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PREFACE

On behalf of the Chairman Organizing Committee of The 9th International Conference on


Telecommunication System, Services, and Application (TSSA) 2015, I would like to thanks to all
participants for their participation during the Conference that was held in Bandung on
November 25-26, 2015. We also would like to thank for their contribution to the Conference
program and for their contributions to these Proceedings.

I would like to specifically express my gratitude to the distinguished speakers : Dr. Achmad
Munir, Head of Radio Telecommunication and Microwave Laboratory from Bandung Institute of
Technology (ITB).

This proceeding consist of 73 scientific papers. Some of these papers were presented as oral
presentations, and the rests were presented as poster presentation. This Conference would not
be hold successfully without contribution of the Speaker, the Authors, the Advisory
Committees, and the members of the Organizing Committees. Therefore, I would like to take
this opportunity to express my sincere appreciation to all of the for their active participation in
The 9th International Conference on Telecommunication System, Services, and Application
(TSSA) 2015.

Bandung, December 2015

General Chair of TSSA 2015

Dr. Tutun Juhana


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c
PTS-Based PAPR Reduction in Fixed WiMAX
System With Grouping Phase Weighting (GPW)
Chaeriah Bin Ali Wael, Nasrullah Armi, Budiman P.A. Rohman
Research Center for Electronics and Telecommunication
Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Bandung, Indonesia
chae003@lipi.go.id

Abstract—WiMAX is a wireless technology that was rate transmission and provides greater robustness to
developed to overcome the limitations of wireline networks to communications channel perturbations such as frequency
meet the needs of Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) services to selective fading and multipath fading effects [1]-[2]. However,
customers. As standardized, fixed WiMAX uses OFDM as its such system prefaces high Peak to Average Power Ratio
physical air interface. Therefore, it also suffers from high PAPR. (PAPR) problem since its transmitted signal is the sum of many
To solve this problem, Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is used subcarrier components via an Inverse Fast Fourier
in this paper due to its better performance among other PAPR Transformation (IFFT) operation. High peak signals will
reduction techniques. Unfortunately, in conventional PTS, an saturate power amplifier (PA). As a consequence, PA operates
exhaustive search over all combinations of allowed phase
at its nonlinear region which leads to high out of band radiation
weighting factors is needed. This process leads to high
and inter-modulation distortion [3]. One of the approaches used
computational complexity. Hence, Grouping Phase Weighting
(GPW) is used to simplify search complexity and still maintain to for solving PAPR problem is using highly linear PA. However,
provide effective PAPR reduction as conventional PTS. The it is usually complicated to build and very expensive. Another
simulation is conducted to IEEE 802.16d system with various solution is modifying the signal by reducing its PAPR.
mandatory modulation types and channel coding rates. The Various methods have been studied for PAPR reduction
derived results show that the choice of modulation type does not which are summarized in [3] - [6]. Generally, PAPR reduction
give significant effect on the PAPR reduction. The higher channel methods are classified into two main categories, distortionless
coding rate gives higher PAPR reduction.
and distortion techniques [6]. Distortionless techniques include
Keywords— Fixed WiMAX; IEEE 802.16-2004/d; OFDM; selected mapping (SLM), Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS),
PAPR Reduction; Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS); Grouping Tone Reservation (TR), Tone Injection (TI), dummy signal
Phase Weighting (GPW) insertion (DSI), Active Constellation Extension (ACE),
interleaving and block coding techniques. Clipping,
I. INTRODUCTION windowing, envelope scaling and companding are kinds of
In today’s world, the demand for broadband connectivity is distortion techniques. Among these techniques, PTS can reduce
growing rapidly. Broadband access is currently offered through PAPR significantly without signal distortion and has no
digital subscriber line (xDSL), cable and Broadband Wireless restrictions to the number of subcarriers [7], [8]. Unfortunately,
Access (BWA). Although cable and DSL are already deployed it has highly computational complexity due to an exhaustive
widely, BWA has several advantages, such as solving distance search over all combinations of allowed phase weighting
limitations of DSL and high costs of cable, high scalability and factors. One of the techniques which focus on simplifying
lower maintainance and upgrade costs. WiMAX (Worldwide search complexity in conventional PTS (C-PTS) is proposed in
Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a promising [9]-[11], called Grouping Phase Weighting (GPW).
broadband wireless technology which can offer high speed In this paper, PTS with GPW is applied in Fixed WiMAX
data, voice and video service to the end customer in a large system to solve high PAPR problem considering various
geographical area, which is presently dominated by the cable modulation types and channel coding rates. The rest of this
and digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies. The WiMAX paper is organized as follows : section II describes fixed
standards (IEEE 802.16) is also known as Wireless Man WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d) physical layer. PAPR problem is
(WMAN) because of its goal to implement broadband wireless reviewed in section III. Simulation results are given in section
access for wireless metropolitan area networks. It supports two IV and conclusion of all research is written in section V.
types of usage models, fixed WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d) and
mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e). The fixed WiMAX system II. IEEE 802.16-2004 PHYSICAL LAYER
has subscriber terminals located at fixed place, whereas the IEEE 802.16-2004 (802.16d) applied to NLOS
mobile wimax system has mobile subscriber terminals [1]. transmission at 2-11 GHz. This system can work in the
The fixed WiMAX physical layer is based on Orthogonal frequency division duplex (FDD) or time division duplex
Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM-based (TDD) mode. It uses OFDM as its physical layer technology.
system gives high spectral efficiency, supports very high data Physical layer of 802.16d transceiver block diagram is shown

