Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 37

Transport and Dust Collecting Manual

Version 1.05

Trough Belt Conveyor

Flückiger Werner
Stocker Beat

A1 (MPT 03/14907/E)

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/1
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION 3
2.TECHNOLOGY OF TROUGH BELT CONVEYOR 3

? Operating method 3
? Terminology of elements 4
? Idler 4
? Belt 6
? Pulley 12
? Conveyor Drive Units 14
? Belt Tensioning Stations 14
3.HOLCIM-CTS BELT CONVEYOR DESIGN GUIDELINES 16

3.1 General theoretical design guidelines 16

? Belt speed 16
? Belt width 16
?Conveyor slopes, vertical radius 17
3.2 Belt conveyor system design guidelines 17

? Idler design 17
?Carrier and return idler diameter: 17
? Pulley design 19
3.3 Construction design guidelines 19

? Conveyor Drive design 19


?Belt Tensioning Stations design 20
? Weather protection covers 20
4. BELT CONVEYOR LOADING 20

?Belt stability on the material feed point 21


?Belt support on the material feed point 21
5. BELT CONVEYOR TRAINING 23

? Belt alignment procedure 23


?Carrying belt alignment devices 25
?Return belt alignment devices 26
6.TROUBLESHOOTING OF BELT CONVEYOR TRAINING AND BELT DAMAGES 27

? Belt Training 27
? Belt Damage 29

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/2
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

1. INTRODUCTION

Looking at the cement manufacturing process, the importance of belt conveyors becomes
evident. There are many possible variations in the design of a trough belt conveyor
depending on its purpose and duty.
This paper focuses on the technology and the provision of the basics of trough belt
conveyor design.

2. TECHNOLOGY OF TROUGH BELT CONVEYOR

¨ Operating method
A trough belt conveyor comprises an endless, rubberized flat belt suspended between
pulleys at either end and is supported along its length by a number of rotating idlers.
The belt is driven via pulley (usually the head pulley) and the tension in the belt is
maintained by a manually or power operated / gravity take-up device.
The material is loaded onto the conveyor at the tail-end via a feed chute and is
transported on carrying-side to the head-end where it discharges into a discharge
chute which guides the material onto the downstream equipment.
Shock resistant elements are located at the loading point to support the belt where the
material impacts onto the belt.
Once the material has been discharged from the carrying belt, the return belt is guided
back to the tail pulley on return idlers.
The impact, carrying, and return idlers are spaced at different intervals. On the
carrying-side, the mass of the belt plus the load conveyed is larger than the mass to
be supported on the return-side.
Snub pulleys are sometimes incorporated into the design of a conveyor in order to
increase the angle of the wrap of the belt on the drive pulley. The larger wrap angle on
the pulley allows transmitting more power into the belt when it passes around the drive
pulley.

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/3
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

¨ Terminology of elements
Schematic display of the mechanical elements of a belt conveyor.

Feed chute
Head pulley
Caring idler

Impact idler Bend pulley


Return idler Snap- Discharge
Tail pulley Belt
pulley chute
Gravity take-up

Fig. 1: Terminology of elements

¨ Idler
Idlers are used on a belt conveyor to support the belt on the carrying and return
strands. Carrying idlers also support the load in transit along the conveyor.
There is an array of idlers available on the market for the use on conveyors in different
applications. Standard idler dimensions are shown in appendix 3.
Some examples of the different types of idlers available are shown below.

Fig. 2: Carrying idler (troughed) Fig. 3: Impact Idler

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/4
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Fig. 5: Example return idlers flat

Fig. 4: Example garland idler

Fig. 6: Example return idler (rubber disc)

Idler Spacing (Fig. 7)

The spacing or pitch of idlers has a direct impact on the sag of the belt between the
idler sets. The idlers on the carrying side of a conveyor must support both, the belt
and the load carried by the belt and on the return side, the idlers must support only
the empty return belt.

Pitch

Belt
Sag 1.5%-3%

Fig. 7: Example Belt sag

An excessive sag in the belt results in a higher power consumption for the conveyor
and therefore the pitch of the idlers in conjunction with the tension in the conveyor
should ensure that the sag is limited to between 1,5% and 3%.
From experience, some initial recommendation regarding an optimum spacing are
given in the following table.

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/5
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

¨ Belt

The different types of belt conveyor systems demand differences in the design,
manufacturing techniques, operation and maintenance of the belting on a conveyor.
This section provides information on each type of belt and elaborates on the standard
types of belting as well as factors to be considered when choosing a particular belt.

Fabric belt (Fig. 8)

A fabric plied belt consists of a single or multi-layered series of synthetic fabric layers
(1) alternate with rubber based shock absorbent layers (2). The "top" and "bottom"
sides of the belt consist of hard wearing, abrasion and cut resistant rubber covers (3).
These covers protect the belt from damage, especially at the loading points of the
conveyor.

Fig. 8: Example fabric belt

Steel cord belt (Fig. 9)

Steel cable belting usually consists of steel and rubber only. Sometimes, there are
fabric plies involved. Steel cable belts consist of steel cables (6) manufactured of high
tensile steel wire (7). These steel cables are surrounded by a layer of high grade
rubber (8) to facilitate adhesion to the outer covers and to improve lateral tear
resistance. As with fabric belting the "top" and "bottom" sides of the belt consist of
hard wearing, abrasion and cut resistant rubber covers (9).

