Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

II

EXPERIMENT 2
Ohm’s Law
OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the three variables involved in a mathematical relationship known as Ohm’s


Law.
MATERIALS:
Circuits Experiment Board
Multimeter
Graph Paper
D-cell Battery
Wire Leads
Resistors

CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND:

Black 0
Brown 1 2nd Digit
Red 2 1st Digit No. of Zeros Fourth Band
Orange 3
Tolerance None 20%
Yellow 4 Silver 10%
Green 5 Gold 5%
Blue 6
Violet 7 Red 2%
Gray 8
White 9
PROCEDURE:

1. Choose one of the resistors that you have been given. Using the the given data above, decode the
resistance value and record that value in the first column of Table 1.

Red (+)

Black (-)
Red (+)

Black (-)

Figure 2.1a Figure 2.1b


2. MEASURING CURRENT: Construct the circuit shown in Figure 2.1a by pressing the leads of
the resistor into two of the springs in the Experimental Section on the Circuits Experiment Board.

Laboratory Manual
II

3. Set the Multimeter to the mA range, noting any special connections needed for measuring
current. Connect the circuit and read the current that is flowing through the resistor. Record this
value in the second column of Table 1.
4. Remove the resistor and choose another. Record its resistance value in Table 1 then measure and
record the current as in steps 2 and 3. Continue this process until you have completed all of the
resistors you have been given. As you have more than one resistor with the same value, keep them
in order as you will use them again in the next steps.
5. MEASURING VOLTAGE: Disconnect the Multimeter and connect a wire from the positive
lead (spring) of the battery directly to the first resistor you used as shown in Figure 2.1b. Change
the Multimeter to the 2 VDC scale and connect the leads as shown also in Figure 2.1b. Measure
the voltage across the resistor and record it in Table 1.
6. Remove the resistor and choose the next one you used. Record its voltage in Table 1 as in step 5.
Continue this process until you have completed all of the resistors.

DATA AND RESULT:

1. Construct a graph of Current (vertical axis) vs Resistance.


2. For each of your sets of data, calculate the ratio of Voltage/Resistance. Compare the values you
calculate with the measured values of the current.

Resistance ( Ω ) Current ( A ) Voltage, ( V ) Voltage/Resistance


(A)

Table 1

Laboratory Manual
II

DISCUSSION:
1. From your graph, what is the mathematical relationship between Current and Resistance?

2. Ohm’s Law states that current is given by the ratio of voltage/resistance. Does your data
concur with this?

3. What were possible sources of experimental error in this lab? Would you expect each to make
your results larger or to make them smaller?

CONCLUSION:

QUESTIONS AND APPLICATION:


1. When the potential difference across a certain conductor is doubled, the current is observed to
increase by a factor of 3. What can you conclude about the conductor?

Laboratory Manual
II

2. If you were to design an electric heater using nichrome wire as the heating element, what
parameters of the wire could you vary to meet a specific power output such as 1000 W?

3. A 100-W light bulb draws a current of 0.80 A. If a light bulb stays for 8.0 hours every day. (a)
How many electrons have passed through the bulb every day? (b) If the electricity costs Php
8.3460 per kWh determine the weekly electrical cost of using the said light bulb.

4. A certain material used for a wire is 25 m long and has a diameter of 3.0 mm. The wire carries a
2.5 A current when a 12-V potential differenec is applied between its end. What is the resistivity
of the wire?

Laboratory Manual
II

EXPERIMENT 3
Resistances, Voltages and Current in Circuits
OBJECTIVE:
1. To determine the resistance of a resistor using color code and using multitester.
2. To calculate the equivalent resistance, voltage drop and current in a circuit.

MATERIALS:
Circuits Experiment Board
Multimeter
Graph Paper
D-cell Battery
Wire Leads
Resistors (3) 100 Ω, 200 Ω, 400 Ω, 500 Ω,

CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND:

Black 0
Brown 1 2nd Digit
Red 2 1st Digit No. of Zeros Fourth Band
Orange 3
Tolerance None 20%
Yellow 4 Silver 10%
Green 5 Gold 5%
Blue 6
Violet 7 Red 2%
Gray 8
White 9

PART I. EQUAL RESISTANCE

PROCEDURE:

1. Choose the three resistors having the same value. Enter those sets of colors in
Table 1 below. We will refer to one as #1, another as #2 and the third as #3.
2. Determine the coded value of your resistors. Enter the value in the column labeled
“Coded Resistance” in Table 1. Enter the Tolerance value as indicated by the color
of the fourth band under “Tolerance.”
3. Use the Multimeter to measure the resistance of each of your three resistors. Enter
these values in Table 1.
4. Determine the percentage experimental error of each resistance value and enter it in
the appropriate column.
Experimental Error = [(|Measured - Coded|) / Coded] x 100%.

Laboratory Manual
II

SERIES:
5. Now connect the three resistors into the SERIES CIRCUIT, figure 1, using the spring clips on
the Circuits Experiment Board to hold the leads of the resistors together without bending them.
Measure the resistances of the combinations as indicated on the diagram by connecting the leads
of the Multimeter between the points at the ends of the arrows. Enter your data in table 2.

