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ELECTRICAL MACHINERY & CONTROL

UNIT 7

ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)


MACHINERY (PART III)

OBJECTIVES

General Objective

To understand three phase induction motor

Specific Objectives

By the end of this unit, you would be able to:

 discuss the development of rotating field in three phase


 explain the development of induced torque in an AC motor
 describe the concept rotor slip
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INPUT

7.0 INTRODUCTION

In unit 6, we have understood the construction and principles of operation, besides the two
principles forms of rotor construction – the cage rotor and slip rings rotor. Now in this unit
we will discuss more on the development of rotating magnetic field, principle of slip, and
become familiar with the torque or slip characteristics.

7.1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF ROTATING FIELD IN THREE


PHASES

Consider a simple stator having six salient poles, each of which carries a coil having five
turns, see Figure 7.1. Coils that are diametrically opposite are connected in series by means
of three jumpers that respectively connect terminals a -
a, b – b and c – c. This creates three identical sets of
windings AN, BN, CN that are mechanically spaced at
1200 to each other. The two coils in each winding
produce magnetomotive forces that act in the same
direction.

Figure 7.1: Elementary stator


having terminals A, B, C
connected to a three-phase source
(not shown)
(Source: Electrical Machines, Drives and Power
System 5th edition; Wildi Theodore)
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The three sets of windings are connected in wye, thus forming a common neutral N. Owing
to the perfectly symmetrical arrangement, the line-to-neutral impedances are identical. In
other words, as regards to terminals A, B, C the windings constitute a balanced three phase
system.

If we connect a three phase source to terminals A,B,C alternating current Ia, Ib and Ic will
flow in the windings. The currents will have the same value but will be displaced in time by
an angle of 1200. These currents produce magnetomotive forces which, in turn create a
magnetic flux. It is this flux we are interested in.

In order to follow the sequence of events, we assume that positive currents (indicated by the
arrows) always flow in the windings from line to neutral. Conversely, negative currents flow
from neutral to line. Furthermore to enable us to work with numbers, suppose that the peak
current per phase is 10A. Thus, when Ia = +7A, the two coils of phase A will together produce
an mmf of 7A X 10 turns = 70A-turns and corresponding value of flux. Because the current is
positive, the flux is directed vertically upward according to the right-hand rule.

As time goes by, we can determine the instantaneous value and direction of the current in
each winding and thereby establish the successive flux patterns. Thus, referring to Figure 7.2
at instant 1, current Ia has a value of +10A, whereas Ib and IC both have a value of - 5A. The
mmf of phase A is 10A X 10 turns = 100A-turns, while the mmf of phases B and C are each
50A-turn.
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Figure 7.2: Instantaneous values of currents and positions of the flux


(Source: Electrical Machines, Drives and Power System 5th edition; Wildi Theodore)

The direction of mmf depends upon the instantaneous current


flows and using the right- hand rule, we find that the direction
of the resulting magnetic field is a shown in Figure 7.3. As far as
the rotor is concerned the six salient poles together produce a
magnetic field having essentially one broad north pole and one
broad south pole. This means that six pole stator actually produces
a two pole field. The combined magnetic field points upward. Figure 7.3: Flux pattern at
instant ‘1’

At instant 2, one-sixth cycle later, current Ic attains a peak of


-10A, while Ia and Ib both have a value +5A, refer Figure 7.4.
We discover that the new field has the same shape as before
except that it has moved clockwise by an angle 600. In other
words, the flux makes 1 / 6 of a turn between instants 1 and
2. Proceeding in this way for each of the successive instants
3,4,5,6, and 7 separated by intervals of 1 / 6 cycle, we find
Figure 7.4: Flux pattern at
instant ‘2’ that the magnetic field makes one complete turn during one
cycles, refer Figure 7.3 to 7.8.
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Figure 7.5: Flux pattern at instant ‘3’ Figure 7.6: Flux pattern at instant ‘4’

Figure 7.7: Flux pattern at instant ‘5’ Figure 7.8: Flux pattern at instant ‘6’

(Source: Electrical Machines, Drives and Power System 5th edition; Wildi Theodore)

The rotational speed of the fields depends, therefore upon the duration of one cycle which in
turn depends on the frequency of the source. If the frequency is 60Hz, the resulting fields
makes one turn in 1/60 s, that is, 3600 revolutions per minute. On the other hand, if the
frequency were 5Hz, the field would make one turn in 1/5 s, giving a speed of only 300
r/min. Because the speed of the rotating field is necessarily synchronized with the frequency
of the source, it is called synchronous speed.
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ACTIVITY 7 A

Test your UNDERSTANDING


before you continue to the
next input

7.1 Explain how a revolving field is set up in a three-phase induction motor?


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FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 7 A

7.1 Refer to the note 7.1


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INPUT

7.2 THE DEVELOPMENT IN INDUCE TORQUE IN AN AC MOTOR

A three phase set of voltage has been applied to the stator, and a three phase set of stator
currents is flowing. These currents produce a magnetic field, which is rotating in counter
clockwise direction. This rotating magnetic field passes over the rotor bars and induces a
voltage in them. It is the relative motion of the rotor compared to the stator magnetic field
that produces induced voltage in a rotor bar.

