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DOC. NO. KOC-C-OOS Page 2 of 58 REV.1

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(FORMERLY DES-C-003 & DES-C-0051,

(SUPERSEEDS SECTIONS 4.0 8a 10.10 OF 015RH-1001)


Page No.



3.1 Definitions
3.2 Abbreviations


4.1 Conflicts
4.2 List of Standards and Codes
4.3 KOC Standard Drawings




7.1 General Considerations
7.2 Design Criteria
7.3 External Walls
7.4 Cavity Insulation
7.5 Internal Walls and Partitions
7.6 Fire Resistance
7.7 Blast Resistance
7.8 Embedded Pipes and Conduits
7.9 Plastering


8.1 Supply and Storage of Materials
8.2 Cement
8.3 Sand
8.4 Lime
8.5 Water
8.6 Masonry Units
8.7 Clay Bricks
8.8 Sand Lime Bricks
8.9 Sand Cement Bllocks
8.10 Insulated Blocks
8.1 1 Cement Mortar
8.12 Damp Proof C m r s e {DPC)
8.13 Lintels, Sills and Copings
8.14 Concrete lnfill
8.15 Reinforcement
8.16 Metal Ties for Cavity Wall
8.17 Metal Lath
8.78 Thermal Insulation Batts (Slabs)
8.19 Admixtures and Pigments
8.20 Joint Fillers


9.7 Cement, Lime, Water & Admixtures
9.2 Fine Aggregates
9.3 Gypsum Plaster
9.4 Bonding Agent
9.5 Metal Lath
9.6 Metal Beads and Stops
9.7 Welded Fabric Mesh for Rainforced Rendering
9.8 Nails, Screws, Staples and Washers


30.1 General
70.2 Fac;ng Brick i Block Work
10.3 Mortar
10.4 Mortar Joints
10.5 Reinforcement
'10.6 Laying Bricks and Blocks
10.7 Cavity Walls
10.8 Joint between Partitions and Soffits
10.9 Connections Between Walls I Partitions and
Concrete I Steel Columns
10.10 Lintels
10.17 Filling HlolIow Blacks
10.12 Penetrations
10.13 Uflplastered Walls
10.14 Damp Praof Courses (DPC)
10.15 Bedding of Frames
10.16 Installation of Thermal Insulation
10.17 Weep Holes
10.18 Movement Joints
10.19 Chases
10.20 Flashings
10.21 Fixing of Door and Window Frames
10.22 Permissible Tolerances / Deviations
11.7 Storage of Materials
11.2 Mixing of Plaster
11.3 Classes & Thickness of Plaster Work
71.4 Preparation of Backgrounds
17.5 External Rendering
11-6 Application
11.7 Metal Lath Application
7 1.8 Sundries
11.9 Protection and Completion


12.1 General
12.2 Materials and Equipment Inspection
12.3 Visual Inspection
12.4 Sampling
12.5 Testing


14.1 General
14.2 Work Records and Reports
74.3 Deliverables

Appendix-I: Typ. Sketch for Masonry Unit &
Running Bond Masonry
Appendix-11: Standard Foundations & Details for
BricklRlock Wall
Appendix-Ill: Standard Wall Types and Details


This document "KOC Standard for Masonry Works and Plastering - Materiels and
Wclrkmanship" (KOC-'C-008) is intended to address the general need of practical
requirements for materials, construction, workmanship, testing and quality control of
masonry works (brick & block walls) and plastering involved in any KOC Civit Works.

This KOC Standard has been approved by Standards Team in consultation with
Standards Technicat Committee (STC) for consistent use throughout KOC for the
corporate engineering and operational functions of Kuwait Oil Company (K.S.C).

This Standard sets out to achieve the following objectives: -

a. To establish .:he minimum technical requirements of basic materials for sound and
durable consrruction of masonry works by d a y bricks or sand lime bricks and
concrete blocks including plastering for any building and other civil works.

b. To provide general technical inputs and guidance for developing project

specifications and design /construction drawings in order to ensure reliable and
quality works.

c. To set out minimum requirements for monitoring compliance of materials,

quality, testing and workmanship with a contract.

Feedback as well as any comments or suggestions from the application of this

Standard derived at any stage of engineering, construction, workmanship and
maintenance are encouraged and should be directed to:

The Team Leader Standards

(Chairman, Standards Technical Committee)
P.O. Box - 9758, Ahmadi 61 0 0 8
State of Kuwait

Task Force Responsible for this Standard

The preparation of this Standard has been entrusted by the Standards Technical
Committee (STC) to the Task Force No. (TF-C/09) comprising of the following

Mr. S. Kumar Standards Team Task Force Leader Tel. No. 6 1407
Mrs. Sana Al-Talha Design Team Member Tel. No. 61 352
Mr. Majeed Shehab Bldg. Maint. Team Member Tel. No. 66297

This Standard specifies the general technical requirements of basic

materials and workmanship for masonry works made by clay or sand lime
bricks and concrete blocks, and plastering to be used for buildings,
structures and drainage systems.

This S t a ~ d a r ddoes not cover the particular requirements for any special
brick works such as flue gas lining, refractory and acid resistant lining
including jointing mortar for any specific application as well as for stone and
rubble m3sonry and paving brickwork in any civil construction.

The materials and workmanship of masonry works and plastering shall

conform t o the requirements of this Standard and the reference standards
and codes mentioned herein.

Any exceptions or deviations from this Standard, along with their merits
and justifications, shall be brought t o the attention of KOC Controlling Team
for their review, consideration and amendment by Standards Team (if

Compliar,ce with this Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal
or statutory obligations.

For the purposes of this Standard, the following definitions shall apply.

Bac k g r o ~ n d

The material or combination of materials to which the first coat of plaster

or rendering is applied.

Bed Join!

Horizontal layer of mortar on which a masonry unit is laid.


The development of local swellings on a finished plaster surface.

Calcium Silicate (Sand Lime) Bricks

Masonry bricks made predominantly from lime and siliceous materials,

hardenec. by high pressure steam.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-008 1 Page 8 of 58 I REV.l


Construction that protects the t o p o f a wall, but does not shed rainwater
clear off the surfaces of the wall beneath.

Cavity Tray

DPC that bridges a wall cavity t o lead moisture t o the external face of wall,

Cavity Walls

T w o parallel single leaf walls, usually at least 50 m m apart, and effectively

tied together w i t h wall ties, the space between being left as a continuous
cavity or filled w i t h non-load bearing material.

Clay Bricks

Masonry bricks made from clay or other argillaceous materials w i t h or

without sand, fuel or other additives fired or burned at a sufficiently high
tempera.ture t o achieve a ceramic bond.

Clay bricks having a high gross dry density >I000 kg/m3 are called HD units
and t o be used i n unprotected and protected areas; while those having a
l o w gross dry density 11000 kg/m3 are called t D units and t o be used in
protected areas as per BS EN 771 -1.


External vertical, or near-vertical non-load bearing covering t o a structure

and may be continuous or in panels.

Compressive Strength o f Masonry

Maximum compressive force resisted per unit of net cross-sectional area of

masonry, determined b y t h e testing o f masonry prisms or a function of the
individual masonry units, mortar and grout in accordance w i t h the
provisioris o f ACI 530.1IASCE 6.


Any approved firm or company contracted by KOC, w h o are undertaking

t h e c o m ~ l e t econstruction o f the civil work.


Construction that protects t h e top o f a wall, balustrade or parapet and

sheds rainwater ciear o f f surfaces beneath.
3.1 .I3 Course

Single leyer of masonry units of uniform height, including the bed joint.

3.1.14 Curing

The process employed to maintain proper heat of hydration during chemical

reaction:; in order to ensure hardening by preventing excessive evaporation
or extreme temperature.

3.1 .1 5 Damp Proof Course (DPC)

Device, usually comprising a layer or strip of impermeable material, placed

at the junctions within a building or similar construction to prevent passage
of moisture.

3.1 .16 Dashed Finish

A rough textured finish usually external rendering of dry or wet dash.

3.1 .I7 Efflorescence

Crystalline deposit of salts on a surface as a result of the evaporation of

water from a salt solution.

3.1 .I 8 Facing Wall

A wall in which the facing and backing are so bonded as to result in

common action under load.

3.1.19 Fair Faced

Surface built neatly and evenly without applied finish.

3.1.20 Finishing Coat

The final coat in three (3) or t w o (2) coats of plaster work also referred to
as 'setting coat', 'face coat' or 'skimming coat'. Also for single coat works
the term:; 'skin coat' and 'finish coat' are used.

3.1.21 Float

A tool used in plaster work normally consisting of a flat rectangular wooden

board with a wooden handle grip attached to the back; and the form of the
tool depends on its particular function.
Floating Coat

The undercoat immediately preceding the final coat.

Fog Coal

Light coat of cement and water, with or without aggregate or colour

pigment, applied by machine spray to improve colour consistency.


Depression formed in one or both bed faces of a unit, the total volume of ali
such depressions which does not exceed a certain iimit ( 5 20%) of the
overall volume of the unit i.e, length x width x height.


The roughening of solid backgrounds, by hand or mechanical methods, to

provide a suitable key.


Shorter face of masonry unit showing on the face of a wall.

Head Joi ~t

Vertical mortar joint placed between masonry units within the Wythe at the
time the masonry units are laid.

Insulated Bricks

Light we-ght "Al Abyad" blocks made in Kuwait or equal, used as insulation
materials for external walls, internal partitions and hollow ceilings.


Forming 2nd finishing mortar joints as work proceeds without pointing.


A lightweight background for plastering, normally of strips or mesh and

spaced away from the structure, e.g. metal lathing, wooden laths or
gypsum lath.


The mariufacturer of bricks and / or concrete blocks or of any other

materials as per this Standard and relevant specification specified.
Masonry Units

An assemblage of structural units made of bricks or blocks, either laid in-

situ or constructed in prefabricated panels, in which the structural units are
bonded and solidly put together with mortar or grout; and may be
reinforced or un-reinforced.


A plastic: mixture of approved cementitious materials, fine aggregates and

water used t o bond masonry or other structural units.


Piaster may be cement and or gypsum based materials depending on the

place of application and architectural requirements.

Generally cement plaster used to be a mixture of Portland or blended

cement, Portland or blended cement and hydrated lime, masonry cement or
plastic cement and aggregate and other approved materials.

