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The Diversity of Fishes: Biology Evolution and Ecology

Subject : The Diversity of Fishes: Biology Evolution and


Ecology
Introduction
1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)

Systematic procedures
1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)

Skeleton skin and scales


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)

Soft anatomy
1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)

Oxygen metabolism and energetics


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)

Sensory systems
1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)

Homeostasis
1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)

Functional morphology of locomotion and feeding


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)

Early life history


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)

Juveniles adults age and growth


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)

A history of fishes
1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)

Chondrichthyes sharks skates rays and chimaeras


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)

Living representatives of primitive fishes


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)

Teleosts at last I bonytongues through anglerfishes


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)

Teleosts at last IIspiny rayed fishes


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)
153. Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction - Answer (click here)
154. Series Mugilomorpha - Answer (click here)
155. Series Atherinomorpha - Answer (click here)
156. Series Percomorpha:basal orders - Answer (click here)
157. Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes - Answer
(click here)
158. Suborder Percoidea - Answer (click here)
159. Suborder Elassomatoidei - Answer (click here)
160. Suborder Labroidei - Answer (click here)
161. Suborder Zoarcoidei - Answer (click here)
162. Suborder Notothenioidei - Answer (click here)
163. Suborder Trachinoidei - Answer (click here)
164. Suborder Blennioidei - Answer (click here)
165. Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei - Answer (click
here)
166. Suborder Gobioidei - Answer (click here)
167. Suborder Kurtoidei - Answer (click here)
168. Suborder Acanthuroidei - Answer (click here)
169. Suborder Xiphioidei - Answer (click here)
170. Suborder Scombroidei - Answer (click here)
171. Suborder Stromateoidei - Answer (click here)
172. Suborder Anabantoidei - Answer (click here)
173. Suborder Channoidei - Answer (click here)
174. Suborder Caproidei - Answer (click here)
175. Order Pleuronectiformes - Answer (click here)
176. Order Tetraodontiformes - Answer (click here)

Zoogeography
1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)
153. Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction - Answer (click here)
154. Series Mugilomorpha - Answer (click here)
155. Series Atherinomorpha - Answer (click here)
156. Series Percomorpha:basal orders - Answer (click here)
157. Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes - Answer
(click here)
158. Suborder Percoidea - Answer (click here)
159. Suborder Elassomatoidei - Answer (click here)
160. Suborder Labroidei - Answer (click here)
161. Suborder Zoarcoidei - Answer (click here)
162. Suborder Notothenioidei - Answer (click here)
163. Suborder Trachinoidei - Answer (click here)
164. Suborder Blennioidei - Answer (click here)
165. Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei - Answer (click
here)
166. Suborder Gobioidei - Answer (click here)
167. Suborder Kurtoidei - Answer (click here)
168. Suborder Acanthuroidei - Answer (click here)
169. Suborder Xiphioidei - Answer (click here)
170. Suborder Scombroidei - Answer (click here)
171. Suborder Stromateoidei - Answer (click here)
172. Suborder Anabantoidei - Answer (click here)
173. Suborder Channoidei - Answer (click here)
174. Suborder Caproidei - Answer (click here)
175. Order Pleuronectiformes - Answer (click here)
176. Order Tetraodontiformes - Answer (click here)
177. Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
178. Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
179. Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click here)
180. Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
181. Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
182. Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
183. Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
184. Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click
here)
185. Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes -
Answer (click here)
186. Freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
187. Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
188. Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
189. Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
190. African region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
191. Oriental region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
192. Australian region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
193. Archaic freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
194. More recent freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
195. Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes -
Answer (click here)
196. Middle American freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)

Fish genetics
1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)
153. Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction - Answer (click here)
154. Series Mugilomorpha - Answer (click here)
155. Series Atherinomorpha - Answer (click here)
156. Series Percomorpha:basal orders - Answer (click here)
157. Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes - Answer
(click here)
158. Suborder Percoidea - Answer (click here)
159. Suborder Elassomatoidei - Answer (click here)
160. Suborder Labroidei - Answer (click here)
161. Suborder Zoarcoidei - Answer (click here)
162. Suborder Notothenioidei - Answer (click here)
163. Suborder Trachinoidei - Answer (click here)
164. Suborder Blennioidei - Answer (click here)
165. Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei - Answer (click
here)
166. Suborder Gobioidei - Answer (click here)
167. Suborder Kurtoidei - Answer (click here)
168. Suborder Acanthuroidei - Answer (click here)
169. Suborder Xiphioidei - Answer (click here)
170. Suborder Scombroidei - Answer (click here)
171. Suborder Stromateoidei - Answer (click here)
172. Suborder Anabantoidei - Answer (click here)
173. Suborder Channoidei - Answer (click here)
174. Suborder Caproidei - Answer (click here)
175. Order Pleuronectiformes - Answer (click here)
176. Order Tetraodontiformes - Answer (click here)
177. Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
178. Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
179. Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click here)
180. Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
181. Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
182. Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
183. Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
184. Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click
here)
185. Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes -
Answer (click here)
186. Freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
187. Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
188. Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
189. Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
190. African region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
191. Oriental region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
192. Australian region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
193. Archaic freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
194. More recent freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
195. Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes -
Answer (click here)
196. Middle American freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
197. Fish genomics - Answer (click here)
198. Molecular ecology - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
199. Population genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
200. Dispersal and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
201. Pelagic larval duration and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer
(click here)
202. Habitat preference - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
203. Complex population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
204. Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
205. Dispersal and vicariance revisited - Fish genetics: Phylogeography -
Answer (click here)
206. Freshwater fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
207. Anadromous fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
208. Marine fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
209. Transarctic interchange between the North Pacific and North Atlantic -
Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
210. Molecular evolution - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
211. The deepest vertebrate radiations: are you a fish? - Answer (click here)
212. The history of ray-finned fishes - Answer (click here)
213. Mapping an evolutionary innovation in parrotfishes - Answer (click here)
214. Cryptic evolutionary diversity: the case of the bonefishes - Answer (click
here)
215. The cichlid radiation of Lake Malawi - Answer (click here)
216. Conservation genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
217. Molecular identification in the marketplace - Fish genetics - Answer (click
here)

