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CLASS

CBSE-i
X
UNIT-13

MATHEMATICS
Areas Related
to Circles
(Core)

Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092 India


CLASS

X
UNIT-13

CBSE-i

MATHEMATICS
Areas Related
to Circles
(Core)

Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092 India


The CBSE-International is grateful for permission to reproduce
and/or translate copyright material used in this publication. The
acknowledgements have been included wherever appropriate and
sources from where the material may be taken are duly mentioned. In
case any thing has been missed out, the Board will be pleased to rectify
the error at the earliest possible opportunity.
All Rights of these documents are reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced, printed or transmitted in any form without the
prior permission of the CBSE-i. This material is meant for the use of
schools who are a part of the CBSE-International only.
PREFACE
The Curriculum initiated by Central Board of Secondary Education -International (CBSE-i) is a progressive step in making
the educational content and methodology more sensitive and responsive to the global needs. It signifies the emergence of a
fresh thought process in imparting a curriculum which would restore the independence of the learner to pursue the
learning process in harmony with the existing personal, social and cultural ethos.
The Central Board of Secondary Education has been providing support to the academic needs of the learners worldwide. It
has about 11500 schools affiliated to it and over 158 schools situated in more than 23 countries. The Board has always been
conscious of the varying needs of the learners in countries abroad and has been working towards contextualizing certain
elements of the learning process to the physical, geographical, social and cultural environment in which they are engaged.
The International Curriculum being designed by CBSE-i, has been visualized and developed with these requirements in
view.
The nucleus of the entire process of constructing the curricular structure is the learner. The objective of the curriculum is to
nurture the independence of the learner, given the fact that every learner is unique. The learner has to understand,
appreciate, protect and build on values, beliefs and traditional wisdom, make the necessary modifications, improvisations
and additions wherever and whenever necessary.
The recent scientific and technological advances have thrown open the gateways of knowledge at an astonishing pace. The
speed and methods of assimilating knowledge have put forth many challenges to the educators, forcing them to rethink
their approaches for knowledge processing by their learners. In this context, it has become imperative for them to
incorporate those skills which will enable the young learners to become 'life long learners'. The ability to stay current, to
upgrade skills with emerging technologies, to understand the nuances involved in change management and the relevant
life skills have to be a part of the learning domains of the global learners. The CBSE-i curriculum has taken cognizance of
these requirements.
The CBSE-i aims to carry forward the basic strength of the Indian system of education while promoting critical and
creative thinking skills, effective communication skills, interpersonal and collaborative skills along with information and
media skills. There is an inbuilt flexibility in the curriculum, as it provides a foundation and an extension curriculum, in all
subject areas to cater to the different pace of learners.
The CBSE has introduced the CBSE-i curriculum in schools affiliated to CBSE at the international level in 2010 and is now
introducing it to other affiliated schools who meet the requirements for introducing this curriculum. The focus of CBSE-i is
to ensure that the learner is stress-free and committed to active learning. The learner would be evaluated on a continuous
and comprehensive basis consequent to the mutual interactions between the teacher and the learner. There are some non-
evaluative components in the curriculum which would be commented upon by the teachers and the school. The objective
of this part or the core of the curriculum is to scaffold the learning experiences and to relate tacit knowledge with formal
knowledge. This would involve trans-disciplinary linkages that would form the core of the learning process. Perspectives,
SEWA (Social Empowerment through Work and Action), Life Skills and Research would be the constituents of this 'Core'.
The Core skills are the most significant aspects of a learner's holistic growth and learning curve.
The International Curriculum has been designed keeping in view the foundations of the National Curricular Framework
(NCF 2005) NCERT and the experience gathered by the Board over the last seven decades in imparting effective learning to
millions of learners, many of whom are now global citizens.
The Board does not interpret this development as an alternative to other curricula existing at the international level, but as
an exercise in providing the much needed Indian leadership for global education at the school level. The International
Curriculum would evolve on its own, building on learning experiences inside the classroom over a period of time. The
Board while addressing the issues of empowerment with the help of the schools' administering this system strongly
recommends that practicing teachers become skillful learners on their own and also transfer their learning experiences to
their peers through the interactive platforms provided by the Board.
I profusely thank Shri G. Balasubramanian, former Director (Academics), CBSE, Ms. Abha Adams and her team and Dr.
Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations and Research) CBSE along with other Education Officers involved in the
development and implementation of this material.
The CBSE-i website has already started enabling all stakeholders to participate in this initiative through the discussion
forums provided on the portal. Any further suggestions are welcome.
Vineet Joshi
Chairman
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Advisory Conceptual Framework
Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman, CBSE Shri G. Balasubramanian, Former Director (Acad), CBSE
Sh. N. Nagaraju, Director(Academic), CBSE Ms. Abha Adams, Consultant, Step-by-Step School, Noida
Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training),CBSE
Ideators
Ms. Aditi Misra Ms. Anuradha Sen Ms. Jaishree Srivastava Dr. Rajesh Hassija
Ms. Amita Mishra Ms. Archana Sagar Dr. Kamla Menon Ms. Rupa Chakravarty
Ms. Anita Sharma Ms. Geeta Varshney Dr. Meena Dhami Ms. Sarita Manuja
Ms. Anita Makkar Ms. Guneet Ohri Ms. Neelima Sharma Ms. Himani Asija
Dr. Anju Srivastava Dr. Indu Khetrapal Dr. N. K. Sehgal Dr. Uma Chaudhry
Material Production Groups: Classes IX-X
English : Mathematics : Science : History :
Ms. Sarita Manuja Dr. K.P. Chinda Ms. Charu Maini Ms. Jayshree Srivastava
Ms. Renu Anand Mr. J.C. Nijhawan Ms. S. Anjum Ms. M. Bose
Ms. Gayatri Khanna Ms. Rashmi Kathuria Ms. Meenambika Menon Ms. A. Venkatachalam
Ms. P. Rajeshwary Ms. Reemu Verma Ms. Novita Chopra Ms. Smita Bhattacharya
Ms. Neha Sharma Dr. Ram Avtar
Ms. Neeta Rastogi
Ms. Sarabjit Kaur Mr. Mahendra Shankar
Ms. Pooja Sareen
Ms. Ruchika Sachdev
Geography: Political Science:
Ms. Deepa Kapoor Ms. Sharmila Bakshi Economics:
Ms. Bharti Dave Ms. Archana Soni Ms. Mridula Pant
Ms. Bhagirathi Ms. Srilekha Mr. Pankaj Bhanwani
Ms. Archana Sagar Ms. Ambica Gulati
Ms. Manjari Rattan
Material Production Groups: Classes VI-VIII
English : Science : Mathematics : Geography:
Ms. Rachna Pandit Dr. Meena Dhami Ms. Seema Rawat Ms. Suparna Sharma
Ms. Neha Sharma Mr. Saroj Kumar Ms. N. Vidya Ms. Leela Grewal
Ms. Sonia Jain Ms. Rashmi Ramsinghaney Ms. Mamta Goyal History :
Ms. Dipinder Kaur Ms. Seema kapoor Ms. Chhavi Raheja Ms. Leeza Dutta
Ms. Sarita Ahuja Ms. Priyanka Sen Political Science: Ms. Kalpana Pant
Dr. Kavita Khanna Ms. Kanu Chopra
Ms. Keya Gupta Ms. Shilpi Anand
Material Production Group: Classes I-V
Dr. Indu Khetarpal Ms. Rupa Chakravarty Ms. Anita Makkar Ms. Nandita Mathur
Ms. Vandana Kumar Ms. Anuradha Mathur Ms. Kalpana Mattoo Ms. Seema Chowdhary
Ms. Anju Chauhan Ms. Savinder Kaur Rooprai Ms. Monika Thakur Ms. Ruba Chakarvarty
Ms. Deepti Verma Ms. Seema Choudhary Mr. Bijo Thomas Ms. Mahua Bhattacharya
Ms. Ritu Batra Ms. Kalyani Voleti
Coordinators:
Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Ms. Sugandh Sharma, Dr. Srijata Das, Dr. Rashmi Sethi,
Head (I and R) E O (Com) E O (Maths) E O (Science)
Shri R. P. Sharma, Consultant Ms. Ritu Narang, RO (Innovation) Ms. Sindhu Saxena, R O (Tech) Shri Al Hilal Ahmed, AEO
Ms. Seema Lakra, S O Ms. Preeti Hans, Proof Reader
Content
1. Syllabus 1
2. Scope document 2
3. Teacher's Support Material 5
v
Teacher's Note 6
v
Activity Skill Matrix 10
v
Warm Up W1 11
Rangoli Design
v
Warm Up W2 12
Word Search
v
Pre Content P1 14
Drawing Pictures
v
Pre -Content P2 15
Introduction to Length of an Arc
v
Content Worksheet CW1 16
Length of an Arc
v
Content Worksheet CW2 17
Area of a Sector
v
Content Worksheet CW3 18
Area of a Segment
v
Content Worksheet CW4 19
Simple Applications
v
Post Content Worksheet PCW1 20
v
Post Content Worksheet PCW2 20
v
Post Content Worksheet PCW3 20
v
Post Content Worksheet PCW4 20
v
Assessment Plan 21
4. Study Material 25
5. Student Support Material 39
v
SW1: Warm Up (W1) 40
Rangoli Design
v
SW2: Warm Up (W2) 42
Word Search
v
SW3: Pre Content (P1) 44
Drawing Pictures
v
SW4: Pre Content (P3) 46
Introducing Length of an Arc
v
SW5: Content (CW1) 48
Length of an Arc
v
SW6: Content (CW2) 53
Area of a Sector
v
SW7: Content (CW3) 59
Area of a Segment
v
SW8:Content (CW4) 64
Combination of Figures
v
SW9: Post Content (PCW1) 74
v
SW10: Post Content (PCW2) 75
v
SW 11: Post Content (PCW3) 77
v
SW 12: Post Content (PCW4) 79
Assignment
v
Suggested Videos & Extra Readings. 81
SYLLABUS

AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES

UNIT – 13 (CORE)

Introduction Recall basic terms: perimeter, area

Perimeter and area Circumference of circle, length of an arc, area of circle, area of
related to circle segment, area of sector, area of semicircle

Application Simple Application problems- area enclosed between various


circles/circular arcs.

1
SCOPE DOCUMENT

Key concepts/terms

1. Length of an arc

2. area of a sector

3. area of a segment

Learning objectives:

To explain all the terms related to circles.

To relate circle and its parts to real life.

To introduce the concept of length of an arc.

To verify the formula for the length of an arc using hands on activity and use it to
solve problems.

To find the formula for area of sector of circle and use it to solve problems.

To find area of a segment and to solve problems based on it.

To find the area enclosed between various circles or circular arcs.

EXTENSION ACTIVITY:

1. Draw a circle inscribed and circumscribed by a triangle. Find the ratio of area of
circle to inscribed triangle and ratio of area of circle to circumscribed triangle

2. Repeat the same activity for square.

2
Research:

What is the smallest radius for which the radius of the circular area covered by the five
equal disks placed symmetrically at the centre is 1.

CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK:

1. Circle graph depicts the relative amount of a whole. Each sector has area
proportional to the fraction of percentage represented by it.

2. Islamic art is based on designs which can be created by division of circles. Collect
and study some designs of Islamic art. Visit the following link to get some
interesting ideas on how to create designs using circles and other polygons

http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/teachers-resource-maths-and-
islamic-art-and-design/

3
3.

Try to create this six circle symmetry. Create beautiful coloured patterns.

4
Teacher’s
Support Material

5
TEACHER’S NOTE
The teaching of Mathematics should enhance the child’s resources to think and reason,
to visualize and handle abstractions, to formulate and solve problems. As per NCF
2005, the vision for school Mathematics includes:

1. Children learn to enjoy mathematics rather than fear it.

2. Children see mathematics as something to talk about, to communicate through, to


discuss among them, to work together on.

3. Children pose and solve meaningful problems.

4. Children use abstractions to perceive relationships, to see structures, to reason out


things, to argue the truth or falsity of statements.

5. Children understand the basic structure of Mathematics: Arithmetic, algebra,


geometry and trigonometry, the basic content areas of school Mathematics, all offer
a methodology for abstraction, structuration and generalisation.