Gypsum plaster used normally as a mixture of calcined gypsum or calcined

gypsum and lime and aggregate and other approved materials.

Perpend Joint

Vertical cross joint that appears in the face of a wall between two masonry


Filling a partly raked back mortar joint to provide a finish.


Block of (a special shape for the construction of a corner.


A mix based on cement and / or lime with the addition of sand or other
aggregates, which is applied while plastic to external building surfaces and
which hardens after application.

Running Bond

The placement of masonry units such that head joints in successive

courses Ere horizontally offset at least one-quarter f % } the unit length.

Grooving, usually horizontal, of Portland cement plaster scratch coat ( I st

coat) to provide mechanical bond for the brown coat (2"" coat). Also a
decorative grooving of the finish coat.

Single Leaf Wall

A solid wall of bricks or blocks laid to overlap in one or more directions and
set solidly in mortar.

Stack Ecnd

The placement of masonry units other than running bond is such that head
joints in successive courses are vertically aligned.

Longer face of a masonry unit showing on the face of a wall.


Capacity for absorption possessed by a substrate.


A tool usually of highly tempered stee!, usually with a wooden hand grip
and made in a wide variety of patterns t o suit the types of application and

Tyrolean Machine

A machine which spatters or throws the material on the wall.


Plastering or rendering coat other than the final coat.

Water-Cement Ratio

Ratio of the mass of free water, excluding that water absorbed by the
aggregates in a saturated surface dry condition, t o the mass of cement in a
concrete mix.

Workabi ity

The property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar, which determines the

ease and homogeneity with which it can be mixed, placed, consolidated,
and finished.
3.1.50 Wythe

Each coqtinuous, vertical section o f a wall, one masonry unit in thickness.


f d Specified Compressive Strength of Masonry

HSE Health, Safety and Environment
ITP Inspection & Test Plan
KOC Kuwait Oil Company (K.S.C)
OPC Ordinary Portland Cement
PIM Pre-Inspection Meeting
SRPC Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement


In the event o f conflicts between this Standard and the standards / codes
referenczd herein, or other contractual requirements, the most stringent
requirement shall apply. In case further clarifications are required, the
subject shall be brought t o the attention o f KOC Controlling Department.

In general, the order of precedence shall be followed as:

a. Kuwait Governmental Rules and Regulations

b KOC Technical Specifications
c. This KOC Standard (KOC-C-008)
d. International codes and standards
e. Contractor's standards and specifications

List of Standards and Codes

The latest edition o f the following standards, codes and specifications shall

International / National Standards

ACI 2 1 6 . 1 Standard Method for Determining Fire Resistance o f

Concrete and Masonry Construction Assemblies

ACI 3 1 8 M / Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete w i t h

ACI 3 1 8 7 M Commentary

ACI 5247 Guide t o Portland Cement-Based Plaster

ACI 5 3 0 1 Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures and

ASCE 5 Commentary
ACI 5 3 0 . 1 / Specification for Masonry Structures

ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

ASTM A 8 2 Specification for Steel Wire, Plain, for Concrete


ASTM A 4 9 6 Specification for Steel Wire, Deformed, for Concrete


ASTM A 6 1 5 Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel Bars

for Concrete Reinforcement

ASTM A 6 4 1 Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated (Galvanized)

Carbon Steel Wire

ASTM C5 Standard Specification for Quicklime for Structural


ASTM C35 Standard Specification for Concrete Brick

ASTM CS2 Standard Specification for Building Brick (Solid Masonry

Units Made From Clay or Shale)

ASTM C57 Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Brick
and Structural Clay Tile

ASTM C73 Standard Specification for Calcium Silicate Brick (Sand

Lime Brick)

ASTM C30 Standard Specification for Load Bearing Concrete

Masonry Units

ASTM C31 Standard Specification for Masonry Cement

ASTM C 1 2 9 Standard Specification for Non-Load Bearing Concrete

Masonry Units

ASTM C 140 Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing

Concrete Masonry Units and Related Units

A S T M C 14 4 Standard Specification for Aggregates for Masonry Mortar

ASTM C150 Standard Specification for Portland Cement

ASTM C206 Standard Specification for Finishing Hydrated Lime

A S T M C-207 Standard Specification for Hydraulic t i m e for Masonry

ASTM C216 Standard Specification for Facing Brick (Solid Masonry

Units Made From Clay or Shale)

ASTM C270 Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry

ASTM C 3 3 1 Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for

Concrete Masonry Units

ASTM C 4 0 4 Standard Specification for Aggregates for Masonry Grout

ASTM C 4 7 6 Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry

ASTM C 5 9 5 Standard Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements

ASTM C 6 3 1 Standard Specification for Bonding Compounds for Interior

Gypsum Plastering

ASTM C 6 5 2 Standard Specification for Hollow Brick (Hollow Masonry

Units Made From Clay or Shale)

ASTM C 7 8 0 Standard Test Method for Preconstruction and

Construction Evaluation of Mortars for Plain and
Reinforced Unit Masonry

ASTM el341 Standard Specification for Installation o f Interior Lathing

and Furring

ASTM C847 Standard Specification for Installation of Metal Lath

ASTM (2387 Standard Specification for Packaged, Dry, Combined

Materials for Surface Bonding Mortar

ASTM C 8 9 7 Standard Specification for Aggregates for Job-Mixed

Portland Cement-Based Plaster

ASTM C 3 0 1 Standard Specification for Prefabricated Masonry


ASTM Ci326 Standard Specification for Application of Portland

Cement-Based Plaster

ASTM C!332 Standard Specification for Surface-Applied Bonding

Compounds for Exterior Plastering

ASTM C!333 Standard Specification for Welded Wire Lath

ASTM C946 Standard Practice for Construction of Dry-Stacked
Surface-Bonded Walls

ASTM C979 Standard Specification for Pigments for Integrally

Coloured Concrete

ASTM C l O l 9 Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout

ASTM C7 0 3 2 Standard Specification for Woven Wire Plaster Base

ASTM C1063 Standard Specification for Installation of Lathing and

Furring t o Receive Interior and Exterior Portland Cement-
Based Plaster

ASTM C1072 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Masonry

Flexure Bond Strength

ASTM (21314 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of

Masonry Prisms

ASTM D l 0 5 6 Standard Specification for Flexible Cellular Materials -

Sponge or Expanded Rubber

ASTM E" 1 9 Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building

Construction and Materials

BS 1 2 Portland Cement

BS 4 1 0 Test Sieves

BS 4 7 6 Fire Tests on Building Materials and Structures

BS 743 Specification for Material for Damp-proof Courses

BS 1 0 5 2 Specification for Mild Steel Wire for General Engineering


BS 1191 Gypsum Building Plasters

Part 1 : Excluding Premixed Lightweight
Part 2: Premixed Lightweight Plasters

BS 1 2 0 2 Specification for Nails Parts 1-3

BS 1369-1 Steel Lathing for Internal Plastering and External Rending

Part 1: Expanded Metal and Ribbed Lathing

BS 1 4 9 4 Fixing Accessories for Building Purposes Part 1: Fixings

for Sheet, Roof and Wall Coverings
Continuousty Hot-Dip Zinc Coated and Iron - Zinc Alloy
Coated Steel Flat Products: Toferances on Dimensions and

Water for Making Concrete (Including Notes on Suitability

of the Water)

Building and Construction Sealants - Methods of Tests

Parts 1, 2 & 4

Expanded Polystyrene Boards

Specification for Sulphate Resisting Cement

Specification for Supersulphated Cement

Specification for Carbon Steel Bars for the Reinforcement

of Concrete

Steel Fabric for the Reinforcement of Concrete

Methods of Testing Mortars, Screeds and Plasters -

Part 1: Physical Testing
Part 2: Chemical Analysis and Aggregates Grading

Dimensions of Bricks of Special Shapes and Sizes

Rigid Urethane Foam for Building Applications Part 2:

Laminated Board for Use as a Wall and Ceiling Insulation

Mortar Admixtures
Part 1 : Air-Entraining (Plasticizing) Admixtures
Part 2: Set Retarding Admixtures

Code of Practice for External Renderings

Bonding Agents for Use with Gypsum Plasters and

Cement Part 1: Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAC) Emulsion
Bonding Agents for Indoor Use with Gypsum Building

Guide t o Accuracy in Building

Thermal Insulation of Cavity Walls (with Masonry or

Concrete Inner and Outer Leaves) by Filling with Urea -
Formaldehyde (UF) Foam Systems
Code o f Practice for Use o f Masonry
Part 1 : Structural Use of Un-reinforced Masonry
Part 2: Structural Use o f Reinforced and Pre-stressed
Part 3:,Materia!s and Components, Design and Workmanship

Sills and Copings

Part 1: Specification for Window Sills o f Pre-cast Concrete,
Cast Stone, Clayware, Slate and Natural Stone
Part 2: Coping o f Pre-cast Concrete, Cast Stone, Clayware,
Slate and Natural Stone

Pre-cast Masonry Units - Parts 1 & 2

Selection of Construction Sealants - Guide

Bitumen Damp proof Courses for Masonry

8s 6 3 9 9 Loading for Buildings -

(Parts) Part 1 : Code of Practice for Dead and lmposed Loads
Part 2: Code of Practice for Wind Loads
Part 3 : Code of Practice for lmposed Roof Loads

Water Repellants for Masonry Surfaces

Thermal lnsulation of Cavity Walls Using Man-Made

Mineral Fibre Batts (Slabs) Part 2: Code of Practice for
Installation o f Batts (Slabs) Fitting t h e Cavity

Mastic Asphalt for Building and Civil Engineering

(Limestone Aggregate)

Code o f Practice for Stabilization and Thermal lnsuiation

o f Cavity walls ( w i t h Masonry or Concrete lnner and
Outer Leaves) b y Filling w i t h Polyurethane (PUR) Foam

Polyurethane (PUR) Foam Systems Suitable for

Stabilization and Thermal Insulation o f Cavity walls w i t h
Masonry or Concrete lnner and Outer Leaves

Workmanship o n Building Sites - Part 3: Code of Practice

for Masonry

Code o f Practice for Assessing Exposure o f Walls t o Wind

Driven Rain

Code of Practice for Design and installation o f Damp proof

Courses in Masonry Construction
Specification for Masonry Cement

Building Lime: Definitions, Specifications and Conformity

Criteria (Parts 1-3)

