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The Massage Connection ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Subject : The Massage Connection ANATOMY AND


PHYSIOLOGY
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - The Massage Connection -
Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Organization-An Overview - Answer (click here)
3. The Holistic Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. Systems of the Body - Answer (click here)
6. Planes of Reference - Answer (click here)
7. Human Anatomic Position - Answer (click here)
8. Directional References - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Answer (click
here)
9. Body Regions - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
10. Body Cavities - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
11. Levels of Organization - Answer (click here)
12. Chemical Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
13. Cellular Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
14. Tissue Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
15. The Atom - Answer (click here)
16. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
17. Chemical Bonds - Answer (click here)
18. Chemical Reactions in the human body - Answer (click here)
19. Acidity and Alkalinity in the human body - Answer (click here)
20. Important Organic Compounds in the Body - Answer (click here)
21. Organelles - Answer (click here)
22. The Nucleus - Answer (click here)
23. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - Answer (click here)
24. Membrane Transport in Cell: Passive and Active Transport - Answer (click
here)
25. The Cell Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
26. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
27. Epithelia Classification: Simple, Stratified, Glandular Epithelium -
Answer (click here)
28. Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
29. Effects of Age on Tissue - Answer (click here)
30. Implications for Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)

Integumentary System
1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - The Massage Connection -
Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Organization-An Overview - Answer (click here)
3. The Holistic Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. Systems of the Body - Answer (click here)
6. Planes of Reference - Answer (click here)
7. Human Anatomic Position - Answer (click here)
8. Directional References - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Answer (click
here)
9. Body Regions - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
10. Body Cavities - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
11. Levels of Organization - Answer (click here)
12. Chemical Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
13. Cellular Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
14. Tissue Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
15. The Atom - Answer (click here)
16. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
17. Chemical Bonds - Answer (click here)
18. Chemical Reactions in the human body - Answer (click here)
19. Acidity and Alkalinity in the human body - Answer (click here)
20. Important Organic Compounds in the Body - Answer (click here)
21. Organelles - Answer (click here)
22. The Nucleus - Answer (click here)
23. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - Answer (click here)
24. Membrane Transport in Cell: Passive and Active Transport - Answer (click
here)
25. The Cell Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
26. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
27. Epithelia Classification: Simple, Stratified, Glandular Epithelium -
Answer (click here)
28. Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
29. Effects of Age on Tissue - Answer (click here)
30. Implications for Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
31. Integumentary System - Answer (click here)
32. Functions of the Skin - Answer (click here)
33. Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
34. The Epidermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
35. The Dermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
36. Nerve Supply to The Skin - Answer (click here)
37. Blood Circulation in the Skin - Answer (click here)
38. Skin and Temperature Control - Answer (click here)
39. Variation in Skin Color - Answer (click here)
40. Blood Flow and Skin Color Changes - Answer (click here)
41. Pigmentation of Skin By Carotene - Answer (click here)
42. Subcutaneous Layer, or Hypodermis - Answer (click here)
43. Accessory structures of the skin - Answer (click here)
44. Absorption Through the Skin - Answer (click here)
45. Microorganisms on the Skin - Answer (click here)
46. Inflammation and Healing on the surface of the skin - Answer (click here)
47. Effects of Aging on theIntegumentary System - Answer (click here)
48. Integumentary System and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
49. Massage Techniques and the Effects on the Body - Answer (click here)
50. Effect of Heat on Skin - Answer (click here)
51. Effect of Cold on Skin - Answer (click here)
52. Water and Skin - Answer (click here)
53. Body Wraps and Skin - Answer (click here)
54. Skin Lesions and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)

Skeletal System and Joints


1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - The Massage Connection -
Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Organization-An Overview - Answer (click here)
3. The Holistic Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. Systems of the Body - Answer (click here)
6. Planes of Reference - Answer (click here)
7. Human Anatomic Position - Answer (click here)
8. Directional References - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Answer (click
here)
9. Body Regions - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
10. Body Cavities - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
11. Levels of Organization - Answer (click here)
12. Chemical Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
13. Cellular Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
14. Tissue Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
15. The Atom - Answer (click here)
16. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
17. Chemical Bonds - Answer (click here)
18. Chemical Reactions in the human body - Answer (click here)
19. Acidity and Alkalinity in the human body - Answer (click here)
20. Important Organic Compounds in the Body - Answer (click here)
21. Organelles - Answer (click here)
22. The Nucleus - Answer (click here)
23. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - Answer (click here)
24. Membrane Transport in Cell: Passive and Active Transport - Answer (click
here)
25. The Cell Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
26. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
27. Epithelia Classification: Simple, Stratified, Glandular Epithelium -
Answer (click here)
28. Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
29. Effects of Age on Tissue - Answer (click here)
30. Implications for Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
31. Integumentary System - Answer (click here)
32. Functions of the Skin - Answer (click here)
33. Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
34. The Epidermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
35. The Dermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
36. Nerve Supply to The Skin - Answer (click here)
37. Blood Circulation in the Skin - Answer (click here)
38. Skin and Temperature Control - Answer (click here)
39. Variation in Skin Color - Answer (click here)
40. Blood Flow and Skin Color Changes - Answer (click here)
41. Pigmentation of Skin By Carotene - Answer (click here)
42. Subcutaneous Layer, or Hypodermis - Answer (click here)
43. Accessory structures of the skin - Answer (click here)
44. Absorption Through the Skin - Answer (click here)
45. Microorganisms on the Skin - Answer (click here)
46. Inflammation and Healing on the surface of the skin - Answer (click here)
47. Effects of Aging on theIntegumentary System - Answer (click here)
48. Integumentary System and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
49. Massage Techniques and the Effects on the Body - Answer (click here)
50. Effect of Heat on Skin - Answer (click here)
51. Effect of Cold on Skin - Answer (click here)
52. Water and Skin - Answer (click here)
53. Body Wraps and Skin - Answer (click here)
54. Skin Lesions and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
55. The Skeletal System - Answer (click here)
56. Bone Functions - Answer (click here)
57. Structure and Formation of Bone - Answer (click here)
58. Bone Remodeling - Answer (click here)
59. Parts of a Long Bone - Answer (click here)
60. Types of Bones - Answer (click here)
61. Human Skeleton - Answer (click here)
62. The Skull - Answer (click here)
63. Bones of the Face - Answer (click here)
64. The Mandible - The Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
65. The Vertebral Column - Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
66. Vertebral Regions and Spinal Curvatures - The Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
67. Characteristics of Vertebrae in Different Regions - Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
68. The Sacrum - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
69. Intervertebral Disks - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
70. The Thorax - Answer (click here)
71. Pectoral Girdle and the Upper Limbs - Answer (click here)
72. The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
73. The Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
74. Ilium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
75. Ischium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
76. The Femur - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
77. The Patella - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
78. The Tibia - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
79. The Fibula - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
80. The Ankle - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
81. Joint Classifications - Answer (click here)
82. Stability of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
83. Movement Across the Joints - Answer (click here)
84. Classification of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
85. Individual Joints - Answer (click here)
86. TemporoMandibular Joint (TMJ) - Answer (click here)
87. Intervertebral Articulation - Answer (click here)
88. RIB Cage Articulations - Answer (click here)
89. Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb - Answer (click here)
90. The Sternoclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
91. Acromioclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
92. Glenohumeral Joint - Answer (click here)
93. The Elbow Joint - Answer (click here)
94. Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
95. Sacroiliac Joint - Answer (click here)
96. The Hip Joint - Answer (click here)
97. The Knee Joint - Answer (click here)
98. Tibiofibular Joint (Proximal and Distal) - Answer (click here)
99. The Ankle Joint and Joints of the Foot - Answer (click here)
100. Arches of the Foot - Answer (click here)
101. Age-Related Changes on the Skeletal System and Joints - Answer (click
here)
102. The Skeletal System, Joints, and Massage - Answer (click here)

Muscular System
1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - The Massage Connection -
Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Organization-An Overview - Answer (click here)
3. The Holistic Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. Systems of the Body - Answer (click here)
6. Planes of Reference - Answer (click here)
7. Human Anatomic Position - Answer (click here)
8. Directional References - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Answer (click
here)
9. Body Regions - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
10. Body Cavities - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
11. Levels of Organization - Answer (click here)
12. Chemical Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
13. Cellular Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
14. Tissue Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
15. The Atom - Answer (click here)
16. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
17. Chemical Bonds - Answer (click here)
18. Chemical Reactions in the human body - Answer (click here)
19. Acidity and Alkalinity in the human body - Answer (click here)
20. Important Organic Compounds in the Body - Answer (click here)
21. Organelles - Answer (click here)
22. The Nucleus - Answer (click here)
23. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - Answer (click here)
24. Membrane Transport in Cell: Passive and Active Transport - Answer (click
here)
25. The Cell Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
26. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
27. Epithelia Classification: Simple, Stratified, Glandular Epithelium -
Answer (click here)
28. Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
29. Effects of Age on Tissue - Answer (click here)
30. Implications for Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
31. Integumentary System - Answer (click here)
32. Functions of the Skin - Answer (click here)
33. Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
34. The Epidermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
35. The Dermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
36. Nerve Supply to The Skin - Answer (click here)
37. Blood Circulation in the Skin - Answer (click here)
38. Skin and Temperature Control - Answer (click here)
39. Variation in Skin Color - Answer (click here)
40. Blood Flow and Skin Color Changes - Answer (click here)
41. Pigmentation of Skin By Carotene - Answer (click here)
42. Subcutaneous Layer, or Hypodermis - Answer (click here)
43. Accessory structures of the skin - Answer (click here)
44. Absorption Through the Skin - Answer (click here)
45. Microorganisms on the Skin - Answer (click here)
46. Inflammation and Healing on the surface of the skin - Answer (click here)
47. Effects of Aging on theIntegumentary System - Answer (click here)
48. Integumentary System and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
49. Massage Techniques and the Effects on the Body - Answer (click here)
50. Effect of Heat on Skin - Answer (click here)
51. Effect of Cold on Skin - Answer (click here)
52. Water and Skin - Answer (click here)
53. Body Wraps and Skin - Answer (click here)
54. Skin Lesions and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
55. The Skeletal System - Answer (click here)
56. Bone Functions - Answer (click here)
57. Structure and Formation of Bone - Answer (click here)
58. Bone Remodeling - Answer (click here)
59. Parts of a Long Bone - Answer (click here)
60. Types of Bones - Answer (click here)
61. Human Skeleton - Answer (click here)
62. The Skull - Answer (click here)
63. Bones of the Face - Answer (click here)
64. The Mandible - The Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
65. The Vertebral Column - Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
66. Vertebral Regions and Spinal Curvatures - The Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
67. Characteristics of Vertebrae in Different Regions - Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
68. The Sacrum - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
69. Intervertebral Disks - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
70. The Thorax - Answer (click here)
71. Pectoral Girdle and the Upper Limbs - Answer (click here)
72. The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
73. The Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
74. Ilium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
75. Ischium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
76. The Femur - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
77. The Patella - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
78. The Tibia - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
79. The Fibula - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
80. The Ankle - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
81. Joint Classifications - Answer (click here)
82. Stability of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
83. Movement Across the Joints - Answer (click here)
84. Classification of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
85. Individual Joints - Answer (click here)
86. TemporoMandibular Joint (TMJ) - Answer (click here)
87. Intervertebral Articulation - Answer (click here)
88. RIB Cage Articulations - Answer (click here)
89. Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb - Answer (click here)
90. The Sternoclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
91. Acromioclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
92. Glenohumeral Joint - Answer (click here)
93. The Elbow Joint - Answer (click here)
94. Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
95. Sacroiliac Joint - Answer (click here)
96. The Hip Joint - Answer (click here)
97. The Knee Joint - Answer (click here)
98. Tibiofibular Joint (Proximal and Distal) - Answer (click here)
99. The Ankle Joint and Joints of the Foot - Answer (click here)
100. Arches of the Foot - Answer (click here)
101. Age-Related Changes on the Skeletal System and Joints - Answer (click
here)
102. The Skeletal System, Joints, and Massage - Answer (click here)
103. Muscle Tissue and Physiology of Muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
104. Structure of Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
105. Myofilament: the Specialized proteins of Myofibrils - Answer (click here)
106. Sliding Filament Mechanism - Answer (click here)
107. Characteristics of Whole muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
108. Muscle Tone - Answer (click here)
109. Muscle Spindles - Answer (click here)
110. Tendon Organs - Answer (click here)
111. Isotonic and Isometric contractions - Answer (click here)
112. Muscle Energetics - Answer (click here)
113. A Summary of the Role of CNS in Muscle Function Control - Answer
(click here)
114. Physical Conditioning - Muscular System - Answer (click here)
115. Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
116. Cardiac Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
