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A. Introduction  

Corn  ranks  second  to  rice,  not  only  in  terms  of  area  devoted  to  its  production  but  it  has  been  a  
staple  food  of  about  20%  of  the  total  population  of  the  Filipinos.  Aside  from  this,  the  green  corn,  
boiled  or  roasted,  is  a  popular  snack  food  and  may  also  be  cooked  a  vegetable  or  soup.  Other  
by-­‐products  of  corn  include  corn  flour  and  syrup,  sugar  and  oil.  In  terms  of  nutritive  value,  corn  
is   richer   source   of   vitamin   A   than   polished   rice.   It   contains   high   amounts   of   minerals   such   as  
calcium  and  phosphorous.  Moreover,  it  is  also  a  source  of  starch  derivatives  for  oil,  fibers  and  
other  industrial  uses.  

Corn   has   also   been   used   as   an   important   ingredient   in   animal   feeds.   Corn   may   be   planted  
anytime  of  the  year  provided  there  is  adequate  soil  moisture.  However,  it  is  best  to  plant  from  
May  to  June  during  the  wet  season  and  from  October  to  November  during  the  dry  season.  

1. Scientific  Name:    Zea  mays  L.  ssp.  Mays  
2. Common  Name:    Maize  
3. Description:  
Coarse,  erect,  tall  grass,  1-­‐2  meters  high.  Leaves  are  numerous,  30-­‐100  cm  long  and  2-­‐10  cm  
wide,  linear  lanceolate.  The  individual  fruit  is  roundish  or  reniform,  compressed,  shiny.  
4. Properties  
Anodyne,  cooling,  diuretic,  alterative,  demulcent,  lithotryptic,  emollient,  stimulant.  
5. Constituents  
Protein;  fats;  carbohydrates.  
“Corn  silk:  –  maizenic  acid,  2%;  fixed  oil;  resin;  sugar;  mucilage  and  salts.  
6. Distribution  
Grown  extensively  in  the  Philippines,  in  some  places  replacing  rice  as  the  diet  staple.  
7. Nutritional  Uses:  
Good  source  of  carbohydrates,  B  vitamins  (riboflavin  and  thiamine),  vitamin  A  and  C,  
potassium  and  zinc.  The  embryo  is  rich  in  oil  and  used  widely  for  cooking,  manufacture  of  
soaps.  Corn  syrup  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  jams,  jellies  and  other  sweets.  Corn  starch  is  
well  known  for  its  many  uses.  
8. Medicinal  Uses:  
• Diuretic:  Take  decoction  of  hairs  or  cobs  as  tea.  
• Decoction  of  pith  of  cob  as  tea  is  used  for  stomach  complaints.  
• Decoction  of  roots,  leaves,  and  corn  silk  used  for  dysuria,  bladder  complaints,  and  
• The  water  in  which  unhusked  corn  is  boiled  is  a  pleasant  tasting  remedy  for  urinary  tract  
infection.  The  corn  silk  decoction  is  also  thought  to  be  diuretic.  
• Poultice  used  for  ulcers,  rheumatic  pains  and  swellings.  
• Decoction  of  parched  corn  (buned  or  roasted)  taken  as  tea  for  nausea  and  vomiting.  
• Kidney  stones:  Infusion  of  corn  hair  in  hot  water,  3x  daily  
9. Types  of  corn  produced  in  the  Philippines  
A. White  –  consumed  as  food  
B. Yellow  –  used  as  the  principal  ingredient  of  animal  feeds  
10. Difference  of  white  and  yellow  corn  
A. White  –  glutinous  texture  makes  it  more  acceptable  for  human  use  
B. Yellow  corn  –  carotene  content  which  makes  it  of  greater  nutritional  value  as  feed

