
question: should our country have the same number of years (12) of basic education as
virtually the rest of the entire world—except for Djibouti and Angola? For people who
love to roll their eyes and exclaim, “Only in the Philippines!” this puts basic education
right in there with divorce. And it would be bad enough if the situation were merely an

In fact, the downsides of our globally outmoded 10-year basic education program
are all too real, dumping millions of underage high school grads on our already bloated
labor market, requiring three to four effectively wasted semesters of remedial work on
the part of our colleges and universities, and, in the larger world, damaging the
prospects of the nation’s youth both in foreign universities and foreign jobs.

Though some of the points of the less self-interested petitioners have genuine
validity, trying to insist—by court order—that our educational system should cling to its
antiquated K-10 mode of operation for even another day are understandable, they
remain short-sighted. Does our educational system have problems? Many. Are there
rough spots ahead in the implementation of K-12? Without a doubt. Is the transition
going to cost money and cause personal and institutional discomfort? You can count on
it. But does the preponderance of all these issues combined in any way call for a
continuation of the presently inferior K-10 rather than proceeding—even in haste—to
the globally accepted K-12 system? Not for a minute.

We can return to some of these issues below, but first we should get an idea of
what’s about to happen: Students in Grade 10 are on their final year in Junior High
School as they are set to enter Senior High in 2016 upon the full implementation of RA
10533. That makes them the first batch to embark on the additional two years of basic
education made compulsory by the new law.

Despite five petitions having been filed at the Supreme Court to prevent the
implementation of K-12, the Department of Education (DepEd) is certain that the new
curriculum—which covers Kindergarten, six years of Primary Education, four years of
Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School—will enhance the quality of
education in the Philippines, and they are equally confident that they are prepared for
the pioneering batch of Senior High School students in June 2016.

So what exactly is the nature of the K-12 curriculum and how does it differ from
the previous 10-year basic education curriculum?

Aside from the additional two years of Senior High School (SHS), the K-12
program totally restructures the basic education system in the country, aiming to provide
some solutions to the widespread unemployment of the youth. As Isagani Cruz put it,
“The whole point of the entire K to 12 reform is to answer the needs of about 30 million
young people (those below 24 years of age) who have not finished Fourth Year High
School. Of the out-of-school youth of employable age, more than six million are
unemployed, primarily because they do not have the skills that employers want.”

The two years of SHS consists of two parts: Track Subjects—covering the
development of skills for immediate employment or entrepreneurship, and Core
Subjects—to ensure college readiness of K-12 graduates. It also facilitates four career
tracks for students to choose from: Academic, Technical-Vocational-Livelihood, Sports,
and Art & Design.

The four different career tracks provide flexibility. Depending on the goals of the
student, as well as the community and industry requirements in a particular region, the
Track Subject Curriculum enhances the value and relevance of the high school diploma.
Equally important, the Core Subject Curriculum,remaining invariable for all
schools,provides an opportunity for everyone to be equally well-prepared for a college
education academically.

By integrating the awarding of TESDA National Certificates at the high school

level, K-12 students—now of employable age upon graduation—would already qualify
for decent entry-level jobs. This also increases the financial capabilities of high school
graduates who desire to pursue advancement through higher education.

Moreover, the SHS curriculum also addresses the redundancy of college-level

general education programs, which presently cover material that should have already
been mastered at the pre-university level. This can result in higher education institutions
being more focused on the specifics of various degrees, rather that consuming so much
of the first two years remedying the inadequate competencies of the old 10-year

The K-12 curriculum is the present world standard and would be too difficult, if
not impossible, to compress into only 10 years. Globally, the Philippines remains far
behind, the only Asian country—and one of only three countries in the world—providing
only 10 years of basic education.

Inevitably, there are also downside implications resulting from this shift in the
education system.

With the introduction of K-12, there will be an increase in student population,

translating into a requirement for 20,000 to 28,000 additional classrooms for each
additional year-level; 40,000 to 56,000 classrooms for the two years of SHS.Another
pressing issue is the retrenchment of teaching and non-teaching college personnel. An
estimated 25,000 are being held at bay.