117. Smooth Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
118. Muscle Terminology and Major Muscles of the Body - Answer (click here)
119. The Axial Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer (click
here)
120. Appendicular Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
121. Muscles Of The Lower Limb - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
122. Muscular System and Aging - Answer (click here)
123. Muscular System and Massage - Answer (click here)

Nervous System
1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - The Massage Connection -
Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Organization-An Overview - Answer (click here)
3. The Holistic Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. Systems of the Body - Answer (click here)
6. Planes of Reference - Answer (click here)
7. Human Anatomic Position - Answer (click here)
8. Directional References - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Answer (click
here)
9. Body Regions - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
10. Body Cavities - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
11. Levels of Organization - Answer (click here)
12. Chemical Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
13. Cellular Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
14. Tissue Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
15. The Atom - Answer (click here)
16. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
17. Chemical Bonds - Answer (click here)
18. Chemical Reactions in the human body - Answer (click here)
19. Acidity and Alkalinity in the human body - Answer (click here)
20. Important Organic Compounds in the Body - Answer (click here)
21. Organelles - Answer (click here)
22. The Nucleus - Answer (click here)
23. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - Answer (click here)
24. Membrane Transport in Cell: Passive and Active Transport - Answer (click
here)
25. The Cell Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
26. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
27. Epithelia Classification: Simple, Stratified, Glandular Epithelium -
Answer (click here)
28. Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
29. Effects of Age on Tissue - Answer (click here)
30. Implications for Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
31. Integumentary System - Answer (click here)
32. Functions of the Skin - Answer (click here)
33. Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
34. The Epidermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
35. The Dermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
36. Nerve Supply to The Skin - Answer (click here)
37. Blood Circulation in the Skin - Answer (click here)
38. Skin and Temperature Control - Answer (click here)
39. Variation in Skin Color - Answer (click here)
40. Blood Flow and Skin Color Changes - Answer (click here)
41. Pigmentation of Skin By Carotene - Answer (click here)
42. Subcutaneous Layer, or Hypodermis - Answer (click here)
43. Accessory structures of the skin - Answer (click here)
44. Absorption Through the Skin - Answer (click here)
45. Microorganisms on the Skin - Answer (click here)
46. Inflammation and Healing on the surface of the skin - Answer (click here)
47. Effects of Aging on theIntegumentary System - Answer (click here)
48. Integumentary System and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
49. Massage Techniques and the Effects on the Body - Answer (click here)
50. Effect of Heat on Skin - Answer (click here)
51. Effect of Cold on Skin - Answer (click here)
52. Water and Skin - Answer (click here)
53. Body Wraps and Skin - Answer (click here)
54. Skin Lesions and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
55. The Skeletal System - Answer (click here)
56. Bone Functions - Answer (click here)
57. Structure and Formation of Bone - Answer (click here)
58. Bone Remodeling - Answer (click here)
59. Parts of a Long Bone - Answer (click here)
60. Types of Bones - Answer (click here)
61. Human Skeleton - Answer (click here)
62. The Skull - Answer (click here)
63. Bones of the Face - Answer (click here)
64. The Mandible - The Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
65. The Vertebral Column - Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
66. Vertebral Regions and Spinal Curvatures - The Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
67. Characteristics of Vertebrae in Different Regions - Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
68. The Sacrum - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
69. Intervertebral Disks - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
70. The Thorax - Answer (click here)
71. Pectoral Girdle and the Upper Limbs - Answer (click here)
72. The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
73. The Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
74. Ilium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
75. Ischium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
76. The Femur - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
77. The Patella - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
78. The Tibia - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
79. The Fibula - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
80. The Ankle - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
81. Joint Classifications - Answer (click here)
82. Stability of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
83. Movement Across the Joints - Answer (click here)
84. Classification of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
85. Individual Joints - Answer (click here)
86. TemporoMandibular Joint (TMJ) - Answer (click here)
87. Intervertebral Articulation - Answer (click here)
88. RIB Cage Articulations - Answer (click here)
89. Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb - Answer (click here)
90. The Sternoclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
91. Acromioclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
92. Glenohumeral Joint - Answer (click here)
93. The Elbow Joint - Answer (click here)
94. Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
95. Sacroiliac Joint - Answer (click here)
96. The Hip Joint - Answer (click here)
97. The Knee Joint - Answer (click here)
98. Tibiofibular Joint (Proximal and Distal) - Answer (click here)
99. The Ankle Joint and Joints of the Foot - Answer (click here)
100. Arches of the Foot - Answer (click here)
101. Age-Related Changes on the Skeletal System and Joints - Answer (click
here)
102. The Skeletal System, Joints, and Massage - Answer (click here)
103. Muscle Tissue and Physiology of Muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
104. Structure of Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
105. Myofilament: the Specialized proteins of Myofibrils - Answer (click here)
106. Sliding Filament Mechanism - Answer (click here)
107. Characteristics of Whole muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
108. Muscle Tone - Answer (click here)
109. Muscle Spindles - Answer (click here)
110. Tendon Organs - Answer (click here)
111. Isotonic and Isometric contractions - Answer (click here)
112. Muscle Energetics - Answer (click here)
113. A Summary of the Role of CNS in Muscle Function Control - Answer
(click here)
114. Physical Conditioning - Muscular System - Answer (click here)
115. Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
116. Cardiac Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
117. Smooth Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
118. Muscle Terminology and Major Muscles of the Body - Answer (click here)
119. The Axial Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer (click
here)
120. Appendicular Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
121. Muscles Of The Lower Limb - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
122. Muscular System and Aging - Answer (click here)
123. Muscular System and Massage - Answer (click here)
124. Organization of the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
125. Structure of the Neuron - Answer (click here)
126. The Synapse - Answer (click here)
127. Classification of Neurons - Answer (click here)
128. Neuroglia - Answer (click here)
129. Production and Propagation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
130. Differences in Propagation of action Potential in Myelinatedand
Unmyelinated Axons - Answer (click here)
131. Synaptic Transmission - Answer (click here)
132. Examples of Neurotransmitters - Answer (click here)
133. Electrical Synapses - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
134. Summation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
135. Factors that Affect Neural Function - Answer (click here)
136. Functional Organization of Neurons - Answer (click here)
137. Standard Terms and Grouping - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
138. Regeneration and Degenerationof Neurons - Answer (click here)
139. Sense Organs and Initiation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
140. Cutaneous Receptors - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
141. An Overview of Electrical and Ionic Events in Receptors - Answer (click
here)
142. Perception of Sensations - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
143. The Spinal Cord, Spinal nerves, and Dermatomes - Answer (click here)
144. Anatomic Structure of the Spinal Cord - Answer (click here)
145. Distribution of Spinal Nerves - Answer (click here)
146. Nerve Plexus - Answer (click here)
147. Reflexes - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
148. Monosynaptic Reflex:The Stretch Reflex - Answer (click here)
149. Muscle Spindle - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
150. Reciprocal Innervation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
151. Inverse Stretch Reflex - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
152. Polysynaptic Reflexes: Withdrawal Reflex - Answer (click here)
153. The Final Common Path - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
154. Input to Motor Neurons - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
155. Pathways of Cutaneous and Visceral Sensations - Answer (click here)
156. Direct Pathway of Fine Touch and Proprioception Senses - Answer (click
here)
157. Direct Pathway of Pain and temperature (and Remaining fibers of
Touch) Senses - Answer (click here)
158. Representation of the Body in the Cerebral Cortex - Answer (click here)
159. The Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
160. Integrative Centers - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
161. Right and Left Hemisphere Specializations - Brain and Brain Divisions -
Answer (click here)
162. The Limbic System - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
163. The Thalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
164. The Hypothalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
165. Cranial Nerves - Answer (click here)
166. Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
167. General Principles of the Control of Voluntary Movements - Answer (click
here)
168. The Motor Cortex - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
169. Lesions and Muscle Tone - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer
(click here)
170. Vestibular Apparatus - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
171. Motor System Lesions - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
172. The Autonomic Nervous System - Answer (click here)
173. Age-Related Changes in the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
174. Bodyworkers and the Nervous System - Answer (click here)

Endocrine System
1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - The Massage Connection -
Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Organization-An Overview - Answer (click here)
3. The Holistic Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. Systems of the Body - Answer (click here)
6. Planes of Reference - Answer (click here)
7. Human Anatomic Position - Answer (click here)
8. Directional References - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Answer (click
here)
9. Body Regions - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
10. Body Cavities - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
11. Levels of Organization - Answer (click here)
12. Chemical Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
13. Cellular Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
14. Tissue Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
15. The Atom - Answer (click here)
16. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
17. Chemical Bonds - Answer (click here)
18. Chemical Reactions in the human body - Answer (click here)
19. Acidity and Alkalinity in the human body - Answer (click here)
20. Important Organic Compounds in the Body - Answer (click here)
21. Organelles - Answer (click here)
22. The Nucleus - Answer (click here)
23. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - Answer (click here)
24. Membrane Transport in Cell: Passive and Active Transport - Answer (click
here)
25. The Cell Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
26. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
27. Epithelia Classification: Simple, Stratified, Glandular Epithelium -
Answer (click here)
28. Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
29. Effects of Age on Tissue - Answer (click here)
30. Implications for Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
31. Integumentary System - Answer (click here)
32. Functions of the Skin - Answer (click here)
33. Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
34. The Epidermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
35. The Dermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
36. Nerve Supply to The Skin - Answer (click here)
37. Blood Circulation in the Skin - Answer (click here)
38. Skin and Temperature Control - Answer (click here)
39. Variation in Skin Color - Answer (click here)
40. Blood Flow and Skin Color Changes - Answer (click here)
41. Pigmentation of Skin By Carotene - Answer (click here)
42. Subcutaneous Layer, or Hypodermis - Answer (click here)
43. Accessory structures of the skin - Answer (click here)
44. Absorption Through the Skin - Answer (click here)
45. Microorganisms on the Skin - Answer (click here)
46. Inflammation and Healing on the surface of the skin - Answer (click here)
47. Effects of Aging on theIntegumentary System - Answer (click here)
48. Integumentary System and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
49. Massage Techniques and the Effects on the Body - Answer (click here)
50. Effect of Heat on Skin - Answer (click here)
51. Effect of Cold on Skin - Answer (click here)
52. Water and Skin - Answer (click here)
53. Body Wraps and Skin - Answer (click here)
54. Skin Lesions and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
55. The Skeletal System - Answer (click here)
56. Bone Functions - Answer (click here)
57. Structure and Formation of Bone - Answer (click here)
58. Bone Remodeling - Answer (click here)
59. Parts of a Long Bone - Answer (click here)
60. Types of Bones - Answer (click here)
61. Human Skeleton - Answer (click here)
62. The Skull - Answer (click here)
63. Bones of the Face - Answer (click here)
64. The Mandible - The Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
65. The Vertebral Column - Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
66. Vertebral Regions and Spinal Curvatures - The Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
67. Characteristics of Vertebrae in Different Regions - Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
68. The Sacrum - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
69. Intervertebral Disks - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
70. The Thorax - Answer (click here)
71. Pectoral Girdle and the Upper Limbs - Answer (click here)
72. The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
73. The Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
74. Ilium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
75. Ischium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
76. The Femur - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
77. The Patella - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
78. The Tibia - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
79. The Fibula - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
80. The Ankle - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
81. Joint Classifications - Answer (click here)
82. Stability of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
83. Movement Across the Joints - Answer (click here)
84. Classification of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
85. Individual Joints - Answer (click here)
86. TemporoMandibular Joint (TMJ) - Answer (click here)
87. Intervertebral Articulation - Answer (click here)
88. RIB Cage Articulations - Answer (click here)
89. Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb - Answer (click here)
90. The Sternoclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
91. Acromioclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
92. Glenohumeral Joint - Answer (click here)
93. The Elbow Joint - Answer (click here)
94. Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
95. Sacroiliac Joint - Answer (click here)
96. The Hip Joint - Answer (click here)
97. The Knee Joint - Answer (click here)
98. Tibiofibular Joint (Proximal and Distal) - Answer (click here)
99. The Ankle Joint and Joints of the Foot - Answer (click here)
100. Arches of the Foot - Answer (click here)
101. Age-Related Changes on the Skeletal System and Joints - Answer (click
here)
102. The Skeletal System, Joints, and Massage - Answer (click here)
103. Muscle Tissue and Physiology of Muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
104. Structure of Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
105. Myofilament: the Specialized proteins of Myofibrils - Answer (click here)
106. Sliding Filament Mechanism - Answer (click here)
107. Characteristics of Whole muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
108. Muscle Tone - Answer (click here)
109. Muscle Spindles - Answer (click here)
110. Tendon Organs - Answer (click here)
111. Isotonic and Isometric contractions - Answer (click here)
112. Muscle Energetics - Answer (click here)
113. A Summary of the Role of CNS in Muscle Function Control - Answer
