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Teaching English in Multiethnic Classroom:

A case study on phonemic variation of secondary school students in Central Kalimantan

Iwan Fauzi
English Education Study Programme
of Palangka Raya University
Indonesia

Abstract—Teaching English in multicultural or in multiethnics interpersonal contradictions and conflicts due to cultural
situation presents a unique challenge as the question is often raised differences or misunderstanding, contributing to creating
by English teachers as to which variety of English phonemes or friendly, trustworthy and harmonious learning atmosphere. This
pronunciation should be accurately accepted. Indonesia has paper just describes vividly the real experience of the
approximately 757 languages to be spoken by the same number of multicultural education miniature in Central Kalimantan
their ethnic groups. Multicultural education is a very challenging Province where the author conducted a research which involved
issue to all aspects of study today, which has no exception in several multiethnic groups to his English class.
linguistics, where multiethnic students bear a unique perspective
in the language repertoire, especially in the aspect of phonology. II. THE PHENOMENA OF TEACHING AND LEARNING ENGLISH
This paper (from the perspective of socolinguistics) is the result of WITH NATIVE LANGUAGE BACKGROUND
a case study in teaching English of speaking class to secondary
school students in multiethnics classroom where English phonetic A. Native Language Influence to English Speech Sounds
transcription used as the data comparison to find phonemic
variations among students’ pronunciation. There were twenty The influence of native language in learning a foreign
students taken as the subject of the study which represented four language, let say English, is certainly unique. Bada’s study
ethnic groups of Indonesian; Dayak Ngaju, Banjar, Javanese, and describes the phonological analysis through the English
Ma'anyan. The results showed that (1) the mother tongue accents phonemic production of Japanese speakers who learned
of those ethnic groups influenced the way to pronounce phonemes English. He concluded that some sounds were found to pose
of English; (2) those five ethnic groups had phonemic variation in some difficulties of production that attributable to the native
speaking English in terms of vowel and consonant sounds. language (L1); whereas, others were produced with much less
Keywords— multicultural education; English teaching;
difficulty because the already present L1 system of phonology.
multiethnic classroom; speech sounds. For example, Japanese learners tend to use voiceless alveolar
stop [t] to replace voiceless dental fricative [] and substitute
I. INTRODUCTION the voiced dental fricative [đ] with the voiced alveolar stop [d].
Today the cross cultural communication between two Meanwhile, Japanese speakers also tend to articulate [r] for [l];
persons from different culture or ethnic groups is going on in finalise every lexical item in a vowel; replace [f] with [h]; and
diverse living space ranging from professional situation to produce [b] for [v], and [w] for [v]. Since the Japanese sound
classroom environment. This is no exception to English since system is strictly represented by specific characters, rendering
English is one of languages which is the most widely used in this the sound to be articulated much more predictable than English
world. In Indonesia, English is regarded as one of foreign sounds, Japanese provides relatively a greater ease for the
languages which has been taught since the primary level of English speaker learning Japanese than the English system
education. The most emerging issue of teaching English in would to Japanese speakers.[1]
Indonesia in the perspective of linguistics is that the varation of The other research investigating native language influence
linguistic that is performed by English learners in term of to English sounds is Prananingrum and Kwary’s study which is
‘speech sounds’. In this nusantara (a popular name to call
keenly interested in to know whether Indonesian language also
Indonesia) there have lived hundreds of ethnic groups which
speak different local languages and of course with different influences the production of English sounds. The results show
system of speech sounds as well. Undeniably, this different that seven English consonants: [k], [z], [v], [], [], [đ], [n] and
linguistic background will affect the way to speak and the way [d]; five English long tense vowels: [i:], [:], [:], [u:], [a:]; and
to comprehend the language in communication especially in the three other vowels: [a], [ӕ], and [] belong to be difficult
situation of teaching and learning English. However, the strategy pronounced by the respondents. The difficulty which mostly
of education on the basis of multiculture should effectively avert happens is to pronounce the tense vowels and substituting them

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with the lax vowels because there are no tense and lax vowels shows the monophtongal and diphtongal vowel sounds in
to differentiate the pronunciation of vowels in Bahasa English.