Special habitats and special adaptations


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)
153. Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction - Answer (click here)
154. Series Mugilomorpha - Answer (click here)
155. Series Atherinomorpha - Answer (click here)
156. Series Percomorpha:basal orders - Answer (click here)
157. Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes - Answer
(click here)
158. Suborder Percoidea - Answer (click here)
159. Suborder Elassomatoidei - Answer (click here)
160. Suborder Labroidei - Answer (click here)
161. Suborder Zoarcoidei - Answer (click here)
162. Suborder Notothenioidei - Answer (click here)
163. Suborder Trachinoidei - Answer (click here)
164. Suborder Blennioidei - Answer (click here)
165. Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei - Answer (click
here)
166. Suborder Gobioidei - Answer (click here)
167. Suborder Kurtoidei - Answer (click here)
168. Suborder Acanthuroidei - Answer (click here)
169. Suborder Xiphioidei - Answer (click here)
170. Suborder Scombroidei - Answer (click here)
171. Suborder Stromateoidei - Answer (click here)
172. Suborder Anabantoidei - Answer (click here)
173. Suborder Channoidei - Answer (click here)
174. Suborder Caproidei - Answer (click here)
175. Order Pleuronectiformes - Answer (click here)
176. Order Tetraodontiformes - Answer (click here)
177. Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
178. Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
179. Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click here)
180. Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
181. Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
182. Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
183. Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
184. Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click
here)
185. Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes -
Answer (click here)
186. Freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
187. Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
188. Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
189. Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
190. African region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
191. Oriental region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
192. Australian region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
193. Archaic freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
194. More recent freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
195. Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes -
Answer (click here)
196. Middle American freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
197. Fish genomics - Answer (click here)
198. Molecular ecology - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
199. Population genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
200. Dispersal and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
201. Pelagic larval duration and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer
(click here)
202. Habitat preference - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
203. Complex population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
204. Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
205. Dispersal and vicariance revisited - Fish genetics: Phylogeography -
Answer (click here)
206. Freshwater fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
207. Anadromous fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
208. Marine fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
209. Transarctic interchange between the North Pacific and North Atlantic -
Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
210. Molecular evolution - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
211. The deepest vertebrate radiations: are you a fish? - Answer (click here)
212. The history of ray-finned fishes - Answer (click here)
213. Mapping an evolutionary innovation in parrotfishes - Answer (click here)
214. Cryptic evolutionary diversity: the case of the bonefishes - Answer (click
here)
215. The cichlid radiation of Lake Malawi - Answer (click here)
216. Conservation genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
217. Molecular identification in the marketplace - Fish genetics - Answer (click
here)
218. The deep sea - Answer (click here)
219. Physical factors affecting the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
220. Convergence in the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
221. The open sea - Answer (click here)
222. Adaptations to the open sea - Answer (click here)
223. Foraging - Answer (click here)
224. Life history patterns in pelagic fishes - Answer (click here)
225. Flotsam - Answer (click here)
226. Evolution and convergence - Deep sea - Answer (click here)
227. Polar regions - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
228. Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
229. Adaptations and constraints of Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
230. Arctic fishes - Answer (click here)
231. Deserts and other seasonally arid habitats - Diversity of Fishes - Answer
(click here)
232. North American deserts - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
233. Strong currents and turbulent water - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
234. Caves - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
235. Adaptations to cave living - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
236. Preadaptation, evolution, and convergence in cave fishes - Answer (click
here)

Fishes as predators
1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)
153. Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction - Answer (click here)
154. Series Mugilomorpha - Answer (click here)
155. Series Atherinomorpha - Answer (click here)
156. Series Percomorpha:basal orders - Answer (click here)
157. Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes - Answer
(click here)
158. Suborder Percoidea - Answer (click here)
159. Suborder Elassomatoidei - Answer (click here)
160. Suborder Labroidei - Answer (click here)
161. Suborder Zoarcoidei - Answer (click here)
162. Suborder Notothenioidei - Answer (click here)
163. Suborder Trachinoidei - Answer (click here)
164. Suborder Blennioidei - Answer (click here)
165. Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei - Answer (click
here)
166. Suborder Gobioidei - Answer (click here)
167. Suborder Kurtoidei - Answer (click here)
168. Suborder Acanthuroidei - Answer (click here)
169. Suborder Xiphioidei - Answer (click here)
170. Suborder Scombroidei - Answer (click here)
171. Suborder Stromateoidei - Answer (click here)
172. Suborder Anabantoidei - Answer (click here)
173. Suborder Channoidei - Answer (click here)
174. Suborder Caproidei - Answer (click here)
175. Order Pleuronectiformes - Answer (click here)
176. Order Tetraodontiformes - Answer (click here)
177. Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
178. Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
179. Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click here)
180. Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
181. Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
182. Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
183. Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
184. Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click
here)
185. Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes -
Answer (click here)
186. Freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
187. Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
188. Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
189. Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
190. African region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
191. Oriental region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
192. Australian region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
193. Archaic freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
194. More recent freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
195. Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes -
Answer (click here)
196. Middle American freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
197. Fish genomics - Answer (click here)
198. Molecular ecology - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
199. Population genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
200. Dispersal and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
201. Pelagic larval duration and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer
(click here)
202. Habitat preference - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
203. Complex population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
204. Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
205. Dispersal and vicariance revisited - Fish genetics: Phylogeography -
Answer (click here)
206. Freshwater fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
207. Anadromous fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
208. Marine fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
209. Transarctic interchange between the North Pacific and North Atlantic -
Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
210. Molecular evolution - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
211. The deepest vertebrate radiations: are you a fish? - Answer (click here)
212. The history of ray-finned fishes - Answer (click here)
213. Mapping an evolutionary innovation in parrotfishes - Answer (click here)
214. Cryptic evolutionary diversity: the case of the bonefishes - Answer (click
here)
215. The cichlid radiation of Lake Malawi - Answer (click here)
216. Conservation genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
217. Molecular identification in the marketplace - Fish genetics - Answer (click
here)
218. The deep sea - Answer (click here)
219. Physical factors affecting the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
220. Convergence in the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
221. The open sea - Answer (click here)
222. Adaptations to the open sea - Answer (click here)
223. Foraging - Answer (click here)
224. Life history patterns in pelagic fishes - Answer (click here)
225. Flotsam - Answer (click here)
226. Evolution and convergence - Deep sea - Answer (click here)
227. Polar regions - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
228. Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
229. Adaptations and constraints of Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
230. Arctic fishes - Answer (click here)
231. Deserts and other seasonally arid habitats - Diversity of Fishes - Answer
(click here)
232. North American deserts - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
233. Strong currents and turbulent water - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
234. Caves - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
235. Adaptations to cave living - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
236. Preadaptation, evolution, and convergence in cave fishes - Answer (click
here)
237. Search and detect - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
238. Pursuit - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
239. Attack and capture - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
240. Handling - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
241. Scavengers, detritivores, and herbivores - Fishes as predators - Answer
(click here)
242. Optimally foraging fishes - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)