(click here)
114. Physical Conditioning - Muscular System - Answer (click here)
115. Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
116. Cardiac Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
117. Smooth Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
118. Muscle Terminology and Major Muscles of the Body - Answer (click here)
119. The Axial Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer (click
here)
120. Appendicular Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
121. Muscles Of The Lower Limb - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
122. Muscular System and Aging - Answer (click here)
123. Muscular System and Massage - Answer (click here)
124. Organization of the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
125. Structure of the Neuron - Answer (click here)
126. The Synapse - Answer (click here)
127. Classification of Neurons - Answer (click here)
128. Neuroglia - Answer (click here)
129. Production and Propagation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
130. Differences in Propagation of action Potential in Myelinatedand
Unmyelinated Axons - Answer (click here)
131. Synaptic Transmission - Answer (click here)
132. Examples of Neurotransmitters - Answer (click here)
133. Electrical Synapses - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
134. Summation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
135. Factors that Affect Neural Function - Answer (click here)
136. Functional Organization of Neurons - Answer (click here)
137. Standard Terms and Grouping - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
138. Regeneration and Degenerationof Neurons - Answer (click here)
139. Sense Organs and Initiation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
140. Cutaneous Receptors - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
141. An Overview of Electrical and Ionic Events in Receptors - Answer (click
here)
142. Perception of Sensations - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
143. The Spinal Cord, Spinal nerves, and Dermatomes - Answer (click here)
144. Anatomic Structure of the Spinal Cord - Answer (click here)
145. Distribution of Spinal Nerves - Answer (click here)
146. Nerve Plexus - Answer (click here)
147. Reflexes - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
148. Monosynaptic Reflex:The Stretch Reflex - Answer (click here)
149. Muscle Spindle - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
150. Reciprocal Innervation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
151. Inverse Stretch Reflex - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
152. Polysynaptic Reflexes: Withdrawal Reflex - Answer (click here)
153. The Final Common Path - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
154. Input to Motor Neurons - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
155. Pathways of Cutaneous and Visceral Sensations - Answer (click here)
156. Direct Pathway of Fine Touch and Proprioception Senses - Answer (click
here)
157. Direct Pathway of Pain and temperature (and Remaining fibers of
Touch) Senses - Answer (click here)
158. Representation of the Body in the Cerebral Cortex - Answer (click here)
159. The Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
160. Integrative Centers - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
161. Right and Left Hemisphere Specializations - Brain and Brain Divisions -
Answer (click here)
162. The Limbic System - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
163. The Thalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
164. The Hypothalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
165. Cranial Nerves - Answer (click here)
166. Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
167. General Principles of the Control of Voluntary Movements - Answer (click
here)
168. The Motor Cortex - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
169. Lesions and Muscle Tone - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer
(click here)
170. Vestibular Apparatus - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
171. Motor System Lesions - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
172. The Autonomic Nervous System - Answer (click here)
173. Age-Related Changes in the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
174. Bodyworkers and the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
175. General Properties of Hormones - Answer (click here)
176. Control of Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
177. Hypothalamus - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
178. The Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click
here)
179. Thyroid Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
180. Parathyroid Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
181. Adrenal Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
182. Pineal Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
183. Endocrine Function of The Pancreas - Answer (click here)
184. The Endocrine Function of the Kidneys - Answer (click here)
185. The Endocrine Function of the Heart - Answer (click here)
186. Thymus gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
187. Digestive Tract - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
188. The Endocrine Function of Adipose Tissue - Answer (click here)
189. Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System - Answer (click here)
190. Endocrine System and Massage - Answer (click here)

Reproductive System
1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - The Massage Connection -
Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Organization-An Overview - Answer (click here)
3. The Holistic Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. Systems of the Body - Answer (click here)
6. Planes of Reference - Answer (click here)
7. Human Anatomic Position - Answer (click here)
8. Directional References - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Answer (click
here)
9. Body Regions - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
10. Body Cavities - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
11. Levels of Organization - Answer (click here)
12. Chemical Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
13. Cellular Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
14. Tissue Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
15. The Atom - Answer (click here)
16. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
17. Chemical Bonds - Answer (click here)
18. Chemical Reactions in the human body - Answer (click here)
19. Acidity and Alkalinity in the human body - Answer (click here)
20. Important Organic Compounds in the Body - Answer (click here)
21. Organelles - Answer (click here)
22. The Nucleus - Answer (click here)
23. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - Answer (click here)
24. Membrane Transport in Cell: Passive and Active Transport - Answer (click
here)
25. The Cell Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
26. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
27. Epithelia Classification: Simple, Stratified, Glandular Epithelium -
Answer (click here)
28. Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
29. Effects of Age on Tissue - Answer (click here)
30. Implications for Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
31. Integumentary System - Answer (click here)
32. Functions of the Skin - Answer (click here)
33. Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
34. The Epidermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
35. The Dermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
36. Nerve Supply to The Skin - Answer (click here)
37. Blood Circulation in the Skin - Answer (click here)
38. Skin and Temperature Control - Answer (click here)
39. Variation in Skin Color - Answer (click here)
40. Blood Flow and Skin Color Changes - Answer (click here)
41. Pigmentation of Skin By Carotene - Answer (click here)
42. Subcutaneous Layer, or Hypodermis - Answer (click here)
43. Accessory structures of the skin - Answer (click here)
44. Absorption Through the Skin - Answer (click here)
45. Microorganisms on the Skin - Answer (click here)
46. Inflammation and Healing on the surface of the skin - Answer (click here)
47. Effects of Aging on theIntegumentary System - Answer (click here)
48. Integumentary System and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
49. Massage Techniques and the Effects on the Body - Answer (click here)
50. Effect of Heat on Skin - Answer (click here)
51. Effect of Cold on Skin - Answer (click here)
52. Water and Skin - Answer (click here)
53. Body Wraps and Skin - Answer (click here)
54. Skin Lesions and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
55. The Skeletal System - Answer (click here)
56. Bone Functions - Answer (click here)
57. Structure and Formation of Bone - Answer (click here)
58. Bone Remodeling - Answer (click here)
59. Parts of a Long Bone - Answer (click here)
60. Types of Bones - Answer (click here)
61. Human Skeleton - Answer (click here)
62. The Skull - Answer (click here)
63. Bones of the Face - Answer (click here)
64. The Mandible - The Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
65. The Vertebral Column - Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
66. Vertebral Regions and Spinal Curvatures - The Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
67. Characteristics of Vertebrae in Different Regions - Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
68. The Sacrum - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
69. Intervertebral Disks - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
70. The Thorax - Answer (click here)
71. Pectoral Girdle and the Upper Limbs - Answer (click here)
72. The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
73. The Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
74. Ilium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
75. Ischium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
76. The Femur - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
77. The Patella - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
78. The Tibia - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
79. The Fibula - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
80. The Ankle - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
81. Joint Classifications - Answer (click here)
82. Stability of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
83. Movement Across the Joints - Answer (click here)
84. Classification of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
85. Individual Joints - Answer (click here)
86. TemporoMandibular Joint (TMJ) - Answer (click here)
87. Intervertebral Articulation - Answer (click here)
88. RIB Cage Articulations - Answer (click here)
89. Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb - Answer (click here)
90. The Sternoclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
91. Acromioclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
92. Glenohumeral Joint - Answer (click here)
93. The Elbow Joint - Answer (click here)
94. Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
95. Sacroiliac Joint - Answer (click here)
96. The Hip Joint - Answer (click here)
97. The Knee Joint - Answer (click here)
98. Tibiofibular Joint (Proximal and Distal) - Answer (click here)
99. The Ankle Joint and Joints of the Foot - Answer (click here)
100. Arches of the Foot - Answer (click here)
101. Age-Related Changes on the Skeletal System and Joints - Answer (click
here)
102. The Skeletal System, Joints, and Massage - Answer (click here)
103. Muscle Tissue and Physiology of Muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
104. Structure of Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
105. Myofilament: the Specialized proteins of Myofibrils - Answer (click here)
106. Sliding Filament Mechanism - Answer (click here)
107. Characteristics of Whole muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
108. Muscle Tone - Answer (click here)
109. Muscle Spindles - Answer (click here)
110. Tendon Organs - Answer (click here)
111. Isotonic and Isometric contractions - Answer (click here)
112. Muscle Energetics - Answer (click here)
113. A Summary of the Role of CNS in Muscle Function Control - Answer
(click here)
114. Physical Conditioning - Muscular System - Answer (click here)
115. Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
116. Cardiac Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
117. Smooth Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
118. Muscle Terminology and Major Muscles of the Body - Answer (click here)
119. The Axial Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer (click
here)
120. Appendicular Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
121. Muscles Of The Lower Limb - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
122. Muscular System and Aging - Answer (click here)
123. Muscular System and Massage - Answer (click here)
124. Organization of the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
125. Structure of the Neuron - Answer (click here)
126. The Synapse - Answer (click here)
127. Classification of Neurons - Answer (click here)
128. Neuroglia - Answer (click here)
129. Production and Propagation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
130. Differences in Propagation of action Potential in Myelinatedand
Unmyelinated Axons - Answer (click here)
131. Synaptic Transmission - Answer (click here)
132. Examples of Neurotransmitters - Answer (click here)
133. Electrical Synapses - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
134. Summation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
135. Factors that Affect Neural Function - Answer (click here)
136. Functional Organization of Neurons - Answer (click here)
137. Standard Terms and Grouping - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
138. Regeneration and Degenerationof Neurons - Answer (click here)
139. Sense Organs and Initiation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
140. Cutaneous Receptors - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
141. An Overview of Electrical and Ionic Events in Receptors - Answer (click
here)
142. Perception of Sensations - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
143. The Spinal Cord, Spinal nerves, and Dermatomes - Answer (click here)
144. Anatomic Structure of the Spinal Cord - Answer (click here)
145. Distribution of Spinal Nerves - Answer (click here)
146. Nerve Plexus - Answer (click here)
147. Reflexes - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
148. Monosynaptic Reflex:The Stretch Reflex - Answer (click here)
149. Muscle Spindle - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
150. Reciprocal Innervation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
151. Inverse Stretch Reflex - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
152. Polysynaptic Reflexes: Withdrawal Reflex - Answer (click here)
153. The Final Common Path - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
154. Input to Motor Neurons - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
155. Pathways of Cutaneous and Visceral Sensations - Answer (click here)
156. Direct Pathway of Fine Touch and Proprioception Senses - Answer (click
here)
157. Direct Pathway of Pain and temperature (and Remaining fibers of
Touch) Senses - Answer (click here)
158. Representation of the Body in the Cerebral Cortex - Answer (click here)
159. The Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
160. Integrative Centers - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
161. Right and Left Hemisphere Specializations - Brain and Brain Divisions -
Answer (click here)
162. The Limbic System - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
163. The Thalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
164. The Hypothalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
165. Cranial Nerves - Answer (click here)
166. Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
167. General Principles of the Control of Voluntary Movements - Answer (click
here)
168. The Motor Cortex - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
169. Lesions and Muscle Tone - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer
(click here)
170. Vestibular Apparatus - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
171. Motor System Lesions - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
172. The Autonomic Nervous System - Answer (click here)
173. Age-Related Changes in the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
174. Bodyworkers and the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
175. General Properties of Hormones - Answer (click here)
176. Control of Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
177. Hypothalamus - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
178. The Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click
here)
179. Thyroid Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
180. Parathyroid Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
181. Adrenal Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
182. Pineal Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
183. Endocrine Function of The Pancreas - Answer (click here)
184. The Endocrine Function of the Kidneys - Answer (click here)
185. The Endocrine Function of the Heart - Answer (click here)
186. Thymus gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
187. Digestive Tract - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
188. The Endocrine Function of Adipose Tissue - Answer (click here)
189. Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System - Answer (click here)
190. Endocrine System and Massage - Answer (click here)
191. Genetic Sex - Answer (click here)
192. Fetal Development - Answer (click here)
193. Puberty - Answer (click here)
194. Testis - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
195. The Vas Deferens - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
196. Accessory Glands - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
197. Semen - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
198. Penis - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
199. Endocrine Function of the Testis - Answer (click here)
200. Ovaries - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
201. The Uterine Tubes (Fallopiantubes; Oviduct) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