Indonesia. Those difficulties emerged due to the interference of
their native language and also the influence of rapid speech.[2] TABLE 1. English Vowels Illustrated by Examples
Both studies aforementioned discuss about difficulties faced
by the second language learners to learn English. Indeed, such [i] beat, key, fee [] book, put
difficulties are not exactly difficult for other learners who are [] bit, inch [u] boot, through, suit
able to differentiate the speech sounds of English correctly. [e] bait, gay, fate [] butter, rough, ratify
This means, the difficulties tend to be individuals in which this [] bet, end, heard [ay] bite, fight
language phenomenon, in sociolinguistics, belongs to [ӕ] bat, and [aw] how, about
meaningful aspects of individual speaker performance which [a] calm, father [y] boy, hoist
functionally motivate the emergence of linguistic variation. [] bought, crawl
[o] boat, snow, hoe, though
B. Language Variation
Present-day linguistics clearly demonstrates a growth of Ref [5]
attention to the study of language variation. In traditional B. English consonant sounds
linguistic description, the notion of variation within structural
Consonants are sounds produced with constriction or
units has often been analysed as “free fluctuation”, “optional
occlusion in the oral cavity. A constriction or occlusion of the
rules”, and “free variants” [3]. One of the essential elements in
oral cavity sounds include stops, ficatives, affricates, nasals, and
the study of language variation is the notion of linguistic variable
liquids. The sounds within these groups can be further classified
where it can be defined as “a structural unit that includes a set of
according to the place of articulation, that is, the position of the
fluctuating variants showing meaningful co-variation with an
lips or tongue as the sounds are made. The following table shows
independent set of variables” [3]. The notion of the linguistic
the consonant sounds of English illustrated by examples in
variable can be applied to different levels of language such as
represented words.
explaining phonological and morphosyntactic variation. More
ethnics involve in communication, more varied the language TABLE 2. English Consonants Illustrated by Examples
features produced. Pronunciation or speech sound is one of
language features which may vary among different people’s [p] pat, map [đ] then, father
background; let say languages. For this reason, the author [t] tin, mat [z] zinc, ties
considers that how language use (especially in the speech [k] came, pick [ž] measure, azure,
sounds) varies according to social factors, for instance the ethnic [b] bud, dub [tʃ] chain, champion
groups. [d] din, mad [ʤ] Jane, July
[g] game, flag [m] man, came
III. THE SPEECH SOUNDS OF ENGLISH COMPARED WITH [f] fine, leaf [n] no, tin
BAHASA INDONESIA [] thin, tooth [ŋ] sing, finger
In linguistics, sounds are called phones or speech sounds. [s] sink, class [l] lap, fall
The basic source of power in producing speech sounds is when [ʃ] sure, push [r] rap, tar
the respiratory system pushes air out of the lungs into the larynx, [h] hand, who [w] witch, sow
passing the vocal cords. If the vocal cords are apart, the air from [v] vine, leave [j] you, few
the lungs will have a relatively free passage into the pharynx and
the mouth [4]. Then, the sounds produced through the mouth Ref. [5]
could be studied from two features, segmental and C. English sounds compared to Bahasa Indonesia
suprasegmental. The segmental features of language are the
sounds that consist of vowel and consonantal sounds whereas Bahasa Indonesia has twenty-eight vowel sounds covering
suprasegmental ones are the stress or intonation pattern of a six monophtongal sounds and twenty-two diphtongal sounds.