978-1-4673-8447-6/15/$31.00 ©2015 IEEE


in Fig. 1. The tasks performed in this system are explained as TABLE I. MANDATORY CHANNEL CODING PER MODULATION
follows : mod uncoded CC RS rate overall coded
type block rate coding block
• The first stage is channel coding. It consists of three parts ; size rate size
randomization, Forward Error Correction (FEC) and (bytes) (bytes)
interleaving. The randomizer block aims to scramble a long BPSK 12 1/2 (12, 12, 0) 1/2 24
sequences of zeros and ones into randomized data. Then,
QPSK 24 2/3 (32, 24, 4) 1/2 48
FEC is applied on certain fixed-block lengths of data, which
have been defined based on modulation type as shown in QPSK 36 5/6 (40, 36, 2) 3/4 48
table 1. FEC encoder in IEEE 802.16d consists of 16-QAM 48 2/3 (64, 48, 8) 1/2 96
concatenation of Reed Solomon (RS) code as outer code and
16-QAM 72 5/6 (80, 72, 4) 3/4 96
convolutional code (CC) as inner code. The last block of
channel coding is interleaver. It is used for improving the 64-QAM 96 3/4 (108, 96, 6) 2/3 144
performance of error correcting codes. 64-QAM 108 5/6 (120,108,6) 3/4 144
• The coded bits will be mapped by the constellation
modulator. In fixed WiMAX, QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM
are mandatory for downlink. Meanwhile, uplink only support III. PAPR PROBLEM
of QPSK and 16-QAM is required. A. PAPR Definition
• A representation of OFDM modulation process is given in The use of a large number of subcarriers causes a high
Fig. 2. The output of mapper which in form of symbols is PAPR in OFDM-based systems, incuding WiMAX system.
devided into N substreams each with bit rate B/N bps where PAPR can be defined as the ratio between the maximum power
N is number of OFDM carriers. In fixed WiMAX, N = 256 of a sample in a transmit OFDM symbol and its average power.
which number of used data subcarriers is 192, 8 pilot A discrete form of OFDM signal x(n) is given by :
subcarriers to perform synchronization and channel
estimation and 56 Null subcarriers. These streams are 1
subsequently input to IFFT after Serial-to-Parallel (S/P) , 0 1 1

conversion. IFFT processing is then applied to each stream
to generate OFDM carriers in the baseband. The cyclical Where x(n), Xk, N represent discrete OFDM signal, modulated
prefixes are added to the symbols to achieve the guard bands. input symbols and total number of subcarriers respectively.
After multiplexing the subcarrier streams through Parallel-to-
Serial (P/S) converter, the OFDM signal is transferred to RF For a discrete OFDM signal, PAPR is computed from L
transmission modules via Digital-to-Analog (D/A) converter. time oversampled OFDM signal. Oversampling needed to
The OFDM receiver implements the same operations as prevent aliasing. This process is done by padding (L - 1)N
performed by transmitter in reverse order. zeros in frequency domain. Mathematically, PAPR of OFDM
signal is expressed in (2).
• The reverse process takes place in the WiMAX receiver.
B 10 log

max |x n |
10 log ,0 1 2
E |x n |

Where Ppeak represents peak output power, Paverage means


average output power, E{.} denotes the expected value and L
represents oversampling factor. The peak power of received
Fig 1. Block diagram of WiMAX transceiver physical layer signals is N times the average power when phase values are the
same. So, theoretically, maximum PAPR of baseband signal
will achieve 10log N (dB). For fixed WiMAX with 256
subcarriers, the expected maximum PAPR is about 24,08 dB.
B. PAPR Distribution
Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF)
often used to express the distribution of PAPR. CCDF can be
used to estimate the bounds of PAPR and usually used for
performance evaluation parameter of PAPR reduction
techniques. Its values are obtained by checking how often
PAPR exceeds the threshold ( = PAPR0).
Fig 2. Block diagram of OFDM modulation