Specification for Masonry Units

Part 1 : Clay masonry units
Part 2: Calcium Silicate Masonry Units

Methods o f Test for Masonry Units (Parts 1-20)

Specification for Ancillary Components for Masonry

Part 1 : Ties, Tension Straps, tiangars and Brackets
Part 2: Lintels
Part 3: Bed Joint Reinforcement o f Steel Meshwork

Admixtures for Concrete, Mortar and Grout Parts 2-4 & 6

Specification for Mortar for Masonry

Part 1 : Rendering and Plastering Mortar
Part 2: Masonry Mortar

Methods o f Tests for Masonry -

Parts 1-4, 6-7, 9-1 2, 1 7- 19 & 2 1

Continuously Hot-Dip Coated Strip and Sheet o f Low

Carbon Steels for Cold Forming Technical Delivery

Specification for Aggregates for Concrete

Pigments for the Colouring o f Building Materials Based on

Cement and/or Lime - Specifications and Methods o f Test

Aggregates for Mortar

BS EN I S 0 1 1 6 0 0 Building Construction Jointing Products Classification and

Requirements for Sealants

International Code Council - International Building Code 2000

UBC - 9;' *
Uniform Building Code, Vol. 2 - Structural Design
KOC-C-00 1 KOC Standard for Basic Civil Engineering Design Data

KOC-C-002 KOC Recommended Practice for Engineering Design Basis

of Civil and Structural Works

KOC-C-C05 KOC Standard for Materials and Workmanship - Site

Preparation and Earth Works

KOC-C406 KOC Standard for Concrete Work - Materials and


KOC-C-C:23 KOC Standard for Grouting for Bases - Materials and


KOC-C-C30 KOC Recommended Practice for Blast Resistant Design of


KOC-G-(104 KOC Standard for Packing, Marking and Documentation

KOC-G-GO7 KOC Standard Basic Design Data

KOC-L-025 KOC Recommended Practice for Scaffolding

KOC Fir€ & Safety Regulations (Latest)

KOC Standard Drawincis

15-1-27 Typical Blockwork Bonding

1 5-24-2 1 Standard Foundations & Details for Brick Wall and Block Wall

15-24-53 Standard Wall Types and Details

The environmental conditions in Kuwait are severe. Due regard should be

given t o the consistently high levels o f solar radiation experienced in
Kuwait, which may develop surface temperatures o f over 80°C (176°F) in
exposed metals.

Refer t o KOC-(3-007 "KOC Standard for Basic Design Data" which provides
the detailed design information regarding the environmental, site and utility
supply conditions prevailing throughout the KOC facilities.
The encheering requirements should meet all the applicable Kuwaiti EPA
Regulatims and should conform to the relevant KOC Health and
Environment (H&E) Guidelines with a view to protecting personnel and
surrounding environment.

All relevant safety requirements of KOC Fire & Safety Regulations and KOC
Health, Safety & Environment Management System (HSEMS) shall be
adhered to, by the designer / contractor, while performing the Work within
KOC areas.


General Considerations

The masonry (brick & block) works finished with plasters shall be provided
t o impart strength, stiffness, durability and good appearance to buildings /
structures by considering the basic technical requirements and incorporating
them by means of proper design, materials selection and workmanship in
the construction as described in the various clauses of this Standard.

Desiqn Criteria

The general loads such as dead, live, equipment including impact, wind or
seismic loads and any other applicable special loads, shall be accounted in
the design of building / structure or any part thereof in compliance with
KOC-C-001 "KOC Standard for Basic Civil Engineering Data" and ASCE 7 or
BS 6399 (Parts) for their intended service and design load combinations.

The worst load combinations shall be taken into consideration so that they
will be resisted adequately by means of a structural system by acceptable
deformation within elastic limits; and shall then be transferred safely by the
foundations t o underlying soil within allowable settlement.

As Kuwait falls under seismic zone 1 as per UBC 97 and KOC-C-001, no

special provisions are required for this seismic criterion in low rise buildings
5 1 8 m in height.

The masonry or any elements of it shall be designed as structurally load

bearing units or non-load bearing units as applicable, considering proper
restraints, stiffness and stability. They shall be detailed and installed, based
on type of construction shown in the approved drawings in accordance
with ACI 5 3 0 / ASCE 5 or BS 5628 Parts 1-3 as appropriate.

The design procedures for masonry works shall follow working stress
methods in which the stresses resulting from service loads shall not exceed
permissible service load stresses.
7.2.6 Each portion of the structure shall be designed based on the specified
compressive strength of masonry (f,) for that part of the work, and the
calculated compressive stress in masonry based on actual rather than
nominal dimensions shall not exceed the values given in Table I of this
Standarc; as per ACI 530.

Tabre I: Allowable Compressive Stresses for Empirical Desinn of M320nry

(as per ACI 530 / ASCE 5) (Refer N o t e - I )

U n i t o n Gross Area Stresses on Gross Cross -

IMPal sectional Area (kPa] +

M o r t a r Type Mortar ;
M or S Type f4
Solid Masonry o f Bricks 1 55 or Greater 2410 2070 1
Blocks (Clay, Sand lime, 37 1550 7380 '
Concrete) 17 1100 960
10 790 690
Grouted Masonry o f 31 or Greater 1550 1380
. - ,

Bricks / Blocks (clay,

Sand lime, Concrete)
690 ,I
Sold Mas-onty of Solid 2 t or Greater 1550 1380
Co icrete Units 14 7 100 960
8 790 690
Masonry of Hollow Load- 14 or Greater 960 830
bearing Units 10 7 90 690
7 5 20 480
5 410 380 1'(

Hollow Walls (Non- Solid Units:

cornposite Masonry 17 or Greater 1100 1 9~
Bonded) 10 _- 790 690 I
I Hollo-w-
Units I 520- I -4 8 0 1
* I kPa Z l O - 2 k g l c r n Z
Note-1: Members not working integrally w i t h the structure such as partition or panel walls
or any member not (or n o t permanently) absorbing or transmitting forces resulting
from the structure's behaviour under loads may be determined empirically.
Empirical design shall be adopted for limited height and l o w seismic exposure.

7.2.7 Otherwise alternatively, the compressive strength of each Wythe shall be

determi~edby the unit strength method or by the prism test method of
masonry units, and shall satisfy the allowable stresses given in the
following Tables II & Ill as per ACI 530.1 for clay and concrete units.

7.2.8 The masonry design shall also take into account other material properties of
creep, shrinkage, moisture 1 thermal expansion, elasticity etc. of clay or
concrete masonry in accordance with the relevant ciauses of the referenced
Standards (ACI or BS).
External Walls

External walls o f a building shall be either solid walls or cavity walls as

specifiec b y KOC or the Designer / Contractor t o suit t h e functional
requirements and intended purpose o f the building.

For construction of cavity walls, external walls shall be provided w i t h a

cavity between outer leaf of brickwork and inner leaf of concrete block
work. Cavity size shall be determined b y the Designer/ Contractor from the
requirements of thermal conductivity and barrier.

The construction o f external walls shall be w i t h clay or sand lime brickwork

as specfied for solid walls. For cavity walls, the outer leaf shall b e
constructed w i t h claytsand lime brickwork and the inner leaf made w i t h
reinforced concrete blocks, both o f which are then bonded together b y wall
metal ties i n compliance w i t h BS 5 6 2 8 or ACI 530. However each leaf o f a
cavity wall should n o t be less than 7 5 m m thick.

A n air gap o f minimum 2 5 m m t o 5 0 m m shall be provided in cavity

between facing bricks and insulation, w i t h air bricks t o allow through

Weep h d e s shall be provided in "perpends" at 1 2 0 0 m m maximum centres

above damp proof courses.

Open joints shall be provided in perpends of every fourth joint above ground

The overall external wall construction shall be designed t o achieve minimum

thermal conductivity (U) value of 0.6W/mZ/oC or as specified by KOC.

Cavitv Insulation

Cavity insulation shall be provided in the form of batts or slab in compliance

w i t h the requirements BS 3 8 3 7 , BS 4 8 4 1 or BS 6 6 7 6 w i t h the progress o f
work as per the KOC approved Manufacturer's instructions.

Insulation shall not be pushed into the cavities; and the t o p edge o f the
thermal nsulation as well as the exposed outer leaf shall be cleaned from
any mortar droppings.

Internall Wallls and Partitions

Concrete Masonry Partitions

The internal masonry walls shall be constructed w i t h minimum 1 5 0 m m

thick concrete blocks and shall extend t o underside o f roof and / or
structurzl beams unless otherwise stated.
Unless otherwise specified, all internal walls and partitions shall be laterally
restrained. The slenderness ratio i.e. the length or height of the wall divided
by its thickness in relation to its end connections shall be within the limits
as specified in BS 5628 Part 3.

Fire Resistance

Masonry walls shall comply with the specified fire rating in accordance with
clause 9 . 0 of KOC-C-001 "KOC Standard for Basic Civil Engineering Design
Data" and shall be designed for their appropriate use t o have fire resistance
requirerrents as detailed in BS 5 6 2 8 or as specified by KOC or by the
Designer / Contractor in the Project's scope of work and drawings.

Unless ctherwise specified, fire resisting walls shall be considered t o cover

the general areas of KOC plants and facilities as follows:

Control Rooms
Plant Rooms
Electrical Rooms
Test Rooms
Compartment Walls
Escape Routes
Staircase Enclosures
Other Rooms (as specified)

Blast Resistance

If a particular building (new or existing) is recommended t o withstand a

specified blast pressure, the building shall be designed and / or upgraded as
blast resistant t o include the requirements as given in KOC-C-030 "KOC
Recommended Practice for Blast Resistant Buildings".

Embedded Pines and Conduits

Pipes shall not be embedded in masonry when under pressure in excess of

5 5 psi and containing liquid, gas, or vapour a t temperature higher than
65.56"C {I 50°F) as well as water or other liquids subject t o freezing.

Aluminurn should not be used in masonry unless i t is effectively coated or

covered to prevent reaction w i t h concrete, grout and mortar; and in
presence of chloride ions, may also have an electrolytic reaction w i t h steel
causing cracking and /or spalling of the masonry.