Fig. 9: Example steel cord belt

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/6
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Belt selection criteria

The procedure for selecting a conveyor belt for any given application involves the
evaluation of a number of factors pertinent to the installation.
The designer must bear in mind that there is a variety of 'standard' belts to choose
from a supplier and that the properties of each belt have been incorporated to suit a
number of basic criteria such as hot material, large or small lump size, etc.
The following fundamental criteria must be considered by the engineer for each belt
selection.

Tension rating

All conveyor belts have been rated according to the operating tensions they will be
able to withstand. Usually this tension rating is expressed in kN/m of the belt width.
These ratings have been standardized within the industry and normally include a
generous factor of safety i.e. 6.7 : 1 for steel cord- and 10 : 1 for fabric belting
respectively.

Fabric belt tension strength

Belt Operating Tensions at 10:1 Safety Factor Table - Max. operating


tensions for fabric conveyor belts
Belt Type Operating Tension Whole Belt Strength Maximum Allowable Available in the
kN/m width kN/m width (min.) Working Tension following
kN/m Width number of plies
EP 160 16,0 160 16 2
EP 200 20,0 200 20 2
EP 250 25,0 250 25 23
EP 315 31,5 315 31.5 234
EP 400 40,0 400 40 2345
EP 500 50,0 500 50 23456
EP 630 63,0 630 63 23456
EP 800 80,0 800 80 23456
EP 1000 100,0 1000 100 3456
EP 1250 125,0 1250 125 3456
EP 1600 160,0 1600 160 456
EP 2000 200,0 2000 200 56

Note: To calculate the maximum belt tension, multiply the selected belt width by the
appropriate maximum "operating tension", where the safety factor of 10:1 is included.
Example: Assuming a belt width of 1,35m and a belt type EP500 (operating tension =
50 kN/m), the max. operating tension = 1,35m x 50,0 kN/m = 67,5 kN.

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/7
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Steel cord belt tension strength

The following table indicates the maximum operating tensions for various standard
steel cord belts, together with the cable details and the minimum cover thickness.
Table - Max. operating tensions for steel cord conveyor belts
Belt Type Nominal Nominal Maximum Allowable Minimum Cover
Cable Pitch Cable Diameter Working Tension Thickness mm

mm mm kN/m Width Top Bottom

ST 500 20,0 3,4 75 5,0 5,0


ST 630 21,35 4,0 94 5,0 5,0
ST 800 17,8 4,0 119 5,0 5,0
ST 1000 14,4 4,0 150 5,0 5,0
ST 1250 12,8 4,3 187 5,0 5,0
ST 1600 17,0 5,9 239 6,0 6,0
ST 2000 13,6 5,8 299 6,0 6,0
ST 2500 17,4 7,2 373 6,5 6,5
ST 3150 17,8 8,2 470 6,5 6,5
ST 4000 18,0 9,6 597 8,0 8,0
ST 5000 18,0 10,6 746 9,0 9,0

Note: To calculate the maximum belt tension, multiply the selected belt width by the
appropriate "maximum allowable working tension".
Example: Assuming a belt width of 1,35m and a ST 1600 belt class, the maximum
operating tension in the selected conveyor belt = 1,35m x 239kN/m = 322,65kN.

Number of plies (fabric belt only)

The selection of the conveyor belt must also ensure that the full load of material for
which the conveyor has been designed can be supported on the belt, as the belt
spans between two idler sets.
The following table is a guide to the minimum number of plies considered necessary
for a correct load support, based on a belt sag between idlers being limited to a
maximum of 2% of idler span.

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/8
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Table - Minimum Number of Plies Recommended for a Correct Load Support


Material Density and Belt Class Belt Width (mm)

Description
500 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 2100
EP 160 2 2 2 - - - - - - - -
EP 200 2 2 2 - - - - - - - -
EP 250 2 2 2 3 - - - - - - -
EP 315 2 2 2 2 3 4 - - - - -
EP 400 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 5 - - -
Fine materials up to 0,8 EP 500 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 -
tonne/m3 EP 630 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5
EP 800 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4
EP 1000 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
EP 1250 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
EP 1600 - 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
EP 2000 - - 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
EP 160 2 2 - - - - - - - - -
EP 200 2 2 - - - - - - - - -
EP 250 2 2 3 - - - - - - - -
Medium loads up to 2,0 EP 315 2 2 2 4 - - - - - - -
EP 400 2 2 2 3 4 - - - - - -
tonne/m3
EP 500 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 - - -
(Coal and - 200 mm
EP 630 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 5
stone with fines, sand
and gravel) EP 800 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5
EP 1000 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5
EP 1250 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
EP 1600 - 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
EP 2000 - - 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
EP 250 3 - - - - - - - - - -
EP 315 3 4 - - - - - - - - -
Heavy loads up to 2,0 EP 400 2 2 4 5 - - - - - - -
tonne/m3 EP 500 2 2 2 4 4 5 6 - - - -
- 250 mm lumps EP 630 2 2 2 4 4 4 5 - - - -
or EP 800 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 - -
3,0 tonne/m3 EP 1000 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6
- 200 mm lumps EP 1250 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6
EP 1600 - 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5
EP 2000 - - 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/9
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Troughability of fabric belt (Fig.10+11)

