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CBSE-i

X

UNIT-13

MATHEMATICS

Areas Related

to Circles

(Core)

CLASS

X

UNIT-13

CBSE-i

MATHEMATICS

Areas Related

to Circles

(Core)

The CBSE-International is grateful for permission to reproduce

and/or translate copyright material used in this publication. The

acknowledgements have been included wherever appropriate and

sources from where the material may be taken are duly mentioned. In

case any thing has been missed out, the Board will be pleased to rectify

the error at the earliest possible opportunity.

All Rights of these documents are reserved. No part of this publication

may be reproduced, printed or transmitted in any form without the

prior permission of the CBSE-i. This material is meant for the use of

schools who are a part of the CBSE-International only.

PREFACE

The Curriculum initiated by Central Board of Secondary Education -International (CBSE-i) is a progressive step in making

the educational content and methodology more sensitive and responsive to the global needs. It signifies the emergence of a

fresh thought process in imparting a curriculum which would restore the independence of the learner to pursue the

learning process in harmony with the existing personal, social and cultural ethos.

The Central Board of Secondary Education has been providing support to the academic needs of the learners worldwide. It

has about 11500 schools affiliated to it and over 158 schools situated in more than 23 countries. The Board has always been

conscious of the varying needs of the learners in countries abroad and has been working towards contextualizing certain

elements of the learning process to the physical, geographical, social and cultural environment in which they are engaged.

The International Curriculum being designed by CBSE-i, has been visualized and developed with these requirements in

view.

The nucleus of the entire process of constructing the curricular structure is the learner. The objective of the curriculum is to

nurture the independence of the learner, given the fact that every learner is unique. The learner has to understand,

appreciate, protect and build on values, beliefs and traditional wisdom, make the necessary modifications, improvisations

and additions wherever and whenever necessary.

The recent scientific and technological advances have thrown open the gateways of knowledge at an astonishing pace. The

speed and methods of assimilating knowledge have put forth many challenges to the educators, forcing them to rethink

their approaches for knowledge processing by their learners. In this context, it has become imperative for them to

incorporate those skills which will enable the young learners to become 'life long learners'. The ability to stay current, to

upgrade skills with emerging technologies, to understand the nuances involved in change management and the relevant

life skills have to be a part of the learning domains of the global learners. The CBSE-i curriculum has taken cognizance of

these requirements.

The CBSE-i aims to carry forward the basic strength of the Indian system of education while promoting critical and

creative thinking skills, effective communication skills, interpersonal and collaborative skills along with information and

media skills. There is an inbuilt flexibility in the curriculum, as it provides a foundation and an extension curriculum, in all

subject areas to cater to the different pace of learners.

The CBSE has introduced the CBSE-i curriculum in schools affiliated to CBSE at the international level in 2010 and is now

introducing it to other affiliated schools who meet the requirements for introducing this curriculum. The focus of CBSE-i is

to ensure that the learner is stress-free and committed to active learning. The learner would be evaluated on a continuous

and comprehensive basis consequent to the mutual interactions between the teacher and the learner. There are some non-

evaluative components in the curriculum which would be commented upon by the teachers and the school. The objective

of this part or the core of the curriculum is to scaffold the learning experiences and to relate tacit knowledge with formal

knowledge. This would involve trans-disciplinary linkages that would form the core of the learning process. Perspectives,

SEWA (Social Empowerment through Work and Action), Life Skills and Research would be the constituents of this 'Core'.

The Core skills are the most significant aspects of a learner's holistic growth and learning curve.

The International Curriculum has been designed keeping in view the foundations of the National Curricular Framework

(NCF 2005) NCERT and the experience gathered by the Board over the last seven decades in imparting effective learning to

millions of learners, many of whom are now global citizens.

The Board does not interpret this development as an alternative to other curricula existing at the international level, but as

an exercise in providing the much needed Indian leadership for global education at the school level. The International

Curriculum would evolve on its own, building on learning experiences inside the classroom over a period of time. The

Board while addressing the issues of empowerment with the help of the schools' administering this system strongly

recommends that practicing teachers become skillful learners on their own and also transfer their learning experiences to

their peers through the interactive platforms provided by the Board.

I profusely thank Shri G. Balasubramanian, former Director (Academics), CBSE, Ms. Abha Adams and her team and Dr.

Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations and Research) CBSE along with other Education Officers involved in the

development and implementation of this material.

The CBSE-i website has already started enabling all stakeholders to participate in this initiative through the discussion

forums provided on the portal. Any further suggestions are welcome.