R1 R2 R3

R12
R23
R123

6. Connect the three equal resistors into the series circuit shown below, using the springs to hold
the leads of the resistors together without bending them. Connect two wires to the D-cell,
carefully noting which wire is connected to the negative and which is connected to the positive.
7. Now use the voltage function on the Multimeter to measure the voltages across the individual
resistors and then across the combinations of resistors. Be careful to observe the polarity of the
leads (red is +, black is -). Record your readings on table 2.

+ -
+ - + - + -
V1 V2 V3
R1 R2 R3

V12
V23
V123

8. Now change the leads in your DMM so that they can be used to measure current. You should be using
the scale which goes to a maximum of 200 mA. Be careful to observe the polarity of the leads (red is +,
black is -). In order to measure current, the circuit must be interrupted, and the current allowed to flow
through the meter. Disconnect the lead wire from the positive terminal of the battery and connect it to the
red (+) lead of the meter. Connect the black (-) lead to R1, where the wire originally was connected.
Record your reading in the table as Io. See Figure below. Measure the current and record your readings
to table 2.

- I0 + + - - I4 +

R1 R2 R3
+ I1 - + I2 - +
I3 -

Laboratory Manual
II

PARALLEL:

9. Construct a PARALLEL CIRCUIT, first using combinations of two of the resistors, and then
using all three. Measure and record your values for these circuits in table 3.
R1

R12
R2

R3

R12

10. Now connect the parallel circuit below, using all three resistors. Measure
the voltage across each of the resistors and the combination, taking care
with the polarity as before. Record your data in table 3.

➤NOTE: Keep all three resistors connected throughout the time you
are making your measurements. Write down your values as indicated
below.

V1

V2

V3

V123

11. Connect the parallel circuit below, using all three resistors as shown in the figure below. Connect
it first between the positive terminal of the battery and the parallel circuit junction to measure I0. Then
interrupt the various branches of the parallel circuit and measure the individual branch currents.
Record your measurements in table 3.
I0
I4
I1

I2

I3

Laboratory Manual
II

COMBINATION
12. Connect the COMBINATION CIRCUIT below and measure the various combinations of resistance.
Write your readings in table 4.
R2

R1

R3

R23
R12
3
13. Now connect the circuit below and measure the voltages. Write your data to table 4.

R2

R1
V2
V3
V1 R3

V23
V123

14. Measure the current.

I0
R2
I2
R1
I1 I4

R3
I3

15. Choose three resistors having different values. Repeat steps 1 through 14 as above, recording your data
in table 5 to 8. Note we have called these resistors A, B and C.

Laboratory Manual
II

DATA AND RESULT:

EQUAL RESISTANCES
Table 1

Colors Coded Measured Percent


# Tolerance
Resistance Resistance Error
1
2
3

SERIES
Table 2
Resistance Voltage Current
R1 V1 I0
R2 V2 I1
R3 V3 I2
R12 V12 I3
R23 V23 I4
R123 V123

PARALLEL
Table 3
Resistance Voltage Current
R1 V1 I0
R2 V2 I1
R3 V3 I2
R12 V123 I3
R23 I4
R123

COMBINATION
Table 4
Resistance Voltage Current
R1 V1 I0
R23 V23 I1
R123 V123 I2
I3
I4

Laboratory Manual
II

DIFFERENT RESISTANCES
Table 5

Colors Coded Measured Percent


# Tolerance
Resistance Resistance Error
A
B
C

SERIES
Table 6
Resistance Voltage Current
RA VA IA
RB VB IB
RC VC IC
RAB VAB ID
RBC VBC IE
RABC VABC

PARALLEL
Table 7
Resistance Voltage Current
RA VA IA
RB VB IB
RC VC IC
RAB VABC ID
RBC IE
RABC

COMBINATION
Table 8
Resistance Voltage Current
RA VA IA
RBC VBC IB
RABC VABC IC
ID
IE

DISCUSSION:
1. Based on your experiment what is the behavior of current through the resistors connected
in series and parallel?

Laboratory Manual
II

2. Based on your experiment what is the behavior of potential differenceacross the resistors
connected in series and parallel?

3. Discuss Kirchhoff’s Law.

CONCLUSION:

QUESTIONS AND APPLICATION:


1. Three resistors A, B, and C are connected in series to a 120 – volt source. If Ra = 20 ohms
and Vb = 36 volts when connected is 1.2 A, calculate the resistances Rb and Rc.

2. If the resistors in problem 1 are connect in parallel to the same power source. Calculate the
currents in each resistor and the power drawn in a circuit.

Laboratory Manual
II

3. Three 150 ohms are connected in four possible ways. Calculate the equivalent resistance for
each connection. Determine also the total power in each case for an impressed emf of 120
volts.

4. How can you connect four resistors ( 4Ω, 5Ω, 6Ω, 7Ω) to an 18 V power source to draw
exactly 2A current.

5. Determine E if Vab (voltage drop in 2Ω) is equal to 6V.

6Ω 3Ω 3Ω

4Ω 1Ω
E 4Ω

Laboratory Manual