6. Teachers engage every child in class with the conviction that everyone can learn
mathematics.

Students should be encouraged to solve problems through different methods like


abstraction, quantification, analogy, case analysis, reduction to simpler situations, even
guess-and-verify exercises during different stages of school. This will enrich the
students and help them to understand that a problem can be approached by a variety of
methods for solving it. School mathematics should also play an important role in
developing the useful skill of estimation of quantities and approximating solutions.
Development of visualisation and representations skills should be integral to
Mathematics teaching. There is also a need to make connections between Mathematics
and other subjects of study. When children learn to draw a graph, they should be
encouraged to perceive the importance of graph in the teaching of Science, Social

6
Science and other areas of study. Mathematics should help in developing the reasoning
skills of students. Proof is a process which encourages systematic way of
argumentation. The aim should be to develop arguments, to evaluate arguments, to
make conjunctures and understand that there are various methods of reasoning.
Students should be made to understand that mathematical communication is precise,
employs unambiguous use of language and rigour in formulation. Children should be
encouraged to appreciate its significance.

At the secondary stage students begin to perceive the structure of Mathematics as a


discipline. By this stage they should become familiar with the characteristics of
Mathematical communications, various terms and concepts, the use of symbols,
precision of language and systematic arguments in proving the proposition. At this
stage a student should be able to integrate the many concepts and skills that he/she has
learnt in solving problems.

This unit is extension of knowledge earned about the area of circle and other plane
figures, in previous classes. The unit contains hands on activities to reinforce previously
learnt concepts and lots of application problems with focus on following learning
objectives: Learning objectives:

To explain all the terms related to circles.

To relate circle and its parts to real life.

To introduce the concept of length of an arc.

To verify the formula for the length of an arc using hands on activity and use it to
solve problems.

To find the formula for area of sector of circle and use it to solve problems.

To find area of a segment and to solve problems based on it.

To find area of a combination of figures and to solve problems based on it.

7
In this unit a lot of terms related to circle are used. Through warm up activity W1
students are given an opportunity to recognize all parts of circle and through activity
W2 they can recall all terms related to circle. Pre- content activity P1 tends to observe
the real-life object. These activities also help the learners to perceive the relation
between various parts of circle and the beautiful patterns emerging from them. This
type of observation skill will help them when they will attempt the problems involving
one or more circles or circles and other plane figures.

Pre-content activity P2 is preparation for making students understand the relation


between length of arc of circle and the circumference of the circle. First they will divide
the circles of given radius into three arcs of any length. For this purpose they can draw
circles on paper or they can have circular disks .they shall be asked to measure the
length of each arc and find the ratio of circumference to length of arc. But here they are
not supposed to use the formula of circumference/length of arc .They can measure the
respective lengths through thread and can tabulate their observations and conclusion.
Further they can validate or refine their conclusion by using the formula. Although the
students are familiar with the formula for circumference and length of arc, these
activities will strengthen the concept and will make the problem solving easy for them.

Similarily to establish the relation between area of sector and area of circle an
interesting activity is described in CW2. A pattern will emerge when the regular
polygons with different number of sides are cut into equal sectors. This activity in the
class shall be followed by rigorous discussions and the students shall be able to come
up with the formula themselves.

Same type of activity is described for area of segment. Activities are immediately
followed by the problem sheets as TASK 2.

8
Once again this is to remind all teachers that the purpose of the activities is not the
discovering of any new formula, but to strengthen the previous knowledge. Such
activities give insight to the students in problem solving of related topics.

When students start attempting the combination problems, the following three step
strategy can be adopted:

1. Identification/marking of required area as per requirement of problem

2. Word expression for area ,e.g. area marked yellow or shaded area in above figure is
ar(semicircle with radius 9/2 ) + ar (semicircle with radius 13.5)-ar(semicircle with
radius 4.5/2)

3. Algebraic expression for above word expression using formula

4. Calculations

9
ACTIVITY SKILL MATRIX

AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES

Type of Activity Name of Activity Skill to be developed

Warm UP(W1) Rangoli Design Observation, Recall, Relate

Warm UP(W2) Word Search Vocabulary Testing

Pre-Content (P1) Drawing Pictures Relate to real context

Pre-Content (P2) Introduction to Observation, Analyze, Inference


length of an Arc

Content (CW 1) Length of an Arc Concrete to abstract, Application

Content (CW 2) Area of Sector Observation, Analyze, Inference,


Application

Content (CW 3) Area of Segment Thinking Skill, Problem Solving

Content (CW 4) Combination of Knowledge, Thinking Skills, Application


Figures

Post - Content Fill Ups Knowledge, Understanding


(PCW 1)

Post - Content Open Ended Creative Skills, thinking skills


(PCW 2) Problem

Post - Content MCQ Conceptual knowledge, Problem Solving


(PCW 3) skills

Post - Content Assignment Knowledge and application.


(PCW 4)

10
ACTIVITY 1- WARM UP W1
Rangoli Design
Specific Objective:

To revisit basic concepts of circles and its parts.

Description: This task is designed to revisit the concepts already learnt in earlier classes
related to circle. It will also be a fun exercise for students which give them the scope of
showing their creative skills while learning mathematical concepts.

Execution: Printed worksheets of rangoli designs may be distributed to the students.


Each student will colour the designs individually and will write the terms related to
circles.

Parameters for Assessment:

Able to recall basic terms related to circle.

Able to recognize various parts of circle

Able to appreciate the use of geometry in various designs

11
ACTIVITY 2- WARM UP W2
Word Search
Specific Objective:

To revise the terms related to circles.

Description: This is a word search task in which students will search the words related
to circle in the given worksheet and will encircle them. These words may be arranged
horizontally, vertically, diagonally in either way- left to right or right to left, top to
bottom or bottom to top. This task will help the students to recall all the terms related to
circle.

Execution: Printed worksheets may be distributed to the students. Sufficient time may
be given to the students to solve the worksheet. After the completion of task, students
may be shown the answer grid on projector so that they can check their answers.

12
Answer Grid:

Parameters for Assessment:

Able to recall basic terms related to circle.

13
ACTIVITY 3- PRE CONTENT (P1)
Drawing Pictures
Specific Objective:

To relate circle and its parts to real life.

Description: In this task, students will make pictures of things around us which
corresponds to the words given in the sheet. For example, they can make a piece of
pizza corresponding to sector. This task is designed to make students appreciate the use
of geometry in our life.