Embedded pipes and conduits i n masonry need t o allow unrestrained

Plaster made of mainly Portland cement and sand mixed with some
percentages of lime should have certain desirable properties in both fresh
and hardened state t o allow proper application and long term service.

A properly mixed fresh plaster should have good adhesion and cohesion
characte:istics and should retain workability for long time to apply on the
surface and obtain the desired finish. Hardened piaster should be weather
resistant durable, and should provide the specified appearance criteria like
colour ar.d texture.

Further hardened plaster should have the ability to withstand wind and rain
penetration, resist freezing and thawing, thermal changes, and aggressive
chemicals like sulphate, and shall have good bonding properties and high
tensile strength t o prevent cracking.


Supplv and Storane of Materials

All materials shall be adequately protected from contamination, free from

undue damages and from the weather during loading, transportation and
storage. Bricks and blocks shall be handled with care during unloading and
those found t o be chipped, soiled or soaked heavily w i t h water I moisture
or salts shall be rejected.

All bricks and blocks shall be stacked over proper platforms to protect them
from ground contamination and shall be covered if necessary by tarpaulins
t o prevent adverse weather effects in winter periods.

All substandard bricks or blocks shall be immediately removed from site.

Prepackaged materials shall be placed, not directly on ground but on the

suitable platforms made of wood, plywood or steel.

Cement and lime shall be stored in dry conditions under cover above the
ground. -ime shall be segregated and stored separately from cement so that
no cross contamination can happen even inadvertently.

The materials shall be selected, inspected, approved and further stored at

site which shall comply with the specifications as laid out in the following
clauses of this Standard.
Cement shall be Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) complying with the
requirements as per BS 12 or ASTM C150 Type I for aboveground masonry
work, and sulphate resisting cement (SRPC) shall be used as per BS 4027
or ASTPA 1 5 0 Type V for belowground work unless otherwise specified.
Supersu:phated cement shall conform to BS 4248.

For further details, refer t o KOC-C-006 "KOC Standard for Concrete Work-
Materials and Construction".


Sand SF-all be clean, sharp and coarse grained materials conforming to

ASTM C 3 3 or BS EN 12620 (for concrete) and ASTM C144 or BS EN
131 69 {for mortar). It shall be chemically and structurally stable, and
mechanically washed and screened free from all impurities. Under any
circumstances, sea shore sand shall not be used in any works.

Sand shall be well graded in compliance with Table IV of this Standard.

Table 1V:Mortar Sand Permissible Gradinq


Lime shall be either imported lime or Kuwait quicklime.

Imported lime shall be fresh, hydrated non-hydraulic or semi-hydraulic lime

and shall comply with the requirements given in either BS EN 459 (Parts 1-
3) or ASTM C207.

Kuwait quicklime obtained from the Sand Lime Brick Plant of National
Industries Co. shall be completely hydrated by the Contractor as per the
following procedure and shall be approved by KOC prior t o use.

a. Small Quantities

For h ~ d r a t i o nof small quantities of quicklime, they shall be placed into a

drum or barrel containing at least twice by weight as much water as lime;
and shall be stirred thoroughly to get an even mixture. Then it should be
left to slake for not less than 2 4 hours to become a saturated hydrate of
lime (known as lime putty) with free water standing at top. The hydrate
may be stored with free water covering for a few days, depending on the
prevailing climatic conditions.

b. Large Quantities

For hydration of large quantities of quicklime, they shall be placed into a

drum or barrel containing at least twice by weight as much water as lime;
and shall be stirred thoroughly to get an even mixture. it should be left to
slake for time not less than one ( 1 ) hour; and then the resultant mixture
shall t e passed through a sieve into a storage pit, where it should remain
with free water on top at least for 2 4 hours prior to use.


Water shall be clean and free from deleterious amounts of acids, alkalis or
organic materials. It shall comply with clause 7.5 of KOC-C-006.

Masonry Units

Masonry units are comprised of brick and / or block works, made from
commonly available materials such as clay, sand time, and concrete by
press moulding and drying by burning, firing, steam curing or other
acceptable means. They can be solid, hollow or perforated types having
generally rectangular parallelepiped shape to the required dimensions; and
used as toad bearing or non load bearing walls as well as partition walls for
buildings and other civil construction.

The Conrractor shall furnish for the type of masonry units t o be used, the
test reports which was performed within the previous six months for
conformance t o the given requirements of the project for initial acceptance.

The Marufacturer shall test the sample specimens as per BS EN 7 7 2 or

ASTM equivalent referenced in clause 4.2 of this Standard in order t o
determine the genera! properties of masonry units or as specified by KOC.
He should declare the minimum value of compressive strength, which the
masonry units must exceed and the lowest individual value must exceed
8 0 % of the declared value.

The bricks/blocks shall be adequately covered with tarpaulins to protect

from rain and should not be saturated with moisture t o prevent
efflorescence and dampness. They shall be made fully dry prior t o use.

The Contractor shalt ensure that if possible all the quantity should be
purchased at one time from the same batch in order t o maintain the same
colour a r d texture of the masonry work.
8.7.1 Normally clay bricks shall be pre-moulded, well burnt bricks, and being high
dry density (HD) units.:'The bricks may be solid with or without frogs,
hollow or perforated as per BS EN 771-1, ASTM C62, ASTM C216 or
ASTM C652 to meet the project requirements. Over-burnt bricks shall not
be used, rejected and removed immediately from the site.

8.7.2 The bricks shall be hard, sound and square with well defined edges, and
free frorn any cracks, flaws, chipping or other visible defects. The bricks
shall ha\ce even and uniform colour as specified, and shall be obtained from
a single source responsibility to match the same.

8.7.3 The work size dimensions of the clay bricks shall be 275mrn x 102.5rnm x
65 mm with the deviation limits for dimension as specified in BS EN 771 -1.

8.7.4 The clay bricks shall be sampled and tested in accordance with ASTM C67
or BS EN 772; and shall have the declared value of minimum average
compressive strength not less than 75 MPa (75 Nlmm2) for Class B Type,
with wa-rer absorption of any individual unit not exceeding 7 % by mass as
per BS EN 771 -1.

1 8.8 Sand Lime Bricks

8.8.1 Sand lime (calcium silicate) bricks shall be pre-cast, solid bricks hardened by
high pressure steam, having the required classes to be specified on the
basis of either gross dry density (in ~ / m or ~ )on normalized compressive
strength (in ~ / m m ' ) as per BS EN 771-2 or ASTM C73. The sand lime
bricks st-all be obtained from National industries Co. at Kuwait or equal and
shall be mechanically loaded at their brick plant.

8.8.2 The briccs shall be hard, sound and square with well defined edges, and
free from any cracks, flaws, chipping or other visible defects. The bricks
shall have even and uniform colour like beige or similar and shall be
procured from a single source responsibility t o match the same.

8.8.3 The work size dimensions shall be 215 mrn x 102.5 rnm x 65 mrn with the
tolerance limits for the sand lime bricks as specified in BS EN 771 -2.

8.8.4 The sand lime bricks shall be sampled and tested in accordance with ASTM
C67 or BS EN 772; and shall have the declared vafue of minimum average
compres:;ive strength not less than 20.5 MPa with water absorption of any
individual unit not exceeding 1 5 % by mass.
- DOC. M 0. U 0 C - C - W
Page 30 of 58
Sand Cement Blocks

Concrets masonry (sand cement) blocks shall be pre-cast solid or hollow

blocks made with cement and sand (1:s) in compliance with afl the
requirements of BS 6073 Part 1 or normal weight solid units to ASTM C90
Type 1, Class 1. Concrete masonry units may also be specified as per
ASTM C55. Concrete units shall be obtained from National industries Co. or
approved equal in the following nominal sizes of Table V as below:

Table V: Nominal Bbck Sizes


11 Bloc% Sizes 1 Dimensions - 1 1

The blocks shall be hard, sound and square with well defined edges free
from any cracks, flaws, chipping or other defects and shall have
dimensicnal tolerances within +_ 1 %.

I n case t~locksare press moulded at Site in approved moulds using vibrating

pressure machines, they shall be placed on a clean, level non-absorbent
pallet immediately after moulding, and shall be cured by keeping them
thorougt-ly w e t for minimum seven (7) days by applying fresh water with
sprinklers or other approved means. Blocks shall be stacked in honeycomb
fashion after curing for a further period of 2 4 days prior to moving for use.
Solid stacking in any case shall not be permitted.

The conzrete blocks t o be used as load bearing units shall have as per
ASTM C90 minimum allowable compressive strength of 13.1 MPa (net
area) for average of 3 units and not less than 11.7 MPa (net areal for an
individual unit, when tested in accordance with ASTM G I 40.

The concrete blocks to be used as non-load bearing units shall conform t o

ASTM C129, having minimum allowable compressive strength of 4.14
WlPa (net area) for average of 3 units and not less than 3.45 MPa (net area)
for an individual unit; when tested in accordance with ASTM C140.

The blocks shall have minimum oven dry density of 2000 kg9m3 when
tested in accordance with BS EN 772-13; and moisture content for average
of 3 units, when delivered, shall not exceed 2 0 % of the total absorption,
when tested as per ASTM C140.

If required for each type o f masonry construction, masonry prism tests shall
be c o n d ~ c t e dwith at least three f3) prisms as per ASTM 1314.

The blocks shall be labeled as "Load-bearing" or "Non-Load bearing" for

use and t o be kept separately.
Reinforced concrete block work shall be made in accordance with BS 5628
Part 2.

Insulated Blocks

Light weight, insulated "Al Abyad" blocks made by National Industries Co

at Kuwsit or approved equal shall be used wherever specified, to maintain
proper heating and coojing in buildings. Generally the sizes of the blocks
shall be 600 mm x 200 m m x 200 m m for use.

These blocks shall meet the following properties as below:

a. Density = 450-498 kg/m3

0.91 Btu. in
b. Thermal Conductivity (Kp) = --
f t 2 . h, OF
c. Compressive Strength = 3 0 kg/cm2

Cement Mortar

Normally cement sand mortar shall meet the requirements of ASTM C270
or BS 51528, with cement and sand conforming to clauses 8.2 & 8.3 of this
Standard. If required, strength and properties of mortar should be evaluated
in accordance with ASTM C780.

Where admixtures are added t o the mortar, they shall comply with BS 4887
or BS EN 934, and shall be in accordance with the recommendations by
KOC approved manufacturer for the class of mortar being mixed.