In addition to the selection of a belt based on the minimum number of plies, the
stiffness of a fabric belt across its width is affected by the number of plies in the belt
i.e. more plies result in a stiffer belt. If the belt is too stiff, it will not stay correctly in the
troughed idler sets (see example below) in an empty condition. This often results in
misalignment of the belt relative to the conveyor structure.
The following table indicates the maximum number of plies, which a fabric belt should
have, to ensure the correct troughability and belt alignment.
Table - Maximum Number of Plies Recommended for a Correct Empty Belt Troughing
BELT WIDTH

Class 500 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 2100 Trough Angle

EP 160 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20o
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 35o
EP 200 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20o
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 35o
EP 250 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 20o
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 35o
EP 315 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 20o
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 35o
EP 400 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 20o
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 35o
EP 500 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20o
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 35o
EP 630 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20o
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 35o
EP 800 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20o
3 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 35o
EP 1000 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20o
3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 35o
EP 1250 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20o
- 3 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 35o
EP 1600 - 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20o
- - 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 35o
EP 2000 - - 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20o
- - - 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 35o

Fig. 10: Troughability: Fig. 11: Troughability:


Troughing not correct (belt too stiff) Troughing correct

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/10
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Belt top covers

A conveyor belt usually has a top and a back cover consisting of compound natural or
synthetic rubber or plastic material or blends of these.
Depending on the application and material to be conveyed, the designer should select
the type of belt covers. There are a number of standard types or 'grades' of belt
covers available on the market, which have been developed for different applications.
Bottom (pulley side) covers usually are not subject to loading conditions and in
general the minimum recommended cover thickness, as recommended by the
manufacturer, may be applied. Top cover thickness depends on the application and is
in the range as shown in the table below.
Table - Guide for top and bottom cover thickness for fabric belts
Moderately Abrasive Materials: Abrasive Materials:

- Cement - Clinker, Slag


- Sand (smooth) - Limestone as quarried
- Limestone (crushed) - Hard Coal
- Wood Chips - Metallic ores
- Soft Coal, Clay

Lump Size 0mm to 25mm to Over 0mm to 25mm to Over


25mm 130mm 130mm 25mm 130mm 130mm

Top cover thickness [mm] 1,6 - 4,0 2,5 - 5,0 3,2 - 6,3 2,5 - 6,3 3,2 - 8,0 5,0 - 10,0
(Range)

Top cover thickness [mm] 2 3 4 4 5 6


(Recommended)

Bottom cover thickness [mm] 2 2 2 2 2 2

Table - Guide for top and bottom cover thickness for steel cord belts
Belt Designation Minimum Cover Belt Designation Minimum Cover
Thickness mm Thickness mm

Top Bottom Top Bottom

ST 500 5,0 5,0 ST 2000 6,0 6,0

ST 630 5,0 5,0 ST 2500 6,5 6,5

ST 800 5,0 5,0 ST 3150 6,5 6,5

ST 1000 5,0 5,0 ST 4000 8,0 8,0

ST 1250 5,0 5,0 ST 5000 9,0 9,0

ST 1600 6,0 6,0 ST 6300 10,0 10,0

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/11
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Belt hardness

New belt (fabric or steel cord) are usually delivered with rubber hardness between 60
to 65 Shore "A". For belts in operation, the rubber shore hardness check should be
done in regular intervals and it indicates when a new belt should be ordered. Specially
on belt conveyors, which convey hot bulk materials such as clinker, raw meal, or
cement, the belt cover hardness can increase rapidly. Therefore, if the rubber
hardness measured at belt centerline achieves 85 Shore "A" a new belt should be
ordered and when it exceeds 90 Shore "A" hardness the belt should be replaced.

¨ Pulley

Design Considerations for Pulleys

The procedure for selecting pulleys for a conveyor for any given application involves
the evaluation of a number of factors pertinent to the installation.
The width and diameter of the pulley to be used are determined by the width of the
conveyor belt and the belt rating or class.
Some standardization in pulley diameters and widths exists although pulley shaft
diameters and lengths are usually selected for each specific conveyor.
The following table indicates standard belt and pulley face widths.

Belt Width Pulley Face Width Belt Width Pulley Face Width
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
600 700 1500 1700
750 900 1650 1850
900 1050 1800 2000
1050 1200 2100 2300
1200 1350 2400 2600
1350 1500

Pulley lagging

There are primarily three categories of lagging, which are used on pulleys and they
are described below :
Rubber lagging is applied to pulley shells in order to improve the friction between the
pulley and the belt. Conveyor drive pulleys are often supplied with diamond grooved
lagging.

Fig. 12: Example pulley


with rubber lagging
Holcim Group Support Ltd
CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/12
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Ceramic lagging or lining of a pulley is used in instances where the pulley operates in
extremely aggressive conditions. An example of such conditions are the pulleys on a
bucket elevator, where the pulleys operate within the enclosed elevator housing and
material cannot be prevented from becoming trapped between pulley shell and belt.

Fig. 13: Example pulley


with ceramic lagging

Ceramic lagging offers better wearing properties and thus, in spite of the aggressive
environment, an extended lagging 'life'. Ceramics are however brittle and if large, hard
objects should be trapped between the belt and pulley, localized areas of the ceramic
liner can be cracked and flake off the pulley. This can result in belt training problems.