202. The Uterus - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
203. The Vagina - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
204. The External Genitalia - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
205. The Menstrual Cycle - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
206. The Physiology of Sexual Intercourse (In Brief) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
207. Contraception (Strategiesfor Birth Control) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
208. Development of The Fetus - Answer (click here)
209. Maternal Changes in Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
210. Labor - Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
211. Lactation - Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
212. Age-Related Changes in the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
213. Massage and the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)

Cardiovascular System
1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - The Massage Connection -
Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Organization-An Overview - Answer (click here)
3. The Holistic Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. Systems of the Body - Answer (click here)
6. Planes of Reference - Answer (click here)
7. Human Anatomic Position - Answer (click here)
8. Directional References - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Answer (click
here)
9. Body Regions - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
10. Body Cavities - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
11. Levels of Organization - Answer (click here)
12. Chemical Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
13. Cellular Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
14. Tissue Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
15. The Atom - Answer (click here)
16. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
17. Chemical Bonds - Answer (click here)
18. Chemical Reactions in the human body - Answer (click here)
19. Acidity and Alkalinity in the human body - Answer (click here)
20. Important Organic Compounds in the Body - Answer (click here)
21. Organelles - Answer (click here)
22. The Nucleus - Answer (click here)
23. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - Answer (click here)
24. Membrane Transport in Cell: Passive and Active Transport - Answer (click
here)
25. The Cell Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
26. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
27. Epithelia Classification: Simple, Stratified, Glandular Epithelium -
Answer (click here)
28. Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
29. Effects of Age on Tissue - Answer (click here)
30. Implications for Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
31. Integumentary System - Answer (click here)
32. Functions of the Skin - Answer (click here)
33. Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
34. The Epidermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
35. The Dermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
36. Nerve Supply to The Skin - Answer (click here)
37. Blood Circulation in the Skin - Answer (click here)
38. Skin and Temperature Control - Answer (click here)
39. Variation in Skin Color - Answer (click here)
40. Blood Flow and Skin Color Changes - Answer (click here)
41. Pigmentation of Skin By Carotene - Answer (click here)
42. Subcutaneous Layer, or Hypodermis - Answer (click here)
43. Accessory structures of the skin - Answer (click here)
44. Absorption Through the Skin - Answer (click here)
45. Microorganisms on the Skin - Answer (click here)
46. Inflammation and Healing on the surface of the skin - Answer (click here)
47. Effects of Aging on theIntegumentary System - Answer (click here)
48. Integumentary System and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
49. Massage Techniques and the Effects on the Body - Answer (click here)
50. Effect of Heat on Skin - Answer (click here)
51. Effect of Cold on Skin - Answer (click here)
52. Water and Skin - Answer (click here)
53. Body Wraps and Skin - Answer (click here)
54. Skin Lesions and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
55. The Skeletal System - Answer (click here)
56. Bone Functions - Answer (click here)
57. Structure and Formation of Bone - Answer (click here)
58. Bone Remodeling - Answer (click here)
59. Parts of a Long Bone - Answer (click here)
60. Types of Bones - Answer (click here)
61. Human Skeleton - Answer (click here)
62. The Skull - Answer (click here)
63. Bones of the Face - Answer (click here)
64. The Mandible - The Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
65. The Vertebral Column - Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
66. Vertebral Regions and Spinal Curvatures - The Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
67. Characteristics of Vertebrae in Different Regions - Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
68. The Sacrum - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
69. Intervertebral Disks - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
70. The Thorax - Answer (click here)
71. Pectoral Girdle and the Upper Limbs - Answer (click here)
72. The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
73. The Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
74. Ilium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
75. Ischium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
76. The Femur - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
77. The Patella - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
78. The Tibia - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
79. The Fibula - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
80. The Ankle - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
81. Joint Classifications - Answer (click here)
82. Stability of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
83. Movement Across the Joints - Answer (click here)
84. Classification of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
85. Individual Joints - Answer (click here)
86. TemporoMandibular Joint (TMJ) - Answer (click here)
87. Intervertebral Articulation - Answer (click here)
88. RIB Cage Articulations - Answer (click here)
89. Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb - Answer (click here)
90. The Sternoclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
91. Acromioclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
92. Glenohumeral Joint - Answer (click here)
93. The Elbow Joint - Answer (click here)
94. Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
95. Sacroiliac Joint - Answer (click here)
96. The Hip Joint - Answer (click here)
97. The Knee Joint - Answer (click here)
98. Tibiofibular Joint (Proximal and Distal) - Answer (click here)
99. The Ankle Joint and Joints of the Foot - Answer (click here)
100. Arches of the Foot - Answer (click here)
101. Age-Related Changes on the Skeletal System and Joints - Answer (click
here)
102. The Skeletal System, Joints, and Massage - Answer (click here)
103. Muscle Tissue and Physiology of Muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
104. Structure of Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
105. Myofilament: the Specialized proteins of Myofibrils - Answer (click here)
106. Sliding Filament Mechanism - Answer (click here)
107. Characteristics of Whole muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
108. Muscle Tone - Answer (click here)
109. Muscle Spindles - Answer (click here)
110. Tendon Organs - Answer (click here)
111. Isotonic and Isometric contractions - Answer (click here)
112. Muscle Energetics - Answer (click here)
113. A Summary of the Role of CNS in Muscle Function Control - Answer
(click here)
114. Physical Conditioning - Muscular System - Answer (click here)
115. Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
116. Cardiac Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
117. Smooth Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
118. Muscle Terminology and Major Muscles of the Body - Answer (click here)
119. The Axial Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer (click
here)
120. Appendicular Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
121. Muscles Of The Lower Limb - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
122. Muscular System and Aging - Answer (click here)
123. Muscular System and Massage - Answer (click here)
124. Organization of the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
125. Structure of the Neuron - Answer (click here)
126. The Synapse - Answer (click here)
127. Classification of Neurons - Answer (click here)
128. Neuroglia - Answer (click here)
129. Production and Propagation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
130. Differences in Propagation of action Potential in Myelinatedand
Unmyelinated Axons - Answer (click here)
131. Synaptic Transmission - Answer (click here)
132. Examples of Neurotransmitters - Answer (click here)
133. Electrical Synapses - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
134. Summation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
135. Factors that Affect Neural Function - Answer (click here)
136. Functional Organization of Neurons - Answer (click here)
137. Standard Terms and Grouping - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
138. Regeneration and Degenerationof Neurons - Answer (click here)
139. Sense Organs and Initiation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
140. Cutaneous Receptors - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
141. An Overview of Electrical and Ionic Events in Receptors - Answer (click
here)
142. Perception of Sensations - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
143. The Spinal Cord, Spinal nerves, and Dermatomes - Answer (click here)
144. Anatomic Structure of the Spinal Cord - Answer (click here)
145. Distribution of Spinal Nerves - Answer (click here)
146. Nerve Plexus - Answer (click here)
147. Reflexes - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
148. Monosynaptic Reflex:The Stretch Reflex - Answer (click here)
149. Muscle Spindle - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
150. Reciprocal Innervation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
151. Inverse Stretch Reflex - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
152. Polysynaptic Reflexes: Withdrawal Reflex - Answer (click here)
153. The Final Common Path - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
154. Input to Motor Neurons - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
155. Pathways of Cutaneous and Visceral Sensations - Answer (click here)
156. Direct Pathway of Fine Touch and Proprioception Senses - Answer (click
here)
157. Direct Pathway of Pain and temperature (and Remaining fibers of
Touch) Senses - Answer (click here)
158. Representation of the Body in the Cerebral Cortex - Answer (click here)
159. The Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
160. Integrative Centers - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
161. Right and Left Hemisphere Specializations - Brain and Brain Divisions -
Answer (click here)
162. The Limbic System - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
163. The Thalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
164. The Hypothalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
165. Cranial Nerves - Answer (click here)
166. Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
167. General Principles of the Control of Voluntary Movements - Answer (click
here)
168. The Motor Cortex - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
169. Lesions and Muscle Tone - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer
(click here)
170. Vestibular Apparatus - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
171. Motor System Lesions - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
172. The Autonomic Nervous System - Answer (click here)
173. Age-Related Changes in the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
174. Bodyworkers and the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
175. General Properties of Hormones - Answer (click here)
176. Control of Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
177. Hypothalamus - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
178. The Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click
here)
179. Thyroid Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
180. Parathyroid Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
181. Adrenal Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
182. Pineal Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
183. Endocrine Function of The Pancreas - Answer (click here)
184. The Endocrine Function of the Kidneys - Answer (click here)
185. The Endocrine Function of the Heart - Answer (click here)
186. Thymus gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
187. Digestive Tract - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
188. The Endocrine Function of Adipose Tissue - Answer (click here)
189. Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System - Answer (click here)
190. Endocrine System and Massage - Answer (click here)
191. Genetic Sex - Answer (click here)
192. Fetal Development - Answer (click here)
193. Puberty - Answer (click here)
194. Testis - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
195. The Vas Deferens - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
196. Accessory Glands - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
197. Semen - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
198. Penis - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
199. Endocrine Function of the Testis - Answer (click here)
200. Ovaries - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
201. The Uterine Tubes (Fallopiantubes; Oviduct) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
202. The Uterus - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
203. The Vagina - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
204. The External Genitalia - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
205. The Menstrual Cycle - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
206. The Physiology of Sexual Intercourse (In Brief) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
207. Contraception (Strategiesfor Birth Control) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
208. Development of The Fetus - Answer (click here)
209. Maternal Changes in Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
210. Labor - Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
211. Lactation - Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
212. Age-Related Changes in the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
213. Massage and the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
214. Blood - Answer (click here)
215. Formation of Blood Cells - Answer (click here)
216. Red Blood Cells - Answer (click here)
217. Blood Types - Answer (click here)
218. White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) - Answer (click here)
219. Platelets - Answer (click here)
220. Hemostasis - Blood - Answer (click here)
221. The Clotting Mechanism - Blood - Answer (click here)
222. Anticlotting Mechanisms - Blood - Answer (click here)
223. Plasma - Blood - Answer (click here)
224. An Overview of Circulation in Heart - Answer (click here)
225. The Heart: Structure and Function - Answer (click here)
226. Cardiac Centers, Innervation of the Heart, and Factors Affecting Heart
Rate - Answer (click here)
227. Blood Supply to the Heart - Answer (click here)
228. Cardiac Cycle - The Heart - Answer (click here)
229. Apex Beat, Arterial Pulse, Venous Pulse - The Heart - Answer (click here)
230. Factors Affecting Cardiac Output - Answer (click here)
231. Blood Vessels and Circulation - Answer (click here)
232. Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
233. Capillaries - Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
234. Venules and Veins - Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer
(click here)
235. Volume in Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
236. Major Systemic Arteries - Answer (click here)
237. Systemic Veins - Answer (click here)
238. Dynamics of Blood Flow - Answer (click here)
239. Regulation of the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
240. Compensatory Adjustment - Regulation of the Cardiovascular System -
Answer (click here)
241. Effect of Aging on the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
242. Massage and the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)

Lymphatic System
1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - The Massage Connection -
Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Organization-An Overview - Answer (click here)
3. The Holistic Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. Systems of the Body - Answer (click here)
6. Planes of Reference - Answer (click here)
7. Human Anatomic Position - Answer (click here)
8. Directional References - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Answer (click
here)
9. Body Regions - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
10. Body Cavities - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
11. Levels of Organization - Answer (click here)
12. Chemical Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
13. Cellular Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
14. Tissue Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
15. The Atom - Answer (click here)
16. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
17. Chemical Bonds - Answer (click here)
18. Chemical Reactions in the human body - Answer (click here)
19. Acidity and Alkalinity in the human body - Answer (click here)
20. Important Organic Compounds in the Body - Answer (click here)
21. Organelles - Answer (click here)
22. The Nucleus - Answer (click here)
23. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - Answer (click here)
24. Membrane Transport in Cell: Passive and Active Transport - Answer (click
here)
25. The Cell Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
26. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
27. Epithelia Classification: Simple, Stratified, Glandular Epithelium -
Answer (click here)
28. Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
29. Effects of Age on Tissue - Answer (click here)
30. Implications for Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