Vineet Joshi

Chairman

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Advisory Conceptual Framework

Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman, CBSE Shri G. Balasubramanian, Former Director (Acad), CBSE

Sh. N. Nagaraju, Director(Academic), CBSE Ms. Abha Adams, Consultant, Step-by-Step School, Noida

Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training),CBSE

Ideators

Ms. Aditi Misra Ms. Anuradha Sen Ms. Jaishree Srivastava Dr. Rajesh Hassija

Ms. Amita Mishra Ms. Archana Sagar Dr. Kamla Menon Ms. Rupa Chakravarty

Ms. Anita Sharma Ms. Geeta Varshney Dr. Meena Dhami Ms. Sarita Manuja

Ms. Anita Makkar Ms. Guneet Ohri Ms. Neelima Sharma Ms. Himani Asija

Dr. Anju Srivastava Dr. Indu Khetrapal Dr. N. K. Sehgal Dr. Uma Chaudhry

Material Production Groups: Classes IX-X

English : Mathematics : Science : History :

Ms. Sarita Manuja Dr. K.P. Chinda Ms. Charu Maini Ms. Jayshree Srivastava

Ms. Renu Anand Mr. J.C. Nijhawan Ms. S. Anjum Ms. M. Bose

Ms. Gayatri Khanna Ms. Rashmi Kathuria Ms. Meenambika Menon Ms. A. Venkatachalam

Ms. P. Rajeshwary Ms. Reemu Verma Ms. Novita Chopra Ms. Smita Bhattacharya

Ms. Neha Sharma Dr. Ram Avtar

Ms. Neeta Rastogi

Ms. Sarabjit Kaur Mr. Mahendra Shankar

Ms. Pooja Sareen

Ms. Ruchika Sachdev

Geography: Political Science:

Ms. Deepa Kapoor Ms. Sharmila Bakshi Economics:

Ms. Bharti Dave Ms. Archana Soni Ms. Mridula Pant

Ms. Bhagirathi Ms. Srilekha Mr. Pankaj Bhanwani

Ms. Archana Sagar Ms. Ambica Gulati

Ms. Manjari Rattan

Material Production Groups: Classes VI-VIII

English : Science : Mathematics : Geography:

Ms. Rachna Pandit Dr. Meena Dhami Ms. Seema Rawat Ms. Suparna Sharma

Ms. Neha Sharma Mr. Saroj Kumar Ms. N. Vidya Ms. Leela Grewal

Ms. Sonia Jain Ms. Rashmi Ramsinghaney Ms. Mamta Goyal History :

Ms. Dipinder Kaur Ms. Seema kapoor Ms. Chhavi Raheja Ms. Leeza Dutta

Ms. Sarita Ahuja Ms. Priyanka Sen Political Science: Ms. Kalpana Pant

Dr. Kavita Khanna Ms. Kanu Chopra

Ms. Keya Gupta Ms. Shilpi Anand

Material Production Group: Classes I-V

Dr. Indu Khetarpal Ms. Rupa Chakravarty Ms. Anita Makkar Ms. Nandita Mathur

Ms. Vandana Kumar Ms. Anuradha Mathur Ms. Kalpana Mattoo Ms. Seema Chowdhary

Ms. Anju Chauhan Ms. Savinder Kaur Rooprai Ms. Monika Thakur Ms. Ruba Chakarvarty

Ms. Deepti Verma Ms. Seema Choudhary Mr. Bijo Thomas Ms. Mahua Bhattacharya

Ms. Ritu Batra Ms. Kalyani Voleti

Coordinators:

Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Ms. Sugandh Sharma, Dr. Srijata Das, Dr. Rashmi Sethi,

Head (I and R) E O (Com) E O (Maths) E O (Science)

Shri R. P. Sharma, Consultant Ms. Ritu Narang, RO (Innovation) Ms. Sindhu Saxena, R O (Tech) Shri Al Hilal Ahmed, AEO

Ms. Seema Lakra, S O Ms. Preeti Hans, Proof Reader

Content

1. Syllabus 1

2. Scope document 2

3. Teacher's Support Material 5

v

Teacher's Note 6

v

Activity Skill Matrix 10

v

Warm Up W1 11

Rangoli Design

v

Warm Up W2 12

Word Search

v

Pre Content P1 14

Drawing Pictures

v

Pre -Content P2 15

Introduction to Length of an Arc

v

Content Worksheet CW1 16

Length of an Arc

v

Content Worksheet CW2 17

Area of a Sector

v

Content Worksheet CW3 18

Area of a Segment

v

Content Worksheet CW4 19

Simple Applications

v

Post Content Worksheet PCW1 20

v

Post Content Worksheet PCW2 20

v

Post Content Worksheet PCW3 20

v

Post Content Worksheet PCW4 20

v

Assessment Plan 21

4. Study Material 25

5. Student Support Material 39

v

SW1: Warm Up (W1) 40

Rangoli Design

v

SW2: Warm Up (W2) 42

Word Search

v

SW3: Pre Content (P1) 44

Drawing Pictures

v

SW4: Pre Content (P3) 46

Introducing Length of an Arc

v

SW5: Content (CW1) 48

Length of an Arc

v

SW6: Content (CW2) 53

Area of a Sector

v

SW7: Content (CW3) 59

Area of a Segment

v

SW8:Content (CW4) 64

Combination of Figures

v

SW9: Post Content (PCW1) 74

v

SW10: Post Content (PCW2) 75

v

SW 11: Post Content (PCW3) 77

v

SW 12: Post Content (PCW4) 79

Assignment

v

Suggested Videos & Extra Readings. 81

SYLLABUS

UNIT – 13 (CORE)

Perimeter and area Circumference of circle, length of an arc, area of circle, area of

related to circle segment, area of sector, area of semicircle

circles/circular arcs.