Fishes as prey
1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)
153. Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction - Answer (click here)
154. Series Mugilomorpha - Answer (click here)
155. Series Atherinomorpha - Answer (click here)
156. Series Percomorpha:basal orders - Answer (click here)
157. Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes - Answer
(click here)
158. Suborder Percoidea - Answer (click here)
159. Suborder Elassomatoidei - Answer (click here)
160. Suborder Labroidei - Answer (click here)
161. Suborder Zoarcoidei - Answer (click here)
162. Suborder Notothenioidei - Answer (click here)
163. Suborder Trachinoidei - Answer (click here)
164. Suborder Blennioidei - Answer (click here)
165. Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei - Answer (click
here)
166. Suborder Gobioidei - Answer (click here)
167. Suborder Kurtoidei - Answer (click here)
168. Suborder Acanthuroidei - Answer (click here)
169. Suborder Xiphioidei - Answer (click here)
170. Suborder Scombroidei - Answer (click here)
171. Suborder Stromateoidei - Answer (click here)
172. Suborder Anabantoidei - Answer (click here)
173. Suborder Channoidei - Answer (click here)
174. Suborder Caproidei - Answer (click here)
175. Order Pleuronectiformes - Answer (click here)
176. Order Tetraodontiformes - Answer (click here)
177. Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
178. Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
179. Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click here)
180. Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
181. Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
182. Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
183. Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
184. Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click
here)
185. Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes -
Answer (click here)
186. Freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
187. Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
188. Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
189. Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
190. African region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
191. Oriental region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
192. Australian region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
193. Archaic freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
194. More recent freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
195. Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes -
Answer (click here)
196. Middle American freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
197. Fish genomics - Answer (click here)
198. Molecular ecology - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
199. Population genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
200. Dispersal and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
201. Pelagic larval duration and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer
(click here)
202. Habitat preference - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
203. Complex population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
204. Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
205. Dispersal and vicariance revisited - Fish genetics: Phylogeography -
Answer (click here)
206. Freshwater fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
207. Anadromous fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
208. Marine fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
209. Transarctic interchange between the North Pacific and North Atlantic -
Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
210. Molecular evolution - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
211. The deepest vertebrate radiations: are you a fish? - Answer (click here)
212. The history of ray-finned fishes - Answer (click here)
213. Mapping an evolutionary innovation in parrotfishes - Answer (click here)
214. Cryptic evolutionary diversity: the case of the bonefishes - Answer (click
here)
215. The cichlid radiation of Lake Malawi - Answer (click here)
216. Conservation genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
217. Molecular identification in the marketplace - Fish genetics - Answer (click
here)
218. The deep sea - Answer (click here)
219. Physical factors affecting the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
220. Convergence in the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
221. The open sea - Answer (click here)
222. Adaptations to the open sea - Answer (click here)
223. Foraging - Answer (click here)
224. Life history patterns in pelagic fishes - Answer (click here)
225. Flotsam - Answer (click here)
226. Evolution and convergence - Deep sea - Answer (click here)
227. Polar regions - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
228. Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
229. Adaptations and constraints of Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
230. Arctic fishes - Answer (click here)
231. Deserts and other seasonally arid habitats - Diversity of Fishes - Answer
(click here)
232. North American deserts - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
233. Strong currents and turbulent water - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
234. Caves - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
235. Adaptations to cave living - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
236. Preadaptation, evolution, and convergence in cave fishes - Answer (click
here)
237. Search and detect - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
238. Pursuit - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
239. Attack and capture - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
240. Handling - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
241. Scavengers, detritivores, and herbivores - Fishes as predators - Answer
(click here)
242. Optimally foraging fishes - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
243. Avoiding detection: Camouflage - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
244. Avoiding detection: Invisible fishes - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
245. Avoiding detection: Early detection - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
246. Avoiding detection: Shoaling and search - Fishes as prey - Answer (click
here)
247. Evading pursuit - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
248. Preventing and deflecting attacks - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
249. Discouraging capture and handling - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
250. Balancing foraging against predatory threat - Fishes as prey - Answer
(click here)

Fishes as social animals reproduction


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)
153. Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction - Answer (click here)
154. Series Mugilomorpha - Answer (click here)
155. Series Atherinomorpha - Answer (click here)
156. Series Percomorpha:basal orders - Answer (click here)
157. Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes - Answer
(click here)
158. Suborder Percoidea - Answer (click here)
159. Suborder Elassomatoidei - Answer (click here)
160. Suborder Labroidei - Answer (click here)
161. Suborder Zoarcoidei - Answer (click here)
162. Suborder Notothenioidei - Answer (click here)
163. Suborder Trachinoidei - Answer (click here)
164. Suborder Blennioidei - Answer (click here)
165. Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei - Answer (click
here)
166. Suborder Gobioidei - Answer (click here)
167. Suborder Kurtoidei - Answer (click here)
168. Suborder Acanthuroidei - Answer (click here)
169. Suborder Xiphioidei - Answer (click here)
170. Suborder Scombroidei - Answer (click here)
171. Suborder Stromateoidei - Answer (click here)
172. Suborder Anabantoidei - Answer (click here)
173. Suborder Channoidei - Answer (click here)
174. Suborder Caproidei - Answer (click here)
175. Order Pleuronectiformes - Answer (click here)
176. Order Tetraodontiformes - Answer (click here)
177. Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
178. Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
179. Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click here)
180. Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
181. Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
182. Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
183. Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
184. Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click
here)
185. Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes -
Answer (click here)
186. Freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
187. Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
188. Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
189. Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
190. African region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
191. Oriental region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
192. Australian region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
193. Archaic freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
194. More recent freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
195. Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes -
Answer (click here)
196. Middle American freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
197. Fish genomics - Answer (click here)
198. Molecular ecology - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
199. Population genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
200. Dispersal and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
201. Pelagic larval duration and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer
(click here)
202. Habitat preference - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
203. Complex population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
204. Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
205. Dispersal and vicariance revisited - Fish genetics: Phylogeography -
Answer (click here)
206. Freshwater fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
207. Anadromous fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
208. Marine fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
209. Transarctic interchange between the North Pacific and North Atlantic -
Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
210. Molecular evolution - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
211. The deepest vertebrate radiations: are you a fish? - Answer (click here)
212. The history of ray-finned fishes - Answer (click here)
213. Mapping an evolutionary innovation in parrotfishes - Answer (click here)
214. Cryptic evolutionary diversity: the case of the bonefishes - Answer (click
here)
215. The cichlid radiation of Lake Malawi - Answer (click here)
216. Conservation genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
217. Molecular identification in the marketplace - Fish genetics - Answer (click
here)
218. The deep sea - Answer (click here)
219. Physical factors affecting the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
220. Convergence in the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
221. The open sea - Answer (click here)
222. Adaptations to the open sea - Answer (click here)
223. Foraging - Answer (click here)
224. Life history patterns in pelagic fishes - Answer (click here)
225. Flotsam - Answer (click here)
226. Evolution and convergence - Deep sea - Answer (click here)
227. Polar regions - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
228. Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
229. Adaptations and constraints of Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
230. Arctic fishes - Answer (click here)
231. Deserts and other seasonally arid habitats - Diversity of Fishes - Answer
(click here)
232. North American deserts - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
233. Strong currents and turbulent water - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
234. Caves - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
235. Adaptations to cave living - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
236. Preadaptation, evolution, and convergence in cave fishes - Answer (click
here)
237. Search and detect - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
238. Pursuit - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
239. Attack and capture - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
240. Handling - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
241. Scavengers, detritivores, and herbivores - Fishes as predators - Answer
(click here)
242. Optimally foraging fishes - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
243. Avoiding detection: Camouflage - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
244. Avoiding detection: Invisible fishes - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
245. Avoiding detection: Early detection - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
246. Avoiding detection: Shoaling and search - Fishes as prey - Answer (click
here)
247. Evading pursuit - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
248. Preventing and deflecting attacks - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
249. Discouraging capture and handling - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
250. Balancing foraging against predatory threat - Fishes as prey - Answer
(click here)
251. Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer (click here)
252. Lifetime reproductive opportunities - Reproductive patterns among
fishes - Answer (click here)
253. Mating systems - Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer (click here)
254. Gender roles in fishes - Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer
(click here)
255. Sexual selection, dimorphism, and mate choice - Fishes as social
animals: Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
256. Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals:
Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
257. Courtship patterns - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning -
Answer (click here)
258. Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals:
Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
259. The spawning act - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click here)
260. Extent and diversity of care - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
261. The gender of care-givers - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
262. The costs of care - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
263. Alternative mating systems and tactics - Fishes as social animals -
Answer (click here)