Execution: Teacher may write the words on the board and students may draw the
corresponding pictures in their notebooks. Alternatively, printed worksheets may be
given to the students. A class discussion may be held to check the work of the students.

Parameters for Assessment:

Able to recall and recognize circle & related terms.

Able to appreciate the use of mathematics all around us.

14
ACTIVITY 4 - PRE CONTENT (P2)
Introduction to Length of an Arc
Specific Objective:

To introduce the concept of length of an arc.

Description: In this task, students will draw circles with given radius. They will use
thread to measure the circumference of each circle. Further, students will divide the
circle in equal parts and measure the length of arc thus formed using thread. They will
also try to find out the relationship between circumferences with the length of an arc.

Execution: Teacher will explain the activity to the students and each student will
perform the activity in his notebook. Students will reflect on the statement given in the
worksheet in their notebooks based on their observation. A general class discussion
may be held thereafter.

Parameters for Assessment:

Able to recall and recognize circumference and arc of a circle.

15
ACTIVITY 5- CONTENT (CW1)
Length of an Arc
Specific Objective:

To find the formula for the length of an arc and use it to solve problems.

Description: Task 1 is hands on activity to verify the formula for length of an arc. In this
task, students will find the arc length by actual measurement using thread and they will
also find out the length of the arc using formula. They will reflect their observations by
filling the observation table while doing the activity and will write the result of the
activity. Task 2 is based on the application of task 1. Students will solve questions based
on finding arc length when radius and central angle is given.

Execution: Each student will perform the activity individually and will record the
observations in their notebook. Printed worksheets may also be given in which students
will record their observation and write the result while performing the activity. Few
questions of task 2 may be taken as a black board task and the remaining may be solved
by the students in their notebooks.

Parameters for Assessment:

Able to recall formula of circumference of a circle

Able to find circumference of a circle

Able to recall formula for arc length

Able to find length of an arc

Extra Reading:

http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/arc-circle.html

16
ACTIVITY 6- CONTENT (CW2)
Area of a Sector
Specific Objective:

To find the formula for area of a sector of a circle and use it to solve problems.

Description: Task 1 is hands on activity to find the sum of areas of 3 sectors of same
radii. Students will follow the steps given in the task and will perform the activity. They
will extend the activity to polygons of 4 sides, 5 sides, 6 sides and so on. They will thus
try to find out whether a particular pattern is being generated. Task 2 is problem
solving task. The problems are based on finding area of sectors when some conditions
are given or vice versa.

Execution: Printed worksheets may be given in which students will record their
observation and write the result while performing the activity. Task 2 may be taken as a
black board task in which students may solve the questions on black board. All the
students will solve the questions in their notebook also.

Parameters for Assessment:

Able to recall formula of area of a circle

Able to find area of a circle

Able to recall formula of a sector

Able to find area of a sector

Extra Reading:

http://attanolearn.com/excel/cbse-10th-math-areas-related-circles.jsf

http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid1842754532?bckey=AQ~~,AAAAA
GLvQak~,FI1DNn-0IPr4Wx6YGPHGjZVRrIIFDAUD&bctid=31871597001

http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/area-sector.html

17
ACTIVITY 7- CONTENT (CW3)
Area of a Segment
Specific Objective:

To find area of a segment and to solve problems based on it.

Description: Task 1 is designed to generate the formula for finding area of segment
using area of triangle and area of sector. While solving the step by step questions given
in the task, students will find the formula for area of a segment. Task 2 contains
questions based on finding area of a segment.

Execution: Printed worksheets may be distributed for both the tasks. But after
completion of task 1, a class discussion may be held. Teacher should explain a few
questions of task 2 on board before distributing the worksheets for task 2.

Parameters for Assessment:

Able to recall area of a segment

Able to find area of a segment

Extra Reading:

http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid1842754532?bckey=AQ~~,AAAAA
GLvQak~,FI1DNn-0IPr4Wx6YGPHGjZVRrIIFDAUD&bctid=37227603001

18
ACTIVITY 8- CONTENT (CW4)
Simple Applications
Specific Objective:

To find area of a segment and to solve problems based on it.

Description: Task 1 gives students opportunity of using their creative skills to make
figures. This will also make them feel that geometry is used in their day to day life.
Students will also find the area of regions with different colours (used by them in
figures made by them). Task 2 is problem solving task which involves the use of area of
sectors and segments.

Execution: Task 1 is to be done by the students in their notebooks. Teacher may


describe the task and may give it as a home task by showing them the example given in
the worksheet. Few problems given in task 2 should be done by the students on black
board one by one followed by discussions. Remaining problems may be solved by the
students individually.

Parameters for Assessment:

Able to find area of combination of figures

Able to solve real life problems of area related to circles.

Extra Reading:

http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/WiZiQ-76444-Areas-related-circles-chap-
12-Education-ppt-powerpoint/

http://www.elcues.com/help/classX/XM12/

19
ACTIVITY 9- POST CONTENT (PCW1)

Students will be assessed on the worksheet containing fill ups on basic concepts.

ACTIVITY 10- POST CONTENT (PCW2)

Assessment of the students will be done on question framing skills.

ACTIVITY 11-POST CONTENT (PCW3)

Assessment of the students will be done by using MCQs.

ACTIVITY 12- POST CONTENT (PCW4)

Students will be assessed on the worksheet containing questions.

20
ASSESSMENT PLAN
Assessment guidance plan for teachers
With each task in student support material a self–assessment rubric is attached for
students. Discuss with the students how each rubric can help them to keep in tune their
own progress. These rubrics are meant to develop the learner as the self motivated
learner.

To assess the students’ progress by teacher two types of rubrics are suggested below,
one is for formative assessment and one is for summative assessment.

Suggestive Rubric for Formative Assessment (exemplary)

Parameter Mastered Developing Needs Needs


motivation personal
attention
Area of This student is able This student is This student is Not able
combina- to able to able to to
tion Identify/mark the Identify/mark Identify/ Identify/
figures required area the required mark the mark the
correctly area required area required
Correctly correctly area
This student is able This student is This student is correctly
to able to able to
Express in words Express in Express in
the required area words the words the
correctly required area required area
correctly correctly
This student is able This student is
to able to
write the formula write the Not able to
for each part formula for each write the
correctly part correctly formula for
each part
This student is able correctly
to
Substitute each Not able to Calculations
value correctly substitute each are not
value correctly correctly do
Calculation are Calculations are me
accurately done not correctly do
me

21
From above rubric it is very clear that

Learner requiring personal attention is poor in concepts and requires the training of
basic concepts before moving further.