An alternative method to vulcanized or ceramic lagging is the application of either


rubber or ceramic strips to a pulley. This lagging comprises a series of steel support
strips, which are welded or bolted to the pulley shell.

Fig. 14: Example


replaceable lagging

The lagging material, which is manufactured in either rubber or ceramic strips, is then
slid into the steel retaining strips to provide a comprehensive lagging on the pulley.
The advantages of this type of lagging is that 're-lagging' of the pulley can be
performed in a site workshop and in some instances, on site. This reduces downtime
and improves the availability of the conveyor.
One disadvantage of this lagging method is the fact that the reduced lagging surface
area leads to an increased wear rate, and thus, increased re-lagging frequency.

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/13
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Lagging application

The type of lagging to be used is specified on the basis of the application, duty and
required life of the lagging. In general, the type of lagging used on troughed belt
conveyors is indicated in the table below.
Pulley Location Type of Lagging

Diamond Plain No
Grooved Lagging

Drive X X

Tail X X X

Bend X X

Take-up X X

Snub X X

The hardness of the rubber lagging to be used on a conveyor generally depends on


the pulley location.
Pulleys, which are brought into contact with the dirty- or carrying-side of the belt
including snub pulleys and bend pulleys, usually employ lagging with a hardness of 35
to 45 Shore 'A'.
Drive, take-up and tail pulleys should use lagging with a Shore 'A' hardness of
between 55 and 65.
Rubber lagging thickness varies extensively. Commonly used lagging thickness are as
follows:
Drive pulleys, grooved lagging : 10 to 12 mm.
Other pulleys, plain lagging : 6 to 10 mm.

¨ Conveyor Drive Units


The location, layout and configurations of drive units on a conveyor depend on the
size of the drive required, the tensions in the belt under various operating conditions,
the physical space available for the drive unit and access to the drive for maintenance.
In selecting the appropriate drive for a conveyor, it is common practice to standardize
commercially available drive sizes and configurations.

¨ Belt Tensioning Stations


Take-up assemblies are required on all conveyors to maintain the required tension in
the conveyor under all operating conditions.
The location of the take-up depends on the take-up design, length of the conveyor, the
available headroom for the take-up and the mass of the counterweight.

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/14
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Some examples of take-up assemblies are shown below:

Fig. 15: Manual take-up (screw) Fig. 16: Winch take-up

Fig. 17: Gravity take-up

Remarks about Recommended Amount of Take-up:

Conveyor length 0 to 30 m 30 to 60 m 60 to 150 m 150 to 300 m


Type of take-up device 0 to 12 m 12 to 30 m
Fixed hand operated take-up 0.35 m 3%
device, without tension indicator
Minimum adjustment 0.3 m

Fixed hand operated or motorized 2.5 % 2.5 % 2.5 to 2 % 2%


take-up device with tension
indicator
Automatic take-up device 3.5 % 3.5 to 3 % 3 to 2.5 % 2.5 %
Minimum adjustment 0.6 m

These values assume that an initial tension has been previously applied to limit the
belt sag between the idlers to 2%.

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/15
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

3. HOLCIM-CTS BELT CONVEYOR DESIGN GUIDELINES

3.1 General theoretical design guidelines

All belt conveyors shall be designed according to the applicable guidelines (DIN, CEMA,
ANSI).
From experience, see some initial characteristics of bulk material, density, physical
conditions etc. in appendix 1.

¨ Belt speed

A number of factors should be considered when determining the correct conveyor belt
speed. They include the material particle size, the inclination of the belt at the loading
point, degradation of the material during loading and discharge, belt tensions and
power consumption.
· Belt speed:
- In general the maximum belt speed shall not exceed 2.0 m/s.
- Conveyors handling dry fine material (i.e. raw meal, cement) shall not exceed
1.25 m/s.
- Belt speed for conveyors less than 50 meters in length shall not exceed 1.5
m/s.
- Conveyors longer than 500 m (overland) can operate faster than 2.0 m/s.

¨ Belt width
· Belt width shall not be less than 800 mm, for special applications 650 mm belts
may be used. In packing plants 500 mm flat belts may be applicable.
· The minimum belt width for reversible conveyors shall not be less than 800 mm.

Max. Lump Size Consideration

The table indicates the maximum recommended lump sizes for different belt widths,
based on material size-distribution.
Belt Width Lump Size (mm) Belt Width Lump Size (mm)
Mixed with app Mixed with app
[mm] Uniform [mm] Uniform
90% Fines 90% Fines
600 125 200 1350 275 450
800 150 250 1500 300 500
900 175 300 1800 350 600
1000 200 350 2100 400 700
1200 250 400 2400 500 800

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/16
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

¨ Conveyor slopes, vertical radius


· Slope:
Maximum Slope Raw Material Clinker Cement
General 16O 10O 6O 1)
At loading point O 2) O
6 0 0O
1) Consideration should be given to maximize the horizontal section after the last feed point thus
allowing the cement to properly de-aerate and prevent back-flushing on inclined section.
Change from horizontal only after a distance equivalent to 60 seconds belt travel from the feed
point is desirable. Steeper slopes can be accepted depending on the usage of grinding aids
and/or material bed thickness on the belt etc.
2) Steeper slopes may be acceptable depending upon the application.