31. Integumentary System - Answer (click here)
32. Functions of the Skin - Answer (click here)
33. Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
34. The Epidermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
35. The Dermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
36. Nerve Supply to The Skin - Answer (click here)
37. Blood Circulation in the Skin - Answer (click here)
38. Skin and Temperature Control - Answer (click here)
39. Variation in Skin Color - Answer (click here)
40. Blood Flow and Skin Color Changes - Answer (click here)
41. Pigmentation of Skin By Carotene - Answer (click here)
42. Subcutaneous Layer, or Hypodermis - Answer (click here)
43. Accessory structures of the skin - Answer (click here)
44. Absorption Through the Skin - Answer (click here)
45. Microorganisms on the Skin - Answer (click here)
46. Inflammation and Healing on the surface of the skin - Answer (click here)
47. Effects of Aging on theIntegumentary System - Answer (click here)
48. Integumentary System and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
49. Massage Techniques and the Effects on the Body - Answer (click here)
50. Effect of Heat on Skin - Answer (click here)
51. Effect of Cold on Skin - Answer (click here)
52. Water and Skin - Answer (click here)
53. Body Wraps and Skin - Answer (click here)
54. Skin Lesions and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
55. The Skeletal System - Answer (click here)
56. Bone Functions - Answer (click here)
57. Structure and Formation of Bone - Answer (click here)
58. Bone Remodeling - Answer (click here)
59. Parts of a Long Bone - Answer (click here)
60. Types of Bones - Answer (click here)
61. Human Skeleton - Answer (click here)
62. The Skull - Answer (click here)
63. Bones of the Face - Answer (click here)
64. The Mandible - The Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
65. The Vertebral Column - Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
66. Vertebral Regions and Spinal Curvatures - The Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
67. Characteristics of Vertebrae in Different Regions - Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
68. The Sacrum - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
69. Intervertebral Disks - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
70. The Thorax - Answer (click here)
71. Pectoral Girdle and the Upper Limbs - Answer (click here)
72. The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
73. The Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
74. Ilium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
75. Ischium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
76. The Femur - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
77. The Patella - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
78. The Tibia - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
79. The Fibula - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
80. The Ankle - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
81. Joint Classifications - Answer (click here)
82. Stability of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
83. Movement Across the Joints - Answer (click here)
84. Classification of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
85. Individual Joints - Answer (click here)
86. TemporoMandibular Joint (TMJ) - Answer (click here)
87. Intervertebral Articulation - Answer (click here)
88. RIB Cage Articulations - Answer (click here)
89. Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb - Answer (click here)
90. The Sternoclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
91. Acromioclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
92. Glenohumeral Joint - Answer (click here)
93. The Elbow Joint - Answer (click here)
94. Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
95. Sacroiliac Joint - Answer (click here)
96. The Hip Joint - Answer (click here)
97. The Knee Joint - Answer (click here)
98. Tibiofibular Joint (Proximal and Distal) - Answer (click here)
99. The Ankle Joint and Joints of the Foot - Answer (click here)
100. Arches of the Foot - Answer (click here)
101. Age-Related Changes on the Skeletal System and Joints - Answer (click
here)
102. The Skeletal System, Joints, and Massage - Answer (click here)
103. Muscle Tissue and Physiology of Muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
104. Structure of Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
105. Myofilament: the Specialized proteins of Myofibrils - Answer (click here)
106. Sliding Filament Mechanism - Answer (click here)
107. Characteristics of Whole muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
108. Muscle Tone - Answer (click here)
109. Muscle Spindles - Answer (click here)
110. Tendon Organs - Answer (click here)
111. Isotonic and Isometric contractions - Answer (click here)
112. Muscle Energetics - Answer (click here)
113. A Summary of the Role of CNS in Muscle Function Control - Answer
(click here)
114. Physical Conditioning - Muscular System - Answer (click here)
115. Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
116. Cardiac Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
117. Smooth Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
118. Muscle Terminology and Major Muscles of the Body - Answer (click here)
119. The Axial Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer (click
here)
120. Appendicular Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
121. Muscles Of The Lower Limb - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
122. Muscular System and Aging - Answer (click here)
123. Muscular System and Massage - Answer (click here)
124. Organization of the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
125. Structure of the Neuron - Answer (click here)
126. The Synapse - Answer (click here)
127. Classification of Neurons - Answer (click here)
128. Neuroglia - Answer (click here)
129. Production and Propagation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
130. Differences in Propagation of action Potential in Myelinatedand
Unmyelinated Axons - Answer (click here)
131. Synaptic Transmission - Answer (click here)
132. Examples of Neurotransmitters - Answer (click here)
133. Electrical Synapses - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
134. Summation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
135. Factors that Affect Neural Function - Answer (click here)
136. Functional Organization of Neurons - Answer (click here)
137. Standard Terms and Grouping - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
138. Regeneration and Degenerationof Neurons - Answer (click here)
139. Sense Organs and Initiation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
140. Cutaneous Receptors - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
141. An Overview of Electrical and Ionic Events in Receptors - Answer (click
here)
142. Perception of Sensations - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
143. The Spinal Cord, Spinal nerves, and Dermatomes - Answer (click here)
144. Anatomic Structure of the Spinal Cord - Answer (click here)
145. Distribution of Spinal Nerves - Answer (click here)
146. Nerve Plexus - Answer (click here)
147. Reflexes - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
148. Monosynaptic Reflex:The Stretch Reflex - Answer (click here)
149. Muscle Spindle - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
150. Reciprocal Innervation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
151. Inverse Stretch Reflex - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
152. Polysynaptic Reflexes: Withdrawal Reflex - Answer (click here)
153. The Final Common Path - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
154. Input to Motor Neurons - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
155. Pathways of Cutaneous and Visceral Sensations - Answer (click here)
156. Direct Pathway of Fine Touch and Proprioception Senses - Answer (click
here)
157. Direct Pathway of Pain and temperature (and Remaining fibers of
Touch) Senses - Answer (click here)
158. Representation of the Body in the Cerebral Cortex - Answer (click here)
159. The Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
160. Integrative Centers - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
161. Right and Left Hemisphere Specializations - Brain and Brain Divisions -
Answer (click here)
162. The Limbic System - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
163. The Thalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
164. The Hypothalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
165. Cranial Nerves - Answer (click here)
166. Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
167. General Principles of the Control of Voluntary Movements - Answer (click
here)
168. The Motor Cortex - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
169. Lesions and Muscle Tone - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer
(click here)
170. Vestibular Apparatus - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
171. Motor System Lesions - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
172. The Autonomic Nervous System - Answer (click here)
173. Age-Related Changes in the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
174. Bodyworkers and the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
175. General Properties of Hormones - Answer (click here)
176. Control of Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
177. Hypothalamus - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
178. The Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click
here)
179. Thyroid Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
180. Parathyroid Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
181. Adrenal Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
182. Pineal Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
183. Endocrine Function of The Pancreas - Answer (click here)
184. The Endocrine Function of the Kidneys - Answer (click here)
185. The Endocrine Function of the Heart - Answer (click here)
186. Thymus gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
187. Digestive Tract - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
188. The Endocrine Function of Adipose Tissue - Answer (click here)
189. Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System - Answer (click here)
190. Endocrine System and Massage - Answer (click here)
191. Genetic Sex - Answer (click here)
192. Fetal Development - Answer (click here)
193. Puberty - Answer (click here)
194. Testis - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
195. The Vas Deferens - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
196. Accessory Glands - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
197. Semen - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
198. Penis - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
199. Endocrine Function of the Testis - Answer (click here)
200. Ovaries - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
201. The Uterine Tubes (Fallopiantubes; Oviduct) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
202. The Uterus - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
203. The Vagina - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
204. The External Genitalia - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
205. The Menstrual Cycle - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
206. The Physiology of Sexual Intercourse (In Brief) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
207. Contraception (Strategiesfor Birth Control) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
208. Development of The Fetus - Answer (click here)
209. Maternal Changes in Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
210. Labor - Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
211. Lactation - Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
212. Age-Related Changes in the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
213. Massage and the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
214. Blood - Answer (click here)
215. Formation of Blood Cells - Answer (click here)
216. Red Blood Cells - Answer (click here)
217. Blood Types - Answer (click here)
218. White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) - Answer (click here)
219. Platelets - Answer (click here)
220. Hemostasis - Blood - Answer (click here)
221. The Clotting Mechanism - Blood - Answer (click here)
222. Anticlotting Mechanisms - Blood - Answer (click here)
223. Plasma - Blood - Answer (click here)
224. An Overview of Circulation in Heart - Answer (click here)
225. The Heart: Structure and Function - Answer (click here)
226. Cardiac Centers, Innervation of the Heart, and Factors Affecting Heart
Rate - Answer (click here)
227. Blood Supply to the Heart - Answer (click here)
228. Cardiac Cycle - The Heart - Answer (click here)
229. Apex Beat, Arterial Pulse, Venous Pulse - The Heart - Answer (click here)
230. Factors Affecting Cardiac Output - Answer (click here)
231. Blood Vessels and Circulation - Answer (click here)
232. Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
233. Capillaries - Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
234. Venules and Veins - Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer
(click here)
235. Volume in Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
236. Major Systemic Arteries - Answer (click here)
237. Systemic Veins - Answer (click here)
238. Dynamics of Blood Flow - Answer (click here)
239. Regulation of the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
240. Compensatory Adjustment - Regulation of the Cardiovascular System -
Answer (click here)
241. Effect of Aging on the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
242. Massage and the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
243. Body Fluid Compartments - Answer (click here)
244. The Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
245. Functions of the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
246. Components of the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
247. Drainage Route of Lymph - Answer (click here)
248. Massage and the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
249. Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
250. Nonspecific Immunity - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
251. Specific Immunity - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
252. Lymphocytes - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
253. Immunization - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
254. Abnormalities of the Immune System - Lymphatic System Immunity -
Answer (click here)
255. The Lymphatic System, Immunity, and Aging - Answer (click here)
256. Basic Concepts of Health and Disease - Answer (click here)
257. General Causes of Disease - Answer (click here)
258. Infection and Infection Prevention - Answer (click here)
259. Pathways of Infection - Answer (click here)
260. Immunity and Massage - Answer (click here)

Respiratory System
1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - The Massage Connection -
Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Organization-An Overview - Answer (click here)
3. The Holistic Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. Systems of the Body - Answer (click here)
6. Planes of Reference - Answer (click here)
7. Human Anatomic Position - Answer (click here)
8. Directional References - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Answer (click
here)
9. Body Regions - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
10. Body Cavities - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
11. Levels of Organization - Answer (click here)
12. Chemical Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
13. Cellular Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
14. Tissue Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
15. The Atom - Answer (click here)
16. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
17. Chemical Bonds - Answer (click here)
18. Chemical Reactions in the human body - Answer (click here)
19. Acidity and Alkalinity in the human body - Answer (click here)
20. Important Organic Compounds in the Body - Answer (click here)
21. Organelles - Answer (click here)
22. The Nucleus - Answer (click here)
23. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - Answer (click here)
24. Membrane Transport in Cell: Passive and Active Transport - Answer (click
here)
25. The Cell Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
26. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
27. Epithelia Classification: Simple, Stratified, Glandular Epithelium -
Answer (click here)
28. Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
29. Effects of Age on Tissue - Answer (click here)
30. Implications for Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
31. Integumentary System - Answer (click here)
32. Functions of the Skin - Answer (click here)
33. Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
34. The Epidermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
35. The Dermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
36. Nerve Supply to The Skin - Answer (click here)
37. Blood Circulation in the Skin - Answer (click here)
38. Skin and Temperature Control - Answer (click here)
39. Variation in Skin Color - Answer (click here)
40. Blood Flow and Skin Color Changes - Answer (click here)
41. Pigmentation of Skin By Carotene - Answer (click here)
42. Subcutaneous Layer, or Hypodermis - Answer (click here)
43. Accessory structures of the skin - Answer (click here)
44. Absorption Through the Skin - Answer (click here)
45. Microorganisms on the Skin - Answer (click here)
46. Inflammation and Healing on the surface of the skin - Answer (click here)
47. Effects of Aging on theIntegumentary System - Answer (click here)
48. Integumentary System and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
49. Massage Techniques and the Effects on the Body - Answer (click here)
50. Effect of Heat on Skin - Answer (click here)
51. Effect of Cold on Skin - Answer (click here)
52. Water and Skin - Answer (click here)
53. Body Wraps and Skin - Answer (click here)
54. Skin Lesions and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
55. The Skeletal System - Answer (click here)
56. Bone Functions - Answer (click here)
57. Structure and Formation of Bone - Answer (click here)