DepEd, however, says that it has closed the gap of 66,800 classroom shortage in
2010 and has built 86,478 classrooms between 2010 to 2014. This year, an additional
27,499 classrooms are on line to be constructed to cover the SHS implementation in

DepEd has announced that it will be hiring 39,000 additional teachers in 2016 to
meet the personnel requirements of the program. This demand for SHS teachers is
proposed as mitigation for the faculty lay-offs in higher education institutions. This is an
important point, since many junior faculty look to their teaching careers for funding to
pursue higher academic degrees. Thus, the roughly 50 percent cut in pay that comes
from the move from college to SHS teaching is particularly bad news.
Official Gazette of the Philippines

But, besides student and teacher concerns, there is a third factor: the additional
cost to parents for food and transportation expenses to send their children for two more
years of high school.

Worsening parental expenses, well over half—5800 out of 7,976—of the nation’s
public high schools are set to implement SHS.As a result, DepEd is in talks with 2,000
private education institutions to accommodate incoming seniors that would not be able
to attend public SHS schools. The current plan is for DepEd to subsidize the cost of
private tuition—but this is one of the most controversial issues around RA 10533’s
implementation. Many parents—and others—complain that the proposed subsidizes are
too low and will constitute their child’s high school diploma being held hostage to costs
they might find impossible to meet. Still others object to giving a taxpayer financed
windfall to private schools.

All these complaints are valid. Until recently, our school system has suffered
much neglect in many areas, including a chronic shortage of classrooms. Likewise, the
almost criminally low pay our public schoolteachers receive is scandalous. There is a
very serious loss of junior college teachers as well—many of whom are pursuing higher
degrees that will benefit the nation. That they should be forced into lower paying jobs
even as they struggle to advance needs to be dealt with—it is an all-too-typical example
of how neoliberal pressures such as privatization can gut the aspirations of a developing
country and force it into the “race to the bottom” that has become a linchpin of

Among teachers, there are deep-seated anxieties about the new duties expected
of them. DepEd has been conducting numerous teacher trainings to address these
concerns, but there is a sense that things remain confused and unsettled. Most likely,
uneasiness and suspicion among teachers will linger until the new system is in place
and they have a chance to actually work through it and make the needed adjustments.
In addition, there still remains the problem of language: what to do with Filipino, how to
sustain its place in the curriculum, and what will the changes mean for teaching the
language in colleges and universities? For that matter, has the English curriculum been
chosen in haste, as some critics allege? What of the adequacy and quality of some of
our textbooks and instructional materials? Can schools coordinate better to strengthen
job placement for their students?

Likewise, tuition costs for parents whose children have no public SHS available
should not hold those students hostage to the financial capabilities of the parents. That
is not what we mean when we talk about “public education” as a constitutional right.
And, sadly, anytime large sums of government money are being passed out, we come
face to face with the ubiquitous problems of potential corruption.
Parents wait for their children outside the gates of President Corazon Aquino
Elementary School in Quezon City at the opening of classes, June 2, 2014. AP/Bullit

All that said, I still tend toward proceeding with K-12. The K-10 approach is as
problematic as—indeed, is part of—the continued neglect our public educational system
has suffered since the Marcos years. It is time and past time to begin making amends.

We should not ignore the serious challenges of shifting to a K-12 program. At the
same time, we should seize upon its very real potential to improve the lives of everyone.
K-12 is obviously a work in progress that will go through many changes as it is
implemented. Top-down planning will invariably be reshaped and modified by bottom-up
concerns and existing practices of teaching and learning.What remains imperative is
that we provide our youth with all the skills they need, especially education, to prepare
them to live meaningful and productive lives. This means, among other things,
preparing for the constantly changing demands of the workplace. But they should also
be able to question those changes and craft alternatives for a better world. There are
many problems to be fixed in education and we should pursue these solutions with zeal.
To do so means dealing with the many challenges of K-12 rather than simply putting
them on hold.

