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# TOPIC 8

OHM’S LAW

PRELAB

## 1. Explain the colour code resistor.

 The colour code is to determine the value of the resistor. For every colour has
their own value to determine the total value of the resistor.

## 2. Using your own words, restate the definition of Ohm’s Law.

 Ohm’s law is define that the electric current is directly proportional to the voltage
and is inversely proportional to the resistance.

3. Discuss the sign convention for the passive element. Use a diagram to assist your
explanation.

 The sign convention was developed to define what we mean by positive and
negative voltage and current. Passive components such as resistors, capacitors and
inductors have a defining equation (Ohm's Law and others). The relationship
between voltage and current were established from these equations. Voltage
polarity and current direction have to be consistent with each other. The universal
convention for voltage polarity and current direction for two-terminal components
is shown below:

4. With the aided graphs, explain about the voltage-current and current-voltage
relationship.
 Both of the graph shown that line of graph directly proportional.
 Current is the effect (voltage being the cause). Current cannot flow without
Voltage.
 Voltage is the cause and current is its effect. Voltage can exist without current.
RESULTS

a. Complete the Table 8.1 and Table 8.2 with the correct values.

Table 8.1

## R1 (Ω) I(A) V1 (V)

390 18.50 7.18
470 15.50 7.18
560 12.80 7.18
1.0k 7.15 7.18
2.2k 3.20 7.18
3.3k 2.10 7.18
4.9k 1.41 7.18

Table 8.2

Vs(V) I(A)
2.0 0.40 mA
3.0 0.60 mA
4.0 0.80 mA
5.0 1.00 mA
6.0 1.20 mA
OBSERVATION

For this experiment, we have two tasks to complete our experiment. For the first task,
we were given seven resistor that have different value of resistance. We used the RCL meter
to determine the value of the resistance for every resistors. After that, we construct the circuit
as shown in Figure 8.1 with the value of voltage is 7V and the value of resistance is 1kΩ by
connecting with the DC power supply. Then, we measure the value of current, I and the
voltage, V across the resistor, R by using the digital multimeter and we record the result in
the Table 8.1. We repeat the same step for another value for resistor according to the Table
8.1. From that, we observed that the different values of resistors that have been used in this
experiment are acting as manipulated variables. After we use the different value of resistor,
the value of the current that flow in the circuit is also different but the voltage value does not
change.

For the second task, we build the same circuit with the task 1 and choose the unknown
value of resistor. The value of the voltage for the first result is 2.0 V for this task. After finish
construct the circuit, we measure the value of current by using the digital multimeter and we
record the result of the current in the circuit into the Table 8.2. We repeat the previous step by
changing the value of the resistor base on the table Table 8.2 and we were recorded all the
result of the current. Based on the result, we can say that the value of current is increase whe
the value of the resistor is increase.
QUESTIONS

Table 8.3
I(mA) R (Ω) V(V)
1.2k 2.5
6.8k 1.2
3.3M 240
390 5.6
8.2k 9.0

## b. Use Ohm’s Law to complete Table 8.4.

Table 8.4
I(mA) V(V) R (Ω)
2.0 6.5
4.0 4.0
10.0 3.5
0.005 7.0
2.5 1.5

c. How much resistance is required to limit current flow to 20mA with 24V supply?

d. What happens to the current in an electric circuit when the voltage is increased?
When it decreased? When the resistance is increased, and when it is decreased?

 When the voltage is increased, the value of current will increase if the value of
resistor is constant.
 When the voltage is decreased, the value of current will decrease if the value of
resistor is constant.
 When the resistance is increased, the value of current flow will drop if the voltage
is constant
 When the resistance is decreased, the value of current flow will rise if the voltage
is constant
DISCUSSION

Based on this experiment, the result for the first task, we can see that the values of the
current change when change the other values of resistor. The values of current flow is
decreasing as the value of resistor is increasing. From this, we can say that the relationship
between the values of current flow in the circuit and the resistance. The current in this circuit
shown that it is inversely proportional to the resistance. Then, the value of voltage seems do
not have any change while we change the values of the resistor. From that, this is happen
because the value of resistor does not affect the value of voltage.

For the second task, based on the complete results in the Table 8.2, we can see that the
values of current increase as we increase the values of voltage,. This is may occur because we
used the same resistors for each step. From that, we can assume the relationship between the
values of current and the values of voltage. The current in the circuit is directly proportional
to the voltage. Then we can find the values of unknown resistor from the graph by using the

𝑦2−𝑦1
R= 𝑥2−𝑥1

If our y axis is voltage and x axis is current, the gradient simply will be the value of resistor.
Due the y axis represent current and x axis represent voltage, it is the reversed. So, the value
of resistor is the reciprocal of the gradient. The value of unknown resistor that we obtained
from the graph is 5000Ω.
CONCLUSION

Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly
proportional to the voltage across the two points. Introducing the constant of proportionality,
the resistance, one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship:
𝑉
I = 𝑅, where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the voltage

measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in
units of ohms. More specifically, Ohm's law states that the R in this relation is constant,
independent of the current. This experiment that we have conducted is helping us to
understand Ohm’s Law better. At the end of this experiment, we can say that we can verify
the relationship between current, voltage and resistance in a circuit. We also can calculate the
value of resistance correctly from the current-voltage graph and solve simple circuit problems
by using three different forms of Ohm’s Law. As a conclusion, we can say that we have
achieved all of the objectives for this experiment.