1

SCOPE DOCUMENT

Key concepts/terms

1. Length of an arc

2. area of a sector

3. area of a segment

Learning objectives:

To verify the formula for the length of an arc using hands on activity and use it to

solve problems.

To find the formula for area of sector of circle and use it to solve problems.

EXTENSION ACTIVITY:

1. Draw a circle inscribed and circumscribed by a triangle. Find the ratio of area of

circle to inscribed triangle and ratio of area of circle to circumscribed triangle

2

Research:

What is the smallest radius for which the radius of the circular area covered by the five

equal disks placed symmetrically at the centre is 1.

CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK:

1. Circle graph depicts the relative amount of a whole. Each sector has area

proportional to the fraction of percentage represented by it.

2. Islamic art is based on designs which can be created by division of circles. Collect

and study some designs of Islamic art. Visit the following link to get some

interesting ideas on how to create designs using circles and other polygons

http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/teachers-resource-maths-and-

islamic-art-and-design/

3

3.

Try to create this six circle symmetry. Create beautiful coloured patterns.

4

Teacher’s

Support Material

5

TEACHER’S NOTE

The teaching of Mathematics should enhance the child’s resources to think and reason,

to visualize and handle abstractions, to formulate and solve problems. As per NCF

2005, the vision for school Mathematics includes:

discuss among them, to work together on.

things, to argue the truth or falsity of statements.

geometry and trigonometry, the basic content areas of school Mathematics, all offer

a methodology for abstraction, structuration and generalisation.

6. Teachers engage every child in class with the conviction that everyone can learn

mathematics.

abstraction, quantification, analogy, case analysis, reduction to simpler situations, even

guess-and-verify exercises during different stages of school. This will enrich the

students and help them to understand that a problem can be approached by a variety of

methods for solving it. School mathematics should also play an important role in

developing the useful skill of estimation of quantities and approximating solutions.

Development of visualisation and representations skills should be integral to

Mathematics teaching. There is also a need to make connections between Mathematics

and other subjects of study. When children learn to draw a graph, they should be

encouraged to perceive the importance of graph in the teaching of Science, Social

6

Science and other areas of study. Mathematics should help in developing the reasoning

skills of students. Proof is a process which encourages systematic way of

argumentation. The aim should be to develop arguments, to evaluate arguments, to

make conjunctures and understand that there are various methods of reasoning.

Students should be made to understand that mathematical communication is precise,

employs unambiguous use of language and rigour in formulation. Children should be

encouraged to appreciate its significance.

discipline. By this stage they should become familiar with the characteristics of

Mathematical communications, various terms and concepts, the use of symbols,

precision of language and systematic arguments in proving the proposition. At this

stage a student should be able to integrate the many concepts and skills that he/she has

learnt in solving problems.

This unit is extension of knowledge earned about the area of circle and other plane

figures, in previous classes. The unit contains hands on activities to reinforce previously

learnt concepts and lots of application problems with focus on following learning

objectives: Learning objectives:

To verify the formula for the length of an arc using hands on activity and use it to

solve problems.

To find the formula for area of sector of circle and use it to solve problems.

7

In this unit a lot of terms related to circle are used. Through warm up activity W1

students are given an opportunity to recognize all parts of circle and through activity

W2 they can recall all terms related to circle. Pre- content activity P1 tends to observe

the real-life object. These activities also help the learners to perceive the relation

between various parts of circle and the beautiful patterns emerging from them. This

type of observation skill will help them when they will attempt the problems involving

one or more circles or circles and other plane figures.

between length of arc of circle and the circumference of the circle. First they will divide

the circles of given radius into three arcs of any length. For this purpose they can draw

circles on paper or they can have circular disks .they shall be asked to measure the

length of each arc and find the ratio of circumference to length of arc. But here they are

not supposed to use the formula of circumference/length of arc .They can measure the

respective lengths through thread and can tabulate their observations and conclusion.

Further they can validate or refine their conclusion by using the formula. Although the

students are familiar with the formula for circumference and length of arc, these

activities will strengthen the concept and will make the problem solving easy for them.

Similarily to establish the relation between area of sector and area of circle an

interesting activity is described in CW2. A pattern will emerge when the regular

polygons with different number of sides are cut into equal sectors. This activity in the

class shall be followed by rigorous discussions and the students shall be able to come

up with the formula themselves.

Same type of activity is described for area of segment. Activities are immediately

followed by the problem sheets as TASK 2.

8

Once again this is to remind all teachers that the purpose of the activities is not the

discovering of any new formula, but to strengthen the previous knowledge. Such

activities give insight to the students in problem solving of related topics.