Philosophical determinants of curriculum It aims at the all-round development of

the individual. It is based on the philosophy of the nation. It reflects the ideals and
aspirations of the people. It inculcates the desired ideals of life in the youngsters.
It helps in the development of proper philosophy of life. It is in accordance with
the aspiration level of the individual It enables the learners to learn the desirable
cultural values, intellectual virtues, societal norms and moral doctrine. It helps in
the development of the personal and national character.
 The philosophical foundations of the education Child centeredness
(Naturalistic philosophy) Need centeredness (Pragmatic philosophy)
Activity centeredness (project and basic curriculum)
 Sociological determinants of curriculum Core values and needs of the
Indian society Changing values of the people. Demands of the modern
society Good family, ways of life. Democrat ic temper of the society
Faiths, beliefs and the attitudes of the people.
1. Cooperation Media explosion Population explosion Regional and national
imbalances. Economic efficiency Education for fellowship and leadership
Creative and purposeful activities Cultural, political factors Knowledge, attitude
and beliefs.
2. The characteristics of the curriculum To realize the social aims of the education
Makes education as an effective media of social control Keeps in mind the
social changes and reflects the social needs of the community Dynamic, flexible
ad progressive. Transmit the values and ideals that the society upholds and
consider to be inherited by new generation. Related to social interests and
problems of the society.
3. Enables the youngsters to participate efficiently in social life. Inculcates in them
respect for different vocations and professions and creates the dignity of labour.
Develops desirable social attitudes Aids them in promoting the social progress
To develop each individual to the optimum possible progress level Aims at
educating for the vacation and vocation. It is functional and socially utilitarian.
4. Psychological determinants of curriculum Knowledge of the nature of the learner
and learning process and the condition facilitating optimum learning. Knowledge
of growth and development Intelligence, development capacities. Curriculum to
be child centered, learning experiences should be provided in accordance with
the mental development of the learner. Interests of the learner.
5. . Scientific : To achieve complete development of an individual & to prepare for
complete living i.e. human activities in 5 categories: self preservation, self
protection, promote human pregnancy & its protection, social & political
protection & last proper utilization of leisure time. Political : To develop
democratic values of social justice, equity, socialism, rights & duties.