word which can convey different meanings [4]. This study only This seems contrast with English which only has three diphtongs
deals with segmental phonemes where vowel and consonant and eleven monophtongs. The vowel sounds cover [i], [e], [ǝ],
sounds are investigated in relation to phonemic variation from [a], [u], [o]; and [ii], [iu], [io], [ia], [ie], [ei], [ea], [eo], [aa], [ae],
different ethnic groups. [ao], [ai], [au], [oa], [oi], [oe], [ui], [ua], [ue], [uo], [ǝi], [ǝe],
[ǝa], [ǝu], [ǝo], [ǝǝ]. Six sounds formerly mentioned are
A. English vowel sounds monophtongal vowels and the later sounds specified belong to
Vowels are voiced continous sounds involving no diphtongal ones [6].
interuption in the flow of air through the oral cavity. Different In relation to consonant sounds, Bahasa Indonesia has
vowel sounds result from changing the shape of the mouth; each twenty-two sounds in the production of speech which cover [p],
vowel is associated with a different configuration of the tongue [t], [k], [b], [d], [g], [c], [j], [f], [s], [š], [x], [h], [m], [n], [ň], [ŋ],
and lips [5]. English has fourteen vowel sounds either [r], [l], [w], and [y]. To compare with English sounds, there are
monophthongal or diphthongal; that is, they are made up of two Indonesian consonants which are absent in English, those
either single sound or two sounds in sequence. Table 1 below are [ň] and [x] while four English consosnants such as [], [đ],
[v], and [ž] do not present in Bahasa Indonesia [6]. In relation to

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sound contrast, if the difference between Bahasa Indonesia and phonemes of English, and also to describe the phonemic
English exists, the negative transfer of sounds will happen, and variation in speaking English in terms of vowel and consonant
of course this emerges sound variation in their pronunciation. sounds. Therefore, the result of this study hopefully can provide
However, if there is no difference of speech sound between both, information about world Englishes especially in the variation of
a positive transfer will persist and no variation raise. pronunciation utterred by different ethnics who pronounce the
English phonemes. Despites, this study also proves the fact that
To the other languages where the author focuses on four the phonemic variation among different ethnics and
ethnic groups in this paper, their speech sounds are not far multicultural background is able to hinder obstacles in
differently with Bahasa Indonesia. This is due to Bahasa communication though some speech sounds the speakers
Indonesia and those four etnic languages namely Dayak Ngaju, produced are varied in terms of segmental phonemes.
Banjar, Javanese, and Maanyan still belong to the group of
Austronesian languages, or specifically they are included into A. Method
the sub-group of western Austronesia, where Malay languages, A descriptive qualitative method was applied to this study.
Indonesian languages or popularly known as nusantara There were eighteen students of secondary school invlolved as
languages are categorized in this sub-group [7]. Therefore, the subject of this study covering five students respectively
author assumes that there is no significant difference of speech represented DN, Bj, and Jv ethnics, and three students
sounds between these ethnic languages and Bahasa Indonesia represented Mn ethnic. The school is specifically categorized to
because they are still closely related to each other in the sub- a vocational school majoring in office management. Some
group of western Austronesia languages. If any difference, there reasons why the author chose the subject to contribute the data
must have been in suprasegmental phonemes such as stress and to this study; first, the students are taught English in special
intonation. In this regard, the author will not find out any purposes and they also practice English daily with their English
contrast of sounds between Bahasa Indonesia and the ethnic teacher whenever they meet (in the classroom or outside); and
languages since the focus of this study only deals with the sound the most important things, the school accommodates many
or phonemic variations of English spoken by those ethnic ethnic groups which means the students get along
groups. This means the variation of sounds in English will be multiculturally with friends at the school.
featured by the speakers of those ethnic groups who are
Indonesian people. To collect the data, the students were asked to perform a free
speech and a controlled speech. In the free speech the students
IV. A CASE STUDY ON PHONEMIC VARIATION OF SECONDARY delivered a short speech not more than three minutes talking
SCHOOL STUDENTS IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN about past experience or future plan. Then, through the control
This paper is a case sudy carried out to the secondary school speech, they were also asked to read aloud a passage containing
students in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The several words which were conditioned to represent segmental
province is one of four other provinces located in Kalimantan or phonemes in English. Both techniques producing students’
Borneo island. Since Indonesia is well-known as multicultural speech sounds were taped and transcribed by using broad
society, Central Kalimantan is also, without exception, inhabited transcription of the IPA (International Phonetic Articulation).