58. Bone Remodeling - Answer (click here)
59. Parts of a Long Bone - Answer (click here)
60. Types of Bones - Answer (click here)
61. Human Skeleton - Answer (click here)
62. The Skull - Answer (click here)
63. Bones of the Face - Answer (click here)
64. The Mandible - The Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
65. The Vertebral Column - Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
66. Vertebral Regions and Spinal Curvatures - The Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
67. Characteristics of Vertebrae in Different Regions - Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
68. The Sacrum - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
69. Intervertebral Disks - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
70. The Thorax - Answer (click here)
71. Pectoral Girdle and the Upper Limbs - Answer (click here)
72. The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
73. The Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
74. Ilium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
75. Ischium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
76. The Femur - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
77. The Patella - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
78. The Tibia - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
79. The Fibula - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
80. The Ankle - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
81. Joint Classifications - Answer (click here)
82. Stability of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
83. Movement Across the Joints - Answer (click here)
84. Classification of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
85. Individual Joints - Answer (click here)
86. TemporoMandibular Joint (TMJ) - Answer (click here)
87. Intervertebral Articulation - Answer (click here)
88. RIB Cage Articulations - Answer (click here)
89. Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb - Answer (click here)
90. The Sternoclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
91. Acromioclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
92. Glenohumeral Joint - Answer (click here)
93. The Elbow Joint - Answer (click here)
94. Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
95. Sacroiliac Joint - Answer (click here)
96. The Hip Joint - Answer (click here)
97. The Knee Joint - Answer (click here)
98. Tibiofibular Joint (Proximal and Distal) - Answer (click here)
99. The Ankle Joint and Joints of the Foot - Answer (click here)
100. Arches of the Foot - Answer (click here)
101. Age-Related Changes on the Skeletal System and Joints - Answer (click
here)
102. The Skeletal System, Joints, and Massage - Answer (click here)
103. Muscle Tissue and Physiology of Muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
104. Structure of Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
105. Myofilament: the Specialized proteins of Myofibrils - Answer (click here)
106. Sliding Filament Mechanism - Answer (click here)
107. Characteristics of Whole muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
108. Muscle Tone - Answer (click here)
109. Muscle Spindles - Answer (click here)
110. Tendon Organs - Answer (click here)
111. Isotonic and Isometric contractions - Answer (click here)
112. Muscle Energetics - Answer (click here)
113. A Summary of the Role of CNS in Muscle Function Control - Answer
(click here)
114. Physical Conditioning - Muscular System - Answer (click here)
115. Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
116. Cardiac Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
117. Smooth Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
118. Muscle Terminology and Major Muscles of the Body - Answer (click here)
119. The Axial Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer (click
here)
120. Appendicular Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
121. Muscles Of The Lower Limb - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
122. Muscular System and Aging - Answer (click here)
123. Muscular System and Massage - Answer (click here)
124. Organization of the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
125. Structure of the Neuron - Answer (click here)
126. The Synapse - Answer (click here)
127. Classification of Neurons - Answer (click here)
128. Neuroglia - Answer (click here)
129. Production and Propagation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
130. Differences in Propagation of action Potential in Myelinatedand
Unmyelinated Axons - Answer (click here)
131. Synaptic Transmission - Answer (click here)
132. Examples of Neurotransmitters - Answer (click here)
133. Electrical Synapses - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
134. Summation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
135. Factors that Affect Neural Function - Answer (click here)
136. Functional Organization of Neurons - Answer (click here)
137. Standard Terms and Grouping - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
138. Regeneration and Degenerationof Neurons - Answer (click here)
139. Sense Organs and Initiation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
140. Cutaneous Receptors - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
141. An Overview of Electrical and Ionic Events in Receptors - Answer (click
here)
142. Perception of Sensations - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
143. The Spinal Cord, Spinal nerves, and Dermatomes - Answer (click here)
144. Anatomic Structure of the Spinal Cord - Answer (click here)
145. Distribution of Spinal Nerves - Answer (click here)
146. Nerve Plexus - Answer (click here)
147. Reflexes - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
148. Monosynaptic Reflex:The Stretch Reflex - Answer (click here)
149. Muscle Spindle - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
150. Reciprocal Innervation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
151. Inverse Stretch Reflex - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
152. Polysynaptic Reflexes: Withdrawal Reflex - Answer (click here)
153. The Final Common Path - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
154. Input to Motor Neurons - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
155. Pathways of Cutaneous and Visceral Sensations - Answer (click here)
156. Direct Pathway of Fine Touch and Proprioception Senses - Answer (click
here)
157. Direct Pathway of Pain and temperature (and Remaining fibers of
Touch) Senses - Answer (click here)
158. Representation of the Body in the Cerebral Cortex - Answer (click here)
159. The Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
160. Integrative Centers - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
161. Right and Left Hemisphere Specializations - Brain and Brain Divisions -
Answer (click here)
162. The Limbic System - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
163. The Thalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
164. The Hypothalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
165. Cranial Nerves - Answer (click here)
166. Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
167. General Principles of the Control of Voluntary Movements - Answer (click
here)
168. The Motor Cortex - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
169. Lesions and Muscle Tone - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer
(click here)
170. Vestibular Apparatus - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
171. Motor System Lesions - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
172. The Autonomic Nervous System - Answer (click here)
173. Age-Related Changes in the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
174. Bodyworkers and the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
175. General Properties of Hormones - Answer (click here)
176. Control of Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
177. Hypothalamus - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
178. The Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click
here)
179. Thyroid Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
180. Parathyroid Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
181. Adrenal Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
182. Pineal Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
183. Endocrine Function of The Pancreas - Answer (click here)
184. The Endocrine Function of the Kidneys - Answer (click here)
185. The Endocrine Function of the Heart - Answer (click here)
186. Thymus gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
187. Digestive Tract - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
188. The Endocrine Function of Adipose Tissue - Answer (click here)
189. Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System - Answer (click here)
190. Endocrine System and Massage - Answer (click here)
191. Genetic Sex - Answer (click here)
192. Fetal Development - Answer (click here)
193. Puberty - Answer (click here)
194. Testis - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
195. The Vas Deferens - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
196. Accessory Glands - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
197. Semen - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
198. Penis - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
199. Endocrine Function of the Testis - Answer (click here)
200. Ovaries - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
201. The Uterine Tubes (Fallopiantubes; Oviduct) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
202. The Uterus - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
203. The Vagina - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
204. The External Genitalia - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
205. The Menstrual Cycle - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
206. The Physiology of Sexual Intercourse (In Brief) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
207. Contraception (Strategiesfor Birth Control) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
208. Development of The Fetus - Answer (click here)
209. Maternal Changes in Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
210. Labor - Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
211. Lactation - Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
212. Age-Related Changes in the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
213. Massage and the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
214. Blood - Answer (click here)
215. Formation of Blood Cells - Answer (click here)
216. Red Blood Cells - Answer (click here)
217. Blood Types - Answer (click here)
218. White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) - Answer (click here)
219. Platelets - Answer (click here)
220. Hemostasis - Blood - Answer (click here)
221. The Clotting Mechanism - Blood - Answer (click here)
222. Anticlotting Mechanisms - Blood - Answer (click here)
223. Plasma - Blood - Answer (click here)
224. An Overview of Circulation in Heart - Answer (click here)
225. The Heart: Structure and Function - Answer (click here)
226. Cardiac Centers, Innervation of the Heart, and Factors Affecting Heart
Rate - Answer (click here)
227. Blood Supply to the Heart - Answer (click here)
228. Cardiac Cycle - The Heart - Answer (click here)
229. Apex Beat, Arterial Pulse, Venous Pulse - The Heart - Answer (click here)
230. Factors Affecting Cardiac Output - Answer (click here)
231. Blood Vessels and Circulation - Answer (click here)
232. Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
233. Capillaries - Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
234. Venules and Veins - Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer
(click here)
235. Volume in Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
236. Major Systemic Arteries - Answer (click here)
237. Systemic Veins - Answer (click here)
238. Dynamics of Blood Flow - Answer (click here)
239. Regulation of the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
240. Compensatory Adjustment - Regulation of the Cardiovascular System -
Answer (click here)
241. Effect of Aging on the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
242. Massage and the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
243. Body Fluid Compartments - Answer (click here)
244. The Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
245. Functions of the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
246. Components of the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
247. Drainage Route of Lymph - Answer (click here)
248. Massage and the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
249. Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
250. Nonspecific Immunity - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
251. Specific Immunity - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
252. Lymphocytes - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
253. Immunization - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
254. Abnormalities of the Immune System - Lymphatic System Immunity -
Answer (click here)
255. The Lymphatic System, Immunity, and Aging - Answer (click here)
256. Basic Concepts of Health and Disease - Answer (click here)
257. General Causes of Disease - Answer (click here)
258. Infection and Infection Prevention - Answer (click here)
259. Pathways of Infection - Answer (click here)
260. Immunity and Massage - Answer (click here)
261. Function of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
262. Upper Respiratory Tract - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer
(click here)
263. Lower Respiratory Tract - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer
(click here)
264. Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
265. The Pulmonary Circulation - Anatomy of the Respiratory System -
Answer (click here)
266. The Lungs - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
267. The Pleura - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
268. Mechanics of Respiration - Answer (click here)
269. External Respiration - Answer (click here)
270. Respiration Muscles - Answer (click here)
271. Breathing Patterns, Respiratory Volumes, and Capacities - Answer (click
here)
272. Gas Exchange - Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
273. Transport of Gases - Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
274. Regulation of Respiration - Answer (click here)
275. Effect of Exercise on the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
276. Effect of Cold on the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
277. Effect of Aging on the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
278. Respiratory System and Massage - Answer (click here)

Digestive System
1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - The Massage Connection -
Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Organization-An Overview - Answer (click here)
3. The Holistic Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. Systems of the Body - Answer (click here)
6. Planes of Reference - Answer (click here)
7. Human Anatomic Position - Answer (click here)
8. Directional References - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Answer (click
here)
9. Body Regions - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
10. Body Cavities - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
11. Levels of Organization - Answer (click here)
12. Chemical Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
13. Cellular Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
14. Tissue Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
15. The Atom - Answer (click here)
16. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
17. Chemical Bonds - Answer (click here)
18. Chemical Reactions in the human body - Answer (click here)
19. Acidity and Alkalinity in the human body - Answer (click here)
20. Important Organic Compounds in the Body - Answer (click here)
21. Organelles - Answer (click here)
22. The Nucleus - Answer (click here)
23. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - Answer (click here)
24. Membrane Transport in Cell: Passive and Active Transport - Answer (click
here)
25. The Cell Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
26. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
27. Epithelia Classification: Simple, Stratified, Glandular Epithelium -
Answer (click here)
28. Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
29. Effects of Age on Tissue - Answer (click here)
30. Implications for Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
31. Integumentary System - Answer (click here)
32. Functions of the Skin - Answer (click here)
33. Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
34. The Epidermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
35. The Dermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
36. Nerve Supply to The Skin - Answer (click here)
37. Blood Circulation in the Skin - Answer (click here)
38. Skin and Temperature Control - Answer (click here)
39. Variation in Skin Color - Answer (click here)
40. Blood Flow and Skin Color Changes - Answer (click here)
41. Pigmentation of Skin By Carotene - Answer (click here)
42. Subcutaneous Layer, or Hypodermis - Answer (click here)
43. Accessory structures of the skin - Answer (click here)
44. Absorption Through the Skin - Answer (click here)
45. Microorganisms on the Skin - Answer (click here)
46. Inflammation and Healing on the surface of the skin - Answer (click here)
47. Effects of Aging on theIntegumentary System - Answer (click here)
48. Integumentary System and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
49. Massage Techniques and the Effects on the Body - Answer (click here)
50. Effect of Heat on Skin - Answer (click here)
51. Effect of Cold on Skin - Answer (click here)
52. Water and Skin - Answer (click here)
53. Body Wraps and Skin - Answer (click here)
54. Skin Lesions and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
55. The Skeletal System - Answer (click here)
56. Bone Functions - Answer (click here)
57. Structure and Formation of Bone - Answer (click here)
58. Bone Remodeling - Answer (click here)
59. Parts of a Long Bone - Answer (click here)
60. Types of Bones - Answer (click here)
61. Human Skeleton - Answer (click here)
62. The Skull - Answer (click here)
63. Bones of the Face - Answer (click here)
64. The Mandible - The Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