For clay bricks, mortar mix shall be generally used as 1 :I

:5 (cement : lime :
sand); and for exposed masonry works such as cills, tappings, copings,
parapets etc, the mortar mix shall be 1:4/4:3 (cement, lime and sand).

For sand lime brickwork above ground level, mortar mix to be used shall be
generally 1 :2:8 to 9 (Portland cement, lime and sand) or 1 :7 to 8 (Portland
cement 2nd sand) with plasticizer.

For sand lime brickwork below ground level, mortar mix shall be 1 :I :5 to 6
(sulphate resisting Portland cement, lime and sand) or 1 :5 to 6 (sulphate
resisting Portland cement and sand) with plasticizer.

Generally mortar mix for common facing brick / block work shall be 1 :1:5 to
6 (Fortiand cement, lime & sand) or 1 :5 t o 6 (Portland cement& sand) with
plasticizer; and sulphate resisting cement shall be used for the same below
ground level.

Surface bonding mortar if required shall comply with ASTM C887. Surface
bonding of concrete masonry units shall comply with ASTM C 946.
If cement mortar is specified in accordance with ASTM (2270, then the
following types shall be applied for masonry work as below:

i. Type 'M' for below grade or in contact with earth;

ii Type 'S' for load bearing masonry and
111. Type IN' for non-load bearing masonry.

Damp proof course (DPC) materials shall be a single layer of five ply tropical
quality bituminized fiber felt damp proof course weighing not less than 3.25
kg/m2ccmplying with BS 7 4 3 Type 58.

The damp proof course shall be well lapped at corners and joints and
bedded in hot bitumen and pointed both sides in cement mortar 1:4 and
shall be ~ r o v i d e deven if not indicated on drawings.

Lintels, Sills and Copinqs

The lintels shall be cast in-situ reinforced concrete in compliance with BS

81 1 0 and pre-cast pre-fabricated lintels, where specified shall be as per the
requirements specified in BS EN 845-2.

The sills shall be cast in-situ reinforced concrete complying with BS 81 10;
but refer to BS 5642 Part 1 for the sills of pre-cast concrete, clayware,
slate or natural stone if specified by KOC or by the Contractor.

Copings made of bricks, concrete, clayware, stone or slate shall comply

with BS 5642 Part 2.

Concrete infill for reinforced block work shall comply with BS 5628 Part 2
with the aggregates not exceeding 1 0 m m in sizes.

Reinforcing bars used in bed joints, concrete infill and brick piers shall
comply with the following relevant standards In Table VI as below:

Table VI: Rsinforcina Bars

2 Hand drawn mild steel wire for concrete BS 4482 1 ASTM A496 1
I reinforcement I - I
1 3 Steel fabric for concrete reinforcement BS 4483 / ASTM A82 j
Steel expansion metal or welded mesh strip reinforcement shall be of an
approve3 type and pattern by KOC.

Metal Ties For Cavitv Wall


Metal ties t o use for bonding outer and inner leaves in cavity walls shalt be
galvanizad expanded metal strips or galvanized woven mesh (300 m m wide
minimum). Corner angle beads shall be galvanized expanded metal.

Wall ties shall comply with BS EN 845 -1 and shall be hot dip galvanized
steel or stainless steel.

Metal Lath

Metal lath shall be galvanized, minimum 75 mm wide; and shall be shot

fired at 1 2 5 0 m m minimum centre as ties t o concrete at one end and built
into the block work at the other end.

-merrnal Insulation Batts [Slabs)

Thermal insulation batts (slabs) for cavity walls shall comply with the
requirements BS 6676 Part 2 or BS 4841. The batts shall be manufactured
from man-made mineral fiber bonded together t o provide a layered structure
using a waterproof thermosetting polymer and shall be treated.

The batts shall not contain any foreign matter or lumps of the ingredients
materials, greater than 25 mm in size. Batts when measured shall have the
density within * 1 5 % of the manufacturer's stated density and when tested
for water retention, the average shall not exceed 1 % by volume.

The batts when tested shall have minimum thermal conductivity not more
than the manufacturer's stated value.

Admixtures and Piqmsnts

Admixtu-es for mortar shall be in compliance with the requirements with BS

4887 or BS EN 934.

Pigments for coloured mortar if specified for any application shall be in

accordance with BS EN 12878 and shall be limited to 1 0 % of the weight of

Joint Fill-

Pre-formed compressible fillers for expansion joints shall be bitumen

impregnated fiber board or cork of minimum 2 0 m m thickness with a
tolerance of k 1.5 mm, and of such width that it will comply with the
specified joint details,
Joint sealer shall be a polymer based sealant as specified in the drawing or
specification from a KOC approved Manufacturer and shall be applied as per
his recommendations. A sample shall be submitted to KOC for approval
prior t o applying in the work.

The horizontal and vertical joint between walls shall be filled with intufoam
or equal as manufactured by KOC approved manufacturer and shall comply
with BS 476.


Cement, Lime, Water & Admixtures

The basic materials to be used in plastering such as Portland cement, slaked

lime, water and admixtures shall comply with the requirements as specified
in clauses 8.2, 8.4, 8.5 and 8.18 of this Standard for details.

Masonry cement for plastering shall comply with BS EN 41 3-1 or ASTM


Fine Aswesates

Fine aggregates shall be clean, washed, dry and free from any
contamination of organic / inorganic impurities and shall not contain other
deleterious substances more than 5 % by weight. The moisture content
should be 3 % t o 5 % before use; otherwise clean water should be sprinkled
t o maintain the surface moisture especially in hot summer.

Fine aggregates shall comply with the requirements of ASTM C144, BS EN

12620 c)r BS EN 1313 9 and shall be hard, sound and mixture of well graded
particles as per Table V11 below:

Table VI1: Sand Gradinq For Plastering

Gvpsum Plaster

Gypsum shall be retarded semi-hydrate for building plaster 'Class B Type'

complying with BS 1 191 Part 2.
-DOC. NO. KOC-C-008
- A Page 35 of 58 REV.1
Bondinq Agent

Polyvinyl acetate (PVAC) emulsion bonding agents for use in plaster shall
comply with 8 s 5270 or ASTM C631 for interior plaster and ASTM C 9 3 2
for exterior plaster.

Metal Lath

Metal lath shall be used as background for plastering complying with 8s

1369; and shall be expanded metal mesh made from tight coat galvanized
steel sheets in accordance with 8 s 2989 Grade 22, coating type C with a
minimun~aperture of 6 mm. Metal lath may conform t o ASTM C847.

The lath shall weigh not less than 1.84 ~ g / m

~ shall be self-firring
diamond mesh, standard mesh or 1.9 mm high rib weighing at least 2.9

Corner lath shall be diamond mesh metal lath as described in clauses 9.5.1
& 9.5.2 above, bent t o form t w o (2) 75 m m wide wings.

Strip lath shall be diamond mesh metal lath as specified above and shall be
not less than 1 5 0 m m wide.

Metat Beads and Staas

Metal beads and stops shall be profiled t o suit the thickness of plaster to be
applied and shall be manufactured from tight coat galvanized steel to 8 s
2989 Gr.ade 22, coating type C.

Care shall be taken t o ensure that metal beads are kept dry without any
distortion during storage and handling; and shall be without any damages t o
the galvanized coating.

Welded Fabric Mesh for Reinforced Renderinq

Welded fabric shall be made by wires of diameter not less than 2.5 m m
with 25 mm x 25 mm squares mesh and shall be galvanized.

Nails, Screws, Staples and Washers

Nails, screws and washers shall be of galvanized steels. Nails shall be as

per BS 1202 Part 1 and staples t o BS 1494.


All masonry works shalt be carried out by the Contractor in an efficient

manner in accordance with ACI 530.1 and BS 5628.

All mascnry work shall be built in stretcher (running) bond.

Facinq Brick / Block Work

Facing bricks shall be selected for size, colour and shape as specified to
give a g ~ o dfinished surface, and shall be pointed as the work proceeds to
the respective dimensions, thicknesses and heights shown on the drawings.

In facing block work, damaged blocks shall not be used and shall be
rejected immediately and where blocks are t o be cut a saw shall be used.

Prior to laying bricks or blocks, wetting shall be done only where necessary
to adjust suction on the faces in contact with the mortar considering the
ambient conditions.


Generally mortar shall be machine mixed and mixed dry t o the proportions
of materials specified in the mix to be applied. Then water is added to get
the correct consistency and uniformity in distribution of materials. Before
mixing il fresh series of batches, the mixer drum shall be thoroughly

Hand mixing shall be done on a clean and watertight platform first in dry
condition and then water is slowly added until the correct consistency and
uniform distribution of materials is obtained.

Mortars shall be used within 3 0 minutes of the addition of water and the
excess not used then shall be immediately discarded. Mortar shall not be
remixed after the initial set has taken place.

Mortar Joints

All mortar joints between bricks / blocks shalt be as specified and shall be
solidly f lled t o a minimum thickness of 1 0 mm, but at any point shall be,
not more than 15 mm. All cross joints shall be filled by pasting the mortar
fully over the end of the brick/block and then pushing it into position against
the other.

Joints that are not tight at the time of tooling shall be raked out, pointed
with fresh mortar, and then retooled.
Block walls and all half brick walls including those in facing bricks shall be
built in stretcher bond. Brick walls of one brick thick or over shall have one
stretcher course t o one header course. Intersections of block walls shall be
properly bonded in alternative courses.

Generally exposed block works shall be pointed as specified w i t h the

progress of the work. Joints and beds shall be filled with mortar except
those facings which are t o receive external or internal plastering, and shall
be raked out not exceeding 5 m m deep using a key w i t h shoulder t o prevent
deeper raking.

All exposed horizontal mortar joints shall be raked out or pressed back to
give a u-iform appearance. Recessed joints shall be pointed or flushed back
to give a flush mortar joint.


External Walls

Bed joint reinforcement conforming to reinforcing bars of BS 4449 or ASTM

A 6 1 5 shall be provided in every block work course for external walls.
Vertical reinforcing bar shall not be less than 12 m m diameter and shall be
provided in core of every block work

Internal Walls

a. Galvanized expanded metal lathing over the width of the block work
for internal walls shall be fully bedded into every third horizontal block
work course unless reinforcement is provided.

b. Vertical reinforcement not less than 8 m m diameter shall be provided

a t spacing not more than 1 0 0 0 m m clc.