When students start attempting the combination problems, the following three step

strategy can be adopted:

2. Word expression for area ,e.g. area marked yellow or shaded area in above figure is

ar(semicircle with radius 9/2 ) + ar (semicircle with radius 13.5)-ar(semicircle with

radius 4.5/2)

4. Calculations

9

ACTIVITY SKILL MATRIX

length of an Arc

Application

Figures

(PCW 1)

(PCW 2) Problem

(PCW 3) skills

(PCW 4)

10

ACTIVITY 1- WARM UP W1

Rangoli Design

Specific Objective:

Description: This task is designed to revisit the concepts already learnt in earlier classes

related to circle. It will also be a fun exercise for students which give them the scope of

showing their creative skills while learning mathematical concepts.

Each student will colour the designs individually and will write the terms related to

circles.

11

ACTIVITY 2- WARM UP W2

Word Search

Specific Objective:

Description: This is a word search task in which students will search the words related

to circle in the given worksheet and will encircle them. These words may be arranged

horizontally, vertically, diagonally in either way- left to right or right to left, top to

bottom or bottom to top. This task will help the students to recall all the terms related to

circle.

Execution: Printed worksheets may be distributed to the students. Sufficient time may

be given to the students to solve the worksheet. After the completion of task, students

may be shown the answer grid on projector so that they can check their answers.

12

Answer Grid:

13

ACTIVITY 3- PRE CONTENT (P1)

Drawing Pictures

Specific Objective:

Description: In this task, students will make pictures of things around us which

corresponds to the words given in the sheet. For example, they can make a piece of

pizza corresponding to sector. This task is designed to make students appreciate the use

of geometry in our life.

Execution: Teacher may write the words on the board and students may draw the

corresponding pictures in their notebooks. Alternatively, printed worksheets may be

given to the students. A class discussion may be held to check the work of the students.

14

ACTIVITY 4 - PRE CONTENT (P2)

Introduction to Length of an Arc

Specific Objective:

Description: In this task, students will draw circles with given radius. They will use

thread to measure the circumference of each circle. Further, students will divide the

circle in equal parts and measure the length of arc thus formed using thread. They will

also try to find out the relationship between circumferences with the length of an arc.

Execution: Teacher will explain the activity to the students and each student will

perform the activity in his notebook. Students will reflect on the statement given in the

worksheet in their notebooks based on their observation. A general class discussion

may be held thereafter.

15

ACTIVITY 5- CONTENT (CW1)

Length of an Arc

Specific Objective:

To find the formula for the length of an arc and use it to solve problems.

Description: Task 1 is hands on activity to verify the formula for length of an arc. In this

task, students will find the arc length by actual measurement using thread and they will

also find out the length of the arc using formula. They will reflect their observations by

filling the observation table while doing the activity and will write the result of the

activity. Task 2 is based on the application of task 1. Students will solve questions based

on finding arc length when radius and central angle is given.

Execution: Each student will perform the activity individually and will record the

observations in their notebook. Printed worksheets may also be given in which students

will record their observation and write the result while performing the activity. Few

questions of task 2 may be taken as a black board task and the remaining may be solved

by the students in their notebooks.

Extra Reading:

http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/arc-circle.html

16

ACTIVITY 6- CONTENT (CW2)

Area of a Sector

Specific Objective:

To find the formula for area of a sector of a circle and use it to solve problems.

Description: Task 1 is hands on activity to find the sum of areas of 3 sectors of same

radii. Students will follow the steps given in the task and will perform the activity. They

will extend the activity to polygons of 4 sides, 5 sides, 6 sides and so on. They will thus

try to find out whether a particular pattern is being generated. Task 2 is problem

solving task. The problems are based on finding area of sectors when some conditions

are given or vice versa.

Execution: Printed worksheets may be given in which students will record their

observation and write the result while performing the activity. Task 2 may be taken as a

black board task in which students may solve the questions on black board. All the

students will solve the questions in their notebook also.

Extra Reading:

http://attanolearn.com/excel/cbse-10th-math-areas-related-circles.jsf

http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid1842754532?bckey=AQ~~,AAAAA

GLvQak~,FI1DNn-0IPr4Wx6YGPHGjZVRrIIFDAUD&bctid=31871597001

http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/area-sector.html

17

ACTIVITY 7- CONTENT (CW3)

Area of a Segment

Specific Objective:

Description: Task 1 is designed to generate the formula for finding area of segment

using area of triangle and area of sector. While solving the step by step questions given

in the task, students will find the formula for area of a segment. Task 2 contains

questions based on finding area of a segment.

Execution: Printed worksheets may be distributed for both the tasks. But after

completion of task 1, a class discussion may be held. Teacher should explain a few

questions of task 2 on board before distributing the worksheets for task 2.

Extra Reading:

http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid1842754532?bckey=AQ~~,AAAAA

GLvQak~,FI1DNn-0IPr4Wx6YGPHGjZVRrIIFDAUD&bctid=37227603001

18

ACTIVITY 8- CONTENT (CW4)

Simple Applications

Specific Objective:

Description: Task 1 gives students opportunity of using their creative skills to make

figures. This will also make them feel that geometry is used in their day to day life.