65. The Vertebral Column - Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
66. Vertebral Regions and Spinal Curvatures - The Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
67. Characteristics of Vertebrae in Different Regions - Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
68. The Sacrum - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
69. Intervertebral Disks - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
70. The Thorax - Answer (click here)
71. Pectoral Girdle and the Upper Limbs - Answer (click here)
72. The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
73. The Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
74. Ilium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
75. Ischium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
76. The Femur - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
77. The Patella - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
78. The Tibia - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
79. The Fibula - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
80. The Ankle - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
81. Joint Classifications - Answer (click here)
82. Stability of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
83. Movement Across the Joints - Answer (click here)
84. Classification of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
85. Individual Joints - Answer (click here)
86. TemporoMandibular Joint (TMJ) - Answer (click here)
87. Intervertebral Articulation - Answer (click here)
88. RIB Cage Articulations - Answer (click here)
89. Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb - Answer (click here)
90. The Sternoclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
91. Acromioclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
92. Glenohumeral Joint - Answer (click here)
93. The Elbow Joint - Answer (click here)
94. Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
95. Sacroiliac Joint - Answer (click here)
96. The Hip Joint - Answer (click here)
97. The Knee Joint - Answer (click here)
98. Tibiofibular Joint (Proximal and Distal) - Answer (click here)
99. The Ankle Joint and Joints of the Foot - Answer (click here)
100. Arches of the Foot - Answer (click here)
101. Age-Related Changes on the Skeletal System and Joints - Answer (click
here)
102. The Skeletal System, Joints, and Massage - Answer (click here)
103. Muscle Tissue and Physiology of Muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
104. Structure of Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
105. Myofilament: the Specialized proteins of Myofibrils - Answer (click here)
106. Sliding Filament Mechanism - Answer (click here)
107. Characteristics of Whole muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
108. Muscle Tone - Answer (click here)
109. Muscle Spindles - Answer (click here)
110. Tendon Organs - Answer (click here)
111. Isotonic and Isometric contractions - Answer (click here)
112. Muscle Energetics - Answer (click here)
113. A Summary of the Role of CNS in Muscle Function Control - Answer
(click here)
114. Physical Conditioning - Muscular System - Answer (click here)
115. Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
116. Cardiac Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
117. Smooth Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
118. Muscle Terminology and Major Muscles of the Body - Answer (click here)
119. The Axial Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer (click
here)
120. Appendicular Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
121. Muscles Of The Lower Limb - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
122. Muscular System and Aging - Answer (click here)
123. Muscular System and Massage - Answer (click here)
124. Organization of the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
125. Structure of the Neuron - Answer (click here)
126. The Synapse - Answer (click here)
127. Classification of Neurons - Answer (click here)
128. Neuroglia - Answer (click here)
129. Production and Propagation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
130. Differences in Propagation of action Potential in Myelinatedand
Unmyelinated Axons - Answer (click here)
131. Synaptic Transmission - Answer (click here)
132. Examples of Neurotransmitters - Answer (click here)
133. Electrical Synapses - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
134. Summation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
135. Factors that Affect Neural Function - Answer (click here)
136. Functional Organization of Neurons - Answer (click here)
137. Standard Terms and Grouping - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
138. Regeneration and Degenerationof Neurons - Answer (click here)
139. Sense Organs and Initiation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
140. Cutaneous Receptors - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
141. An Overview of Electrical and Ionic Events in Receptors - Answer (click
here)
142. Perception of Sensations - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
143. The Spinal Cord, Spinal nerves, and Dermatomes - Answer (click here)
144. Anatomic Structure of the Spinal Cord - Answer (click here)
145. Distribution of Spinal Nerves - Answer (click here)
146. Nerve Plexus - Answer (click here)
147. Reflexes - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
148. Monosynaptic Reflex:The Stretch Reflex - Answer (click here)
149. Muscle Spindle - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
150. Reciprocal Innervation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
151. Inverse Stretch Reflex - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
152. Polysynaptic Reflexes: Withdrawal Reflex - Answer (click here)
153. The Final Common Path - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
154. Input to Motor Neurons - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
155. Pathways of Cutaneous and Visceral Sensations - Answer (click here)
156. Direct Pathway of Fine Touch and Proprioception Senses - Answer (click
here)
157. Direct Pathway of Pain and temperature (and Remaining fibers of
Touch) Senses - Answer (click here)
158. Representation of the Body in the Cerebral Cortex - Answer (click here)
159. The Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
160. Integrative Centers - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
161. Right and Left Hemisphere Specializations - Brain and Brain Divisions -
Answer (click here)
162. The Limbic System - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
163. The Thalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
164. The Hypothalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
165. Cranial Nerves - Answer (click here)
166. Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
167. General Principles of the Control of Voluntary Movements - Answer (click
here)
168. The Motor Cortex - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
169. Lesions and Muscle Tone - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer
(click here)
170. Vestibular Apparatus - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
171. Motor System Lesions - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
172. The Autonomic Nervous System - Answer (click here)
173. Age-Related Changes in the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
174. Bodyworkers and the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
175. General Properties of Hormones - Answer (click here)
176. Control of Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
177. Hypothalamus - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
178. The Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click
here)
179. Thyroid Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
180. Parathyroid Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
181. Adrenal Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
182. Pineal Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
183. Endocrine Function of The Pancreas - Answer (click here)
184. The Endocrine Function of the Kidneys - Answer (click here)
185. The Endocrine Function of the Heart - Answer (click here)
186. Thymus gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
187. Digestive Tract - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
188. The Endocrine Function of Adipose Tissue - Answer (click here)
189. Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System - Answer (click here)
190. Endocrine System and Massage - Answer (click here)
191. Genetic Sex - Answer (click here)
192. Fetal Development - Answer (click here)
193. Puberty - Answer (click here)
194. Testis - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
195. The Vas Deferens - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
196. Accessory Glands - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
197. Semen - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
198. Penis - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
199. Endocrine Function of the Testis - Answer (click here)
200. Ovaries - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
201. The Uterine Tubes (Fallopiantubes; Oviduct) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
202. The Uterus - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
203. The Vagina - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
204. The External Genitalia - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
205. The Menstrual Cycle - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
206. The Physiology of Sexual Intercourse (In Brief) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
207. Contraception (Strategiesfor Birth Control) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
208. Development of The Fetus - Answer (click here)
209. Maternal Changes in Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
210. Labor - Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
211. Lactation - Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
212. Age-Related Changes in the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
213. Massage and the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
214. Blood - Answer (click here)
215. Formation of Blood Cells - Answer (click here)
216. Red Blood Cells - Answer (click here)
217. Blood Types - Answer (click here)
218. White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) - Answer (click here)
219. Platelets - Answer (click here)
220. Hemostasis - Blood - Answer (click here)
221. The Clotting Mechanism - Blood - Answer (click here)
222. Anticlotting Mechanisms - Blood - Answer (click here)
223. Plasma - Blood - Answer (click here)
224. An Overview of Circulation in Heart - Answer (click here)
225. The Heart: Structure and Function - Answer (click here)
226. Cardiac Centers, Innervation of the Heart, and Factors Affecting Heart
Rate - Answer (click here)
227. Blood Supply to the Heart - Answer (click here)
228. Cardiac Cycle - The Heart - Answer (click here)
229. Apex Beat, Arterial Pulse, Venous Pulse - The Heart - Answer (click here)
230. Factors Affecting Cardiac Output - Answer (click here)
231. Blood Vessels and Circulation - Answer (click here)
232. Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
233. Capillaries - Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
234. Venules and Veins - Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer
(click here)
235. Volume in Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
236. Major Systemic Arteries - Answer (click here)
237. Systemic Veins - Answer (click here)
238. Dynamics of Blood Flow - Answer (click here)
239. Regulation of the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
240. Compensatory Adjustment - Regulation of the Cardiovascular System -
Answer (click here)
241. Effect of Aging on the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
242. Massage and the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
243. Body Fluid Compartments - Answer (click here)
244. The Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
245. Functions of the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
246. Components of the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
247. Drainage Route of Lymph - Answer (click here)
248. Massage and the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
249. Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
250. Nonspecific Immunity - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
251. Specific Immunity - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
252. Lymphocytes - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
253. Immunization - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
254. Abnormalities of the Immune System - Lymphatic System Immunity -
Answer (click here)
255. The Lymphatic System, Immunity, and Aging - Answer (click here)
256. Basic Concepts of Health and Disease - Answer (click here)
257. General Causes of Disease - Answer (click here)
258. Infection and Infection Prevention - Answer (click here)
259. Pathways of Infection - Answer (click here)
260. Immunity and Massage - Answer (click here)
261. Function of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
262. Upper Respiratory Tract - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer
(click here)
263. Lower Respiratory Tract - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer
(click here)
264. Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
265. The Pulmonary Circulation - Anatomy of the Respiratory System -
Answer (click here)
266. The Lungs - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
267. The Pleura - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
268. Mechanics of Respiration - Answer (click here)
269. External Respiration - Answer (click here)
270. Respiration Muscles - Answer (click here)
271. Breathing Patterns, Respiratory Volumes, and Capacities - Answer (click
here)
272. Gas Exchange - Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
273. Transport of Gases - Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
274. Regulation of Respiration - Answer (click here)
275. Effect of Exercise on the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
276. Effect of Cold on the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
277. Effect of Aging on the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
278. Respiratory System and Massage - Answer (click here)
279. Functions of Gastrointestinal System - Answer (click here)
280. Components of the Gastrointestinal System - Answer (click here)
281. Wall of the Digestive Tract - Answer (click here)
282. Peritoneum - Answer (click here)
283. Movement in the Digestive Tract - Answer (click here)
284. Factors Controlling Digestive Function - Answer (click here)
285. An Overview of Nutrition - Answer (click here)
286. Functions of Important Nutrients - Answer (click here)
287. Regulation of Food Intake - Answer (click here)
288. The Structure and Function of Individual Organs of the Digestive
System - Answer (click here)
289. Mouth and Associated Structures - Structure and Function of Digestive
System - Answer (click here)
290. Salivary Glands and Saliva - Structure and Function of Digestive System
- Answer (click here)
291. Pharynx, Esophagus - Structure and Function of Digestive System -
Answer (click here)
292. Stomach - Structure and Function of Digestive System - Answer (click here)
293. Small Intestine - Structure and Function of Digestive System - Answer
(click here)
294. The Pancreas - Structure and Function of Digestive System - Answer (click
here)
295. The liver - Structure and Function of Digestive System - Answer (click
here)
296. Functions of the Liver - Answer (click here)
297. Gallbladder - Structure and Function of Digestive System - Answer (click
here)
298. Absorption in the Small Intestine - Answer (click here)
299. Large Intestine - Structure and Function of Digestive System - Answer
(click here)
300. Movement in the Colon and Defecation - Answer (click here)
301. Digestion and Absorption of Food in the Gut - Answer (click here)
302. Metabolism - Answer (click here)
303. Basal Metabolic Rate - Answer (click here)
304. Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System - Answer (click here)
305. The Gastrointestinal System and Bodywork - Answer (click here)

Urinary System
1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - The Massage Connection -
Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Organization-An Overview - Answer (click here)
3. The Holistic Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. Systems of the Body - Answer (click here)
6. Planes of Reference - Answer (click here)
7. Human Anatomic Position - Answer (click here)
8. Directional References - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Answer (click
here)
9. Body Regions - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
10. Body Cavities - Massage Connection - Answer (click here)
11. Levels of Organization - Answer (click here)
12. Chemical Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
13. Cellular Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
14. Tissue Level of Organization - Answer (click here)
15. The Atom - Answer (click here)
16. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
17. Chemical Bonds - Answer (click here)
18. Chemical Reactions in the human body - Answer (click here)
19. Acidity and Alkalinity in the human body - Answer (click here)
20. Important Organic Compounds in the Body - Answer (click here)
21. Organelles - Answer (click here)
22. The Nucleus - Answer (click here)
23. Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) - Answer (click here)
24. Membrane Transport in Cell: Passive and Active Transport - Answer (click
here)
25. The Cell Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
26. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
27. Epithelia Classification: Simple, Stratified, Glandular Epithelium -
Answer (click here)
28. Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
29. Effects of Age on Tissue - Answer (click here)
30. Implications for Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
31. Integumentary System - Answer (click here)
32. Functions of the Skin - Answer (click here)
33. Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
34. The Epidermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