by several ethnic groups of nusantara. There are four majority Then, the author determined consonant and vowel sounds that
ethnic groups who live in the province; Dayak Ngaju (DN), were pronounced differently from IPA and classified them based
Banjar (Bj), Javanese (Jv), and Ma’anyan (Mn). Ngaju ethnic is on their ethnic groups as the phonemic variation of standard
the largest population living in this province, or even this ethnic English sounds.
may be labeled as ‘the landlord’ of the province. The people live B. Findings and Discussion
to spread out the provincial area; from east to west, and from
north to south. Almost none the area which is not inhabited by There are three types of segmental phonemes produced by
this ethnic. Meanwhile, Banjar is a migrant ethnic coming from four ethnic groups in the speech sounds of English named
the southern island living mostly in urban areas where the people substitution, addition, and deletion. The first term mentioned
tend to do business and trading. This is contrast with Javanese was the most common phenomena of phonemic variations
who came firstly to live the island as transmigrants to cultivate among those ethnic groups. The following table is the
the land, but lately they migrate massively to the province to be description of varied segmental phoneme substitution in English
traders, skilled labor, mechanic, and street vendors since the consonants.
local government open whole access entering the area. Its TABLE 3. Substitution of Consonant Sounds
population is almost the same or even more in number compared
with Banjar ethnic. Then, the other ethnic to fulfill this study Conso- Substi-
named Dayak Ma’anyaan which is the other sub-ethnic of Dayak Ethnic groups nant tuted Word pronounced
where they live in the southern Barito. However, since the access sounds sounds
of transportation accross province has been easily reached, this DN, Bj, Mn [đ] [d] the, mother
ethnic group spread out and live in most urban areas in the DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [đ] [t] with
province. Consequently, those four ethnic groups are the Jv [đ] [dh] then, mother
majority of population living in the area where this study was DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [] [t] thumb, bath
taken into account. DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [d] [t] kid, pad
The purpose of this study is to explore the mother tongue Jv [d] [dh] door, dumb
speech sounds produced by those ethnic groups in pronouncing DN, Bj, Mn [b] [p] grab

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Jv [b] [bh] bed, banana, bag two other sounds: [k] and [t]. The sound [k] is pronounced by
DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [g] [k] bag, big only DN to word-final of age, and the sound [t] is pronounced
Jv [g] [gh] gambler, gill by only Bj to the same word-final of age. Last, consonant
DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [v] [f] van, love substitution also occurs in voiced palatal glide [j] which bears
two variants: [] and [u]. The sound [] is pronounced by DN
DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [] [s] shall, she, push
only to the word Europe while sound [u] is pronounced by Jv
DN, Mn [] [t] nation and Mn ethnics to the word university. Both variants of [j] are in
DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [z] [s] busy word-initial position.
Dn, Bj, Jv, Mn [t] [c] chair
DN, Jv, [t] [ʤ] match In relation to vowel substitution sound, there are thirteen
DN [ʤ] [k] age vowel sounds which have variants to be pronounced by the
ethnic groups; those are [], [e], [ǝ], [eǝ], [ei], [ɜ], [a], [aw], [ӕ],
Bj, [ʤ] [t] age
[], [], [], and [u]. Table 4 below explores varied segmental
DN, [j] [] Europe phoneme substitution in English vowels.