Fishes as social animals aggregation aggression and cooperation


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)
153. Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction - Answer (click here)
154. Series Mugilomorpha - Answer (click here)
155. Series Atherinomorpha - Answer (click here)
156. Series Percomorpha:basal orders - Answer (click here)
157. Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes - Answer
(click here)
158. Suborder Percoidea - Answer (click here)
159. Suborder Elassomatoidei - Answer (click here)
160. Suborder Labroidei - Answer (click here)
161. Suborder Zoarcoidei - Answer (click here)
162. Suborder Notothenioidei - Answer (click here)
163. Suborder Trachinoidei - Answer (click here)
164. Suborder Blennioidei - Answer (click here)
165. Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei - Answer (click
here)
166. Suborder Gobioidei - Answer (click here)
167. Suborder Kurtoidei - Answer (click here)
168. Suborder Acanthuroidei - Answer (click here)
169. Suborder Xiphioidei - Answer (click here)
170. Suborder Scombroidei - Answer (click here)
171. Suborder Stromateoidei - Answer (click here)
172. Suborder Anabantoidei - Answer (click here)
173. Suborder Channoidei - Answer (click here)
174. Suborder Caproidei - Answer (click here)
175. Order Pleuronectiformes - Answer (click here)
176. Order Tetraodontiformes - Answer (click here)
177. Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
178. Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
179. Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click here)
180. Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
181. Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
182. Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
183. Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
184. Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click
here)
185. Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes -
Answer (click here)
186. Freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
187. Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
188. Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
189. Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
190. African region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
191. Oriental region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
192. Australian region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
193. Archaic freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
194. More recent freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
195. Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes -
Answer (click here)
196. Middle American freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
197. Fish genomics - Answer (click here)
198. Molecular ecology - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
199. Population genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
200. Dispersal and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
201. Pelagic larval duration and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer
(click here)
202. Habitat preference - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
203. Complex population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
204. Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
205. Dispersal and vicariance revisited - Fish genetics: Phylogeography -
Answer (click here)
206. Freshwater fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
207. Anadromous fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
208. Marine fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
209. Transarctic interchange between the North Pacific and North Atlantic -
Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
210. Molecular evolution - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
211. The deepest vertebrate radiations: are you a fish? - Answer (click here)
212. The history of ray-finned fishes - Answer (click here)
213. Mapping an evolutionary innovation in parrotfishes - Answer (click here)
214. Cryptic evolutionary diversity: the case of the bonefishes - Answer (click
here)
215. The cichlid radiation of Lake Malawi - Answer (click here)
216. Conservation genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
217. Molecular identification in the marketplace - Fish genetics - Answer (click
here)
218. The deep sea - Answer (click here)
219. Physical factors affecting the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
220. Convergence in the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
221. The open sea - Answer (click here)
222. Adaptations to the open sea - Answer (click here)
223. Foraging - Answer (click here)
224. Life history patterns in pelagic fishes - Answer (click here)
225. Flotsam - Answer (click here)
226. Evolution and convergence - Deep sea - Answer (click here)
227. Polar regions - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
228. Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
229. Adaptations and constraints of Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
230. Arctic fishes - Answer (click here)
231. Deserts and other seasonally arid habitats - Diversity of Fishes - Answer
(click here)
232. North American deserts - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
233. Strong currents and turbulent water - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
234. Caves - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
235. Adaptations to cave living - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
236. Preadaptation, evolution, and convergence in cave fishes - Answer (click
here)
237. Search and detect - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
238. Pursuit - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
239. Attack and capture - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
240. Handling - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
241. Scavengers, detritivores, and herbivores - Fishes as predators - Answer
(click here)
242. Optimally foraging fishes - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
243. Avoiding detection: Camouflage - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
244. Avoiding detection: Invisible fishes - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
245. Avoiding detection: Early detection - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
246. Avoiding detection: Shoaling and search - Fishes as prey - Answer (click
here)
247. Evading pursuit - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
248. Preventing and deflecting attacks - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
249. Discouraging capture and handling - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
250. Balancing foraging against predatory threat - Fishes as prey - Answer
(click here)
251. Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer (click here)
252. Lifetime reproductive opportunities - Reproductive patterns among
fishes - Answer (click here)
253. Mating systems - Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer (click here)
254. Gender roles in fishes - Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer
(click here)
255. Sexual selection, dimorphism, and mate choice - Fishes as social
animals: Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
256. Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals:
Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
257. Courtship patterns - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning -
Answer (click here)
258. Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals:
Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
259. The spawning act - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click here)
260. Extent and diversity of care - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
261. The gender of care-givers - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
262. The costs of care - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
263. Alternative mating systems and tactics - Fishes as social animals -
Answer (click here)
264. Visual communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click
here)
265. Acoustic communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
266. Chemical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
267. Tactile communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click
here)
268. Electrical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
269. Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
270. Behavioral hierarchies - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
271. Territoriality - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
272. Home ranges - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
273. Aggregations Shoaling of Fishes - Answer (click here)
274. Optimal group size - Aggregations of Fishes - Answer (click here)
275. Parasitism - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses - Answer (click
here)
276. Mutualism and commensalism - Interspecific relations of Fishes:
symbioses - Answer (click here)
277. Interspecific shoaling - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses -
Answer (click here)