· Vertical (concave) curves to be designed to avoid lifting of the belt from the idlers
under any conditions (minimum radius 300 m).
vertical curve

Belt of
Radius

travel
Tangent point
C B

Angle "A"

D Working point P E Fig. 19: Example


vertical curve

3.2 Belt conveyor system design guidelines

¨ Idler design
· Trough angle shall not be less than 30°.
· Carrier and return idler diameter shall be designed according to DIN (15207-1 /
22107) or CEMA (Class C) or equivalent, (bearing life L10 = 60’000 h at
500 rpm), guaranteed idlers failure less than 2% replacement per year, within
5 years after commissioning.

¨ Carrier and return idler diameter:


· > 100 mm for 650 to 1000 mm belts
· > 127 mm for belts 1200 mm and wider
· Carrier idler spacing shall not exceed 1250 mm for all belt widths.
· High-density polyethylene impact bars at loading points are the preferred
solution. As an alternative: rubber protected impact idlers with spacing of 300 mm
for all belt widths may be proposed.
· Return idler spacing shall not exceed 3000 mm for all belt widths. Self-aligning
belt idlers and guide idlers shall be used, where necessary.
· For conveyors, handling sticky materials, return idlers shall be rubber disc rolls or
anti-adhesive rubber tubes.
· Permanent lubrication for all idler bearings (sealed for life).

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/17
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

· Troughing Transition Distance for Fabric Belt (Nylon, Polyester, Vinyilon)


Unit: m
Position of Pulley Face On same level as carrier 1/2 of depth of troughing

Troughing Angle 20° 30° 35° 45° 20° 30° 35° 45°
600 0.55 0.80 0.95 1.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60
650 0.60 0.90 1.05 1.30 0.30 0.45 0.55 0.65
750 0.70 1.00 1.20 1.50 0.35 0.50 0.60 0.75
hWidt

800 0.75 1.10 1.25 1.60 0.40 0.55 0.65 0.80


900 0.85 1.20 1.45 1.80 0.40 0.60 0.70 0.90
Belt

1000 0.95 1.35 1.60 2.00 0.45 0.70 0.80 1.00


1050 0.95 1.40 1.65 2.10 0.50 0.70 0.85 1.05
1200 1.10 1.60 1.90 2.40 0.55 0.80 0.95 1.20
1400 1.30 1.90 2.20 2.80 0.65 0.95 1.10 1.40
1600 1.45 2.15 2.55 3.20 0.75 1.10 1.25 1.60

· Troughing Transition Distance for Steel Cord Belt


Unit: m
Position of Pulley Face On same level as carrier 1/2 of depth of troughing

Troughing Angle 20° 30° 35° 45° 20° 30° 35° 45°
600 1.10 1.65 1.90 2.40 0.55 0.80 0.95 1.20
650 1.20 1.75 2.05 2.60 0.60 0.90 1.05 1.30
750 1.40 2.05 2.40 3.00 0.70 1.00 1.20 1.50
Width

800 1.50 2.15 2.55 3.20 0.75 1.10 1.25 1.60


900 1.65 2.45 2.85 3.65 0.85 1.20 1.45 1.80
Belt

1000 1.85 2.70 3.15 4.05 0.95 1.35 1.60 2.00


1050 1.95 2.85 3.35 4.25 1.00 1.45 1.65 2.10
1200 2.20 3.25 3.80 4.85 1.10 1.65 1.90 2.40
1400 2.55 3.80 4.45 5.65 1.30 1.90 2.20 2.80
1600 2.95 4.30 5.05 6.45 1.45 2.15 2.55 3.20

On same Level as Carrier 1/2 of Depth of Troughing

Fig. 18: Troughing Transition Distance

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/18
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

¨ Pulley design

The Minimum Recommended Pulley Diameters

The Table shows the recommended minimum pulley diameters to limit the stress in
the conveyor belting as the belt passes around the pulleys.

Fabric Conveyor Belts Steel Cord Belting


Belt Class Driving and Tail/take-up Low Tension Belt Rating High Tension Pulleys, Low Tension Pulleys, Snubs
Head /H.T. Bends Snubs & Bends Drive, Discharge, etc Tail, Take-up, etc
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

EP 160 200 140 140 ST 500 600 500 400

EP 200 350 250 250 ST 630 700 550 450

EP 250 400 250 250 ST 800 700 550 450

EP 315 400 250 250 ST 1000 700 550 450

EP 400 450 300 300 ST 1250 750 600 500

EP 500 500 350 330 ST 1600 1050 900 750

EP 630 540 400 350 ST 2000 1050 900 750

EP 800 650 450 410 ST 2500 1050 900 750

EP 1000 800 570 510 ST 3150 1200 900 750

EP 1250 1000 700 640 ST 4000 1350 1050 900

EP 1600 1250 1000 1000 ST 5000 1500 1200 1050

EP 2000 1400 1000 1000

Pulley lagging
· All drive pulleys shall have rubber lagging.
· Tail and take-up pulleys: rubber lined or spiral wrapped wing pulleys. Wing type
pulleys without spiral are not acceptable.

3.3 Construction design guidelines

¨ Conveyor Drive design


· Head drive is the preferred solution (except for downhill conveyors).
· Helical gear speed reducer shaft mounted or coupled directly to head shaft
· Full load start must be ensured.
· All drives larger than 37 kW (50 HP) shall incorporate a soft start device. If fluid
coupling is used, it shall be designed for heavy duty starting condition.
· Backstop for inclined belt conveyors shall be installed.