Jv, Mn [j] [u] university
TABLE 4. Substitution of Vowel Sounds
Table 3 shows that there are eleven forms of English Substi-
consonant sound, such as [đ], [], [d], [b], [g], [v], [], [z], [t], Vowel
Ethnic groups tuted Word pronounced
[ʤ], [j], which have sound variants pronounced by ethnic sounds
sounds
groups. Fricative sounds are consonant types which undergo
many phonemic variation. The voiced dental fricative [đ] has a DN, Bj, Mn [] [] English, business
variant of voiced alveolar stop [d] in the word-initial or word- DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [] [e] recounted, theater
medial position (e.g.: the, mother) pronounced by DN, Bj, Mn; DN [e] [] head, exit
and voiceless alveolar fricative [t] in word-final position (e.g.: DN, Mn [e] [] detail, crap
with) pronounced by all ethnics. However, the sound [đ] is Bj, Jv, Mn [eǝ] [ei] hair
pronounced [dh] by Jv in the word-initial or word-medial DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [ei] [e] lane, nation, age
position (e.g.: then, mother). This is similar to voiceless dental DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [ǝ] [] were, the, then
fricative [] in which the four ethnics pronounce it with a DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [ǝ] [o] Europe
voiceless alveolar stop [t] either in word-inital or word-final Jv, Mn [ǝ] [a] banana
(e.g.: thumb, bath). The other fricative sound of voiced dental
DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [ɜ] [o] word
[v] has another variant i.e.: voiceless dental [f] of word-initial
and word-final of van and love pronounced by all ethnics. DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [ɜ:] [] burn
Additionally, the sound voiceless palatal fricative [] has two DN, Bj, Mn [a:] [a] car, art, half
variants of substitution; [s] and [t]. The former is pronounced by Jv [a:] [] car, art, half
all ethnics either in word-inital or word-final positions (e.g.: Jv [aw] [o] counted
shall, she, push) whereas the later is pronounced only by DN DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [ӕ] [e] cat, apple, bag, shall
and Mn ethnics in the word of nation. The last fricative sound is DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [ӕ] [a] bath, match, lamb
voiced alveolar [z] which is substituted with voiceless alveolar DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [ӕ] [] grab, fan, van
[s] by all ethnics in word-final position of busy, but not in word- Mn [ӕ] [e] gambler
initial position of zero. DN, Bj, Jv [] [u] thumb, publish
Then, the sound [d] in the word-final position (e.g.: kid, pad) DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [] [o] love
is pronounced as [t] by all ethnic groups, but not in the word- DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [] [aw] because, pause
initial position. This different with Jv students where the sound DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [] [] small, award
voiced alveolar stop [d] is pronounced to [dh] in word-initial DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [] [o] woman, could
position (e.g.: door, dumb). Meanwhile, the variant of voiced DN, Bj, Jv, Mn [u] [o] noon, moon
bilabial stop [b] occurring in word-final of grab is substituted
with the closest sound [p] by DN, Bj, and Mn ethnics. In Table 4 shows that there are nine phonemic variations of
contrast, the sound [b] which occurs in word-initial of bed, standard English vowel pronounced by the ethnic groups; those
banana, and bag has pronounced as [bh] by Jv ethnic. This is are sounds of [], [e], [ei], [a], [], [aw], [o], [], and [u]. The
also similar to the voiced velar stop [g] occurring in word-final sound variant of [o] is the highest in number to be pronounced
of bag and big which is substituted with the closest sound [k] by where it represents the substitution of six sounds of standard
all ethnics where both sounds are velar. However, the Jv students English vowels, such as sound [ǝ] in word-medial of Europe,
pronounce sound [g] occurring in word-initial of gambler and sound [ɜ] in word-medial of word, sound [] in word-medial of
gill with the sound [gh]. love, sound [] in word-medial of woman and could, and sound
The other sounds which produce phonemic variants are the [u] in word-medial of noon, moon. These five sounds of English
affricates [t] and [ʤ]. The former is a voiceless palatal which vowel are pronounced with [o] by all four ethnics, and only
bear its sound variants such as [c], and [ʤ]. The sound [c] is sound [aw] in word-medial of counted which is pronounced into
pronounced by the four ethnics in word-initial of chair, and the [o] by Jv students. Then, the next variant are the sound of [e]
sound [ʤ] is pronounced by the DN and Jv ethnics in word-final where it represents the standard sound of [] in word-medial of
of match. Then, the later [ʤ] is a voiced palatal which yields recounted and theater; the sound of [ei] in either word-medial or

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word-initial of lane, nation, and age; and the sound of [ӕ] in should be pronounced [pblt] instead of [pblet]. The sound
either word-medial or word-initial of cat, apple, bag, and shall. addition which unfamiliarly emerges is [a] in the word-final
The sound variant [e] which represents those three sounds is position of Europe. This word is only pronounced by Bj ethnic
pronounced by all ethnics, but the sound [e] emerges substituting as [jǝrǝpa] instead of [jǝrǝp]. The one and only wowel sound
[ӕ] in word-medial of gambler in which this sound is of deletion is [] which is omitted by DN ethnic in word-medial
pronounced by Mn ethnic. Further, the sound [] is also the other position of awarded. This word is pronounced as [ǝwǝ:d] instead
variants of standard vowel sounds of [], [ӕ], [a:], and [e]. of [ǝwǝ:dd].