Cycles of activity and behavior


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)
153. Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction - Answer (click here)
154. Series Mugilomorpha - Answer (click here)
155. Series Atherinomorpha - Answer (click here)
156. Series Percomorpha:basal orders - Answer (click here)
157. Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes - Answer
(click here)
158. Suborder Percoidea - Answer (click here)
159. Suborder Elassomatoidei - Answer (click here)
160. Suborder Labroidei - Answer (click here)
161. Suborder Zoarcoidei - Answer (click here)
162. Suborder Notothenioidei - Answer (click here)
163. Suborder Trachinoidei - Answer (click here)
164. Suborder Blennioidei - Answer (click here)
165. Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei - Answer (click
here)
166. Suborder Gobioidei - Answer (click here)
167. Suborder Kurtoidei - Answer (click here)
168. Suborder Acanthuroidei - Answer (click here)
169. Suborder Xiphioidei - Answer (click here)
170. Suborder Scombroidei - Answer (click here)
171. Suborder Stromateoidei - Answer (click here)
172. Suborder Anabantoidei - Answer (click here)
173. Suborder Channoidei - Answer (click here)
174. Suborder Caproidei - Answer (click here)
175. Order Pleuronectiformes - Answer (click here)
176. Order Tetraodontiformes - Answer (click here)
177. Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
178. Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
179. Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click here)
180. Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
181. Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
182. Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
183. Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
184. Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click
here)
185. Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes -
Answer (click here)
186. Freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
187. Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
188. Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
189. Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
190. African region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
191. Oriental region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
192. Australian region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
193. Archaic freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
194. More recent freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
195. Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes -
Answer (click here)
196. Middle American freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
197. Fish genomics - Answer (click here)
198. Molecular ecology - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
199. Population genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
200. Dispersal and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
201. Pelagic larval duration and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer
(click here)
202. Habitat preference - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
203. Complex population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
204. Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
205. Dispersal and vicariance revisited - Fish genetics: Phylogeography -
Answer (click here)
206. Freshwater fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
207. Anadromous fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
208. Marine fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
209. Transarctic interchange between the North Pacific and North Atlantic -
Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
210. Molecular evolution - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
211. The deepest vertebrate radiations: are you a fish? - Answer (click here)
212. The history of ray-finned fishes - Answer (click here)
213. Mapping an evolutionary innovation in parrotfishes - Answer (click here)
214. Cryptic evolutionary diversity: the case of the bonefishes - Answer (click
here)
215. The cichlid radiation of Lake Malawi - Answer (click here)
216. Conservation genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
217. Molecular identification in the marketplace - Fish genetics - Answer (click
here)
218. The deep sea - Answer (click here)
219. Physical factors affecting the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
220. Convergence in the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
221. The open sea - Answer (click here)
222. Adaptations to the open sea - Answer (click here)
223. Foraging - Answer (click here)
224. Life history patterns in pelagic fishes - Answer (click here)
225. Flotsam - Answer (click here)
226. Evolution and convergence - Deep sea - Answer (click here)
227. Polar regions - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
228. Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
229. Adaptations and constraints of Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
230. Arctic fishes - Answer (click here)
231. Deserts and other seasonally arid habitats - Diversity of Fishes - Answer
(click here)
232. North American deserts - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
233. Strong currents and turbulent water - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
234. Caves - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
235. Adaptations to cave living - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
236. Preadaptation, evolution, and convergence in cave fishes - Answer (click
here)
237. Search and detect - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
238. Pursuit - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
239. Attack and capture - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
240. Handling - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
241. Scavengers, detritivores, and herbivores - Fishes as predators - Answer
(click here)
242. Optimally foraging fishes - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
243. Avoiding detection: Camouflage - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
244. Avoiding detection: Invisible fishes - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
245. Avoiding detection: Early detection - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
246. Avoiding detection: Shoaling and search - Fishes as prey - Answer (click
here)
247. Evading pursuit - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
248. Preventing and deflecting attacks - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
249. Discouraging capture and handling - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
250. Balancing foraging against predatory threat - Fishes as prey - Answer
(click here)
251. Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer (click here)
252. Lifetime reproductive opportunities - Reproductive patterns among
fishes - Answer (click here)
253. Mating systems - Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer (click here)
254. Gender roles in fishes - Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer
(click here)
255. Sexual selection, dimorphism, and mate choice - Fishes as social
animals: Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
256. Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals:
Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
257. Courtship patterns - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning -
Answer (click here)
258. Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals:
Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
259. The spawning act - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click here)
260. Extent and diversity of care - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
261. The gender of care-givers - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
262. The costs of care - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
263. Alternative mating systems and tactics - Fishes as social animals -
Answer (click here)
264. Visual communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click
here)
265. Acoustic communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
266. Chemical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
267. Tactile communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click
here)
268. Electrical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
269. Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
270. Behavioral hierarchies - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
271. Territoriality - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
272. Home ranges - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
273. Aggregations Shoaling of Fishes - Answer (click here)
274. Optimal group size - Aggregations of Fishes - Answer (click here)
275. Parasitism - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses - Answer (click
here)
276. Mutualism and commensalism - Interspecific relations of Fishes:
symbioses - Answer (click here)
277. Interspecific shoaling - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses -
Answer (click here)
278. Light-induced activity patterns - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
279. Vertical migrations - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
280. Circadian rhythms - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
281. Tidal patterns - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
282. Semilunar and lunar patterns - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
283. Activity and distribution - Seasonal patterns of Fishes - Answer (click here)
284. Reproductive seasonality - Seasonal patterns of Fishes - Answer (click here)
285. Seasonal reproduction: proximate and ultimate factors - Seasonal
patterns of Fishes - Answer (click here)
286. Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
287. Diadromy - Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes -
Answer (click here)
288. Mechanisms of migration - Annual and supra-annual patterns:
migrations of Fishes - Answer (click here)
289. Representative life histories of migratory fishes - Answer (click here)