1. All this curriculum is implemented by teachers and depends on the quality of

teaching and learning strategies, learning materials and assessment. Only those
teachers who are trainees can play an effective role in defining and implementing
the curriculum. This entails understanding and participating in the curriculum
development process, taking on new roles as advisors, facilitators and curriculum
developers. Teachers cannot be taken for granted or viewed simply as skilled
technicians who dutifully realize a given set of teaching in accordance with the
directives of a distant authority. Teachers are supposed to be active participants
in the creation of classroom realities and they act in light of their own beliefs,
attitudes and perceptions of the relevant teaching situation. Policy makers should
no longer assume that curriculum implementation is a process that translates
directly into classroom reality. Teachers are those who ultimately decide the fate
of any educational enterprise. Consequently, teacher’s attitudes, feelings and
perceptions should not be devalued before the launching of any innovation.
Policy makers should identify, analyze and address any discrepancies between
teachers opinions and ideas offered for curriculum innovation. • Implementation
is an interaction between those who have created the programme and those who
are charged to deliver it. (Ornstein and Hunkins, 1988 ) Even though large sums
of money are spent on implementing new curriculum, several of these efforts
have failed. According to Sarason (1990) the main reason for the failure is the
lack of understanding of the culture of the school by both experts and educators
externally and internally. Successful implementation requires understanding the
traditions, the roles and responsibilities of individuals in the school system. A
teacher does more than just implement curriculum. While curriculum specialists,
administrators and outside education companies spend countless hours
developing curriculum it is the teachers who know best what the curriculum
should look like. After all, they work directly with the students who are meant to
benefit from the curriculum. In order to create strong curriculum teachers must
play an integral role in every step of the process.
Teacher’s role in planning the curriculum: • Teachers know their students better
than others involved in the curriculum process. While the state often dictates the
skills covered by the curriculum, a teacher can provide insight into the types of
materials, activities and specific skills that need to be included. Teachers from
multiple grade levels may collaborate to identify skills students need at each level
and ensure that the curriculum adequately prepares students to advance to the
next grade-level.
Teacher’s role in the creation of the curriculum: • A teacher can gauge whether
an activity will fit into a specified time frame and engage students. All teachers
should be allowed to provide input during the creation stage. As teachers provide
input they will gain ownership in the product and feel more confident that the
curriculum was created with their concerns , and the needs of their students in
: •Teachers must implement the curriculum in their own classroom sticking to the
plan that has taken so much time, careful planning and effort to create. When a
teacher fails to properly implement a strong curriculum, she risks not covering
standards or failing to implement effective practices in the classroom.
•That does not mean a teacher can’t make minor changes. In fact a strong
curriculum is designed to allow a teacher to be flexible to add a few personalized
components, from a selection of activities.
: • Reflection on a curriculum allows teachers and others involved in the process
to find any weaknesses in the curriculum, and attempt to make it better.
Teachers may reflect on curriculum in multiple ways such as keeping a journal as
they implement the curriculum giving student reviews and surveys, analyzing
results and assessments, data about student’s individual performance. Not only
can reflection serve to improve a specific curriculum, it may guide the creation of
a new curriculum.
•In the absence of adequate teacher training, teachers may rely on their prior
beliefs and experiences in interpreting the new curriculum. This will contribute to
the mismatch between what the curriculum aims to achieve and what actually
happens inside the classroom.
•Teacher’s prior beliefs and practices can pose challenges, not only because
teachers are unwilling to change in the direction of the policy, but also because
their understandings may interfere with their ability to interpret and implement the
reforms in ways consistent with the designer’s intent.
•It is the responsibility of teacher training and development programs to provide
teachers teachers with opportunities to redirect their beliefs and reflect upon their
classroom practices, so that maximum targeted professional development can be
• An example of how the role of teachers was developed by the national
teacher’s organization in making a pivotal change is from new Zealand in the
year 2011. Computer science was introduced into high schools after a long
period when computing was mainly focused on training students to be users. The
transition was rapid and teachers had little time to prepare for the new topics and
yet there was widespread voluntary adoption of the new standards.
• Without an appropriate focus on teachers, quality education is not feasible at
all. The quality of teachers explains differences in learning outcomes. Proper
recruitment and continuous professional development strategies must be in place
to endow those entrusted with teaching with the required knowledge, skills,
attitudes and values to retain them in the profession.

Traditional Approach

 Curriculum developer (publisher, state, institution) sets goals and chooses

learning experiences, evaluates, plans and proposes curriculum
 Appears neutral and equitable in its availability
 Exists "out there," can be organized and transmitted
 Is observable and measurable
 Pre-determined goals
 Learning happens in a linear, step-by-step fashion
 Expert knowledge is important
 A classroom with lesson plans, homework, grades possibly
 Skills-based/sequenced textbooks or workbook with pre- determined learning
 Objective, observable "scientific" means
 Can provide comparative score

Learner-Driven Approach

 Students articulate learning goals that spring from their real-world roles
 Students help plan curriculum
 Created through the interaction
of student and text
 Builds on what learners already know
 Relevant to students' real-life context
 Learning happens in social contexts
 Instruction is transparent and based on purposes students determine
 Learners actively build on knowledge and experience
 Apolitical on the surface
 Drawn from adults' lives in their everyday contexts
 Performance of the student's contextualized goal
 Continuing, involving metacognitive strategies