11. Corn  Varieties  recommended  by  the  National  Seed  Industry  Council  (NSIC).  2002-­‐2005.  
1. IPB  911  
a. Feeds  and  industrial  uses  
b. Yellow,  hybrid  (first  single  cross)  
c. Yields  7.18  tons/ha  (dried)  
d. Harvested  97-­‐99  days  
2. IPB  929  
a. Feeds  and  industrial  uses  
b. Yellow,  hybrid  (3  way  cross)  
c. Yields  7  tons/ha  (dried)  
d. Harvested  106  days  
3. IPB  913  
a. Feeds  and  industrial  uses  
b. Yellow,  hybrid  (3  way  cross)  
c. Yields  6.58  tons/ha  (dried)  
d. Harvested  104  days  
4. IPB  9204  
a. Milled  and  cooked  as  food  
b. White,  hybrid  3  way  cross)  
c. Yields  7  tons/ha  (dried)  
d. Harvested  110  DAP  
5. IPB  Var  1  
a. Feeds  and  industrial  uses  
b. Yellow,  open  pollinated  variety  
c. Yields  7  tons/ha  (dried)  
d. Harvested  105  DAP  
6. IPB  Var  7  
a. Feeds  and  industrial  uses  
b. Yellow,  open  pollinated  variety  
c. Yields  5.57  tons/ha  (dried)  
d. Harvested  105  DAP  
7. IPB  Var  4  
a. Milled  and  cooked  as  food  
b. White,  open  pollinated  variety    
c. Yields  4.89  tons/ha  (dried)  
d. Harvested  90-­‐94  DAP  
8. DLU  Pearl  Sweet  
a. Boiled  sweet  
b. White,  open  pollinated  variety    
c. Yields  6.1  tons/ha  (dried)  
d. Harvested  72  DAP  
9. Lagkitan  
a. Boiled,  glutinous  
b. White,  open  pollinated  variety    
c. Yields  6.5  tons/ha  (dried)  
d. Harvested  68-­‐70  DAP  
10. Makapuno  
a. Boiled,  glutinous  
b. White,  open  pollinated  variety    
c. Yields  6.26  tons/ha  (dried)  
d. Harvested  68-­‐70  DAP  
11. Supersweet  
a. Boiled,  sweet  
b. Yellow,  open  pollinated  variety    
c. Yields  7.2  tons/ha  (dried)  
d. Harvested  70-­‐72  DAP  
12. Nutrisweet  
a. Boiled,  sweet  
b. Yellow,  open  pollinated  variety    
c. Yields  5.74  tons/ha  (dried)  
d. Harvested  72-­‐76  DAP  
Estimated  Cost  and  Return  -­‐  one  cropping  for  one  hectare)  (Agribusiness  and  Marketing  Assistance  Division.    
DA-­‐8  Investment  Guide  Series.  DA-­‐RFU  8  Tacloban  City  
• Planting  materials  (seeds)  used  for  one  (1)  hectare  production  is  20  kg.  
• OPV  seeds  are  priced  at  P35.00  per  kilo.  
• Hybrid  seeds  are  priced  at  P2,  700  per  bag  of  20  kg.  
•  Insecticide  used  is  at  P1,  281.64  per  liter.  
• Selling  Price  of  grains  is  at  P9.80/kg.  
• BIO-­‐N  is  priced  at  P60.00/  pack  
•  Labor  rate  per  day  is  as  follows:  
a. MD  -­‐  P100.00  
b. MAD  -­‐  250.00  
c. MMD  -­‐  250.00  
•  Fertilizer  rate  are  as  follows:  
a. 16-­‐0-­‐0  -­‐  940/bag  
b. 14-­‐14-­‐14  830/bag  
• Lot  Price  for  Tractor/  Planter/  Shellers/  Mechanical  Drier  Services  
1. Plowing  (1  pass)  -­‐  1,600.00/ha  
2. Harrowing  (1  pass)  -­‐  1,400.00/ha  
3. Off-­‐barring  (1  pass)  -­‐  250/MAD  
4. Hilling  up  (1  pass)  -­‐  250/MAD  
5. Planter  -­‐  800.00/ha  
6. Sheller  -­‐  20.00/bag  of  50  kg  
7. Mechanical  Drier  -­‐  25.00/bag  of  50  kg  
• Selling  price  of  grains  is  at  P9.80/kg.  
• Hauling  cost  per  trip  is  P300.00  
• Insurance  premium  is  7.42%  for  all  cost  incurred  in  production.  
• OPV  yield  is  3.5  tons/ha  and  hybrid  is  expected  to  be  at  6  tons  per  hectare.  
• An  empty  sack  is  priced  at  P7.00  per  piece.  
• Straw  used  to  seal  the  sacks  is  P70.00  per  kilo.  