Individuals populations and assemblages


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)
153. Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction - Answer (click here)
154. Series Mugilomorpha - Answer (click here)
155. Series Atherinomorpha - Answer (click here)
156. Series Percomorpha:basal orders - Answer (click here)
157. Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes - Answer
(click here)
158. Suborder Percoidea - Answer (click here)
159. Suborder Elassomatoidei - Answer (click here)
160. Suborder Labroidei - Answer (click here)
161. Suborder Zoarcoidei - Answer (click here)
162. Suborder Notothenioidei - Answer (click here)
163. Suborder Trachinoidei - Answer (click here)
164. Suborder Blennioidei - Answer (click here)
165. Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei - Answer (click
here)
166. Suborder Gobioidei - Answer (click here)
167. Suborder Kurtoidei - Answer (click here)
168. Suborder Acanthuroidei - Answer (click here)
169. Suborder Xiphioidei - Answer (click here)
170. Suborder Scombroidei - Answer (click here)
171. Suborder Stromateoidei - Answer (click here)
172. Suborder Anabantoidei - Answer (click here)
173. Suborder Channoidei - Answer (click here)
174. Suborder Caproidei - Answer (click here)
175. Order Pleuronectiformes - Answer (click here)
176. Order Tetraodontiformes - Answer (click here)
177. Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
178. Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
179. Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click here)
180. Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
181. Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
182. Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
183. Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
184. Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click
here)
185. Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes -
Answer (click here)
186. Freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
187. Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
188. Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
189. Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
190. African region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
191. Oriental region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
192. Australian region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
193. Archaic freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
194. More recent freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
195. Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes -
Answer (click here)
196. Middle American freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
197. Fish genomics - Answer (click here)
198. Molecular ecology - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
199. Population genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
200. Dispersal and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
201. Pelagic larval duration and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer
(click here)
202. Habitat preference - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
203. Complex population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
204. Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
205. Dispersal and vicariance revisited - Fish genetics: Phylogeography -
Answer (click here)
206. Freshwater fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
207. Anadromous fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
208. Marine fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
209. Transarctic interchange between the North Pacific and North Atlantic -
Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
210. Molecular evolution - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
211. The deepest vertebrate radiations: are you a fish? - Answer (click here)
212. The history of ray-finned fishes - Answer (click here)
213. Mapping an evolutionary innovation in parrotfishes - Answer (click here)
214. Cryptic evolutionary diversity: the case of the bonefishes - Answer (click
here)
215. The cichlid radiation of Lake Malawi - Answer (click here)
216. Conservation genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
217. Molecular identification in the marketplace - Fish genetics - Answer (click
here)
218. The deep sea - Answer (click here)
219. Physical factors affecting the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
220. Convergence in the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
221. The open sea - Answer (click here)
222. Adaptations to the open sea - Answer (click here)
223. Foraging - Answer (click here)
224. Life history patterns in pelagic fishes - Answer (click here)
225. Flotsam - Answer (click here)
226. Evolution and convergence - Deep sea - Answer (click here)
227. Polar regions - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
228. Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
229. Adaptations and constraints of Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
230. Arctic fishes - Answer (click here)
231. Deserts and other seasonally arid habitats - Diversity of Fishes - Answer
(click here)
232. North American deserts - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
233. Strong currents and turbulent water - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
234. Caves - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
235. Adaptations to cave living - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
236. Preadaptation, evolution, and convergence in cave fishes - Answer (click
here)
237. Search and detect - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
238. Pursuit - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
239. Attack and capture - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
240. Handling - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
241. Scavengers, detritivores, and herbivores - Fishes as predators - Answer
(click here)
242. Optimally foraging fishes - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
243. Avoiding detection: Camouflage - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
244. Avoiding detection: Invisible fishes - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
245. Avoiding detection: Early detection - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
246. Avoiding detection: Shoaling and search - Fishes as prey - Answer (click
here)
247. Evading pursuit - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
248. Preventing and deflecting attacks - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
249. Discouraging capture and handling - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
250. Balancing foraging against predatory threat - Fishes as prey - Answer
(click here)
251. Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer (click here)
252. Lifetime reproductive opportunities - Reproductive patterns among
fishes - Answer (click here)
253. Mating systems - Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer (click here)
254. Gender roles in fishes - Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer
(click here)
255. Sexual selection, dimorphism, and mate choice - Fishes as social
animals: Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
256. Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals:
Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
257. Courtship patterns - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning -
Answer (click here)
258. Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals:
Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
259. The spawning act - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click here)
260. Extent and diversity of care - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
261. The gender of care-givers - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
262. The costs of care - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
263. Alternative mating systems and tactics - Fishes as social animals -
Answer (click here)
264. Visual communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click
here)
265. Acoustic communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
266. Chemical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
267. Tactile communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click
here)
268. Electrical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
269. Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
270. Behavioral hierarchies - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
271. Territoriality - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
272. Home ranges - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
273. Aggregations Shoaling of Fishes - Answer (click here)
274. Optimal group size - Aggregations of Fishes - Answer (click here)
275. Parasitism - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses - Answer (click
here)
276. Mutualism and commensalism - Interspecific relations of Fishes:
symbioses - Answer (click here)
277. Interspecific shoaling - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses -
Answer (click here)
278. Light-induced activity patterns - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
279. Vertical migrations - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
280. Circadian rhythms - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
281. Tidal patterns - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
282. Semilunar and lunar patterns - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
283. Activity and distribution - Seasonal patterns of Fishes - Answer (click here)
284. Reproductive seasonality - Seasonal patterns of Fishes - Answer (click here)
285. Seasonal reproduction: proximate and ultimate factors - Seasonal
patterns of Fishes - Answer (click here)
286. Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
287. Diadromy - Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes -
Answer (click here)
288. Mechanisms of migration - Annual and supra-annual patterns:
migrations of Fishes - Answer (click here)
289. Representative life histories of migratory fishes - Answer (click here)
290. Life histories and reproductive ecology of Fishes - Answer (click here)
291. Population dynamics and regulation - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
292. Production of Fishes - Answer (click here)
293. Genetic structure of populations - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
294. Hybridization - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
295. Assemblages - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
296. Niches and guilds: the ecological role of a species - Diversity of Fishes:
Assemblages - Answer (click here)
297. Habitat use and choice - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages - Answer (click
here)
298. Habitat choice and spatial structure: zonation - Diversity of Fishes:
Assemblages - Answer (click here)
299. Competition - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages - Answer (click here)
300. Predation - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages - Answer (click here)
301. Synthesis: what determines assemblage structure among coral reef
fishes? - Answer (click here)