Critical Approach

 Teacher leads the class while following the lead of learners

 Students, rather than "outsiders," become experts
 Not fixed - dependent upon interaction among students, text, and teacher
 Autobiographic - depends on the politics of identity brought to learning
 Complex interaction between text, the teacher, and what is taught
 Knowledge is created, rather than taken in
 Education is political
 Language and power are connected
 Abandons technician mentality
 Addresses social and community issues of importance
 Curriculum not set in advance; emerges from "action and interaction of the
participants" (Doll, 1993)
 Portfolios, self-assessment instruments
 Measures of social and personal change
 Levels of critical consciousness reached
 External performance levels do not apply

According to Palma in 1992, in organizing the learning contents, the curriculum

organizer must take into consideration the principles on balance, articulation, sequence,
integration, continuity.

The Elementary Education Curriculum

1. Balance – means that the curriculum is fairly distributed in deep and breath of the
particular learning area or discipline. The elementary curriculum is really fairly
distributed. Though the number of competencies is not equal in every quarter but this
doesn’t mean that they are not fairly distributed because the competencies are actually
budgeted base on the number of days of teaching per topic which would fit in to the
number of days per grading period.

2. Articulation – means the smooth connection of the subject matters. The subject
matters in the elementary curriculum are really connected. The former is connected with
the latter. That is why in the learning process, review is encouraged to really establish
and deepen the connection of the subject matters to make it more meaningful to the

3. Sequence – this is the logical arrangement of the subject matters. Based on

observation and experience, the subject matters are logically arranged from easy to
difficult, basic to complex. Topics in other learning areas, like HEKASI, Science and
Math, are actually arranged from where the students can find a closer connection to
their selves and experience so that they can easily relate to it.

4. Integration – this is the horizontal connections in subject areas. Well, this is actually
encouraged. The fact is that there are subject matters that can be integrated in other
subject area. Like the integration of values in all subject areas, the integration of
Science and Math concepts in teaching English; and HEKASI and MSEP concepts in
teaching Filipino.

5. Continuity – refers to the constant repetition, review and reinforcement of learning.

Meaning, a lesson should not stop after an evaluation. It has to be repeated through
review and reinforcement. Thus, this is the principle in the elementary curriculum. We
even targeted that the learning in school should be applicable and applied to the daily

Basically and ideally, the learning contents have undergone scrutiny and careful
analysis on how they should be organized done by the educators and curriculum
designers. So obviously, the output of such scrutiny is the well-organized learning
contents that follow the principles mentioned above. Thus, the contents are actually
divided evenly that every period/quarter would have the enough number of contents to
be tackled. It follows the principle of simple-to-complex pattern which would allow the
students to really follow through the progress of the topics in terms of the level of
difficulties. The curriculum designers as well ensure that the contents must have a
connection from the previous to the latter so that mastery will be developed. But then,
with all these matters, delivery of the lesson makes a more essential impact on learning.
The principle on integration are likely neglected that teachers only focus on the content
of the particular learning without having it related to the other disciplines. The most
abused integration is the value integration. Content integration is not seen with that
much application in the classrooms. The principle on continuity is evident in classrooms.
Teachers do drills for mastery of the skill and review for reinforcement of understanding.
However, when it comes to application to real life situations, it is weak. We can see
students who don’t really appreciate the subject because they can’t find its importance
to life. Best example is Mathematics. Majority of the students don’t really like Math.
Based on research, they hated Math because they can’t find any connection with their
daily undertakings. Classrooms provide them the skills on Math but the connection is

The latent implication of the principles of organizing learning contents is the careful
application in the classroom in which the teachers are the main implementers. These
principles will be useless if careful and effective implementation is not guaranteed.