Sounds [] and [ӕ] are pronounced by all ethnics as [] in word-
medial of small and award; and in word-medial of grab, fan, and Regarding with addition and deletion of consonant sounds,
van respectively. However, the sound [] is only pronounced by there is one sound [l] which are added, and one sound [t] which
Jv ethnic to represent the long sound [a:] in word-medial is deleted. The sound [l] emerges in word-medial position of
positions of car, art, and half; and the sound [] represents could pronounced as [kld] by Bj, Jv, and Mn ethnics. These
standard sound [e] in word-medial positions of detail and crap word should have been pronounced as [kd]. Last, there is a
which is pronounced by only DN and Mn ethnics. deletion sound [t] pronounced by Mn ethnic in word-final
position of released and published where these words are
Two other sound variants of [] and [a] represent standard pronounced as [rli:s] and [pbl] instead of [rli:st] and
sounds [], [e], [ǝ], and [ǝ], [a:], [ӕ] respectively. The variant [] [pblt].
emerges replacing three standard sounds: first, [] in word-initial
and word-medial positions of English and business; second, [e] C. Conclusion
in word-medial and word-initial positions of head and exit; and The multiethnics classroom has become the educational
third, [ǝ] in word-medial and word-final positions of were, then, reality today. Since the students come from across different
and the. The first and second examples are pronounced by DN, region, linguistic, and culture; the phenomenon of language
Bj, and Mn ethnics and DN respectively, but the third variant variation undeniably occurs. This study strictly notes that
emerges through all ethnics. Meanwhile, the other ethnic variant learning English which involves interaction through
is [a] which represents sound [ǝ] in word-medial and word-final multiethnic situation must have produced phonemic variations
positions of banana which emerges in Jv and Mn ethnics, sound among the speakers.
long [a:] in word-medial and word-initial positions of car, art, There are eleven consonant sounds of English which have
half which emerges in DN, Bj, and Mn ethnics, and sound [ӕ] in their particular variations pronounced by ethnic groups of DN,
word-medial positions of bath, match, lamb which emerges in Bj, Jv, and Mn, i.e.: [đ], [], [d], [b], [g], [v], [], [z], [t], [ʤ],
all ethnics. and [j]. Seven from these sounds are not familiar pronounced in
Then, four sound variants such as [], [u], [ei], and [aw] Bahasa Indonesia such as [đ], [], [v], [], [z], [t], and [ʤ].