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/19
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

¨ Belt Tensioning Stations design


· Up to 50 m horizontal center distance screw tensioning, if not sufficient, vertical
gravity type shall be used.
· Over 50 m horizontal center distance vertical gravity, horizontal gravity or winch
tensioning shall be used.

¨ Weather protection covers


· Conveyors or parts thereof outside buildings shall be either in enclosed galleries
or shall be provided with belt covers.
· Belt covers where used shall be semi-circular metal sheets complete with quick
removing clamps and handles for ease of maintenance and inspection, from one
side of the conveyor.
· For plants located in Europe, quick removing clamps can not be used. In order to
be in compliance with European safety standard, belt covers has to be supplied
whit bolts, which can be removed only with correspondent tool
· For conveyors handling dry fine material (i.e. cement) the lower edges of the
covers should extend to 300 mm below the return belt line.

Fig. 20: Example weather protection covers

4. BELT CONVEYOR LOADING

The transfer chute in a materials handling system using conveyors is essential to maintain
continuity of the flow. In many cases it can be shown that the major reason for system
unavailability will be a problem with the transfer chute. Transfer chute design basics see
chapter Feed- and Discharge Chutes for Transport systems.

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/20
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

¨ Belt stability on the material feed point


It is essential to maintain belt stability in the loading zone of a conveyor. Part of
the solution is to utilize standard rubber lagged or spiral-wrapped tail pulleys. Wing
type tail pulleys are not recommended as they create vibration, which typically causes
the belt to lose contact with the skirt board sealing system, creating openings and
material and fines may escape.

Fig. 21: Wing type tail pulleys,


not recommended

Fig. 22: Example belt vibration

Fig. 23 Spiral-wrapped tail pulleys

¨ Belt support on the material feed point


Elimination belt sag by providing adequate support throughout the loading
zone. In situations where heavy to severe material impacts with the belt are expected,
the use of closely set impact idlers or impact bars are suggested. In the skirted
stabilization area directly after the loading point, belt support cradles, or approved
equal, are suggested for providing continued support of the belt. In all cases, the
selected equipment has not only to provide adequate belt support; it must also be able
to maintain the belt in constant contact with the skirting system, for increased sealing
efficiency.

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/21
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Fig. 24: Belt support by impact idler

Fig. 25: Belt support impact bar

Overview of different types of impact bars

Fig. 26: Full belt support impact bar Fig. 27: Seal support cradle with
support idler

Fig. 28: Seal support cradle

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/22
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

5. BELT CONVEYOR TRAINING

¨ Belt alignment procedure

It is essential to train the belt to ensure that both strands run straight and on the
center line of the conveyor.
HGRS recommends the following steps to achieve good conveyor belt training and
protect them from damages:
1. Check that the conveyor structure is perfectly straight and correctly leveled
2. Check that the head, tail, take-up bend and snub pulleys are all correctly
mounted. They must be on level and with their axes perpendicular (right angled)
to the center line of the conveyor
3. Ensure that all troughing and return idlers are correctly mounted and with their
axes perpendicular (right angled) to center line of the conveyor. All rollers must
rotate freely.
4. Ensure that all self-aligning idlers, when fitted, are pivoting freely
5. In the case of gravity or winch take-up, ensure that the take-up assembly is
square and free to move. In the case of manually operated screw take-up gears,
ensure that the pulley is correctly square to the line of the belt.
6. Ensure that all parts of the conveyor are greased and / or oiled where necessary
7. Ensure that all pulleys and idlers are clean and in proper condition
8. Where skirt plates are involved, check that the seal skirt board is correctly fitted
and adjusted
9. Check along the conveyor and make sure, that there are no items, which could
cause damages to moving equipment.
10. Check that the belt splice is correctly installed and that the belt is straight

Example pulley alignment

Level

Drum

Drum width
Bearing distance

Fig. 30: Example pulley alignment

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/23
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Idler alignment

=
o

=
A

Fig. 31: Example idler on


center line to the structure

Fig. 33: Example idler


o leveled

Fig. 32: Example idler right


angled

Slider bar alignment


Distance:
App. 5 to 10 mm

Fig. 34: Example slider bar alignment Fig. 35: Example slider bar alignment

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/24
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

¨ Carrying belt alignment devices

Recommended belt alignment devices

Fig. 37: Control by belt


Fig. 36: Idler tilting approximately every 30 misalignment switches
m of conveyor length, if after belt alignment
procedure as mentioned above the belt is
still off-center running

In most applications not recommended belt alignment devices

Fig. 38: Carrying side training idler


Fig. 39: Multiple pivot belt tracking
system

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/25
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

¨ Return belt alignment devices

Recommended return belt alignment devices

Fig. 40: Example return side training idler

Fig. 41: Example V-Return idler

Fig. 42: Example raising alternating Fig. 43: Example Troughed


return idler idler

In most applications not recommended return belt alignment devices

Fig. 44: Multiple pivot return


belt tracking system

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/26
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

6. TROUBLESHOOTING OF BELT CONVEYOR TRAINING AND BELT DAMAGES

While each conveyor and each transfer point is unique and individual, there are a number of commonly encountered problems for
which general causes and possible cures can be prescribed. As follows a short course in conveyor belt training and belt damage
problem solving.