One-­‐hectare  Hybrid  Corn  Production  (semi-­‐mechanized,  one  cropping)    

Estimated  Revenue  
6  tons  x  1000kg/ton  @  P9.80           P58,  800.00  
Less:  Costs  
Seeds               2,700.00  
BIO-­‐N  5  packs@  P60/pack              300.00  
Ammophos  2  bags  @  P1,  500/bag    3,000.00  
Urea  1/2  bag  @  P937.58/bag            468.79  
Commercial  organic  fertilizer  @  P280/bag      1,400.00  
Insecticide  (1/2  ltr)  @  P640.82              640.82        
Labor/Tractor  Services  
Land  Preparation  
Plowing  1  pass@  P1,  600/ha       1,600.00  
Harrowing  1  pass/ha         1,400.00  
Furrowing  (3  MAD)  @  P250.00       750.00  
Planting  10  MD@P100/day       1,000.00  
Cultural  Mgt.  Practices  
Side  Dressing  #  MD           300.00  
Off-­‐barring  (3x  @  P250/d)         750.00  
Hilling-­‐up  ((3x  @  P250/d)         750.00  
Thinning/Replanting  (2  MD)         200.00  
Detasseling  (3MD)           300.00  
Spraying  (2MD)           200.00  
Harvesting  10  MD@  P100/day         1,000.00  
Post  Production  
Hauling  (P300/trip)           1,500.00  
Shelling  (120  x  @20/bag)         2,400.00  
Drying  (120  x  @  25/bag)         3,000.00  
Sacks  &  Straw                910.00            
Sub-­‐Total           24,569.61  
Marketing  Cost                      5,000.00  
Total  Cost           29,569.61  
Net  Returns                  29,230.39  
Breakeven  Price/kg  Produced                                4.93  
ROI                                    98.85%