Students will also find the area of regions with different colours (used by them in

figures made by them). Task 2 is problem solving task which involves the use of area of

sectors and segments.

describe the task and may give it as a home task by showing them the example given in

the worksheet. Few problems given in task 2 should be done by the students on black

board one by one followed by discussions. Remaining problems may be solved by the

students individually.

Extra Reading:

http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/WiZiQ-76444-Areas-related-circles-chap-

12-Education-ppt-powerpoint/

http://www.elcues.com/help/classX/XM12/

19

ACTIVITY 9- POST CONTENT (PCW1)

Students will be assessed on the worksheet containing fill ups on basic concepts.

20

ASSESSMENT PLAN

Assessment guidance plan for teachers

With each task in student support material a self–assessment rubric is attached for

students. Discuss with the students how each rubric can help them to keep in tune their

own progress. These rubrics are meant to develop the learner as the self motivated

learner.

To assess the students’ progress by teacher two types of rubrics are suggested below,

one is for formative assessment and one is for summative assessment.

motivation personal

attention

Area of This student is able This student is This student is Not able

combina- to able to able to to

tion Identify/mark the Identify/mark Identify/ Identify/

figures required area the required mark the mark the

correctly area required area required

Correctly correctly area

This student is able This student is This student is correctly

to able to able to

Express in words Express in Express in

the required area words the words the

correctly required area required area

correctly correctly

This student is able This student is

to able to

write the formula write the Not able to

for each part formula for each write the

correctly part correctly formula for

each part

This student is able correctly

to

Substitute each Not able to Calculations

value correctly substitute each are not

value correctly correctly do

Calculation are Calculations are me

accurately done not correctly do

me

21

From above rubric it is very clear that

Learner requiring personal attention is poor in concepts and requires the training of

basic concepts before moving further.

Learner requiring motivation has basic concepts but face problem in calculations or in

making decision about suitable substitution etc. He can be provided with remedial

worksheets containing solution methods of given problems in the form of fill-ups.

Learner who is developing is able to choose suitable method of solving the problem and

is able to get the required answer too.

Learner who has mastered has acquired all types of skills can be given more

challenging problems..

THE UNIT

Parameter 5 4 3 2 1

Recalling Able to explain all the terms Not able to

basic terms like circumference, area of explain any

circle, arc, arc length, area of term like

segment, area of sector ,area circumference ,

of semicircle area of circle,

arc, arc length,

area of segment,

area of sector ,

area of

semicircle

Able to tell formulae of all Not able to tell

above terms correctly formulae of all

the terms stated

above correctly

Able to use the formulae Not able to use

and can find the required the formulae

area or circumference or and cannot find

length correctly the required

22

area or

circumference

or length

correctly

Area related Able to find the required Not able to find

to circle area of circle, area of sector, the required area

area of segment or of circle, area of

circumference or length of sector, area of

arc , correctly segment or

circumference or

length of arc ,

correctly

Not able to find

radius and angle

of sector using

Able to find radius and the given

angle of sector using the information

given information correctly. correctly.

Not able to solve

real life

problems

problems

Area of Able to identify the area Not able to

combination required when a figure is identify the area

of figures combination of circle and required when

other plane figures. a figure is

combination of

circle and other

plane figures.

area mentioned

above using

Able to find area appropriate

mentioned above using formulae

appropriate formulae correctly

correctly

23

Study

Material

24

AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES (Core)

INTRODUCTION

You are already familiar with the concept of a circle and some basic terms such as

centre, radius, arc, chord etc related to a circle. You have also learnt to find the

perimeter and area of a plane figure like square, rectangle, quadrilateral such as a

trapezium, parallelogram, rhombus, triangle etc. You also know how to find area and

circumferance (perimeter) of a circle. In this unit, we shall first briefly recall these

concepts related to a circle and extend the study to find areas of a sector and a segment

of a circle.

We shall also find areas of combinations of figures involving a circle and its parts.

Circumference

Recall that the distance covered by going around a circle one time is called its

perimeter or circumference.

circumference of a circle

diameter

is a constant, denoted by a Greek letter 𝜋 (read as ―pi‖).

circumference of a circle

or = 𝜋

diameter

or circumference = 𝜋 × diameter

= 𝜋 × 2r,

25

22

𝜋 is an irrational number but for calculation purposes, its value is usually taken as or

7

3.14. The great Indian mathematician. Aryabhatta (AD. 476-550) gave an approximate

62832

value of 𝜋 as 𝜋 = which is nearly equal to 3.1416.

20000

some decimal places using an identity.

Area of a Circle

Example 1: The radii of two circles are 6cm and 8cm. Find the radius of the circle having

its area equal to the sum of the areas of the two circles.

or, R2 = 100

or, R = 10

26

Example 2: The radii of two circles are 12cm and 21cm. Find the radius of the circle

which has circumference equal to the sum of the circumference of the two circles.