¨ Belt Training
Problem Cause Cure

Belt runs true when empty, but mistracks Off-center loading Adjust chute and other loading devices so load is delivered to center of belt
when loaded in line with direction of belt travel
Fluctuations in load Use notched chute to keep load peak in center of belt
Belt / idler contact not equal Adjust height of idlers for even contact

Conveyor belt runs to one side at a particular Idler(s) not at right angles to center line of belt Move the end of the idler to which belt has moved in the direction of the
point along conveyor belt travel
Conveyor frame “crooked,” or idler stand(s) not Survey and align components
centered on frame
Loose idler or roller Secure idler or roller in proper position
Structure not level, belt climbs to high side Align and level structure

Build-up of material on idlers Clean idlers; install effective belt cleaning and transfer point sealing

systems
One section of belt runs off to one side all Splice(s) not square Cut ends square and re-splice
along the conveyor
Belt edge worn or broken Repair belt edge; remove worn or out-of-square section and splice in new
section
Crooked or bowed belt If belt is new, it may correct itself when properly broken in. Otherwise,
replace with new belt or section
Holcim Group Support Ltd

CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/27


Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Problem Cause Cure

Conveyor belt runs to one side at some Improper belt loading Change loading point and loading conditions so that load is centered
distance along the conveyor line properly

Belt has erratic action, following no certain Belt too stiff to train May be due to new belt, if so allow proper break-in time (It may shorten
pattern break-in time if belt is left loaded during downtime).
Use more troughable belt
Install self-aligning training idlers
Belt runs off at head Head pulley or troughing idlers leading to head Survey and align pulley and adjacent troughing idlers
pulley out of alignment
Pulley lagging worn Replace worn lagging; use grooved lagging for wet conditions
Material accumulations on pulley face Clean up the fugitive material; install effective belt cleaning and transfer

point sealing systems


Belt running off at tail pulley Build-up material on return idlers and/or pulley Clean up the fugitive material; install effective belt cleaning and transfer
point sealing systems
Return rollers out of line Survey and align at right angle to frame
Unequal loading Adjust loading chute to properly center the load

Control flow with feeder belts and deflectors to load material at speed of
belt
Counterweight too light Recalculate weight required and adjust counter-weight or screw-take-up
accordingly
Belt runs off on certain days Idlers frozen Clean and lubricate rollers. Install effective belt cleaning and transfer point
sealing systems to control fugitive material
Environmental conditions alter tracking Install windscreens and /or conveyor covers to reduce exposure to
elements. Install self-adjusting idlers

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/28
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

¨ Belt Damage

Problem Cause Cure

Excessive wear on bottom cover of belt Slippage between belt and drive pulley or pulleys Increase tension on belt take-up device
Lag drive pulleys, or renew worn-out lagging
Increase arc of contact on drive pulley with snub pulley or use tandem drive
Sticking troughed idlers Clean and lubricate idlers to free rotation or replace
Install effective belt cleaning and transfer point sealing systems to control
fugitive material
Excessive troughed idler tilt Correct to not more than 2° from upright
Material grinding between pulley and belt Remove accumulated material. Install tail protection ploughs and effective

belt cleaning and transfer point sealing systems to control fugitive material
Wear on top (carrying) side of belt Excessive impact of material on belt Use correctly designed chutes and baffles, load fines first to minimize
impact level
Install impact cradles or impact idlers to absorb impact force
Excessive sag between idlers Reduce idler spacing or install belt support rails/bars to maintain sag-free
belt line
Wear on top (carrying) side of belt Dirty, sticking, or misaligned return idlers Clean, repair, lubricate, and align return idlers. Install tail protection ploughs
and effective belt cleaning and transfer point sealing systems to control
fugitive material
Abrasive “pooling” action in loading area Reduce chutes and feeder belts to feed load in same direction and at same

speed as belt travel


Belt folding back on self Realign idlers to center the belt. Remove obstruction causing belt edge to
fold back. Install misalignment limit switches to shut down power if belt
wanders

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/29
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Problem Cause Cure

Lengthways gouging or stripping of top cover Material entrapped by skirting Metal sides of chute or skirts too close to belt
Space between belt and skirtboard not increasing Adjust gap between skirt and belt to 10-18mm gap; gap should increase in

in direction of belt travel direction of travel


Skirt board seal too stiff and pressed against belt 0
Use more pliable seals (62 Shore); avoid use of used belting as seal strip
Belt spanks up and down on impact, allowing Install impact cradle, impact idlers, or troughed rails under loading zone to

material to become wedged into skirting maintain stable belt line


Jamming of material in chute Widen chute and/or control size and volume of material passing through
chute
Lengthways rips partially or entirely through Belt mistracking and snagging on structure Train belt
belt
Puncture by tramp iron Use metal detector or magnetic remover
Fastener failure Improve splice or vulcanize

Accumulations of material Remove accumulation, install cleaning devices, scrapers, improve house-

keeping
Star-shaped break or transverse break in belt Impact damage Use impact cradle below belt in loading zone to absorb impact energy
cover or carcass
Soft spots in cover or carcass, ruptures, Material impingement between belt and pulley Install tail protection plough to sweep material from return run of belt

cracks, gouges, or general fabric decay Install decking or guards to prevent material falling onto return run
Damage from exposure to abrasion, chemicals, Use belt designed for specific conditions
heat, mildew, oil, or environmental conditions Avoid over-lubrication of idlers
Enclose belt line for protection from environmental conditions
Improper storage and handling of belt Handle belt in accordance with manufacturer guidelines