B. Production  Techno  guide    

For  higher  yield,  effective  technologies  in  proper  corn  production  should  be  considered.    Different  steps  
described  in  this  guide  can  help  farmers  produce  a  bountiful  harvest.  
Crop  Establishment  
Before  planting  
1. Prepare  the  right  kind  of  seeds.    
a. Decide  whether  to  plant  a  hybrid  or  an  open  
pollinated  variety  (OPV)  
b. Select  a  high-­‐yielding  variety  with  resistance  to  
insect  pests  and  diseases  
c. Use  good  quality  seeds  from  a  reliable  company  or  
government  agency  
2. Prepare  the  land  thoroughly  
o Plow    the  area  one  month  before  planting  
o Harrow  the  soil  to  break  big  clods  and  to  control  
re-­‐emerging  weeds  two  weeks  before  planting  
(when  using  a  harrow,  usually  two  passes)  harrow  a  
week  after  plowing  to  break  the  clods.  
o Plow  the  soil  again  one  week  before  planting  
o Rotavate  to  further  pulverize  the  soil  two  days  
before  planting  
Note:    A  well-­‐prepared  land:    a)  provides  a  good  
seedbed  for  seed  germination  and  development;  b)  
minimizes  weed  problem;  c)  results  in  better  water  
retention  of  the  soil.  
3. Furrow  the  soil  at  75cm.  apart  and  eight  cm.  deep.  
4. Apply  fertilizer  in  the  furrows  just  before  planting  
Note:    the  amount  of  fertilizer  needed  depends  on  the  amount  of  nutrients  in  the  soil.    To  know  the  level  
of  fertility,  consult  the  nearest  offices  of  the  Bureau  of  soils  and  Water  Management  or  use  the  Rapid  Soil  
Test  Kit  with  the  help  of  the  technicians  of  the  Department  of  Agriculture  
• If  the  soil  has  been  analyzed:      
Apply  50  percent  nitrogen  and  all  of  phosphate  and  potassium  (apply  the  remaining  50  
percent  of  nitrogen  as  sidedressing  one  month  after  planting  (N-­‐50%;  P-­‐100%;  K-­‐100%)  
• If  the  soil  has  not  been  analyzed:  
Hybrid:  6-­‐8  bags  of  14-­‐14-­‐14  fertilizer  per  hectare  
OPV:  4-­‐6  bags  of  14-­‐14-­‐14  fertilizer  per  hectare  
Note:  You  may  also  use  organic  fertilizer  such  as  compost  or  animal  manure  while  preparing  the  land  
to  fully  mix  it  with  the  soil.  This  will  lessen  inorganic  fertilizer  application.    Or  you  may  also  use  Bio-­‐N.      
What  is  Bio-­‐N?  
o An  organic  fertilizer  for  corn,  rice,  sugarcane  and  vegetables.    It  has  no  harmful  effect  to  the  
o Contains  two  kinds  of  bacteria  from  cogon  roots.  These  bacteria  recycle  the  nitrogen  gas  so  it  can  
be  used  by  the  plants.  
o Reduces  use  of  inorganic  fertilizer  by  50-­‐70%  
o Aside  from  recycling  nitrogen  gas,  the  bacteria  in  Bio-­‐N  increases  the  root  biomass  that  help  
absorb  the  elements  from  the  soil  needed  by  the  plants  to  grow  
o Corn  with  Bio-­‐N  has  a  natural  protection  against  insect  pests  and  diseases  
o Grains  with  Bio-­‐N  are  heavier  than  those  with  inorganic  fertilizer  
o It’s  shelf  life  is  good  for  three  months  only,  so  take  note  of  the  expiry  date  found  on  the  pocket.  
o How  do  we  apply  Bio-­‐N  on  corn?  
o Moisten  the  seeds  with  water  to  allow  Bio-­‐N  to  stick  with  the  seeds  and  mix  the  Bio-­‐N  
thoroughly.    Plant  the  inoculated  seeds  immediately.    Five  packs  of  Bio-­‐N  (200g/pack)  are  needed  
for  one  hectare.  
5. Cover  the  fertilizer  with  a  thin  layer  of  soil  to  avoid  direct  contact  with  the  seeds.  
6. Plant  the  seeds  
Hybrid:    1  seeds  per  hill  spaced  at  20cm  apart  
OPV:    1-­‐2  seeds  per  hill  spaced  at  25cm  apart  
Babycorn:    the  distance  of  planting  is  closer  (15-­‐18cm).    Use  ordinary  yellow  corn  seeds  
Note:    You  may  also  use  a  corn  planter  (see  below)  or  a  mechanical  planter  
BPRE  Corn  Planter  
•    It  is  a  technology  that  aims  to  localize  imported  corn  
machinery  (Administrator,  BPRE  2007).    
•    BPRE  developed  a  corn  planter  that  can  be  mounted  on  the  
rear  of  any  two-­‐wheel  tractor.  
•    It  has  a  planting  assembly,  fertilizer  applicator  assembly  and  
•    It  uses  pneumatic  metering  system  that  can  plant  any  size  of  
corn  seeds.  
•    Its  optimum  forward  speed  to  have  a  high  hill  planting  efficiency  ranges  from  3.3  to  3.8  km  
per  hour.  

7. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil and press it to obtain good seed and soil contact
Note: To minimize insect pest infestation, plant your corn simultaneously with the neighboring

Irrigating the corn plants

8. Irrigate the newly planted field evenly during the season or when rainwater is not enough to
attain uniform seed germination. Irrigate the field five days to two weeks until 21 days before
harvest. During the rainy season, irrigate only when needed.


9. Apply the fertilizer 25-30 days after planting (sidedressing)

If the soil has been analyzed: apply the remaining 50% of nitrogen – 50%N
If the soil has not been analyzed: Hybrid and OPV: apply 4-6 bags of ammonium sulphate (21-0-
0 or 3 bags of urea (46-0-0) per hectare
10. Cover the fertilizer immediately by shallow hilling-up. Hilling-up also minimizes the growth of
11. Do selective weeding. Retain the Amaranthus spinosus and Ipomea triloba. These weeds
serve as refuge for the natural enemies of corn borer.
12. Irrigate the field immediately to dissolve the fertilizer.