However, since the rotor assembly is


Don’t worry!!! @ X + % mmm…what is the
easy way to make me
understand the development
Sequence of the development of
torque in an AC Motor
the torque???

inductive, the peak rotor current lags behind


Voltage stator  Current stator 
the peak rotor voltage. The rotor current flow
produces a rotor magnetic field. Since the
induce torque in the machine is proportional  Current stator 
Induced
with magnetic field rotor and magnetic field voltage rotor
stator, the resulting torque is counter Rotating 
magnetic Rotating
clockwise. Since the rotor induce torque is field rotor magnetic field
counter clockwise, the rotor accelerates in stator

INDUCED TORQUE
that direction.

If the induction motor’s rotor were turning at synchronous speed, then the rotor bars would
be stationary relative to the magnetic field and there would be no induced voltage. Then,
would be no rotor current and no rotor magnetic field. With no rotor magnetic field, the
induced torque would be zero, and the rotor would slow down as a result of friction losses.
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ACTIVITY 7 B

Test your UNDERSTANDING


before you continue to the
next input

7.2 Explain why an induction motor cannot develop torque when it is running at
synchronous speed.

7.3 By using the word given, explain how induced torque is produced by AC motor

Voltage stator Current stator Magnetic field stator


Induce voltage rotor Current rotor Magnetic field rotor

7.4 What will happen if the rotor turns in synchronous speed?


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FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 7 B

7.2
An induction motor cannot develop torque when running at synchronous speed
because there is no rotor magnetic field in the rotor.

7.3
A three phase set of voltage has been applied to the stator, and a three phase set of
stator currents is flowing. These currents produce a magnetic field, which is rotating
in counter clockwise direction. This rotating magnetic field passes over the rotor bars
and induces a voltage in them. It is the relative motion of the rotor compared to the
stator magnetic field that produces induced voltage in a rotor bar.

However, since the rotor assembly is inductive, the peak rotor current lags behind
the peak rotor voltage. The rotor current flow produces a rotor magnetic field. Since
the induce torque in the machine proportional with magnetic field rotor and magnetic
field stator. So, the resulting torque is counter clockwise. Since the rotor induce
torque is counter clockwise, the rotor accelerates in that direction.

7.3
If the induction motor’s rotor were turning at synchronous speed, then the rotor bars
would be stationary relative to the magnetic field and there would be no induced
voltage. Then, would be no rotor current and no rotor magnetic field. With no rotor
magnetic field, the induced torque would be zero, and the rotor would slow down as a
result of friction losses.
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INPUT

7.3 THE CONCEPT OF ROTOR SLIP

In previous sub unit, we had discussed about how rotating field is produced by AC motor.
Furthermore, we also discussed about how AC motor produces the induce torque. Both of
these subunits must be understood because they are related to this subunit. This subunit
introduces the concept of rotor slip. Understanding rotor slip will also require the
understanding of synchronous speed, rotor speed, slip percentage, frequency and voltage
induced in the rotor when rotor is either turn at a synchronous speed or remained stationed.

7.3.1 Synchronous Speed (NS)

120 f S
N S

p
……(i)

where:

N S
: synchronous speed (rpm)
fS : frequency of the source (Hz)
p : number of poles

The equation (i) shows that the synchronous speed increases with frequency and decreases
with a number of poles.

Example 7.1
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Calculate the synchronous speed of a three phase induction motor having 20 poles when it is
connected to a 50Hz source.

Solution
Given:
f = 50Hz
p = 20

` 120 f S
Recall N S

p

Synchronous speed (Ns);


120 f S
N S

p
120(50)
N S

20
N S
 300rpm

7.3.2 Rotor Speed (Nr)

Slip speed is defined as the difference between synchronous speed and rotor speed. This
statement shows that rotor speed can be expressed by:

N N N
r S SLIP
……..(ii)

where:

N r
: rotor speed (rpm)

N S
: synchronous speed (rpm)

N SLIP
: slip speed (rpm)

Or rotor speed can be expressed by:


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N r
 (1 s) N ……..(iii)
S

where:

N r
: rotor speed (rpm)

N S
: synchronous speed (rpm)

Example 7.2

From an example 7.1, if the value of the slip speed is 120rpm. Calculate the rotor speed and
the slip of the AC motor.

Solution
Given:
NS = 300rpm
Nslip = 120rpm

Recall (i) N N N r S SLIP

(ii) N r
 (1 s) N
S

Rotor speed (Nr)


N N N
r S SLIP

N  300  120
r

N  180rpm
r

Slip (S)
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N r(1 s) N

S

s  1 N r

N S

180
s  1
300
S  0.6

7.3.3 Slip percentage (%S)

Slip is defined as the speed of the rotor in relation to the rotating field. So equation (iv) is the
formulae for slip percentage.