Learner requiring motivation has basic concepts but face problem in calculations or in
making decision about suitable substitution etc. He can be provided with remedial
worksheets containing solution methods of given problems in the form of fill-ups.

Learner who is developing is able to choose suitable method of solving the problem and
is able to get the required answer too.

Learner who has mastered has acquired all types of skills can be given more
challenging problems..

TEACHERS’ RUBRIC FOR SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT OF


THE UNIT

Parameter 5 4 3 2 1
Recalling Able to explain all the terms Not able to
basic terms like circumference, area of explain any
circle, arc, arc length, area of term like
segment, area of sector ,area circumference ,
of semicircle area of circle,
arc, arc length,
area of segment,
area of sector ,
area of
semicircle
Able to tell formulae of all Not able to tell
above terms correctly formulae of all
the terms stated
above correctly
Able to use the formulae Not able to use
and can find the required the formulae
area or circumference or and cannot find
length correctly the required

22
area or
circumference
or length
correctly
Area related Able to find the required Not able to find
to circle area of circle, area of sector, the required area
area of segment or of circle, area of
circumference or length of sector, area of
arc , correctly segment or
circumference or
length of arc ,
correctly
Not able to find
radius and angle
of sector using
Able to find radius and the given
angle of sector using the information
given information correctly. correctly.
Not able to solve
real life
problems

Able to solve real life


problems
Area of Able to identify the area Not able to
combination required when a figure is identify the area
of figures combination of circle and required when
other plane figures. a figure is
combination of
circle and other
plane figures.

Not able to find


area mentioned
above using
Able to find area appropriate
mentioned above using formulae
appropriate formulae correctly
correctly

23
Study
Material

24
AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES (Core)
INTRODUCTION

You are already familiar with the concept of a circle and some basic terms such as
centre, radius, arc, chord etc related to a circle. You have also learnt to find the
perimeter and area of a plane figure like square, rectangle, quadrilateral such as a
trapezium, parallelogram, rhombus, triangle etc. You also know how to find area and
circumferance (perimeter) of a circle. In this unit, we shall first briefly recall these
concepts related to a circle and extend the study to find areas of a sector and a segment
of a circle.

We shall also find areas of combinations of figures involving a circle and its parts.

1. Circumference and Area of a circle: A recall

Circumference

Recall that the distance covered by going around a circle one time is called its
perimeter or circumference.

You also know that

circumference of a circle
diameter
is a constant, denoted by a Greek letter 𝜋 (read as ―pi‖).

circumference of a circle
or = 𝜋
diameter

or circumference = 𝜋 × diameter

= 𝜋 × 2r,

where r is the radius of the circle.

25
22
𝜋 is an irrational number but for calculation purposes, its value is usually taken as or
7

3.14. The great Indian mathematician. Aryabhatta (AD. 476-550) gave an approximate
62832
value of 𝜋 as 𝜋 = which is nearly equal to 3.1416.
20000

Great Indian mathematician S.Ramanujan (1887-1920) also calculated the value of 𝜋 to


some decimal places using an identity.

Area of a Circle

Recall that area of a circle of radius r is 𝜋r2, i.e.,

Area of a circle = 𝜋r2

Let us consider some examples:

Example 1: The radii of two circles are 6cm and 8cm. Find the radius of the circle having
its area equal to the sum of the areas of the two circles.

Solution: Let r1 = 6cm, r2 = 8cm.

Area of the circle with radius 𝑟1 = 𝜋𝑟12 = 𝜋(6)2cm2 = 36 𝜋cm2

Area of the circle with radius 𝑟2 = 𝜋𝑟22 = 𝜋(8)2cm2 = 64 𝜋cm2

Area of new circle = 𝜋R2 = 36 𝜋 + 64 𝜋 = 100 𝜋cm2,

where R is the radius of the new circle.

Thus 𝜋R2 = 100 𝜋

or, R2 = 100

or, R = 10

Hence, the required radius = 10cm.

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Example 2: The radii of two circles are 12cm and 21cm. Find the radius of the circle
which has circumference equal to the sum of the circumference of the two circles.

Solution: Let r1 = 12cm, r2 = 21cm.

Circumference of the circle with radius r1 = 2 𝜋 r1 = 2 𝜋 (12) = 24 𝜋cm

Circumference of the circle with radius r2 = 2 𝜋r2

= 2 𝜋(21)

= 42 𝜋 cm

Circumference of the new circle = 24 𝜋 + 42 𝜋

= 66 𝜋

(where R is the radias of the new circle)

Thus, 2 𝜋 R = 66 𝜋

or, R=33

i.e., required radius = 33cm

Example 3: Find the cost of ploughing circular field whose circumference is 176m at the
rate of Rs.5 per square metre.

Solution: Let the radius of the field be r metres.

Then, 2 𝜋 r = 176

176 × 7
or r= = 28m
2×22

∴ Area of the field = 𝜋r2

22
= x 28 x 28 m2
7

27
= 2464 m2

Cost of ploughing the field at the rate of Rs 5 per m2

= Rs 5 x 2464

= Rs 12320

2. Sector of a circle

Recall that the portion (or part) of the circular region enclosed by the two radii and
the arc between the two ends of radii is called a sector of the circle. (See Fig.1

FIG. 1

In the figure, O is the centre, OA and OB are two radii, APB is an arc between the two
ends A and B of the two radii.

The shaded part OAPB is a sector. Unshaded portion OAQB is also a sector.

Clearly, the sector AOBP is a Minor Sector and the sector OAQB is a
Major Sector. ∠AOB is called angle of the sector.

Thus θ is the angle of the minor sector and 360o- θ is the angle of the major sector.

Area of a sector

You know that area of a circle of radius r is 𝜋r2.

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You can imagine the circular region formed by the circle of radius r as a sector of
angle 360o (Because angle at the centre is a complete angle).