Pest and disease management

13. Always visit the field to check for the presence of diseases, insect pests and rodents.

Kinds of Insect pests

a. Corn Borer (Asian Corn Borer)
Corn  borer is one of the most destructive insect pests
of corn. It can reduce yield by 20 to 80%.
Scientific Name: Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee)
Local Names: Dalipog (Ilocano); Amasok or Tibgoy
(Bicol/Ilonggo); Tuhob (Cebuano)
• Eggs are flat, creamy, shiny and laid in mass
(about 25-50 eggs/egg mass) in fish scale-like
arrangement on both sides of the corn leaves. Incubation period is 4-5 days.
• Newly hatched larvae are pinkish with black or brown heads. Later instars are creamy
and brownish-yellow. It molts five times from 12-13 days.
• The pupa is dark red and the pupal period is about 5-12 days,
• Total development period from egg to adult emergence ranges from 27-52 days.
• The adult is yellowish brown moth with waxy dark lines on wings with an expansion of
about 35 mm.
• Pinhole lines lesions on leaves caused by first instar larvae.
• Match head-size holes and elongated lesions on leaves and leaf sheaths caused by
second and third instars larvae.
• Broken stalks and leaves.

How can we prevent and control corn borer

Mechanical. Detassel 75 percent of corn during dry season and 65 percent during dry
Chemical. Monitor 50-100 plants at least twice a week to see if 20 percent (sweet corn) or
30 percent (field corn) are damaged indicating the need to use chemicals.
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This is a bacterial insecticide (examples: thuricide, xentari). Spray
Bt when there are borers eggs or small larvae. Do this late in the afternoon or before dusk
because the bacteria are sensitive to sunlight. Note. Monitor the field pests infestation from
time to time after using Bt and chemicals.
Natural Enemies. These are insects that fee on corn borer. To protect these beneficial
insects, do not use chemicals.
o Trichogramma – feeds on the eggs of corn borer
o Earwig – feeds on the eggs, larva and pupa of corn borer
o Orius – sucks the juices of eggs and larva of corn borer
Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Combination of several preventive and control
measures against insect pests

b. Corn Planthopper
Corn planthopper is a regular planthopper that attacks corn.

How can we control Corn Planthopper

Cultural Methods
o Practice fallow period
o Practice crop rotation (alternate corn planting with cotton, rootcrops and other non-
graminae crops) to break the life cycle of the planthoppers
o Plow under after harvest to eliminate the remaining eggs, nymphs and adults
o Follow recommended fertilizer requirement. Split nitrogen application during crop
growth (nitrogen makes the plant susceptible and attractive to the planthoppers
o Increase planting distance enough for sunlight to penetrate (shady areas are
favourable to planthoppers)
o Intercrop leguminous plants to harbour to natural enemies, act as sol conditioner and
provide added income.
Biological Control
o Anargus osborni (wasps) and Cyrtorchinus lividipennis (mired bug) parasitizes and
prey on planthopper’s eggs
o Dragonflies and damselflies prey on moving adults.
o Spiders and earwigs prey on nymphs and adults.
o Drying wasps and strepsipteran larvae parasitizes on nymphs
o Mass produce microbial (white and green molds) from two planthoppers. Collect
additional dead planthoppers. Place them together in a jar with moistened tissue
and cover. After several days, pound the planthoppers to form a powdery
substance. Mix with 16 liters of water and spray on corn plants.
o If you see 40 planthoppers with microbial in corn plants, directly pound these and
mix with 16 liters of water. Spray the plants with the solution.

Chemical control:
o Install four sticky traps and four yellow pan traps per hectare of cornfield, one each
on the east, west, north and south. These traps can provide information on the
direction and origin of infestation.
o Apply contact insecticide once the traps begin catching winged planthoppers
o Avoid spraying three times a week. Spray only every 7th to 10th day for bio-agents to
recover and suppress the population of planthoppers.
Examples of insecticides:
Actara, Gador, thiamethoxam, carbaryl and deltamethrin

Kinds of Diseases

c. Downy Mildew
Downy mildew is a major and common disease of corn. This fungal disease starts attacking
the seedlings and can reduce yield by 40 to 100 percent.
How can we prevent and control downy mildew?
o Fungicide – Treat the seeds with fungicides before planting (Example: Metalaxyl
like Ridomil or Apron).
o Resistant Variety – Plant varieties resistant to downy mildew.
o Sanitation – Remove and bury infected plants which are the sources of fungal
o Crop rotation – Plant several crops belonging to different families one after

d. Rodents
Rodents can reduce corn yield.