1. 2. Who Teaches? - The teacher • Quality Education requires quality teachers. •

Good teachers bring a shining light into the learning environment. • They are
ideal companions of the learners • These teachers should be given support with
their continuing development in order to keep abreast with the changing
demands of a learning society.
2. 3. Who do teachers teach? – The Learners • The learners are at the center stage
in the educative process. • They are the most important factors in the learning
environment. There is no teaching without them • Teachers should understand
and accept the learner’s diverse background. • Considering the domain of
diversity of learners will allow the individual learner to develop his multiple
intelligences at his own pace. • Their needs should be addressed and be met
that’s why teachers are to provide learning opportunities and varied experiences.
3. 4. What do teachers teach? – Knowledge, Skills, Values • It should be
remembered that what students learn will be obsolete in ten years, and half of
what they need to know to succeed in work and in life has not yet been fully
developed and will have to be learned as they go along in the future. •
Calculators and typewriters are made obsolete by computers and the next
generation will see these being replaced. And so, the value of the educational
process lies not just in what they learn, but how they learn, and how good they
will be in continuing to learn after they leave school.
4. 5. How do teachers teach? – Strategies and Methods • There is no best strategy
that could work in a million of different student background and characteristics. •
However, for teachers to teach effectively, they must use appropriate
methodologies, approaches and strategies. • Teachers should select teaching
methods, learning activities and instructional materials or resources appropriate
to learners and aligned to objectives of the lesson. • Good teachers utilize
information derived from assessment to improve teaching and learning and adopt
a culture of excellence.
5. 6. How much of the teaching was learned? - Performance • At the end of the
teaching act, it is necessary to find out if they objectives set were accomplished. •
In curriculum we call this the learning outcomes. • These learning outcomes
indicate the performance of both the teachers and the learners. • Learning
outcomes are the product performance of the learners as a result of teaching. •
Performance is a feature of a curriculum that should be given emphasis. • The
curriculum is deemed to be successful if the performance of the learners is
higher than the target set.
6. 7. With whom do we teach? – Community Partners • Teaching is a collaborative
undertaking. While teachers are the focal point in the learning process, they must
draw upon the resources of their environment and of their partners to be
effective. • Partnership is a means and not an end to be pursued in itself. • An
absence of partnership often means a poor definition of education ends

Whether you're working on your teaching credential or being reviewed by an

administrator you will often need to write out a lesson plan during your teaching career.
When you do, make sure it includes the eight essential components of a
strong, effective lesson plan and you'll be on your way to achieving every teacher's
goal: measurable student learning.

Here you will find the eight essential steps to include in your lesson plan. They are the
objective and goals, the anticipatory set, direct instruction, guided practice, closure,
independent practice, required materials and equipment, assessment and follow up.
Each of these eight components will make up one perfect lesson plan. Here you will
learn a little more about each of them and how you can implement each section into
your lesson.


Objectives and Goals

The lesson's objectives must be clearly defined and in lined with district and/or state
educational standards.

Anticipatory Set

Before you dig into the meat of your lesson's instruction, set the stage for your students
by tapping into their prior knowledge and giving the objectives a context. In the
Anticipatory Set section, you outline what you will say and/or present to your students
before the direct instruction of the lesson begins.

Direct Instruction

When writing your lesson plan, this is the section where you explicitly delineate how you
will present the lesson's concepts to your students. Your methods of Direct Instruction
could include reading a book, displaying diagrams, showing real-life examples of the
subject matter, or using props.

Guided Practice

Under your supervision, the students are given a chance to practice and apply the skills
you taught them through direct instruction.The Guided Practice activities can be defined
as either individual or cooperative learning.


In the Closure section, outline how you will wrap up the lesson by giving the lesson
concepts further meaning for your students.Closure is the time when you wrap up a
lesson plan and help students organize the information into a meaningful context in their

Independent Practice

Through homework assignments or other independent assignments, your students will

demonstrate whether or not they absorbed the lesson's learning goals.Through
Independent Practice, students have a chance to reinforce skills and synthesize their
new knowledge by completing a task on their own and away from the teacher's

Required Materials and Equipment

Here, you determine what supplies are required to help your students achieve the
stated lesson plan objectives. The Required Materials section will not be presented to
students directly, but rather is written for the teacher's own reference and as a checklist
before starting the lesson.