= 2 𝜋(21)

= 42 𝜋 cm

= 66 𝜋

Thus, 2 𝜋 R = 66 𝜋

or, R=33

Example 3: Find the cost of ploughing circular field whose circumference is 176m at the

rate of Rs.5 per square metre.

Then, 2 𝜋 r = 176

176 × 7

or r= = 28m

2×22

22

= x 28 x 28 m2

7

27

= 2464 m2

= Rs 5 x 2464

= Rs 12320

2. Sector of a circle

Recall that the portion (or part) of the circular region enclosed by the two radii and

the arc between the two ends of radii is called a sector of the circle. (See Fig.1

FIG. 1

In the figure, O is the centre, OA and OB are two radii, APB is an arc between the two

ends A and B of the two radii.

The shaded part OAPB is a sector. Unshaded portion OAQB is also a sector.

Clearly, the sector AOBP is a Minor Sector and the sector OAQB is a

Major Sector. ∠AOB is called angle of the sector.

Thus θ is the angle of the minor sector and 360o- θ is the angle of the major sector.

Area of a sector

28

You can imagine the circular region formed by the circle of radius r as a sector of

angle 360o (Because angle at the centre is a complete angle).

With this assumption, we can calculate the area of the sector OAPB as follows:

𝜋𝑟2

So, area of a sector of angle 1o =

360o

0 𝜋𝑟 2 0

Hence, area of a sector of angle θ = × θ

360o

𝜋𝑟 2 θ

=

360

Length of the Arc of a sector

You can calculate the length of the arc of sector OAPB as follows:

2πr

So, length of the arc of a sector of angle 1o =

360o

0 2πr θ

Hence, length of the arc of a sector of angle θ =

360

We now take some examples to illustrate the applications of the above formule.

Example 4: Find the area of a sector of a circle with radius 14cm and of angle 45 o. Also,

find the length of the corresponding arc of the sector.

πr 2 θ

Solution: Area of the sector = 360

22 × 14 × 14 ×45

= cm2

7 × 360

= 11 x 7 cm2 = 77cm2

2𝜋𝑟 θ

Length of the arc =

360

22 × 14 ×45

=2x cm

7 × 360

29

= 11cm

Example 5: In a circle of diameter 42cm, an arc subtends an angle of 60o at the centre.

Find:

2πr θ

Solution: (i) Length of the arc = 360

22 × 21 ×60 42

=2x (Diameter = 42cm, so, r = = 21)

7 × 360 2

= 22cm

𝜋𝑟 2 θ

(ii) Area of the sector =

360

22 × 21 ×21 × 60

=

7 × 360

= 231 cm2

𝜋𝑟 2 (3600 −θ)

(iii) Area of the major sector =

3600

=

7 × 360o

3000

= 22 x 3 x 21 x

3600

22

= × 21 × 21 − 231 cm2

7

30

= (1386 – 231) cm = 1155 cm2

(v) Length of the major sector =

3600

22 (3600 −600 )

=2x x 21 x

7 3600

300

= 2 x 22 x 3 x

3600

= 22 x 5 = 110 cm

22

= (2 x x 21 – 22) cm

7

Example 6: A car has two wipers which do not overlap. Each wiper has a blade of

length 28cm sweeping through an angle of 120o. Find the total area cleaned at each

sweep of the blades.

Solution: Area swept by one wiper = Area of sector of central angle 120o

𝜋𝑟 2 θ

= 360

22 120

= x 28 x 28 x cm2

7 360

22 120

=2x x 28 x 28 x cm2

7 360

4928

= = 1642.67 cm2

3

31

Fig. 2

Recall that a chord of a circle divides the circular region into two parts. Each part is

called a segment of the circle.

FIG. 3

In the figure, APB is the minor segment and AQB is the major segment

To find area of the minor segment APB, join the centre O to A and B.

Let ∠AOB = θ.

— Area of ∆OAB

πr 2 θ

= - Area of ∆OAB

360

Similarly,

32

FIG. 3

πr 2 (3600 – θ)

= + area of ∆ OAB

3600

Alternatively

Example 7: Find the area of the segment APB shown in Fig 4, if radius of circle is 14cm

and the central angle is 60o.

FIG. 4

33

Solution: Area of sector OAPB

πr 2 θ 22 × 14 × 14 ×60

= =

360 7 × 360

308

= cm2

3

𝟑 2

Area of ∆OAB = r [∆OAB is an equilateral triangle as OA = OB. Area of an

𝟒

3

equilateral triangle = a2]

4

3

= x 14 x 14

4

= 49 3 cm2

308

So, the area of segment APB = 49 3

3

= 102.6 84.87

= 17.80 cm2

1

(i) Area of ∆OAB = . AB x altitude

2

FIG. 5

1 𝑟

Now, AC = r sin 30o = r× = ]