How can we prevent or control rodents

o Use chemicals, e.g. Racumin
o Smoke or flood the holes, then kill the rodents that come out
o Use trap
o Sanitize the field

e. Summary of methods to control insect pests and diseases

Table 1. Methods to control insect pests.

Stage of Growth Insect Pest Control Method
Planting to Red ant, white grub, mole Apply chemicals. Irrigate after
germination cricket planting
Seedling to early whorl Whorl maggot, white grub, Apply chemicals
mole cricket, semi-looper,
cutworm, earworm,
armyworm, corn aphid,
corn borer
Vegetative and before Corn borer Plant at the right time. Plant
tasseling resistant variety. Spray Dipel if pest
population is high. Apply
Trichogramma, earwig and orius.
Spray Dipel if pest population is high.

Take good care of the plants and

Cutworm, semi-looper, spray chemicals
armyworm, earworm Spray chemicals
Aphid, silk beetle
Tasseling to harvesting Corn borer Plant at the right time. Plant
resistant varieties. Use
Trichogramma, earwig and orius.
Spray Dipel if pest population is high.
Use IPM.

Earworm, silk beetle, weevil Spray chemicals

rodent Bait raw corn with pesticide like

ZnPo4 (an anti-coagulant). Use
Racumin. Sanitation.

All stages locust Monitor locust population. Spray at

breeding sites. Spray chemicals.
Storage Weevil Use variety with good husk cover.
Dry the grains properly and spray
chemicals. Clean the storage area

Table 2. Methods to control diseases.

Stage of Growth Disease Control Method
Seedling to early whorl Downy mildew Use fungicide (metalaxyl). Use
resistant variety. Sanitation.
Remove, bury, or burn infected

Southern of maydis leaf Use resistant variety. Plow under

blight corn stubbles. Use systemic

Bacterial stripe or streak Use resistant variety. Control leaf-

feeding insect pests.
Vegetative to before Bended leaf and sheath Remove infected leaves. Plow
tasseling blight deeply. Follow recommended
distance of planting. Spray fungicide.
Plant in area with good drainage.

Diplodia leaf streak or Sanitation. Spray chemicals


Curvularia leaf spot Follow recommended distance of

planting. Spray fungicide.

Northern leaf blight Use resistant variety. Spray

Bacterial stalk rot Use resistant variety. Take good care
of the plants. Good drainage. Avoid
high nitrogen and low potash
Tasseling to harvesting Rust Use resistant variety. Spray
Physoderma brown spot Use resistant variety. Plow under
corn stubbles
Gibberella and fusarium Use resistant variety. Maintain
stalk and ear rot correct soil fertility (avoid high
nitrogen and low potash). Follow
recommended distance of planting.
Pythium stalk, root rot Plant in area with good drainage.
Mix the seeds with fungicide.
Maintain correct soil fertility.
Common smut Use resistant variety. Pull out and
burn the plants before the galls
rupture. Do not injure the plants.
Charcoal rot Use resistant variety. Maintain
correct soil fertility. Maintain soil
moisture after flowering. Avoid more
or less water.
Diplodia ear and stalk rot Use resistant variety. Sanitation.
Spray fungicide (example: Benomyl
and Maneb). Intercrop. Avoid high
nitrogen and los potash.
All stages Sugarcane mosaic virus Use resistant variety. Spray
Maize dwarf virus Remove alternate hosts. Intercrop.
Control insect pests that carry
diseases. Plant earlier to avoid high
population of pests.


For Baby Corn

14. Harvest 50 days after planting – or you may check the length of the silk. If it is already one inch
long, corn is ready for harvest.
15. Bring the harvest immediately to the processing area.
16. Reduce the husks and trim with a knife or a scissor. Husk should be as long the baby corn.
Remove the remaining husks when the container is ready.
17. Pack the baby corn in a container and cover immediately to maintain freshness.
18. Place the containers in a cool place. Note. Baby corn can be stored in a cool place for a day only.
If they will be stored for few days, place them in a refrigerator.