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/30
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Problem Cause Cure

Excessive wear on belt edges Improper loading, side loading Control flow with feeders, chutes, and skirtboards
Feed should be in direction of belt travel in center of conveyor
Belt stained on one side Allow time for new belt to break in
If belt is not new or does not break in properly, replace strained section
Carcass or cover fatigue at idler junction Improper transition between troughed belt and Increase transition length. Use transition idlers
terminal pulley Elevate terminal pulley
Sever convex vertical curve Decrease idler spacing in cure area. Use transition idlers
Increase curve radius. Remove or lower any elevated idlers in curve area
Excessive forward tilt of trough idlers Reduce forward tilt
Excessive gap between idler rolls Replace with heavier belt. Replace idlers with new ones with maximum gap

of 10mm
Insufficient belt stiffness Replace belt with stiffer belt

Transverse break in belt immediately behind Fastener plates too long for pulley size Change to smaller/shorter plates in mechanical splices or increase pulley
mechanical splice size
Fastener pull-out Improper fastener or improper installation Review fastener selection and installation procedures
Excessive tension Reduce belt tension. Consider “soft” or slower start-up

Separation at vulcanized splice Excessive tension Recalculate and adjust tension


Pulleys too small Use larger diameter pulleys

Material between belt and pulleys Use skirtboards properly, remove accumulation improve maintenance

practice
Add decking and return run cleaning (tail protection) system
Splice improperly performed Re-do vulcanized splice

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/31
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Appendix 1

Specific Weights and Properties of Materials

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/32
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Specific Weights and Properties of Materials


NOTE: The below listed properties of materials are to be used unless the client advises
otherwise. The figures can have a large deviation depending on the material source.
Material Specific weights Angle of repose
Angle of Friction
surcharge angle
A B C For size of For civil (For (discharge
silos & design conveyor angle)
For conveyor size For conveyor H.P. For material loads stockpiles
design and size of silos & on building size design)
stockpiles structures
3 [lbs/ft3] 3 [lbs/ft3] 3 [lbs/ft3] [°] [°] [°] [°]
[kg/m ] [kg/m ] [kg/m ]
Cement (40% Puzzolan) 950 59 1300 81 1600 100 10 - 0- 5 -
Cement (40% Slag) 950 59 1300 81 1600 100 10 - 0- 5 -
Cement (Portland) 1000 62 1400 87 1600 100 10 20 0- 5 20
Clay: Fine (dry) 1000 62 1200 75 1600 100 25 30 5 - 10 -
Clay: Loose (dry) 1600 100 1800 112 2000 125 40 - 25 - 30 -
Clay: Loose (wet) 1800 112 2000 125 2000 125 50 15 25 - 30 -
Clinker 1200 75 1400 87 1600 100 35 30 20 - 25 30
Coal: Anthracite (as 800 50 900 56 1000 62 40 30 25 - 30 30
received)
Coal: Bituminous 700 44 800 50 900 56 40 35 25 - 30 35
Coal: Pulverized/Meal 600 37 700 44 800 50 15 15 0- 5 15
Gypsum (raw) 1280 80 1440 90 1600 100 40 35 25 - 30 -
Iron ore 2000 125 2400 150 2800 175 40 - 25 - 30 -
Kiln dust 600 37 800 50 1000 62 10 10 0- 5 -
Limestone (crushed) 1400 87 1500 94 1700 106 40 35 25 - 30 35
Petcock (as received) 600 37 700 44 800 50 40 20 25 - 30 -
Petcock (meal) 400 25 550 34 750 47 - - - -
Puzzolan: course (wet) 1200 75 1360 85 1520 95 30 - 15 - 20 -
Puzzolan: ground (dry) 950 59 1200 75 1360 85 20 - 5 - 10 -
Pyrite (pellets) 2100 131 - - - - 35 - 20 - 25 -
Raw meal 900 56 1200 75 1500 94 15 15 0- 5 15
Raw meal: blend. silo 900 56 1200 75 1500 94 15 15 0- 5 15
Raw meal: cont. blend 900 56 1200 75 1500 94 15 15 0- 5 15
Sand: dry (as received) 1400 87 1600 100 1680 105 40 35 25 - 30 35
Shale (crushed) 1300 81 1500 94 1680 105 40 35 25 - 30 35
Slag: blast furnace 1100 69 1200 75 1300 81 30 - 15 - 20 -
granular, (wet)
Slag: blast furnace, 900 56 1000 62 1200 75 20 - 5 - 10 -
ground, (dry)
Slag (pulverized 5600 Bl) 750 47 - - - - 15 - 0- 5 -

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/33
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Appendix 2

Conveyor Capacity Table

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/34
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Nominal volumetric flow rate [m3/h]

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/35
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Appendix 3

Standard Idler Dimension

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/36
Transport and Dust Collecting Manual
Version 1.05

Standard Idler dimension according to DIN 22107

Idler length
Belt Idler

Holcim Group Support Ltd


CTS - Mechanical Process Technology A1/37