2 2

Also, AB = 2AC = r

3

So, OC = r sin 60o = r x

2

34

1

Area of ∆OAB = AB x altitude

2

1 3

= (r) r×

2 2

1 3

= x 14 x 14 x

2 2

= 49 3 cm2

+ area of ∆OAB

πr 2 (3600 – θ)

= + 49 3 cm2

3600

22 3000

= × 14 × 14 × 3600 + 49 3 cm2

7

22 5

= × 14 × 14 × 6 + 49 3 cm2

7

1540

= + 49 3 cm2

3

35

Alternate Method

Area of major segment AQB = Area of the circle — area of minor segment

308

= 𝜋r2 + 49 3 cm2

3

22 308

= x 14 x 14 + 49 3 cm2

7 3

308

= 616 − + 49 3 cm2

3

1540

= + 49 3 cm2

3

Example 8: A chord of a circle of radius 10cm subtends a right angle at the centre. Find

the area of

Solution:

FIG. 6

36

= area of sector OAPB - area of ∆AOB

πr 2 θ 1

= – OA x OB

3600 2

900 1

= (3.14) x 10 x 10 x x 10 x 10

3600 2

= 28.50 cm2

= 288.5 cm2

In daily life, we see many designs which involve circles along with other plane

figures such as square, triangle, rectangle etc. We now illustrate the process of

calculating areas of such figures/ designs through some examples.

Example 9: Find the area of a flower bed with semicircular ends as shown in Fig.7:

FIG. 7

(Use 𝜋 = 3.14)

37

Solution: The flower bed consists of a rectangle of dimensions 38cm x 10cm and two

semicircles each of radius 10cm.

Fig. 8

1 1

= [38 x 10 + 𝜋 (5)2 + 𝜋 (5)2] cm2

2 2

= 458.5 cm2

38

Student’s

Support Material

39

STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 1

WARM UP (W1)

Rangoli Design

Write as many words as you can, related to circle, by observing the above pattern.

Trace out the above pattern and colour it to make a beautiful rangoli design.

40

SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 1 – WARM UP (W1)

Parameter

related to circle.

Able to recognize various

parts of circle

Able to appreciate the use

of geometry in various

designs

41

STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 2

WARM UP (W2)

Word Search

The following picture contains words having terms related to circle. These words may

be arranged horizontally, vertically, diagonally in either way- left to right or right to

left, top to bottom or bottom to top. Find them and encircle them.

42

SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 2 – WARM UP (W2)

Parameter

related to circle.

43

STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 3

Drawing Pictures

Object Word

circle

semicircle

Arc

sector

Segment

44

SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 3 – PRE CONTENT (P1)

Parameter

recognize circle & related

terms

Able to appreciate the use

of mathematics all around

us.

45

STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 4

Introduction to Length of an Arc

Draw five circles of radii 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 20cm and 25 cm. Measure their

circumference using a thread. Divide each circle in 3 equal parts. Measure the length of

arc for each part using a thread.

Is there any relation between the circumference and the arc lengths? Reflect.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

46

SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 4 – PRE CONTENT (P2)

Parameter

recognize circumference

and arc of a circle

47

STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 5

Length of an Arc

Name of Student___________ Date________

Material Required: Paper, compass, pencil, thread, measuring scale, pair of scissors.

Procedure:

𝜋𝑟𝜃

4. Calculate the length of arc using the formula

180˚

Observation:

Result:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

48

Task 2:

Do the following:

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

2. Find the arc intercepted by the side of a regular pentagon inscribed in a circle of

radius 3 cm.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

49

3. Find the measure of central angle of an arc whose length is 3m if the circumference

is 9 m.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

4. In a circle, find the length of a 90⁰ arc if an inscribed hexagon has a side of length 12

cm.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

50

5. Find the length of a 180⁰ arc if the circumference is 25 units.

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

51

SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 5

Parameter

circumference of a circle

Able to find

circumference of a circle

Able to recall formula for

arc length

Able to find length of an

arc

52

STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 6

Area of a Sector

Aim:

By paper cutting and pasting, verify that the sum of areas of three sectors of same

𝑟2

radius ―r‖ formed at the vertices (as center) of any triangle is (Pi x r ^2)/2. [𝜋. 2 ]

Material Required

Coloured paper, pair of scissors, glue, and geometry box.

Procedure

Step 1 Draw an equilateral triangle ABC on a coloured paper and cut it.

Step 2 With suitable radius, draw three sectors on the three vertices.

Step 3 Cut the three sectors.

Step 4 Draw a straight line and place the three sector cut outs adjacent to each other on

it.

Step 5 Write the observations.

Step 6 Repeat the activity for two more triangles other than equilateral triangle.

Step 7 Write the observations

Observations

1. When sector cut outs are placed on a straight line, they completely cover the straight

angle. So their sum is 180 degrees.