Layins Bricks and B!ocks

Prior t o laying brick / block works on the concrete structures, they shall be
cleaned free from all loose aggregates, laitance, and anything that will
prevent -the mortar from proper bonding of bricks 1 blocks to the foundation
and reinforced concrete frames.

Further rhe concrete frames and foundations shall be checked for correct
horizontal and vertical alignments and any discrepancies which could cause
joints t o be either less than 6 m m or more than 16 m m shall be rectified by
the Contractor before commencing the masonry work.

Masonry works by bricks or blocks shall be built t o the dimensions shown

on the drawings in a uniform manner and shall be laid in cement mortar w i t h
perfectly level horizontal joints and truly plumb vertical condition.
They shall be raised evenly and at regular stages with any portion being not
more than 9 0 0 m m above the other at one time. All perpends, quoins etc.
shall b~ kept strictly true and square and properly bonded together as a
whole. The maximum height to be built in one day shall be not more than
1.5 m.

Exposed perpends at corners, openings windows and door jambs shall be

plain faced. Cut or recessed bricks or blocks shall not be allowed t o use and
units less-than-half sizes shall be avoided. Bricks/Blocks having chipped
edges o- face defects shall not be laid when exposed t o view.

In laying the first course, a full mortar bed shall be placed on the foundation
for the full thickness of the wall, except where the wall shaii be grouted.
The mor-tar shall be soft and plastic for proper embedment and bond, and
shall be mixed at a nearby place so that it does not loose its plasticity and
becomes stiff before the application.

Bricks and blocks shall be laid with full head and bed joints that shall be
lightly furrowed or riffled with the point of trowel before shoving them t o
produce good and tight joints.

The corner bricks and blocks should be laid first, leveled and aligned. Care
shall be taken t o lay the first course in true plumb and straight horizontal
line, as it will help the mason in laying the succeeding courses and in
building a straight plumb wall. When three or four courses of bricks /blocks
have been laid, the alignment, grade and plumbness shall be reguiarty
checked with the level.

The corners are usually laid up about four (4) courses high, stepping back
each course by one half a brick or block length. Each course shall be
carefully plumbed and checked for vertical and horizontal alignments, by
using a storey or course pole at the corners t o locate quickly the top of
each course. The wall is then filled in between these stepped corners.

10.6.10 A mason's line is then stretched tightly from corner t o corner i n laying the
top outside edge of each brick/block for each course t o proper line and
grade. All aligning and plumbing of each brick/block t o final position shall be
done while the mortar is soft. Any adjustment made later after the mortar
has stiffened will break the bond and may become a possible source of
leakage and could reduce the strength of wall.

10.6.1 1 Buttering corners of the joints or excessive furrowing of the mortar joints
shall not be permitted.

10.6.1 2 Excess mortar extruding from the joints shall be cut off and may be remixed
with the other mortar on the mortar board. The mortar that has fallen on the
floor or scaffold shall be discarded.
10.6.1 3 After a .section of the wall being laid and the mortar becoming stiff to resist
a thumb pressure, it should be tooled (jointed) properly by compacting to
make weather tight joints and neat appearance of the masonry wall.

10.6.14 Horizontal mortar joints should usually be tooled first followed by the
vertical joints. All excess mortar burrs, formed by tooling should be brushed
or cut onZfflush with wall surface.

10.6.1 5 Any joint reinforcement required shall be placed on top of bare masonry
course and approximately centered over each face. Mortar should then be
applied covering the face and reinforcement.

10.6.16 Where wails are to be plastered, they shall be raked out 1 0 m m deep to
form key with the joints, and care should be taken t o strike the joints flush
and not to pull any mortar from the joints.

10.6.1 7 Where the joints are to be concealed under paint, they should be tooled,
refilled f ush, and then sacked t o produce a dense surface without sheen.

10.6.18 Care shall be taken not t o smear the block faces by mortar, as they are
difficult to remove. Any mortar droppings that stick t o the face of the wall
surface :;hall be allowed t o dry before removal by brushing and a stiff brush
should remove from the spot most of the mortar adhering t o the surface.

10.7 Cavity Walls

10.7.1 Cavity walls shall be provided for external walls where specified, as per the
construction drawings. Each leaf shall be connected by staggered wall ties
at the rate of not less than t w o (2) per 0.8 m' spaced uniformly at centers,
approximately 9 0 0 mm horizontally and 4 5 0 m m vertically.

10.7.2 Additional ties shall be provided within 1 5 0 m m of the edge of opening and
joints and one (1) for each 2 0 0 m m of height. The bottom run of wall ties
shall be at 6 0 0 m m horizontal centres to retain the insulation batts.

10.7.3 Ties sha I be placed with the progress of works and shall set level or with a
slight slcpe towards the outside leaf.

10.8 Joint Between Partitions and Soffits

All internal walls and partitions shall initially be built up t o a top level,
leaving a gap of 2 0 m m from the top of wall or partition and the soffit of
slab or beam. The joint shall then be filled with a KOC approved fire
resistant sealant material.
Page 40 of 58 REV.l

10.9 Connections Between Walls / Partitions and Concrete/ Steel Columns

a. External Walls

External cavity walls shall be connected t o concrete columns by means

of zinc coated or galvanized metal ties provided at spacing not more
than 450 m m to channel slots built into the column and fully
embedded in the mortar joints of the walls.

b. Internal walls

All internal walls shall be connected t o concrete columns, at maximum

spacing of 450 m m by means of zinc coated or galvanized metal ties
mechanicaily fixed t o the column and fully embedded into the mortar
joints of the walls.

10.10 Lintels

10.10.1An open joint not less than 12 m m shall be provided between the ends of
cast in-situ concrete or pre-cast lintels and the bricks/blocks adjacent to
these ertds. The joints shall be filled with KOC approved sealant after

10.10.2Lintels shatl have minimum end bearing of 200 mm.

10.11 Fillinq Hollow Block?

10.11 .I All the excess mortar and debris shall be removed from the core before
filling with concrete.

10.11.2Walls are to be filled solid and shall be built up in lifts not exceeding 1200
m m and concreted after allowing minimum of 24 hours to elapse so as to
harden the mortar. The initial compaction of concrete shall be carried out by
hand using a 25 m m x 50 m m wooden rod or by vibration. The final
compaction shall take place 10 to 15 minutes after initial compaction by

Penetrations through both external and internal walls for services shall be
properly sealed against fire, gas, insects and rodents.

10.13 Unplastered Walls

10.13.1Walls, w i i c h are t o be left un-plastered, shall have a fair face consisting of

selected blocks pointed with a neat flush joint, as the work proceeds using
the same mortar mix as for jointing.
Page 41 of 58 REV.l
10.1 3.2 The faces of walls shall be kept clean and free from mortar droppings and
splashes during progress of the work.

10.14 darn^ Proof Courses IDPCl

10.14.1 The damp praof course IDPC) on walls shall be lapped at least 15 0 m m at
joints and angles, and shall be bedded in hot bitumen. They shall be pointed
both sides and covered with bed of mortar.

10.14.2 In cavity walls, a damp proof course shall be provided by the Contractor in
vertical direction at jambs of openings and another in horizontal direction
above such openings.

10.1 4.3 In every external wall, a damp proof course shall be installed at the top level
of the finished ground/paving or at least 1 5 0 mm above them to prevent the
moisture transfer from external walls into solid floors; and should be
overlapped to minimum 100 m m with the damp proof membrane in the floor
or be sealed.

10.14.4 For concrete floors on grade, the damp proof membrane below shall be
provided continuous throughout the floor area and shall be sealed in every
adjoining wall or other part of structure.

10.14.5 In all parapet walls, a horizontal damp proof course shall be provided at a
height of not less than 1 5 0 mm above the top surface of the roof system
and shall be lapped over the flashing to the roofing to give continuity before
fixing propriety aluminum or other type of coping.

In cavity parapet wall, cavity tray shall be installed, sloped down at least
1 5 0 mm towards the inner or outer part of the wall as necessary.

10.14.6 Where aamp proof courses are to be laid on or against concrete, the
concrete face shall be coated up t o the ground level with a KOC approved
hot bituminous material as per Manufacturer's specification.

10.14.7 Damp pr2of courses shall be provided on the brick / block walls even if not
indicated on the drawings.

10.15 Beddinq of Frames

10.1 5.1 All windows and door frames shall be fixed with structural ties embedded or
driiled into the brick / block works or concrete structure as per the approved
drawings or procedures.

10.1 5.2 All frames shall be bedded in the same mortar as used for the wall.

10.1 5.3 All frames shall be pointed on the exposed face with gun grade mastic t o
BS 3 7 12 or equal.
10.1 6.1 Prior to installing the insulating batts (slabs) in the cavity walls, all cement
mortar, grout or other debris shall be removed from the cavities and the
edges of floor slabs shall be protected t o prevent any water ingress on to
the insulation during construction.

10.1 6.2 The first (lowest) row of insulation shall be placed either on the cavity
concrete infill below the damp proof course (DPC) or on the first row of wall
ties for the cavity wall. Where they are below DPC, they shall be cut to
bring them in line with the first row of wall ties. Otherwise the wall ties
shall be so spaced that each batt in the first row is supported on at least
t w o (2) ties and then subsequent batts are to be cut to match with next
rows of ties.

10.16.3 The top of each batt should be slightly compressed, fitting a number of
them between the upper and lower rows of wall ties t o form a closely
butted row. They should be clean cut as necessary and be placed on the
wall ties centrally.

10.1 6.4 Where additional wall ties or other building components protruding into the
cavity such as soil pipes, services or meter cupboards etc. are required t o
provide, the batts shall not be punctured, but should be s!it carefully and
fitted around them.

10.1 6.5 Where the wall changes direction, the batts should normally be cut at the
corners and butt closely with each other. However, batts of 7 5 mm or less
thick may be bent round corners.

10.1 6.6 The inner leaf of the wall shall be built up progressively t o the same level as
the insulating batt and should not be advanced ahead of the insulation. The
tops shall be protected from mortar droppings by using a board.