For Boiled Corn

1. Harvest while the corn is still soft but full, or 65-70 days after planting depending on the variety. Do
not remove the husks to maintain its freshness and sweetness. Harvest must be completed before
noon to maintain the quality of the produce. Note. Corn is ready for harvest when the grain is shiny
but soft.
2. Sell the harvest right away or contact a buyer while still in the field. If not, bring the harvest into a
shaded place. Note. There are two types of corn good for boiling: glutinous and sweet. There are
varieties available for this.

For Grains
1. Harvest the ears when the husks have dried and the grains are hard, or when 50 percent of the plant
population reached physiological maturity. Note. What is physiological maturity? Physiological
maturity is shown when a black layer forms at the base of the kernel 90 to 110 days after planting
depending on the variety.
2. Dehusk and pick the ears right from the field. Note. Avoid corn barrenness – corn barrenness is the
inability of corn to produce kernel. It is commonly observed in Mindanao especially when the climate
is humid and when too much fertilizer is applied. When using hybrid, plant every 10th row with OPV.
OPV has the ability to produce more pollen which last longer than hybrid. Pollination of OPV and
hybrid can avoid corn barrenness.
3. Bring the harvest to the drying area right away.
4. Dry the corn for two-three days. You may cover the floor area with plastic or other materials. Turn
the ears from time to time to dry them evenly. Note. Do not dehusk ears when there are no drying
facilities to avoid fungus to grow. Fungus spreads easily if the ears are dehusked and not dried.
5. Shell the corn ears.
6. Dry the grains for another one to two days to prevent mycotoxin and other insect infestation. Note.
Maintain good quality seeds by drying them in a clean area. Again, you may cover the floor area
with plastic or other materials to keep the grains clean. You can sell good quality seeds at a higher
7. Place dried grains in sacks and store in a clean dry place. When storing grains for a longer period,
dry the grains again after one week to decrease the moisture content to 12 percent. Spray the
grains with recommended solution in the afternoon to avoid corn weevil damage.
• Formula of solution: Mix 960ml of water with 40 ml of Perimiphos methyl (e.g Actellic) and two
(2) ml of Permethrin. This solution is good for 1 ton of corn grits.
• Mycotoxin such as aflatoxin may grow in grains that are not dried properly.
• What is aflatoxin? It is a kind of toxin that comes from a fungus that grows in the grains. It
can poison human beings and animals.
• What are the factors that contribute to the growth of fungus in the grains?
a. High moisture content
b. High temperature
c. High relative humidity
• Fungus with aflatoxin starts to grow within 24 hours in grains that are not dried properly and
stored in a temperature 18 degrees Celsius and above.

Post Harvest Technology

1. Maize  Aflatoxin  Control  System        
• This  system  is  an  integrated  set  of  technologies  
and  recommended  practices.  
•  It  includes  equipment  like  corn  dryer,  sheller,  
storage  and  mill.  Dryers  that  can  be  used  are:  
fluidized  bed  dryer,  heat  pipe  dryer,  upgraded  
flash  dryer,  flatbed  dryer,  in-­‐store  dryer  and  
recirculating  continuous  flow  dryer.  
•  Recommended  practices  are:  timely  harvesting,  
immediate  drying,  injury-­‐free  shelling,  drying  
and  storage  at  14  percent  moisture,  sanitation  
and  integrated  pest  management.                                        BPRE  Improved  Corn  Sheller  and  Fluidized  Bed  Dryer  
• Reduces  fungal  infection  and  aflatoxin  contamination.  
• Higher  marketability  of  corn.  
1. Adminsitrator,  October  2007.    BPRE  Corn  Planter.  Open  Academy  for  Philippine  Agriculture,  FTIC  
Bldg.,  Philrice  Compound,  Science  City  of  Munoz.  
2. Adminsitrator,  October  2007.    Maize  Aflatoxin  control  System.  Open  Academy  for  Philippine  
Agriculture,  FTIC  Bldg.,  Philrice  Compound,  Science  City  of  Munoz.  
3. Agribusiness  and  Marketing  Assistance  division.  Da-­‐8  Investment  Guide  Series.    DA-­‐RFU  8,  
Tacloban  City  
4. Institute  of  Plant  Breeding,  UPLB