1 3
C. PTS-based PAPR Reduction
PTS is one of the scrambling techniques to reduce PAPR.
The basic idea of this technique is to form a weighted ~
x
combination of the V disjoint subblocks, then choose one
which has the smallest PAPR value for transmission. Block
diagram of conventional PTS (C-PTS) can be seen in Fig. 3
which can be explained as these following steps :
1. Output sequences of modulator, X, is partitioned into V
disjoint subblocks. There are three ways of subblock
partition in PTS; adjacent, interleaved and pseudo- Fig 3. Block diagram of C-PTS technique.
random partition. Each subblock has equal size.
, ,…, , 0, 1, … , 1 4 from different groups are combined to yield all OFDM
2. Apply LN point IFFT to each Xv to get time domain candidate sequences. OFDM transmitted signal is then
subblocks xv. selected from these sequences which has the minimum PAPR.
5 Mathematically, OFDM candidate sequences in equation (6)
3. Each time domain subblock xv is multiplied by a can be written as follows :
corresponding complex weighting factors wv.

Where wv, v = 0, 1, …, V-1, are weighting factors or


phase factors. , with 0, 2 .
4. Choose one suitable rotation factor which gives 9
minimum PAPR. Rotation factor is the combination of
weighting factors.

arg min max 7

Where , ,…, is the optimum rotation 1


factor.
5. Optimized transmitted signal ( ) is expressed as Where ri, i = 1, 2, …, R – 1, is the subblock index, R is
following equation : number of groups and Gj, j = 1, 2, …, R, is subcandidate
sequences of jth group.
8
IV. SIMULATION RESULT AND ANALYSIS
In this section, simulations have been conducted to evaluate
It has been already pointed out that PTS gives better PAPR performance of PTS with GPW to overcome high PAPR
reduction. Unfortunately, computation of optimal PTS problem in fixed WiMAX system in terms of CCDF. Matlab
weighting factors requires exponential complexity in the simulation is performed on a fixed WiMAX based OFDM
number of subblocks. In consequence, many suboptimal system (IEEE 802.16-2004) with 1000 block of OFDM signal
strategies have been proposed such as [8-11]. In [8], for iteration. All parameters that used in simulation are shown
suboptimal PTS has been developed using iterative flipping in table 2. The simulation is done in the following way :
algorithm. It has linear complexity proportional to the number
• An OFDM block consists of 256 subcarriers are splitted
of subblocks. It also does not give better performance of into V = 4 disjoint subblocks using adjacent partition.
PAPR reduction compared to conventional PTS. On the other
hand, PTS with Grouping phase Weighting in [9-11] can • These subblocks are grouped into two group :
reduce computational complexity of conventional PTS and Group 1 : x1, x2
still can maintain to achieve good performance of PAPR
reduction as conventional PTS. Group 2 : x3, x4
The phase weighting sequences is chosen from {±1} or
In GPW-PTS, all subblocks from step (1) in conventional allowed weighting factors, W = 2. In this simulation, the
PTS are separated into several groups. Phase weighting phase weighting sequences of each group are devided as
process is applied to every subblock in each group by using follows :
the same set of phase weighting factors and bring out
subcandidate sequences. Thereafter, subcandidate sequences Group 1 : [1, 1]T, [1, -1]T
Group 2 : [1, 1]T, [1, -1]T, [-1, 1]T, [-1, -1]T
• The OFDM candidate sequences, x’, are obtained by 0
CCDF of OFDM signal with various modulation type
combining candidate sequences from both groups 10 OFDM-QPSK

according to (9).
PTS OFDM-QPSK
OFDM-16-QAM
PTS OFDM-16-QAM
OFDM-64-QAM
PTS OFDM-64-QAM

-1
10

CCDF
-2
10

-3
10
• From these OFDM candidate sequences, choose one with 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
minimum PAPR as OFDM transmitted signal.
PAPR0 (dB)

Fig 4. Comparison of PAPR performance with various modulation types in


WiMAX systems use adaptive modulation and coding to 802.16d system.
take advantage of fluctuations in channel. This simulation aims
to evaluate PAPR reduction using GPW-PTS of such system TABLE III. COMPARISON OF GPW-PTS PERFORMANCE OF OFDM
with various modulation types and channel coding rate. Fig. 4 SIGNAL WITH VARIOUS MODULATION TYPES
shows CCDF performance of 802.16d system considering PAPR of PAPR of PAPR
different types of modulation at channel coding rate = ¾. From Modulation original PTS- Reduction
No
Fig. 4, it is clear that the choice of modulation type does not Type OFDM OFDM (dB)
give significant effect on the PAPR value. As an example, (dB) (dB)
1
CCDF of 10-2 is reached when PAPR are around 6,2 dB for QPSK 10,9414 5,9728 4,9686
QPSK, 6,44 dB for 16-QAM and 6,16 dB for 64-QAM after 2 16-QAM 11,4176 6,4974 4,9202
GPW-PTS is applied. PAPR reduction performance in dB of 3 64-QAM 11,0673 6,5593 4,508
various modulation types is summarized in table 3. It shows
that QPSK gives highest PAPR reduction. In addition, for
QAM modulation, the higher order of modulation type gives
less PAPR reduction. 10
0
CCDF of QPSK with vary channel coding rate