Communities ecosystems and the functional role of fishes


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)
153. Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction - Answer (click here)
154. Series Mugilomorpha - Answer (click here)
155. Series Atherinomorpha - Answer (click here)
156. Series Percomorpha:basal orders - Answer (click here)
157. Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes - Answer
(click here)
158. Suborder Percoidea - Answer (click here)
159. Suborder Elassomatoidei - Answer (click here)
160. Suborder Labroidei - Answer (click here)
161. Suborder Zoarcoidei - Answer (click here)
162. Suborder Notothenioidei - Answer (click here)
163. Suborder Trachinoidei - Answer (click here)
164. Suborder Blennioidei - Answer (click here)
165. Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei - Answer (click
here)
166. Suborder Gobioidei - Answer (click here)
167. Suborder Kurtoidei - Answer (click here)
168. Suborder Acanthuroidei - Answer (click here)
169. Suborder Xiphioidei - Answer (click here)
170. Suborder Scombroidei - Answer (click here)
171. Suborder Stromateoidei - Answer (click here)
172. Suborder Anabantoidei - Answer (click here)
173. Suborder Channoidei - Answer (click here)
174. Suborder Caproidei - Answer (click here)
175. Order Pleuronectiformes - Answer (click here)
176. Order Tetraodontiformes - Answer (click here)
177. Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
178. Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
179. Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click here)
180. Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
181. Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
182. Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
183. Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
184. Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click
here)
185. Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes -
Answer (click here)
186. Freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
187. Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
188. Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
189. Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
190. African region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
191. Oriental region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
192. Australian region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
193. Archaic freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
194. More recent freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
195. Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes -
Answer (click here)
196. Middle American freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
197. Fish genomics - Answer (click here)
198. Molecular ecology - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
199. Population genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
200. Dispersal and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
201. Pelagic larval duration and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer
(click here)
202. Habitat preference - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
203. Complex population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
204. Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
205. Dispersal and vicariance revisited - Fish genetics: Phylogeography -
Answer (click here)
206. Freshwater fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
207. Anadromous fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
208. Marine fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
209. Transarctic interchange between the North Pacific and North Atlantic -
Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
210. Molecular evolution - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
211. The deepest vertebrate radiations: are you a fish? - Answer (click here)
212. The history of ray-finned fishes - Answer (click here)
213. Mapping an evolutionary innovation in parrotfishes - Answer (click here)
214. Cryptic evolutionary diversity: the case of the bonefishes - Answer (click
here)
215. The cichlid radiation of Lake Malawi - Answer (click here)
216. Conservation genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
217. Molecular identification in the marketplace - Fish genetics - Answer (click
here)
218. The deep sea - Answer (click here)
219. Physical factors affecting the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
220. Convergence in the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
221. The open sea - Answer (click here)
222. Adaptations to the open sea - Answer (click here)
223. Foraging - Answer (click here)
224. Life history patterns in pelagic fishes - Answer (click here)
225. Flotsam - Answer (click here)
226. Evolution and convergence - Deep sea - Answer (click here)
227. Polar regions - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
228. Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
229. Adaptations and constraints of Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
230. Arctic fishes - Answer (click here)
231. Deserts and other seasonally arid habitats - Diversity of Fishes - Answer
(click here)
232. North American deserts - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
233. Strong currents and turbulent water - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
234. Caves - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
235. Adaptations to cave living - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
236. Preadaptation, evolution, and convergence in cave fishes - Answer (click
here)
237. Search and detect - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
238. Pursuit - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
239. Attack and capture - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
240. Handling - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
241. Scavengers, detritivores, and herbivores - Fishes as predators - Answer
(click here)
242. Optimally foraging fishes - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
243. Avoiding detection: Camouflage - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
244. Avoiding detection: Invisible fishes - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
245. Avoiding detection: Early detection - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
246. Avoiding detection: Shoaling and search - Fishes as prey - Answer (click
here)
247. Evading pursuit - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
248. Preventing and deflecting attacks - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
249. Discouraging capture and handling - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
250. Balancing foraging against predatory threat - Fishes as prey - Answer
(click here)
251. Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer (click here)
252. Lifetime reproductive opportunities - Reproductive patterns among
fishes - Answer (click here)
253. Mating systems - Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer (click here)
254. Gender roles in fishes - Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer
(click here)
255. Sexual selection, dimorphism, and mate choice - Fishes as social
animals: Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
256. Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals:
Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
257. Courtship patterns - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning -
Answer (click here)
258. Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals:
Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
259. The spawning act - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click here)
260. Extent and diversity of care - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
261. The gender of care-givers - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
262. The costs of care - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
263. Alternative mating systems and tactics - Fishes as social animals -
Answer (click here)
264. Visual communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click
here)
265. Acoustic communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
266. Chemical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
267. Tactile communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click
here)
268. Electrical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
269. Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
270. Behavioral hierarchies - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
271. Territoriality - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
272. Home ranges - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
273. Aggregations Shoaling of Fishes - Answer (click here)
274. Optimal group size - Aggregations of Fishes - Answer (click here)
275. Parasitism - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses - Answer (click
here)
276. Mutualism and commensalism - Interspecific relations of Fishes:
symbioses - Answer (click here)
277. Interspecific shoaling - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses -
Answer (click here)
278. Light-induced activity patterns - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
279. Vertical migrations - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
280. Circadian rhythms - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
281. Tidal patterns - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
282. Semilunar and lunar patterns - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
283. Activity and distribution - Seasonal patterns of Fishes - Answer (click here)
284. Reproductive seasonality - Seasonal patterns of Fishes - Answer (click here)
285. Seasonal reproduction: proximate and ultimate factors - Seasonal
patterns of Fishes - Answer (click here)
286. Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
287. Diadromy - Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes -
Answer (click here)
288. Mechanisms of migration - Annual and supra-annual patterns:
migrations of Fishes - Answer (click here)
289. Representative life histories of migratory fishes - Answer (click here)
290. Life histories and reproductive ecology of Fishes - Answer (click here)
291. Population dynamics and regulation - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
292. Production of Fishes - Answer (click here)
293. Genetic structure of populations - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
294. Hybridization - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
295. Assemblages - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
296. Niches and guilds: the ecological role of a species - Diversity of Fishes:
Assemblages - Answer (click here)
297. Habitat use and choice - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages - Answer (click
here)
298. Habitat choice and spatial structure: zonation - Diversity of Fishes:
Assemblages - Answer (click here)
299. Competition - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages - Answer (click here)
300. Predation - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages - Answer (click here)
301. Synthesis: what determines assemblage structure among coral reef
fishes? - Answer (click here)
302. Community-level interactions between fishes and other taxonomic
groups - Answer (click here)
303. The effects of fishes on plants - Answer (click here)
304. Effects of fishes on zooplankton - Answer (click here)
305. Effects of fishes on benthic invertebrates - Answer (click here)
306. Turnover rates and the inverted food pyramid - Effects of fishes - Answer
(click here)
307. Fishes in the ecosystem - Answer (click here)
308. Indirect effects and trophic cascades - Fishes in the ecosystem - Answer
(click here)
309. Nutrient cycling and transport by fishes - Answer (click here)
310. Fishes in food webs - Answer (click here)
311. Fishes as producers and transporters of sand, coral, and rocks - Answer
(click here)
312. Influence of physical factors and disturbance - Diversity of Fishes -
Answer (click here)