Assessment and Follow-Up

The lesson doesn't end after your students complete a worksheet. The assessment
section is one of the most important parts of all.This is where you assess the final
outcome of the lesson and to what extent the learning objectives were achieved.


Lesson plans are an essential component of a successful teaching experience. These

plans help ensure that all standards and materials are covered, providing a teacher and
students with structure for each class day. Many schools require that teachers submit
lesson plans in a specific format on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. For teachers who
do not have a required format, a variety of formats are available to meet individual
Five-Step Lesson Plan
A five-step lesson plan is a form of daily lesson planning that includes the following
components: anticipatory set, instruction, guided practice, closure or assessment and
independent practice.

In the anticipatory set, a teacher should note the objective of the lesson, explain how it
connects to past learning and describe the purpose for what is being learned. These
items should be written in a student-friendly form so the teacher can easily convey them
to the students during the lesson.

For the instruction section, a teacher must list how she will use direct teaching through
modes such as lecturing, providing notes or showing a video, and modeling by
demonstrating how to complete a process or activity. This section should also include
questions or brief activities the teacher will use to check to see if students are
understanding the material.

The third step is guided practice, which asks the teacher to list any activity students will
complete in the classroom with teacher or peer assistance. This is followed by the fourth
step, closure or assessment, which requires an activity to help the teacher get a
snapshot of what students learned that day. This section can include an exit slip, a short
reflection or something more in-depth such as a quiz or a test.

Independent practice is the fifth section of this format. In many cases, independent
practice can be completed in class; however, in the five-steps plan, independent
practice is the place the teacher lists any homework assignments students will be
expected to complete related to that day's lesson.

Five-E Lesson Plan

The five-E lesson plan format asks teachers to list components that deal with engaging,
explaining, exploring, elaborating and evaluating.

This lesson plan begins with a question or brief activity that hooks or engages students
at the beginning of the lesson. In the second phase, the teacher lectures or provides a
video, reading passage or demonstration to explain the material and its key terms.

After explaining the concept, a teacher must show what activity students will complete
to help them explore the material. These activities can include stations, cooperative
learning groups, games, worksheets or other instructional methods.
The fourth component, elaborating, can be compared to independent practice. Activities
should help students apply the concept to a variety of situations. This work can be
completed in class or as a homework assignment.

Each five-E lesson plan ends with an evaluation component to determine whether
students have learned the material. This can come in the form of a formal, graded
assessment, or students can be informally assessed with a question and answer
session, exit slip or short writing prompt.

Weekly Lesson Plan

A weekly lesson plan is an ideal format for teachers who are covering a similar topic
throughout the week. At the top of the lesson plan, teachers should list the standards,
objectives and essential questions being covered that week. Under that section, each
day of the week is listed with a short description of the activities for that day. At the end
of the plan, a section should be included to list any assessments that will cover the
week's instruction, such as a unit or chapter exam or special project.

Unit Plan
For teachers who do not work well with elaborate plans, a unit plan is a simple way to
guide instruction. At the top of the unit plan, teachers list all of the standards and
objectives covered in the unit along with the projected time-frame for the unit. Below
that is a list of all activities expected to be part of the unit, followed by a list of all
assessments related to the unit. Each day, a teacher presents lessons to students with
that unit in mind, but since there is no specific plan laid out, there is some flexibility in
what is covered each day.

Inquiry-Based Lesson Plan

Inquiry-based lesson plans are especially useful for the science classroom because
they involve experimentation and hands-on activities that allow the teacher to be a
facilitator of learning rather than an instructor. Lesson plans that are inquiry-based
include very little lecture or notes. Teachers begin this type of lesson plan by listing the
standards and objectives to be covered. After that should be a detailed description of
any activities students are to complete during the day's lesson. Activities should not
include worksheets or exams, but instead hands-on problem-solving experiences
through experiments, cooperative learning groups or stations. After the activity, teachers
should list a variety of inquiry-based questions to ask students to promote discussion of
the concepts and material covered in the activity and help further facilitate student