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Question No 2: Morbidity and mortality among older adults:

Terminologies:

Mortality: the state of being subject to death is called as mortality.

Mortality rate: The number of deaths in a given area or period, or from a particular cause.

Morbidity: The rate of disease in a population

Morbidity rate: The morbidity rate is the frequency or proportion with which a disease
appears in a population.

Causes of mortality and morbidity among older adults:

 Heart disease
 Cancer
 Stroke
 COPD
 Diabetes mellitus (Type 2)
 Falls
 Lung cancer.
 Hearing loss
 Vision impairment
 Confusion and dementia
 Lower respiratory infections.
 Colon and rectum cancers.
 Alzheimer's disease.
 Nephritis or nephritic syndromes

Mortality and morbidity indicators:

Mortality Indicators: Crude Death rate, Life Expectancy, Infant mortality rate, Child mortality
rate, Under five mortality rate, Maternal mortality ratio, Disease specific mortality, proportional
mortality rate etc.

Morbidity Indicators: Incidence and prevalence rate, disease notification rate, OPD attendance
rate, Admission, readmission and discharge rate, duration of stay in hospital and spells of
sickness or absence from work or school.

Mortality Rates:

Aging is a challenge in today's world that affects rich and poor countries. It is estimated that
around one million people cross the threshold of 60 years of age every month, throughout the
world. It is possible that by the year 2025, out of the 11 countries with the biggest populations of
elderly people, eight will be in the category of developing countries, thus showing a transposition
of large elderly populations from developed countries to countries that had been taken to be
characteristically young, such as Nigeria, Brazil or Pakistan.

Morbidity Rates:

Due to structural and functional changes in the major parts of the body as the life years increases
they are affected by chronic diseases which are more frequent among older people than the
younger people. illness are arthritis, cataract, bronchitis, avitaminosis, ear diseases, hypertension,
diabetes, rheumatism, helminthic infestations, accidents etc The findings of an survey of elderly
persons over 60yrs of age attending geriatric clinics in rural areas presented the following
findings.

The percentage of elderly reporting various ailments were visual impairment 88.0%, Locomotive
disorders, joints, muscles 40.0%, Neurological complaints 18.7%, Cardiovascular diseases
17.4%, Respiratory diseases 16.1%, Skin conditions 13.3%, Gastro-intestinal/abdominal disorder
9.0%, Psychiatric problem 8.5%, Hearing loss 8.2% and Genitourinary disorder 3.5%.

Question No 1:

Epidemiology among older adults ranging 65 to 85 years of age:

There has been a rapid change in the recognition of the need to study older adults and of the
apparent feasibility of including older adults in epidemiologic studies.

Epidemiology: The branch of medicine which deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible
control of diseases and other factors relating to health.

Disease incidence and distribution among older adults: The findings of a survey of elderly
persons over 60yrs of age attending geriatric clinics in rural areas presented the following
findings. The percentage of elderly reporting various ailments were visual impairment 88.0%,
Locomotive disorders, joints, muscles 40.0%, Neurological complaints 18.7%, Cardiovascular
diseases 17.4%, Respiratory diseases 16.1%, Skin conditions 13.3%, Gastro-intestinal/abdominal
disorder 9.0%, Psychiatric problem 8.5%, Hearing loss 8.2% and Genitourinary disorder 3.5%.

Demography or epidemiology of people aged 65 to 82 years of age

Developed countries:

Not only is the US population aging, so are the populations of developed and developing
countries around the world. While in 1900 4% of the US population was aged 65 years or older,
at the end of the 20th century the proportion is over 13 percent, and it is expected to grow to over
20 percent by the year 2030. In many developed countries, the proportions of persons over age
65 are already higher, while the absolute number of older adults is rising rapidly worldwide.

Developing countries:

While the number of older people is increasing rapidly in developing countries, it is mirrored by
declines in fertility. Populations in developing countries are ageing at three times the speed of
populations in developed countries. By mid-century, the less developed regions as a whole will
achieve an age structure similar to that of today’s more developed regions.

• Currently, less than one in 10 people are over 60 years old in developing countries. By 2050,
older people will account for one in five.

• Population ageing will have the greatest future impact in Asia.

• From 2025, growth rates of people over 60 years old will slow.