With this assumption, we can calculate the area of the sector OAPB as follows:

Area of a sector of angle 360o = 𝜋r2

𝜋𝑟2
So, area of a sector of angle 1o =
360o

0 𝜋𝑟 2 0
Hence, area of a sector of angle θ = × θ
360o

𝜋𝑟 2 θ
=
360
Length of the Arc of a sector

You know that circumference of a circle of radius r is 2𝜋r.

You can calculate the length of the arc of sector OAPB as follows:

Length of the arc of a sector of angle 360o = 2𝜋r


2πr
So, length of the arc of a sector of angle 1o =
360o

0 2πr θ
Hence, length of the arc of a sector of angle θ =
360

We now take some examples to illustrate the applications of the above formule.

Example 4: Find the area of a sector of a circle with radius 14cm and of angle 45 o. Also,
find the length of the corresponding arc of the sector.
πr 2 θ
Solution: Area of the sector = 360

22 × 14 × 14 ×45
= cm2
7 × 360

= 11 x 7 cm2 = 77cm2

2𝜋𝑟 θ
Length of the arc =
360

22 × 14 ×45
=2x cm
7 × 360

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= 11cm
Example 5: In a circle of diameter 42cm, an arc subtends an angle of 60o at the centre.
Find:

(i) Length of the arc.

(ii) Area of the corresponding sector.

(iii) Area of the corresponding major sector.

(iv) Length of the major sector.

2πr θ
Solution: (i) Length of the arc = 360

22 × 21 ×60 42
=2x (Diameter = 42cm, so, r = = 21)
7 × 360 2

= 22cm
𝜋𝑟 2 θ
(ii) Area of the sector =
360

22 × 21 ×21 × 60
=
7 × 360

= 231 cm2

𝜋𝑟 2 (3600 −θ)
(iii) Area of the major sector =
3600

22 × 21 ×21 × 3600 − 600


=
7 × 360o

3000
= 22 x 3 x 21 x
3600

= 11 x 21 x 5 cm2 = 1155 cm2

Alternate Method: Area of the major sector

= area of the circle – area of minor sector

22
= × 21 × 21 − 231 cm2
7

30
= (1386 – 231) cm = 1155 cm2

2𝜋𝑟 (3600 −θ)


(v) Length of the major sector =
3600

22 (3600 −600 )
=2x x 21 x
7 3600

300
= 2 x 22 x 3 x
3600

= 22 x 5 = 110 cm

Alternate Method: Length of the major sector

= circumference of the circle length of minor sector


22
= (2 x x 21 – 22) cm
7

= (132 – 22) cm = 110cm

Example 6: A car has two wipers which do not overlap. Each wiper has a blade of
length 28cm sweeping through an angle of 120o. Find the total area cleaned at each
sweep of the blades.

Solution: Area swept by one wiper = Area of sector of central angle 120o

𝜋𝑟 2 θ
= 360

22 120
= x 28 x 28 x cm2
7 360

So, total area swept by two wipers


22 120
=2x x 28 x 28 x cm2
7 360

4928
= = 1642.67 cm2
3

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Fig. 2

3. Area of segment of a circle

Recall that a chord of a circle divides the circular region into two parts. Each part is
called a segment of the circle.

FIG. 3

In the figure, APB is the minor segment and AQB is the major segment

To find area of the minor segment APB, join the centre O to A and B.

Let ∠AOB = θ.

Area of minor segment APB

= Area of sector OAPB

— Area of ∆OAB

πr 2 θ
= - Area of ∆OAB
360

Similarly,

Area of major segment AQB

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FIG. 3

= Area of sector OAQB + area of ∆ OAB


πr 2 (3600 – θ)
= + area of ∆ OAB
3600

Alternatively

Area of major segment AQB

= Area of circle with centre O Area of minor segment APB.

Let us illustrate the applications of these formulas through some examples.

Example 7: Find the area of the segment APB shown in Fig 4, if radius of circle is 14cm
and the central angle is 60o.

Also, find the area of the corresponding major segment.

FIG. 4

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Solution: Area of sector OAPB
πr 2 θ 22 × 14 × 14 ×60
= =
360 7 × 360
308
= cm2
3
𝟑 2
Area of ∆OAB = r [∆OAB is an equilateral triangle as OA = OB. Area of an
𝟒
3
equilateral triangle = a2]
4

3
= x 14 x 14
4

= 49 3 cm2
308
So, the area of segment APB = 49 3
3

= 102.6 84.87

= 17.80 cm2

Note: We can also find area of ∆OAB as follows:


1
(i) Area of ∆OAB = . AB x altitude
2

FIG. 5
1 𝑟
Now, AC = r sin 30o = r× = ]
2 2

Also, AB = 2AC = r

3
So, OC = r sin 60o = r x
2

34
1
Area of ∆OAB = AB x altitude
2

1 3
= (r) r×
2 2

1 3
= x 14 x 14 x
2 2

= 49 3 cm2

Area of corresponding major segment AQB

= Area of major sector OAQB

+ area of ∆OAB

πr 2 (3600 – θ)
= + 49 3 cm2
3600

22 3000
= × 14 × 14 × 3600 + 49 3 cm2
7

22 5
= × 14 × 14 × 6 + 49 3 cm2
7

1540
= + 49 3 cm2
3

= 513.33 + 84.87 = 598.20 cm2

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Alternate Method

Area of major segment AQB = Area of the circle — area of minor segment

308
= 𝜋r2 + 49 3 cm2
3

22 308
= x 14 x 14 + 49 3 cm2
7 3

308
= 616 − + 49 3 cm2
3

1540
= + 49 3 cm2
3

Example 8: A chord of a circle of radius 10cm subtends a right angle at the centre. Find
the area of

(i) Minor segment

(ii) Major segment (use 𝜋 = 3.14)

Solution:

(i) Area of minor segment APB

FIG. 6

36
= area of sector OAPB - area of ∆AOB
πr 2 θ 1
= – OA x OB
3600 2

900 1
= (3.14) x 10 x 10 x x 10 x 10
3600 2

= (78.50 – 50) cm2

= 28.50 cm2

(ii) Area of major segment AQB

= area of circle- area of minor segment

= (3.14 x 10 x 10 – 28.50) cm2

= (314 – 28. 50) cm2

= 288.5 cm2

4. Areas of Combination of Plane Figure and Circles.

In daily life, we see many designs which involve circles along with other plane
figures such as square, triangle, rectangle etc. We now illustrate the process of
calculating areas of such figures/ designs through some examples.