10.1 6.7 The above procedures should be repeated till the required height is reached.
Temporary protection against rain or sand storm shall be provided over the
tops of partially or completed masonry and insulation at the end of a work

10.16.8 The insulating batts should be terminated in a clean vertical line, where the
finished assembly of insulation does not fill the cavity completely in a
horizontal direction.

10.16.9 Where the finished assembly of insulation does not fill the cavity completely
in a vertical direction, the insulating batts should be terminated in the
horizontal plane. A cavity tray shall be built over it and embedded into the
t w o leaves.

10.16.1 OAlt mortar droppings shall be removed and cleaned from the insulation and
walls prior to completion of works.
10.17 Weep Holes

Weep holes shall be formed in the outer leaf immediately above the cavity
trays by leaving open perpend joints at spacing not more than 1.0 m
intervals in the course of units. Weep holes not less than t w o (2) shall be
provided over each opening.

10.18 Movement Joints

10.18.1 Movement joints shall be provided in the masonry (brick I block) works in
the positions as shown on the design or approved construction drawings t o
accomrr~odate their expansion and I or contraction due to changes in
temperature and moisture characteristics of the masonry units. Joints shall
be built-in as the work proceeds, and shall be free from any fixings or
services bridging over them.

10.1 8.2 In external walls, movement joints shall be sealed, protected or otherwise
designed t o prevent water penetration. The movement joints should
generally be not exceeding 1 0 m m in width unless otherwise specified.

10.1 8.3 Vertical joints t o accommodate horizontal movements shall be provided at

intervals not exceeding 15 m in un-reinforced walls of clay masonry, and
9.0 m in sand lime brick work as well as in concrete block work in
accordance with BS 5628-3.

10.18.4 External walls of masonry works shall have a compressible joint to allow
thermal expansion at not more than 3 0 m intervals.

10.1 8.5 Horizontal joints shall be provided below edge beams and at the top of
external brick wall supporting concrete roofs.

70.19 Chases

10.1 9.1 Chases for pipes, conduits and the like shall be formed wherever shown on
the drawings or decided by KOC.

10.1 9.2 Horizontal chases shall not exceed one-sixth (116) the thickness of the wall
or leaf in cavity walls; and vertical chases shall not exceed one-third (113)
the wall thickness or leaf without the approval from KOC.

10.1 9.3 Horizontal chases in the load bearing walls shall be kept t o the minimum.

10.20 Flashings

10.20.1 Joints for flashings shall be well raked out.

10.20.2 Joints for asphalt or felts shall be well raked out and enlarged as necessary
and shall be pointed in mortar or a KOC approved sealant.
Page 44 of 58 1 REV.l

70.21 Fixinu of Door and Window Frames

10.21 -1 Door and window frames in fair faced brick / block works shall be built into
the walls as the work progresses.

10.21.2 They shall be secured with stout galvanized steel frame cramps 1 5 0 mrn
long at one (1) at every 9 0 0 mm of frame height and shall be screwed to
the jambs and fixed tight.

101.22 Permissible Tolerances I Deviations

All masonry (brick and block) works for buildings shall be built plumb and
true t o the line and level in accordance with permissible tolerances /
deviations given in BS 5628-3 as reproduced in Table V of this Standard; or
shall be accepted in compliance with ACI 530.1 / ASCE 6, which ever is
most stringent.

Table VIII: Construction Tolerances I Deviations

f point
in length 1 Up to and including any 5.0 M * 5 mrn
3 OveraH thickness of walls & I 0 mm

B. Height
I Verticaliw Up to and includirrg 3.10 kl f5mm
2 Verticality Over 3.0 M up to and includif@ k14 mm

1 1 -1.1 The materials (cement, lime and gypsum) required for plastering work shall
b e delivered at Site by the Contractor in sealed bags bearing t h e
manufacturer's name, date and contents; and shall be stored in a
weatherproof dry place, clear o f f t h e ground until required for use.

11.1.2 Lime s h d l be stored separately from cement and gypsum t o avoid any

11.2 Mixinq of Plaste.

11.2.1 All mate-ials shall be mixed on a hard platform in a clean mixing box or i n a
clean mechanical mixer and the mixing shall be no more than 1 0 minutes t o
avoid entrainment o f excessive air.

11.2.2 The materials shall be proportioned by volume b y means of gauge boxes

and thor3ughly mixed in a dry state before water being added. Each batch
shall be mixed separately and be used within 1-112 hours approximately
after adding water t o cement. The hardened batch shall be discarded after
this periad.

1 1 -3.1 Plaster viork shall be specified clearly for its intended use by its materials
w i t h classes as Class A or 6 in the approved drawings or Project documents
described as follows.

1 1.3.2 Cement Plaster (Class A or B)

Cement plaster o f Class A shall be mixed in t h e proportion o f 1 part

cement, 2 parts lime t o 9 parts sand b y volume.

Cement plaster o f Class B shall be mixed in t h e proportion o f 1 part

cerrent, 0.25 part lime t o 3 parts sand by volume.

The first coat o f plaster (undercoat) shall be 1 0 m m thick and finished

w i t h uniform rough scratch surface t o provide a good bond for t h e
finishing coat.

The finish coat shall also be 1 0 m m thick t o be finished w i t h wooden

float or steel trowel.

The total thickness of plaster shall be 2 0 mm, applied in t w o (2) coats

of 1 0 m m thickness.
1 1.3.3 Gypsum Plaster (Class A)

This plaster shalt be a mix of retarded lime hydrate gypsum, cement and
sand t o be used for internal applications on walls and ceilings as described

Gypsum plaster of Class A shall be composed of 1 part cement, 2

parts lime to 9 parts sand by volume, and shall be 1 5 m m thick in t w o
coats to be applied on solid or metal lathing backgrounds.

The first coat shall be browning plaster of 1 2 m m thick and finished

with rough scratch to provide a good bond for the finishing coat.

When the first coat has thoroughly dried, the finishing coat shall be
applied after dampening the base coat by brushing or spraying with
water, but avoiding excessive water.

The finishing coat shall be composed of 1 part gypsum and 3 parts of

hydrated lime and shall be approximately 3 m m thick. It shall be well
trowelled with a steel trowel to produce an even, hard surface which
shall be smooth, free from irregularities with straight and plumb angles
after drying.

Surface variation shall not exceed -t 1.5 mm under an 8 0 0 m m long

straight edge.

All coats shall be moistened t o prevent quick drying during the hot
months, which may cause surface cracks.

All external rendering shall be protected by wet hessian and kept damp
by a spray of water for minimum three (3) days for each coat.

Gypsum plaster shall not be used on exterior surfaces.

Preparatior! of Backgrounds

1 Solid Backgrounds

a. Solid background shall be made compatible for proper bond of

plastering work by roughening the joints and concrete face.

b. Joints of block walls shall be raked out to a depth of 1 0 m m and the

face of concrete be well hacked to a depth of 3 m m over not less than
t w o third (213) the area t o form a good key for plaster.

c. The surface shali be well brushed down and splattered with 1 :3

cement sand applied by a Tyrolean Machine or by hand, if approved by
I 1.4.2 Metal Lathing

a. All metal lathing shall be of 9.5 m m or 6 m m mesh and shall be fixed

with galvanized nails or staples at 100 m m c/c with the long way of
the mesh across the supports. In vertical work the strands shall all
slope inwards and downwards from the plaster face.

b. End laps shall not be less than 25 m m when occurring on the supports
anc' not less than 50 m m when occurring between supports. The
sheets of lathing shall be secured together at the laps with 1.2 m m
(18 swg) galvanized tying wire. Side laps shall be not less than 25 mm
ana tied together with similar wire at 400 mm.

c. The lathing shall be kept as taut as possible by clipping the sheet in

the centre and working towards each end.

11.5.1 Rough Cast

a. A rough cast finish shall be applied to a backing surface similar t o

Class B plaster with a wet mix of1 : 3 cement sand with aggregates in
the range of 6.4 to 9.5 mm.

b. The mix shall then be thrown on t o the backing and left in rough
condition after leveling out.

11.5.2 Pebble Dashing

a. Pebble or dry dash finish shall be applied to a specified backing having

a finishing coat thickness of 10 mm. Well washed and drained
aggregates of sizes 9.5 m m to 13 m m shall be thrown on t o the
finishing coat while it is plastic.

b. Then the aggregates shall be lightly tapped into the mortar with a
wood float or the flat of a trowel t o ensure good bond between the
pebbles and mortar.

1 1.5.3 Machine Applied Textured Finishes

The method of application will depend on the type of machine used.

Proprietary mixes such as Tyrolean shall be strictly in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions.
1 1.6.1 Undercoat

The undercoat {first coat) of plaster as specified by KOC shall be applied

after the moistening the surface with sufficient force t o form a good key
and good bond as detailed in clause 11.3 of this Standard.

1 1.6.2 Finish Coat

Base coat shall be dampened evenly by brushing or spraying with water

without excess and the finish coat shall then be applied as detailed in
clause 11.3 of this Standard t o obtain a smooth and hard finish after

1 1.6.3 Curing

a. Each coat of plaster shall be properly cured with fresh sweet water
and be kept damp by spray of water for at least three (3) days.
Then it shall be allowed t o dry out completely before applying the next

b. Special care should be taken t o ensure protection of each layer of

plaster from fast and quick drying by hot sun and dry winds.

c. Water curing of finish coat shall start 1 2 hours after completing light
fog spraying and then continue for 3 6 hours in order t o protect it from
rapid drying.
11.6.4 Maximum variation from the true flatness shall be within 3 m m per 3.0 m

11.7 Metal Lath Application

1 1.7.1 Lathing t 3 General Areas

a. Metal lath shall only be fixed after all services which are to be covered
by lathing have been installed and approved by KOC.

b. The lath shall be applied to form true surfaces without sags or buckles
and with long dimension and ribs at right angles to the supports.

c. Diamond mesh and self-firring laths shall be lapped 1 5 m m at sides

and 25 m m at ends. Rib lath shall be lapped by nesting ribs or selvage
at s des and 25 m m at ends. Ends shall lap over supports and shall be

d. Side laps shall be tied t o supports and further intervals of 1 5 0 mm

maximum with three (3) twists of the wire.
e. Self-firring lath shall be nailed at 1 5 0 mm c/c each way, using 3 8 mm
galvanized self-firring nails.

f. Diamond mesh and self-firring lath shall be bent into internal corners
and lapped 150 mm onto adjoining lath or lath may be butt jointed in
internal corners applied over abutting laths..

g. 2 0 m m rib lath shalt be butt jointed at internal corners and corner lath
applied over abutting laths.