NS  Nr
%s   100 …..(iv)
NS

where:

%s : percentage slip

N S
: synchronous speed (rpm)

N r
: rotor speed (rpm)

Example 7.3

One induction motor three-phase has synchronous speed 1200rpm and rotor speed 60rpm.
Calculate the percent of the slip.

Solution
Given:
NS = 1200rpm
Nr = 60rpm

Recall NS  Nr
%s   100
NS
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Percentage slip (%S)


NS  Nr
%s   100
NS
1200  60
%s   100
1200
% s  5%

7.3.4 Voltage and Frequency Induced in The Rotor

The voltage and frequency induced in the rotor both depend upon the slip. They are given by
the equation below

f r  sf s ...............................(v )
E r  sE oc ( approximat e)......(vi )

where:

fr : frequency of the voltage and current in the rotor (Hz)


fS : frequency of the source (Hz)
Er : voltage induced in the rotor at slip(V)
Eoc : open-circuit voltage induced in the rotor when at rest (V)
s : slip

s = 0 when rotor turn at a synchronous speed or s = 1 when the rotor is at a stationary.

Example 7.4

One induction motor three-phase is connected to a 50Hz source and Eoc = 15 V if a rotor at
stationary. Calculate the rotor frequency and voltage rotor.

Solution
Given:
fs = 50Hz
s = 1
Eoc = 15V
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Recall f r  sf s
E r  sE oc (approximat e)

Rotor frequency (fr)


f r  sf s
f r  1 50 
f r  50 Hz

Voltage rotor (Er)


E r  sE oc
E r  115
E r  15

Example 7.5

A 208 V, 10hp, four-pole 60Hz, Y connected induction motor has a full load slip at 5%.
a) What is the synchronous speed of this motor?
b) What is the rotor speed of this motor at rated load?
c) What is the rotor frequency of this motor at the rated load?

Solution
Given:
Vs = 50Hz
s = 1
fs = 60Hz
p = 4

a) synchronous speed (Ns)


120 f S
Recall N S

p
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120 f S
NS 
p
120(60)
NS 
4
N S  1800rpm

b) Rotor speed (Nr)

Recall
N r
 (1 s) N
S

N r  1  s  N S
N r  1  0.051800
N r  1710rpm

c) Rotor frequency (fr)

Recall f r  sf s

f r  sf s
f r   0.05 60 
f r  3Hz
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ACTIVITY 7 C

Test your UNDERSTANDING


before you continue to the
next input

7.4 Match the equation with the best answer

Frequency rotor
N N N
r S SLIP
NS  Nr
%s   100
NS Rotor speed

f r  sf s Percentage slip
120 f S Voltage induce in the rotor
N S

p
E r  sE oc Synchronous speed

7.5 Define the meaning of the term slip. How does slip vary with the load?

7.6 How the frequency rotor currents and the magnitude of the rotor emf are related to slip?

7.7 What are difference between slip and slip speed in an induction motor?
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FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 7 C

7.5
Frequency rotor
N N N
r S SLIP
NS  Nr
%s   100
NS Rotor speed

f r  sf s Percentage slip
120 f S Voltage induce in the rotor
N S

p
E r  sE oc Synchronous speed

7.6 The speed of the rotor relative to the rotating field is term the slip

7.7 The voltage and frequency induced in the rotor both depend upon the slip. s = 0 when
rotor turn at a synchronous speed or s = 1 when the rotor is at a stationary.

7.8 Slip as the speed of the rotor relative to the rotating field. Slip speed as the difference
between synchronous speed and rotor speed.
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SELF-ASSESMENT

You are approaching success. TRY all the questions in this self-assessment section and check
your answers with those given in the feedback on Self-Assessment given on the next page.

If you face any problem,


discuss it with your
lecturer

Question 7-1

A. Give a clear explanation of the following effects in a three-phase induction motor:


i) the production of the rotating field

Question 7-2

A. Give a clear explanation of the following effects in a three-phase induction motor:


i) the presence of an induced rotor current
ii) the development of the torque

Question 7-3
ELECTRICAL MACHINERY & CONTROL                                                     
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A. A three-phase induction motor is wound for four poles and is supplied from a 50Hz
system. Calculate:
i) the synchronous speed
ii) the speed of the rotor when the slip is 4%
iii) the rotor frequency when the speed of the rotor is 600 r/min

B. A two poles, three-phase, 50Hz induction motor is running load with a slip of 4%.
Calculate:
i) actual speed of the machine
ii) synchronous speed of the machine
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FEEDBACK TO SELF-ASSESMENT

Question 7-1

A. Refer to the note 7.1

Question 7.2

B. Refer to the note 7.2

Question 7-3

A. (i) 1500rpm
(ii) 1440rpm
(iii) 30Hz

B. (i) 2880rpm
(ii) 3000rpm