35. The Dermis - Structure of the Skin - Answer (click here)
36. Nerve Supply to The Skin - Answer (click here)
37. Blood Circulation in the Skin - Answer (click here)
38. Skin and Temperature Control - Answer (click here)
39. Variation in Skin Color - Answer (click here)
40. Blood Flow and Skin Color Changes - Answer (click here)
41. Pigmentation of Skin By Carotene - Answer (click here)
42. Subcutaneous Layer, or Hypodermis - Answer (click here)
43. Accessory structures of the skin - Answer (click here)
44. Absorption Through the Skin - Answer (click here)
45. Microorganisms on the Skin - Answer (click here)
46. Inflammation and Healing on the surface of the skin - Answer (click here)
47. Effects of Aging on theIntegumentary System - Answer (click here)
48. Integumentary System and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
49. Massage Techniques and the Effects on the Body - Answer (click here)
50. Effect of Heat on Skin - Answer (click here)
51. Effect of Cold on Skin - Answer (click here)
52. Water and Skin - Answer (click here)
53. Body Wraps and Skin - Answer (click here)
54. Skin Lesions and Bodyworkers - Answer (click here)
55. The Skeletal System - Answer (click here)
56. Bone Functions - Answer (click here)
57. Structure and Formation of Bone - Answer (click here)
58. Bone Remodeling - Answer (click here)
59. Parts of a Long Bone - Answer (click here)
60. Types of Bones - Answer (click here)
61. Human Skeleton - Answer (click here)
62. The Skull - Answer (click here)
63. Bones of the Face - Answer (click here)
64. The Mandible - The Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
65. The Vertebral Column - Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
66. Vertebral Regions and Spinal Curvatures - The Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
67. Characteristics of Vertebrae in Different Regions - Vertebral Column -
Answer (click here)
68. The Sacrum - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
69. Intervertebral Disks - Vertebral Column - Answer (click here)
70. The Thorax - Answer (click here)
71. Pectoral Girdle and the Upper Limbs - Answer (click here)
72. The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
73. The Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
74. Ilium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
75. Ischium - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
76. The Femur - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
77. The Patella - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
78. The Tibia - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
79. The Fibula - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
80. The Ankle - Pelvic Girdle - Answer (click here)
81. Joint Classifications - Answer (click here)
82. Stability of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
83. Movement Across the Joints - Answer (click here)
84. Classification of Synovial Joints - Answer (click here)
85. Individual Joints - Answer (click here)
86. TemporoMandibular Joint (TMJ) - Answer (click here)
87. Intervertebral Articulation - Answer (click here)
88. RIB Cage Articulations - Answer (click here)
89. Joints of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb - Answer (click here)
90. The Sternoclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
91. Acromioclavicular Joint - Answer (click here)
92. Glenohumeral Joint - Answer (click here)
93. The Elbow Joint - Answer (click here)
94. Joints of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs - Answer (click here)
95. Sacroiliac Joint - Answer (click here)
96. The Hip Joint - Answer (click here)
97. The Knee Joint - Answer (click here)
98. Tibiofibular Joint (Proximal and Distal) - Answer (click here)
99. The Ankle Joint and Joints of the Foot - Answer (click here)
100. Arches of the Foot - Answer (click here)
101. Age-Related Changes on the Skeletal System and Joints - Answer (click
here)
102. The Skeletal System, Joints, and Massage - Answer (click here)
103. Muscle Tissue and Physiology of Muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
104. Structure of Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
105. Myofilament: the Specialized proteins of Myofibrils - Answer (click here)
106. Sliding Filament Mechanism - Answer (click here)
107. Characteristics of Whole muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
108. Muscle Tone - Answer (click here)
109. Muscle Spindles - Answer (click here)
110. Tendon Organs - Answer (click here)
111. Isotonic and Isometric contractions - Answer (click here)
112. Muscle Energetics - Answer (click here)
113. A Summary of the Role of CNS in Muscle Function Control - Answer
(click here)
114. Physical Conditioning - Muscular System - Answer (click here)
115. Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
116. Cardiac Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
117. Smooth Muscle and Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
118. Muscle Terminology and Major Muscles of the Body - Answer (click here)
119. The Axial Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer (click
here)
120. Appendicular Musculature - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
121. Muscles Of The Lower Limb - Origin and Insertion of Muscles - Answer
(click here)
122. Muscular System and Aging - Answer (click here)
123. Muscular System and Massage - Answer (click here)
124. Organization of the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
125. Structure of the Neuron - Answer (click here)
126. The Synapse - Answer (click here)
127. Classification of Neurons - Answer (click here)
128. Neuroglia - Answer (click here)
129. Production and Propagation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
130. Differences in Propagation of action Potential in Myelinatedand
Unmyelinated Axons - Answer (click here)
131. Synaptic Transmission - Answer (click here)
132. Examples of Neurotransmitters - Answer (click here)
133. Electrical Synapses - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
134. Summation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
135. Factors that Affect Neural Function - Answer (click here)
136. Functional Organization of Neurons - Answer (click here)
137. Standard Terms and Grouping - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
138. Regeneration and Degenerationof Neurons - Answer (click here)
139. Sense Organs and Initiation of Impulses - Answer (click here)
140. Cutaneous Receptors - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
141. An Overview of Electrical and Ionic Events in Receptors - Answer (click
here)
142. Perception of Sensations - Sensory Nervous System - Answer (click here)
143. The Spinal Cord, Spinal nerves, and Dermatomes - Answer (click here)
144. Anatomic Structure of the Spinal Cord - Answer (click here)
145. Distribution of Spinal Nerves - Answer (click here)
146. Nerve Plexus - Answer (click here)
147. Reflexes - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
148. Monosynaptic Reflex:The Stretch Reflex - Answer (click here)
149. Muscle Spindle - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
150. Reciprocal Innervation - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
151. Inverse Stretch Reflex - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
152. Polysynaptic Reflexes: Withdrawal Reflex - Answer (click here)
153. The Final Common Path - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
154. Input to Motor Neurons - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
155. Pathways of Cutaneous and Visceral Sensations - Answer (click here)
156. Direct Pathway of Fine Touch and Proprioception Senses - Answer (click
here)
157. Direct Pathway of Pain and temperature (and Remaining fibers of
Touch) Senses - Answer (click here)
158. Representation of the Body in the Cerebral Cortex - Answer (click here)
159. The Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
160. Integrative Centers - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
161. Right and Left Hemisphere Specializations - Brain and Brain Divisions -
Answer (click here)
162. The Limbic System - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
163. The Thalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
164. The Hypothalamus - Brain and Brain Divisions - Answer (click here)
165. Cranial Nerves - Answer (click here)
166. Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
167. General Principles of the Control of Voluntary Movements - Answer (click
here)
168. The Motor Cortex - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click here)
169. Lesions and Muscle Tone - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer
(click here)
170. Vestibular Apparatus - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
171. Motor System Lesions - Control of Posture and Movement - Answer (click
here)
172. The Autonomic Nervous System - Answer (click here)
173. Age-Related Changes in the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
174. Bodyworkers and the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
175. General Properties of Hormones - Answer (click here)
176. Control of Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
177. Hypothalamus - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
178. The Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click
here)
179. Thyroid Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
180. Parathyroid Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
181. Adrenal Glands - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
182. Pineal Gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
183. Endocrine Function of The Pancreas - Answer (click here)
184. The Endocrine Function of the Kidneys - Answer (click here)
185. The Endocrine Function of the Heart - Answer (click here)
186. Thymus gland - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
187. Digestive Tract - The Endocrine Glands - Answer (click here)
188. The Endocrine Function of Adipose Tissue - Answer (click here)
189. Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System - Answer (click here)
190. Endocrine System and Massage - Answer (click here)
191. Genetic Sex - Answer (click here)
192. Fetal Development - Answer (click here)
193. Puberty - Answer (click here)
194. Testis - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
195. The Vas Deferens - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
196. Accessory Glands - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
197. Semen - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
198. Penis - Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
199. Endocrine Function of the Testis - Answer (click here)
200. Ovaries - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
201. The Uterine Tubes (Fallopiantubes; Oviduct) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
202. The Uterus - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
203. The Vagina - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
204. The External Genitalia - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
205. The Menstrual Cycle - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
206. The Physiology of Sexual Intercourse (In Brief) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
207. Contraception (Strategiesfor Birth Control) - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
208. Development of The Fetus - Answer (click here)
209. Maternal Changes in Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
210. Labor - Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
211. Lactation - Pregnancy - Answer (click here)
212. Age-Related Changes in the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
213. Massage and the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
214. Blood - Answer (click here)
215. Formation of Blood Cells - Answer (click here)
216. Red Blood Cells - Answer (click here)
217. Blood Types - Answer (click here)
218. White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) - Answer (click here)
219. Platelets - Answer (click here)
220. Hemostasis - Blood - Answer (click here)
221. The Clotting Mechanism - Blood - Answer (click here)
222. Anticlotting Mechanisms - Blood - Answer (click here)
223. Plasma - Blood - Answer (click here)
224. An Overview of Circulation in Heart - Answer (click here)
225. The Heart: Structure and Function - Answer (click here)
226. Cardiac Centers, Innervation of the Heart, and Factors Affecting Heart
Rate - Answer (click here)
227. Blood Supply to the Heart - Answer (click here)
228. Cardiac Cycle - The Heart - Answer (click here)
229. Apex Beat, Arterial Pulse, Venous Pulse - The Heart - Answer (click here)
230. Factors Affecting Cardiac Output - Answer (click here)
231. Blood Vessels and Circulation - Answer (click here)
232. Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
233. Capillaries - Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
234. Venules and Veins - Structure And Function of Blood Vessels - Answer
(click here)
235. Volume in Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)
236. Major Systemic Arteries - Answer (click here)
237. Systemic Veins - Answer (click here)
238. Dynamics of Blood Flow - Answer (click here)
239. Regulation of the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
240. Compensatory Adjustment - Regulation of the Cardiovascular System -
Answer (click here)
241. Effect of Aging on the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
242. Massage and the Cardiovascular System - Answer (click here)
243. Body Fluid Compartments - Answer (click here)
244. The Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
245. Functions of the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
246. Components of the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
247. Drainage Route of Lymph - Answer (click here)
248. Massage and the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
249. Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
250. Nonspecific Immunity - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
251. Specific Immunity - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
252. Lymphocytes - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
253. Immunization - Lymphatic System Immunity - Answer (click here)
254. Abnormalities of the Immune System - Lymphatic System Immunity -
Answer (click here)
255. The Lymphatic System, Immunity, and Aging - Answer (click here)
256. Basic Concepts of Health and Disease - Answer (click here)
257. General Causes of Disease - Answer (click here)
258. Infection and Infection Prevention - Answer (click here)
259. Pathways of Infection - Answer (click here)
260. Immunity and Massage - Answer (click here)
261. Function of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
262. Upper Respiratory Tract - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer
(click here)
263. Lower Respiratory Tract - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer
(click here)
264. Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
265. The Pulmonary Circulation - Anatomy of the Respiratory System -
Answer (click here)
266. The Lungs - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
267. The Pleura - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
268. Mechanics of Respiration - Answer (click here)
269. External Respiration - Answer (click here)
270. Respiration Muscles - Answer (click here)
271. Breathing Patterns, Respiratory Volumes, and Capacities - Answer (click
here)
272. Gas Exchange - Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
273. Transport of Gases - Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
274. Regulation of Respiration - Answer (click here)
275. Effect of Exercise on the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
276. Effect of Cold on the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
277. Effect of Aging on the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
278. Respiratory System and Massage - Answer (click here)
279. Functions of Gastrointestinal System - Answer (click here)
280. Components of the Gastrointestinal System - Answer (click here)
281. Wall of the Digestive Tract - Answer (click here)
282. Peritoneum - Answer (click here)
283. Movement in the Digestive Tract - Answer (click here)
284. Factors Controlling Digestive Function - Answer (click here)
285. An Overview of Nutrition - Answer (click here)
286. Functions of Important Nutrients - Answer (click here)
287. Regulation of Food Intake - Answer (click here)
288. The Structure and Function of Individual Organs of the Digestive
System - Answer (click here)
289. Mouth and Associated Structures - Structure and Function of Digestive
System - Answer (click here)
290. Salivary Glands and Saliva - Structure and Function of Digestive System
- Answer (click here)
291. Pharynx, Esophagus - Structure and Function of Digestive System -
Answer (click here)
292. Stomach - Structure and Function of Digestive System - Answer (click here)
293. Small Intestine - Structure and Function of Digestive System - Answer
(click here)
294. The Pancreas - Structure and Function of Digestive System - Answer (click
here)
295. The liver - Structure and Function of Digestive System - Answer (click
here)
296. Functions of the Liver - Answer (click here)
297. Gallbladder - Structure and Function of Digestive System - Answer (click
here)
298. Absorption in the Small Intestine - Answer (click here)
299. Large Intestine - Structure and Function of Digestive System - Answer
(click here)
300. Movement in the Colon and Defecation - Answer (click here)
301. Digestion and Absorption of Food in the Gut - Answer (click here)
302. Metabolism - Answer (click here)
303. Basal Metabolic Rate - Answer (click here)
304. Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System - Answer (click here)
305. The Gastrointestinal System and Bodywork - Answer (click here)
306. Functions of the Urinary System - Answer (click here)
307. Components of the Urinary System - Answer (click here)
308. The Kidneys - Answer (click here)
309. Nephron - The Kidneys - Answer (click here)
310. Urine Formation - Answer (click here)
311. Composition of Urine - Answer (click here)
312. Transportation and Elimination of Urine - Answer (click here)
313. Urination or Micturition - Answer (click here)
314. Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System - Answer (click here)
315. Bodyworkers and the Urinary System - Answer (click here)