Example 9: Find the area of a flower bed with semicircular ends as shown in Fig.7:

FIG. 7

(Use 𝜋 = 3.14)

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Solution: The flower bed consists of a rectangle of dimensions 38cm x 10cm and two
semicircles each of radius 10cm.

Fig. 8

So, area of the flower bed

= area of the rectangle + area of two semicircles

1 1
= [38 x 10 + 𝜋 (5)2 + 𝜋 (5)2] cm2
2 2

= [380 + 3.14 x 25] cm2

= (380 + 78.5) cm2

= 458.5 cm2

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Student’s
Support Material

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STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 1
WARM UP (W1)
Rangoli Design

Name of Student___________ Date________

Observe the following rangoli pattern

Write as many words as you can, related to circle, by observing the above pattern.

Trace out the above pattern and colour it to make a beautiful rangoli design.

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SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 1 – WARM UP (W1)

Parameter

Able to recall basic terms


related to circle.
Able to recognize various
parts of circle
Able to appreciate the use
of geometry in various
designs

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STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 2
WARM UP (W2)
Word Search

Name of Student___________ Date________

The following picture contains words having terms related to circle. These words may
be arranged horizontally, vertically, diagonally in either way- left to right or right to
left, top to bottom or bottom to top. Find them and encircle them.

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SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 2 – WARM UP (W2)

Parameter

Able to recall basic terms


related to circle.

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STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 3

PRE CONTENT (P1)


Drawing Pictures

Name of Student___________ Date________

Draw pictures of real time objects corresponding to each word:

Object Word
circle

semicircle

Arc

sector

Segment

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SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 3 – PRE CONTENT (P1)

Parameter

Able to recall and


recognize circle & related
terms
Able to appreciate the use
of mathematics all around
us.

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STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 4

PRE CONTENT (P2)


Introduction to Length of an Arc

Name of Student___________ Date________

Draw five circles of radii 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 20cm and 25 cm. Measure their
circumference using a thread. Divide each circle in 3 equal parts. Measure the length of
arc for each part using a thread.

Is there any relation between the circumference and the arc lengths? Reflect.

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SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 4 – PRE CONTENT (P2)

Parameter

Able to recall and


recognize circumference
and arc of a circle

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STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 5

CONTENT WORKSHEET (CW1)


Length of an Arc
Name of Student___________ Date________

Task 1: Hands on Activity:

Aim: To verify the formula for length of an Arc.

Material Required: Paper, compass, pencil, thread, measuring scale, pair of scissors.

Previous Knowledge: Finding Circumference

Procedure:

1. Take a circle of radius 5 units.

2. Divide the circle in 10 equal parts.

3. Measure the arc length of each part using thread.

𝜋𝑟𝜃
4. Calculate the length of arc using the formula
180˚

5. Repeat the above steps taking different radii.

Observation:

Radius Arc length by measurement Arc length by calculation

Result:

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Task 2:

Do the following:

1. In a circle, find the length of a 30⁰ arc if the circumference is 60 𝜋.

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2. Find the arc intercepted by the side of a regular pentagon inscribed in a circle of
radius 3 cm.

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3. Find the measure of central angle of an arc whose length is 3m if the circumference
is 9 m.
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4. In a circle, find the length of a 90⁰ arc if an inscribed hexagon has a side of length 12
cm.
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5. Find the length of a 180⁰ arc if the circumference is 25 units.
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SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 5

CONTENT WORKSHEET (CW1)

Parameter

Able to recall formula of


circumference of a circle
Able to find
circumference of a circle
Able to recall formula for
arc length
Able to find length of an
arc

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STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 6

CONTENT WORKSHEET (CW2)


Area of a Sector

Name of Student___________ Date________

Task 1: Hands on Activity:

Sum of areas of 3 sectors of same radii

Aim:
By paper cutting and pasting, verify that the sum of areas of three sectors of same
𝑟2
radius ―r‖ formed at the vertices (as center) of any triangle is (Pi x r ^2)/2. [𝜋. 2 ]

Material Required
Coloured paper, pair of scissors, glue, and geometry box.
Procedure
Step 1 Draw an equilateral triangle ABC on a coloured paper and cut it.
Step 2 With suitable radius, draw three sectors on the three vertices.
Step 3 Cut the three sectors.
Step 4 Draw a straight line and place the three sector cut outs adjacent to each other on
it.
Step 5 Write the observations.
Step 6 Repeat the activity for two more triangles other than equilateral triangle.
Step 7 Write the observations
Observations
1. When sector cut outs are placed on a straight line, they completely cover the straight
angle. So their sum is 180 degrees.
2. The three sectors cut outs placed on a straight-line form a semicircle.
3. The area of semicircle is Pi x r^2 /2.

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Source:

http://mykhmsmathclass.blogspot.com/search/label/ActivitySum%20of%20areas%20
of%203%20sectors%20of%20same%20radii%20cut%20at%20vertices%20of%20a%20trian
gle

Extend the above activity to find the sum of areas of

4 sectors of same radii cut out from 4 side regular polygon

5 sectors of same radii cut out from 5 side regular polygon

6 sectors of same radii cut out from 6 side regular polygon

7 sectors of same radii cut out from 7 side regular polygon

Do you observe any pattern?

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Task 2: Do the following

1. Find the are of a 60⁰ sector if the circumference is 10 𝜋.


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2. Find the area of a 240⁰ sector if the area of the circle is 60 sq. units.
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3. Find the measure of a central angle of an arc whose length is 10 𝜋 if the area of the
sector is 50 𝜋 sq units.
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4. Find the radius of a circle if a sector of area 24 𝜋 sq units has an arc length of 12 𝜋
units.
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5. Find the radius of a circle if 270⁰ sector has an area of 9 𝜋 sq units.