2. The three sectors cut outs placed on a straight-line form a semicircle.

3. The area of semicircle is Pi x r^2 /2.

53

Source:

http://mykhmsmathclass.blogspot.com/search/label/ActivitySum%20of%20areas%20

of%203%20sectors%20of%20same%20radii%20cut%20at%20vertices%20of%20a%20trian

gle

54

Task 2: Do the following

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

2. Find the area of a 240⁰ sector if the area of the circle is 60 sq. units.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

55

3. Find the measure of a central angle of an arc whose length is 10 𝜋 if the area of the

sector is 50 𝜋 sq units.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

4. Find the radius of a circle if a sector of area 24 𝜋 sq units has an arc length of 12 𝜋

units.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

56

5. Find the radius of a circle if 270⁰ sector has an area of 9 𝜋 sq units.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

57

SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 6

Parameter

area of a circle

Able to find area of a

circle

Able to recall formula of a

sector

Able to find area of a

sector

58

STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 7

Area of a Segment

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

59

Find OX in terms of r and θ.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Task 2:

Do the following:

1. Find the area of segment of a circle if the radius of the circle is 12 units and the

central angle measures 90⁰.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

60

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

2. Find the area of segment of a circle if the radius is 6 cm and the central angle

measures 60⁰.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

3. Find the area of segment of a circle if the radius of the circle and the chord of the

segment each have length 9 units.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

61

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

4. A chord of length 12 units is 5 units from the centre of the circle. Find the area of the

segment.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

5. An arc length of 4 𝜋 inscribes an angle of 90⁰ at the centre. Find the area of

corresponding segment.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

62

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

Parameter

area of a segment

Able to find area of a

segment

63

STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 8

Combination of Figure

Simple Applications

Task 1:

Sajeev made the following shape using circles and semicircles only.

Draw a joker using circles, semicircles, arcs, sector and segments only. Colour your

joker with different colours.

64

Find the area under different colour regions.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

Task 2:

Find the area under different colour regions in the following figures:

1.

65

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

66

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

67

4.

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

68

5.

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

69

6.

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

70

7.

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

71

8.

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

72

SELF ASSESSMENT RUBRIC 8

Parameter

combination of figures

Able to find area related

to circles.

73

STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 9

Name of Student___________ Date________

(g) The length of an arc of a circle of radius, subtending angle θ at the centre is

_________.

(h) The area of the sector of a circle of radius r with central angle θ is =___________.

(i) The perimeter of sector of a circle of radius r and central angle θ is _____________.

74

STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 10

Name of Student___________ Date________

Write word problems based on the figures given below. Your questions should be

related to day to day life:

75

76

STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 11

Name of Student___________ Date________

2. An arc of a circle is of length 5 𝜋 cm and the sector it bounds has an area of 20 𝜋 cm2.

The radius of circle is

A. 1 cm B. 5 cm C. 8 cm D. 10 cm

3. A sector is cut from a circle of radius 21 cm. The angle of sector is 150º. The area of

sector is

4. A chord AB of a circle of radius 10 cm makes a right angle at the centre of the circle.

The area of major segment is

5. A horse is tied to a pole with 56 m long string. The area of the field where the horse

can graze is

6. The circumferences of two circles are in the ratio 2:3. The ratio of their areas is

7. Area enclosed between two concentric circles is 770 cm2. If the radius of outer circle is

21 cm, then the radius of inner circle is

A. 12 cm B. 13 cm C. 14 cm D. 15 cm

77

8. The perimeter of a semi-circular protector is 72 cm. Its diameter is

A. 28 cm B. 14 cm C. 36 cm D. 24 cm

9. The minute hand of a clock is 21 cm long. The area described by it on the face of clock

in 5 minutes is

78

STUDENT’S WORKSHEET 12

ASSIGNMENT

Name of Student___________ Date________

a) 30⁰.

b) 60⁰.

c) 120⁰.

d) 150⁰.

a) 30⁰.

b) 60⁰.

c) 120⁰.

d) 150⁰.

a) 30⁰.

b) 60⁰.

c) 120⁰.

d) 150⁰.

4. Find the central angle corresponding to an arc whose radius is 3.5 cm and arc length

is 16 cm.

5. The length of an arc subtending an angle of 720 at the center is 44 cm. Find the area

of the circle.

79

6. Find the area of a sector of radius 7 cm and central angle 30⁰.

7. Find the area of a segment of a circle of radius 14 cm and arc length 7𝜋.

80

SUGGESTED VIDEOS AND EXTRA READINGS:

http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/arc-circle.html

http://attanolearn.com/excel/cbse-10th-math-areas-related-circles.jsf

http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid1842754532?bckey=AQ~~,AAA

AAGLvQak~,FI1DNn-0IPr4Wx6YGPHGjZVRrIIFDAUD&bctid=31871597001

http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/area-sector.html

http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid1842754532?bckey=AQ~~,AAA

AAGLvQak~,FI1DNn-0IPr4Wx6YGPHGjZVRrIIFDAUD&bctid=37227603001

http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/WiZiQ-76444-Areas-related-circles-

chap-12-Education-ppt-powerpoint/

http://www.elcues.com/help/classX/XM12/

81

CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar,

Delhi-110 092 India

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