Fig. 5 depicts CCDF performance of 802.16d system


considering different types of channel coding rate for QPSK 10
-1
CCDF

and 16-QAM. This figure can be summarized as comparison


performance of PAPR reduction of original OFDM signal and 10
-2
OFDM-QPSK 1/2

OFDM with GPW-PTS as shown in table 4. From this table, it PTS OFDM-QPSK 1/2
OFDM-QPSK 3/4

shows that with the increasing of channel coding rate, GPW- 10


-3 PTS OFDM-QPSK 3/4

PTS also gives higher PAPR reduction. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12


PAPR0 (dB)

CCDF of 16-QAM with vary channel coding rate


TABLE II. SIMULATION PARAMETERS 10
0

Parameters Value -1
10
CCDF

Number of OFDM symbols 1000


-2
Number of subcarriers (N) 256 10 OFDM-16-QAM 1/2
PTS OFDM-16-QAM 1/2

QPSK, 16-QAM, OFDM-16-QAM 3/4


Modulation scheme -3 PTS OFDM-16-QAM 3/4
64-QAM 10
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Number of subblocks used in PTS method (V) 4 PAPR0 (dB)

Oversampling factor 4

Phase factor (W) ±1 Fig 5. Comparison of PAPR performance with various channel coding rates in
802.16d system.
PTS partition method adjacent
TABLE IV. COMPARISON OF GPW-PTS PERFORMANCE OF OFDM Engineering and Technology (IJRTET), vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 66-74, July
SIGNAL WITH VARIOUS CHANNEL CODING RATE 2013.
PAPR of PAPR of PAPR [3] S.H. Han, J.H. Lee, “An Overview of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
Channel Reduction Techniques for Multicarrier Transmission,” IEEE Wireless
Modulation original PTS- Reduction
No Coding Communications, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 56–65, April 2005.
Type OFDM OFDM (dB)
Rate
(dB) (dB) c=a-b [4] T. Jiang and Y. Wu, “An Overview : Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
(a) (b) (c) Reduction Techniques for OFDM Signals,” IEEE Transactions on
1/2 11,4643 6,6327 4,8316 Broadcasting, vol 54, no. 2, pp. 257-268, June 2008.
1 QPSK [5] D.W. Lim, S.J. Hoe, J.S No, “An Overview of Peak-to-Average Power
3/4 10,9414 5,9728 4,9686 Ratio Reduction Schemes for OFDM Signals,” IEEE Journal of
1/2 11,8504 7,3148 4,5356 Communications and Networks, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 229-239, June 2009.
2 16-QAM [6] P. Manhas and M.K. Soni, “A Review of PAPR Reduction Techniques
3/4 11,4176 6,4974 4,9202 for OFDM System,” MR International Journal of Engineering and
Technology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 49-53, Dec. 2014.
[7] S. H. Muller and J. B. Huber, “OFDM with Reduced Peak-to-Average
V. CONCLUSIONS Power Ratio by Optimum Combination of Partial Transmit Sequences,”
IEEE Electronics Letters, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 368-369, Feb. 1997.
PAPR reduction technique applied to fixed WiMAX (IEEE [8] L.J. Cimini and N.R. Sollenberger, “Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
802.16d) system using GPW-PTS technique has been studied. Reduction of An OFDM Signal Using Partial Transmit Sequences”.
GPW-PTS is used due to its less computational complexity IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 86-88, March 2000.
then C-PTS. The derived results show that GPW-PTS can [9] L. Wang and J. Liu, “PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals by PTS With
reduce PAPR effectively. Furthermore, the choice of Grouping and Recursive Phase Weighting Methods,” IEEE Transactions
modulation type does not give significant effect on the PAPR on Broadcasting, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 299-306, March 2011.
value. Even though, for QAM modulation, the higher order of [10] P. Pandey and R. Tripathi, “Computational Complexity Reduction of
OFDM Signals by PTS with Alternate Optimised Grouping Phase
modulation type gives less PAPR reduction. The use of GPW- Weighting Method,” International Journal of Computer Applications,
PTS in 802.16d system with various channel coding rate shows vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 1-7, Sept. 2013.
that higher channel coding rate gives higher PAPR reduction. [11] P. Pandey and R. Tripathi, “Computational Complexity and Peak-to-
Average Power Reduction of OFDM signals by PTS with Sub-optimum
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