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SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 6

CONTENT WORKSHEET (CW2)

Parameter

Able to recall formula of


area of a circle
Able to find area of a
circle
Able to recall formula of a
sector
Able to find area of a
sector

58
STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 7

CONTENT WORKSHEET (CW3)


Area of a Segment

Name of Student___________ Date________

Task1: Finding area of a segment

Observe the following figure carefully.

Find XP in terms of r and θ.

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Write PQ in terms of r and θ.

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Find OX in terms of r and θ.

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Find area of triangle POQ in terms of r and θ.

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Find area of sector POQ.

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Find area of the segment.

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Task 2:

Do the following:

1. Find the area of segment of a circle if the radius of the circle is 12 units and the
central angle measures 90⁰.

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2. Find the area of segment of a circle if the radius is 6 cm and the central angle
measures 60⁰.

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3. Find the area of segment of a circle if the radius of the circle and the chord of the
segment each have length 9 units.

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4. A chord of length 12 units is 5 units from the centre of the circle. Find the area of the
segment.
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5. An arc length of 4 𝜋 inscribes an angle of 90⁰ at the centre. Find the area of
corresponding segment.

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SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 7

CONTENT WORKSHEET (CW3)

Parameter

Able to recall formula for


area of a segment
Able to find area of a
segment

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STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 8

CONTENT WORKSHEET (CW4)

Combination of Figure

Simple Applications

Name of Student___________ Date________

Task 1:

Sajeev made the following shape using circles and semicircles only.

Draw a joker using circles, semicircles, arcs, sector and segments only. Colour your
joker with different colours.

64
Find the area under different colour regions.

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Task 2:

Find the area under different colour regions in the following figures:

1.

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2.

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3.

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4.

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5.

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6.

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7.

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8.

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SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 8

CONTENT WORKSHEET (CW4)

Parameter

Able to find area of


combination of figures
Able to find area related
to circles.

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STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 9

POST CONTENT (PCW1)


Name of Student___________ Date________

Fill in the blanks.

(a) The perimeter of a circle is called its _________________.

(b) 𝜋 is the ratio of _______________ of a circle with its ____________.

(c) 𝜋 is an _______________ number.

(d) The approximate value of 𝜋 is ____________ .

(e) Area of the sector of a circle of angle θ = ______________.

(f) Length of an arc of a sector of a circle of angle θ = __________.

(g) The length of an arc of a circle of radius, subtending angle θ at the centre is
_________.

(h) The area of the sector of a circle of radius r with central angle θ is =___________.

(i) The perimeter of sector of a circle of radius r and central angle θ is _____________.

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STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 10

POST CONTENT (PCW2)


Name of Student___________ Date________

Write word problems based on the figures given below. Your questions should be
related to day to day life:

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STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 11

POST CONTENT (PCW3)


Name of Student___________ Date________

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The area of the sector of a circle of radius r and central angle θ, is

A. ½ l.r B. 2𝜋r2θ/720 C. 2𝜋rθ/360 D. 𝜋rθ/360

2. An arc of a circle is of length 5 𝜋 cm and the sector it bounds has an area of 20 𝜋 cm2.
The radius of circle is

A. 1 cm B. 5 cm C. 8 cm D. 10 cm

3. A sector is cut from a circle of radius 21 cm. The angle of sector is 150º. The area of
sector is

A. 577.5 cm2 B. 288.2 cm2 C. 152 cm2 D. 155 m2

4. A chord AB of a circle of radius 10 cm makes a right angle at the centre of the circle.
The area of major segment is

A. 210 cm2 B. 285.7 cm2 C. 185.5 cm2 D. 258.1 cm2

5. A horse is tied to a pole with 56 m long string. The area of the field where the horse
can graze is

A. 2560 m2 B. 2464 m2 C. 9856 m2 D. 25600 m2

6. The circumferences of two circles are in the ratio 2:3. The ratio of their areas is

A. 4:9 B. 2:3 C. 7:9 D. 4:10

7. Area enclosed between two concentric circles is 770 cm2. If the radius of outer circle is
21 cm, then the radius of inner circle is

A. 12 cm B. 13 cm C. 14 cm D. 15 cm

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8. The perimeter of a semi-circular protector is 72 cm. Its diameter is

A. 28 cm B. 14 cm C. 36 cm D. 24 cm

9. The minute hand of a clock is 21 cm long. The area described by it on the face of clock
in 5 minutes is

A. 5.5 cm2 B. 2.5 cm2 C. 1.5 cm2 D. 3.5 cm2

10. The area of a circle circumscribing a square of area 64 cm2 is

A. 50.28 cm2 B. 25.5 cm2 C. 100.57 cm2 D. 75.48 cm2

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STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 12

POST CONTENT (PCW4)

ASSIGNMENT
Name of Student___________ Date________

Solve the following problems:

1. Find the length of an arc of radius 14 cm and central angle

a) 30⁰.

b) 60⁰.

c) 120⁰.

d) 150⁰.

2. Find the area of a sector with radius 7 cm and central angle

a) 30⁰.

b) 60⁰.

c) 120⁰.

d) 150⁰.

3. Find the area of a segment with radius 21 cm and central angle

a) 30⁰.

b) 60⁰.

c) 120⁰.

d) 150⁰.

4. Find the central angle corresponding to an arc whose radius is 3.5 cm and arc length
is 16 cm.

5. The length of an arc subtending an angle of 720 at the center is 44 cm. Find the area
of the circle.

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6. Find the area of a sector of radius 7 cm and central angle 30⁰.

7. Find the area of a segment of a circle of radius 14 cm and arc length 7𝜋.

8. Find the area under colour region in the given figure.

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SUGGESTED VIDEOS AND EXTRA READINGS:
http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/arc-circle.html

http://attanolearn.com/excel/cbse-10th-math-areas-related-circles.jsf

http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid1842754532?bckey=AQ~~,AAA

AAGLvQak~,FI1DNn-0IPr4Wx6YGPHGjZVRrIIFDAUD&bctid=31871597001

http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/area-sector.html

http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid1842754532?bckey=AQ~~,AAA

AAGLvQak~,FI1DNn-0IPr4Wx6YGPHGjZVRrIIFDAUD&bctid=37227603001

http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/WiZiQ-76444-Areas-related-circles-

chap-12-Education-ppt-powerpoint/

http://www.elcues.com/help/classX/XM12/

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CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar,
Delhi-110 092 India