1 1.7.2 Corner Lath

a. Corner lath shall be fixed at all internal corners of surfaces to be

plastered, except as specified otherwise above.

b. The corner lath shall be secured along outer edges only by galvanized
masonry nails fixed at not more than 300 m m clc.

11.7.3 Strip Lath

a. Strip lath 150 mm wide shall be fixed over cracks in masonry and
corcrete walls and over joints between dissimilar backing surfaces
wh'ch are t o be plastered. Also 300 mm x 6 0 0 m m strip lath set
diagonally at 45" shall be fixed.

b. Strip lath shall be secured along outer edges only at not more than
300 mm c/c with galvanized masonry nails.

7 1.7.4 Metal Corner and Edge Beads

Vertical members shall be set plumb and horizontal members shall

level t o form true arises and neat mitres.

The longest lengths as practical shall be used so as t o minimize joints

between members. Beads shall be skimmed and wedged as necessary
t o provide proper grounds for good finish.

Beads shall be secured t o masonry or concrete with galvanized

masonry nails at not more than 300 mm clc and at edges.

Corner beads shall be provided at all external plaster corners and edge
beeds where plaster terminates or abuts dissimilar surfaces except at
door frames.
Metal Control Joints

a. Control joint beads shali be secured to masonry or concrete as

specified in clause 11 -7.4 of this Standard. Control joints in plaster
shall align with back-up joints in subsurface where possible and as per
locations shown on the drawings.

b. However if not specified clearly, they shall in no case exceed 3 0 m



Chases less than 3 0 0 m m wide in plastered masonry or concrete walls or

partitions shall be bridged with diamond mesh lath, extending 1 5 0 m m onto
both sides of adjacent masonry or concrete and shall be nailed thereto at
1 5 0 mm c/c with galvanized masonry nails.

Chases 3 0 0 m m t o 1200 mm wide in plastered masonry or concrete walls

or partitions shall be bridged with 1 9 m m cold rolled channels at 3 0 0 m m
extending 1 5 0 m m into both sides of chase and shall be secured with
galvanized hooked nails.

Diamond mesh lath shall then be wire tied to ends of firring channels at
1 5 0 mrr c/c with lath extended 1 5 0 m m beyond each edge of chase onto
adjacent masonry or concrete and nailed thereto at 1 5 0 m m c/c t o keep
lath flat against surface of masonry or concrete.

Metal la"th shall be fitted around openings and penetrations such as piping
conduits, ducts, fittings outlet boxes and the like, in or through all plaster
work t o accommodate the work from other agencies.

Protection and Corn~letion

Contamination of concrete floors with gypsum plaster shall be avoided.

Adequate protection shall be given to existing work and fittings which are
liable to damage in plastering work by covering up with boards, dust sheets
and the ike.

Two (2) coat plastering shall be brought to a fair line by fixing grounds and
linings to a true plumb line The plastered finished surface shall not show
deviation for more than 3 m m from a 1800 m m straight edge placed
against it.

The plaster where finished with wood float or steel trowel shall be free
from blemishes and small depressions resulting from the failure t o close
them du-ing working of the coat.
All paint, cut and patch plaster around work abutting, setting into or
extending t o plastered surface after work of other agencies and plaster
disturbed or damaged due to installation of other work shall be repaired.

Plaster in which hair line. cracks, pits checks, waves, blisters, discolouration
or other defects develop shall be cut out and replaced with new materials.
Repaired work shall be thoroughly raked out, or cut out, moistened and
filled with finish coat, surface floated or trowelled flush to the adjoining

All metal and adjoining work shall be cleaned immediately upon completion
of plaster work in each room or space and all stains, finger marks, markings
and the like removed prior t o accepting the work by KOC.



KOC s h ~ l have
l the right to inspect all tools and equipment; materials and
workmanship involved in the construction of masonry works to ensure
compliance with this Standard.

The Contractor shall submit for KOC approval a Quality Plan and a lnspection
& Test Plan that will provide the detailed activities of the work in a
chronological way. The lnspection and Test Plan shall have columns
indicating the activity, the contractual and specification requirements, the
method of verification, the acceptance criteria, the document (test certificate
or reporl) that will be generated as well as columns for indicating KOC
markings for witness (W), hold (H), review (R), monitor (M) etc.

The Con-rractor shall perform at all stages of Works all the inspections and
appropriate tests that are necessary to assure 'that the materials and
workmarship meet fully the requirements of this Standard.

However, KOC reserves the right of independent inspection of the material

and workmanship at all times to assure conformance to the approved
construction drawings, specifications and KOC Standards as weli as other
National I International standards and codes referenced in clause 4.2 of this

Materials and Equipment Inspection

All materials shall be inspected to ensure conformance with clauses 8.0 &
9.0 of t h s Standard.

All accessories to be used in the related civil construction work and laying of
the materials shall be inspected to ensure compliance with the KOC Fire and
Safety Regulations.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-ZX)8 age 52 of 58
- I. REV.7

Visual !nsoection

Visual inspection of masonry works shall be made jointly by KOC and the
Contractor regularly to oversee the quality of workmanship under clear
lighting condition at mid-morning or mid-afternoon.

-For purposes of test, representative samples of clay I sand lime bricks and
concrete blocks shail be supplied to KOC by the Contractor in numbers, that
are required for testing as specified in the relevant ASTM or BS standards.

In case of doubt, these samples shall be selected by KOC and properly

marked for the additional testing.

in case of other materials used in this Works and if KOC has the doubts for
quality of materials, KOC may ask the Contractor any time to furnish the
samples for testing t o confirm the material properties instead of literatures

All the required tests shall be conducted on the materials by the contractor
through an independent and reputed test laboratory, approved by KOC.

All the laboratory tests on the materials as required shail be conducted in

accordance with the relevant ASTM & BS standards to satisfy the
requirements of this Standard.


The Contractor shall operate a quality system preferably based on IS0 9000
series of Standards to satisfy the requirements of this Standard. The
Contractor shall demonstrate compliance by providing a copy of the
accredited or the contractor I manufacturer quality manual. Verification of a
contractor quality system is normally part of the pre-qualification procedure,
and is therefore not detailed in the core text of this Standard.

All correspondence, instructions, drawings, data sheets, design calculations

or any other information shall be in the English language. In the case of dual
languages, one language shall be English.

All dimensions, units of measurement, physical constants etc. shall be in SI

units, unless otherwise specified.

All documents (texts, specifications, data sheets, methods, drawings etc.)

shall be provided with electronic files in the approved softwares (MsWord,
Excel, A ~ t o
Cad etc.). Design calculations shall be submitted in the approved
and widely used softwares, agreed by KOC.
Work Remrds and Reports

The Contractor shall operate a detailed recording and reporting system on all
aspects of works including inspections and testing. All relevant information
shall be set out on a Site Record for Works within 48 hours of carrying out a
specific work. +..

All test results of brick / block work samples shall be submitted to KOC for
review and approval within 2 4 hours of completion of tests.

Other test results and certificates of materials required for satisfactory

execution of the Works shall be submitted to KOC for review and approval
within the stipulated period as specified in the Contract documents

The Contractor shall submit the necessary documents as a minimum to

KOC for review and approval / acceptance as given below, b u t is not limited
t o the following only:

Construction drawings showing plan, elevations and details outlining

size:;, dimensions, materials and connections details for all footings,
walls, columns, pedestals, load bearing members and any other as

Formwork and erection plans including list of equipment and tools to

be used-

Certified mill test reports for each shipment of cement, reinforcing steel
and embedded items.

Test results of each consignment of clay / sand lime bricks, concrete

blocks, lime and aggregates as used.

Test results of water and any curing compounds i f used.

Test results of satisfactory concrete masonry units for routine concrete


Inspection and test plan (ITP) and QA/QC procedures. (For approval 8t

As-built drawings.
Page 540f 58 I REV.1



1 Length 2 Width 3 Height

4 Bed 5 Face 6 Header

NOTE Thls relates to the n m a l use of the masonry unit ln the wall.

Figure I -Dimensions and surfaces


This Standard has been approved by the Standards Technical Committee (STC)
consisting of the following:-

Mr. A/Redha Al-Haddad (Standards Team) Chairman

Mr. Mohd. Emam (Imp.& Corr. Team-S&EK) Deputy Chairman
Mr. S. Kumar (Standards Team) Secretary/Member
Mr. Henry S. Hill (Opn. Tech. Svcs. Team-SK) Member
Mr. A. Unnikrishnan (Standards Team) Member
Mr. Khalaf Hamada (Design Team) Member
Mr. N. Ramanathan (Export Facilities Team) Member
Mr. Ali Hassan Al-Failakawi {HSE System Team) Member
Mr. Abdul R. AI-Shammari (Insp.& Corr. Team-N&WK) Member
Mr. Daniel Pino (Utilities Team) Member
Mr. Khalid At-Ahmad (Gen. Project Team) Member
Mr. Abdul Aziz Akbar (Proj. Mgmt. Team-NK} Member
Mr. Moataz Khalaf (Information Syst. Team} Member

The draft of this Standard has been circulated to the KOC User Teams for their
review and respo7ses were received from the following:-


Team Leader ins^.& Corr. (S&E) Team Leader Building Maintenance

Team Leader Insp.& Corr. (N&W) Team Leader Utilities
Team Leader Fire Team Leader Projects Design


Team Leader Export Facilities Project Team Leader Opns. Tech. Svcs.
Team Leader Project Support Team Leader Maintenance


Team Leader Design

Team Leader Con:struction Team Leader Opns. Tech. Svcs.


Team Leader Proj. Engg. & Facilities Team Leader General Projects


Team Leader Maintenance Team Leader Gas Opns.


Team Leader Safety Team Leader Drig. & W/Over Svcs.

The preparation of this Standard has been entrusted by the Standards Technical
Committee (STC) t o the Task Force No. (TF-CIO9) comprising of the following

Mr. S. Kumar Standards Team Task Force Leader Tel. No. 61407
Mrs. Sana Al-Talha Design Team Member Tel. No. 61352
Mr. Majeed Shehab Bldg. Maint. Team Member Tel. No. 66297