respectively represent standard vowels of [ɜ:], [], [eǝ], and []. Therefore, the phonemic variations emerge from these
More detail, the sound [] and [aw] emerge respectively in consonant sounds because Indonesian people, especially these
word-medial positions of burn and because which are ethnic groups, tend to pronounce most of the sounds which have
pronounced by all ethnics. Meanwhile, sound [ei] emerges in their closest counterparts, such as [d] and [t] for [đ]; [t] for [];
word-medial position of hair pronounced by Bj, Jv, and Mn [f] for [v]; [s] for [] and [z]; [c] for [t]; and [k] for [ʤ]. The
ethnics; and sound [u] emerges in word-medial position of other consonants such as [d], [b], [g], and [j] are some
thumb and publish which is pronounced by DN, Bj, and Jv consonant in English which are slightly different in use
ethnics. compared with Bahasa Indonesia. Sounds [d] and [b] in word-
TABLE 5 Deletion and Addition of Speech Sounds final positions are mostly pronounced as [t] and [p] respectively
while [g] is acceptably replaced with [k] of word-final position.
Dele- Addi- Ethnics Sound [j] also emerges due to its peculiar word-initial position
Sounds Words
tion tion featuring e.g. university and Europe. Bahasa Indonesia did not have
Vovel [] released DN, Bj sound [ju] representing letter /u/, so the phonemic variation of
[e] published DN, Bj, Jv [j] occurs.
[] awarded DN With regard to the sounds of English vowels, nine phonemic
[a] Europe Bj variations of standard English vowel emerges, i.e. [], [e], [ei],
Consonants [l] could Bj, Jv, Mn [a], [], [aw], [o], [], and [u]. Mostly the variations of sound
[t] released, Mn are slightly different from the standard English forms, such as
published [] pronounced for [], [e] and [ǝ]; variant [e] for [] and [ӕ];
sound [a] is the variation of [ӕ]; and sound [o] pronounced for
Regarding with ‘deletion’ and ‘addition’ of speech sounds, [u]. The variations of vowel only produced slightly higher or
(as shown on Table 5) there are three variants of vowel sound: lower or more fronted or backed than the others. Therefore, the
[], [e], [a] belong to addition and one vowel sound variant English vowel sounds tend to vary considerably from speaker
belongs to deletion, that is sound []. The sound [] is added in to speaker (Crane, Yeager, and Whitman, 1981:60).
word-medial position of released by two ethnics: Dn and Bj. In terms of addition and deletion, the ethnic groups have
This word should be pronounced [rli:st] instead of [rli:st]. This minor variation where only sound [t] of word-final position are
is similar with sound [e] which is also added to word-medial deleted; and sound [] of word-medial position is not
position of published by ethnics of DN, Bj, and Jv. This word pronounced which both sounds mostly occurs to past participle

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should have not been sounded. Sounds by Japanese Learners” The Reading Matrix, Vol. 1, No. 2,
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do not hamper the communication or even break the situation [2] Prananingrum, K., and Kwary, D. “L1 Influence on the Production of L2
Sounds: A Case Study at the English Diploma Program, Airlangga
of teaching and learning English among students from the University, Indonesia,” unpublished.
different ethnics but the sound variations are able to give more [3] Wolfram, W. “Variation and Language, an Overview”, Encyclopedia of
enrichment to speech sounds of world Englishes. Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed., pp. 333 – 341, 2006.
[4] Ladefoged, P. A Course in Phonetics. 3rd edition. Orlando: Harcourt
ACKNOWLEDGMENT Brace, 1993.
The author wishes to thank Prof. Dr. Joni Bungai, M.Pd., as [5] LB. Crane, E. Yeager, and RL. Whitman, An Introduction to Linguistics,
the Dean of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of Boston: Little Brown and Company, p. 68, 1981.
Palangka Raya University, and his Deputy Prof. Dr. Agus [6] H. Alwi, S. Dardjowidjojo, H. Lapoliwa, and AM. Moeliono, Tata Bahasa
Baku Bahasa Indonesia, 3rd ed., pp. 58, 63, 2000.
Haryono, M.Si. who gave their contribution and facilitated the
[7] G. Keraf, Linguistik Bandingan Historis, Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka
author to present this study in the conference and also publish it Utama, p. 185, 1996
on this proceeding.

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