Conservation and the future of fishes


1. The science of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
2. What is a fish? - Answer (click here)
3. The diversity of fishes - Answer (click here)
4. Superlative fishes - Answer (click here)
5. A brief history of ichthyology - Answer (click here)
6. Species - Answer (click here)
7. Taxonomy versus systematics - Answer (click here)
8. Approaches to classification - Answer (click here)
9. Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
10. Vertebrate classes - Answer (click here)
11. Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
12. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Answer (click here)
13. PhyloCode - Answer (click here)
14. Name changes - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
15. Collections - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
16. Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
17. Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
18. Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
19. Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
20. Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
21. Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
22. Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes - Answer (click here)
23. Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton
of Fishes - Answer (click here)
24. Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes - Answer (click here)
25. Cardiovascular system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
26. Alimentary canal of Fishes - Answer (click here)
27. Gas bladder of Fishes - Answer (click here)
28. Kidneys of Fishes - Answer (click here)
29. Gonads of Fishes - Answer (click here)
30. Nervous system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
31. Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
32. Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of
Fishes - Answer (click here)
33. Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
34. Air-breathing fishes - Answer (click here)
35. Gas transport of Fishes - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolic rate of Fishes - Answer (click here)
37. Swimming of Fishes - Answer (click here)
38. Buoyancy regulation of Fishes - Answer (click here)
39. Energy intake of Fishes - Answer (click here)
40. Bioenergetics models of Fishes - Answer (click here)
41. Mechanoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
42. Lateral line system - Fishes - Answer (click here)
43. Equilibrium and balance - Fishes - Answer (click here)
44. Hearing in fishes - Answer (click here)
45. Electroreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
46. Electroreceptors - Fishes - Answer (click here)
47. Electrical communication - Fishes - Answer (click here)
48. Electrical attack and defense - Fishes - Answer (click here)
49. Vision - Fishes - Answer (click here)
50. Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes - Answer (click here)
51. Chemoreception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
52. Magnetic reception - Fishes - Answer (click here)
53. Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
54. Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
55. Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
56. Heterothermic fishes - Answer (click here)
57. Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click
here)
58. Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
59. Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis -
Answer (click here)
60. Osmoregulation in different types of fishes - Answer (click here)
61. Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer
(click here)
62. pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
63. The immune system of Fishes - Answer (click here)
64. Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
65. Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
66. Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes - Answer (click here)
67. Locomotory types - Fishes - Answer (click here)
68. Specialized locomotion - Fishes - Answer (click here)
69. Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes - Answer (click here)
70. Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes - Answer (click
here)
71. Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes - Answer (click here)
72. Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes - Answer (click here)
73. Dentition - Fishes - Answer (click here)
74. Mouth position and function - Fishes - Answer (click here)
75. Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
76. Early life history:terminology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
77. Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
78. Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes - Answer (click here)
79. Embryology - Fishes - Answer (click here)
80. Meristic variation - Fishes - Answer (click here)
81. Larvae - Fishes - Answer (click here)
82. Larval feeding and survival - Fishes - Answer (click here)
83. Larval behavior and physiology - Answer (click here)
84. Larval morphology and taxonomy - Answer (click here)
85. Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms - Answer (click
here)
86. Juveniles - Answer (click here)
87. Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles - Answer (click here)
88. Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
- Answer (click here)
89. Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults - Answer
(click here)
90. Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
91. Death and senescence - Adults Fishes - Answer (click here)
92. Age - Fishes - Answer (click here)
93. Growth - Fishes - Answer (click here)
94. Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes - Answer (click here)
95. Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes - Answer (click here)
96. Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony,
paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes - Answer (click here)
97. A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
98. Jawless fishes - A history of fishes - Answer (click here)
99. Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes -
Answer (click here)
100. Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes - Answer (click here)
101. Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
102. Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes - Answer (click here)
103. Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
104. Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
- Answer (click here)
105. Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
106. Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
107. Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes
(Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
108. Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
109. Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
110. Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
111. Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes :
teleostomes (Osteichthyes) - Answer (click here)
112. Trends during teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
113. Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes - Answer (click here)
114. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes -
Answer (click here)
115. Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes - Answer
(click here)
116. A history of fishes: summary and overview - Answer (click here)
117. Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
118. Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
119. Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
120. Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
121. Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
122. Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass
Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
123. Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
124. Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
125. Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click
here)
126. Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii - Answer (click here)
127. Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali - Answer (click here)
128. Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
129. Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes -
Answer (click here)
130. Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
131. Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes - Answer (click here)
132. Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony
fishes - Answer (click here)
133. The living coelacanths, at least for now - Answer (click here)
134. Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive
bony fishes - Answer (click here)
135. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish -
Primitive bony fishes - Answer (click here)
136. Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits - Answer (click here)
137. Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes:
sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
138. Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
139. Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order
Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes - Answer (click here)
140. Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the
gars - Answer (click here)
141. Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin - Answer (click here)
142. Teleostean phylogeny - Answer (click here)
143. Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
144. Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
145. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
146. Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder
Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
147. Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes - Answer (click here)
148. Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
- Answer (click here)
149. Neognathi - Answer (click here)
150. Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer (click here)
151. Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts - Answer
(click here)
152. Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts -
Answer (click here)
153. Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction - Answer (click here)
154. Series Mugilomorpha - Answer (click here)
155. Series Atherinomorpha - Answer (click here)
156. Series Percomorpha:basal orders - Answer (click here)
157. Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes - Answer
(click here)
158. Suborder Percoidea - Answer (click here)
159. Suborder Elassomatoidei - Answer (click here)
160. Suborder Labroidei - Answer (click here)
161. Suborder Zoarcoidei - Answer (click here)
162. Suborder Notothenioidei - Answer (click here)
163. Suborder Trachinoidei - Answer (click here)
164. Suborder Blennioidei - Answer (click here)
165. Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei - Answer (click
here)
166. Suborder Gobioidei - Answer (click here)
167. Suborder Kurtoidei - Answer (click here)
168. Suborder Acanthuroidei - Answer (click here)
169. Suborder Xiphioidei - Answer (click here)
170. Suborder Scombroidei - Answer (click here)
171. Suborder Stromateoidei - Answer (click here)
172. Suborder Anabantoidei - Answer (click here)
173. Suborder Channoidei - Answer (click here)
174. Suborder Caproidei - Answer (click here)
175. Order Pleuronectiformes - Answer (click here)
176. Order Tetraodontiformes - Answer (click here)
177. Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
178. Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes - Answer (click here)
179. Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click here)
180. Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
181. Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
182. Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
183. Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer
(click here)
184. Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes - Answer (click
here)
185. Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes -
Answer (click here)
186. Freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
187. Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
188. Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
189. Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
190. African region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
191. Oriental region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
192. Australian region Freshwater Fishes - Answer (click here)
193. Archaic freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
194. More recent freshwater fish distributions - Answer (click here)
195. Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes -
Answer (click here)
196. Middle American freshwater fishes - Answer (click here)
197. Fish genomics - Answer (click here)
198. Molecular ecology - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
199. Population genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
200. Dispersal and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
201. Pelagic larval duration and population structure - Fish genetics - Answer
(click here)
202. Habitat preference - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
203. Complex population structure - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
204. Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
205. Dispersal and vicariance revisited - Fish genetics: Phylogeography -
Answer (click here)
206. Freshwater fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
207. Anadromous fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
208. Marine fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
209. Transarctic interchange between the North Pacific and North Atlantic -
Fish genetics: Phylogeography - Answer (click here)
210. Molecular evolution - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
211. The deepest vertebrate radiations: are you a fish? - Answer (click here)
212. The history of ray-finned fishes - Answer (click here)
213. Mapping an evolutionary innovation in parrotfishes - Answer (click here)
214. Cryptic evolutionary diversity: the case of the bonefishes - Answer (click
here)
215. The cichlid radiation of Lake Malawi - Answer (click here)
216. Conservation genetics - Fish genetics - Answer (click here)
217. Molecular identification in the marketplace - Fish genetics - Answer (click
here)
218. The deep sea - Answer (click here)
219. Physical factors affecting the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
220. Convergence in the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
221. The open sea - Answer (click here)
222. Adaptations to the open sea - Answer (click here)
223. Foraging - Answer (click here)
224. Life history patterns in pelagic fishes - Answer (click here)
225. Flotsam - Answer (click here)
226. Evolution and convergence - Deep sea - Answer (click here)
227. Polar regions - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
228. Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
229. Adaptations and constraints of Antarctic fishes - Answer (click here)
230. Arctic fishes - Answer (click here)
231. Deserts and other seasonally arid habitats - Diversity of Fishes - Answer
(click here)
232. North American deserts - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
233. Strong currents and turbulent water - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
234. Caves - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
235. Adaptations to cave living - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
236. Preadaptation, evolution, and convergence in cave fishes - Answer (click
here)
237. Search and detect - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
238. Pursuit - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
239. Attack and capture - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
240. Handling - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
241. Scavengers, detritivores, and herbivores - Fishes as predators - Answer
(click here)
242. Optimally foraging fishes - Fishes as predators - Answer (click here)
243. Avoiding detection: Camouflage - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
244. Avoiding detection: Invisible fishes - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
245. Avoiding detection: Early detection - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
246. Avoiding detection: Shoaling and search - Fishes as prey - Answer (click
here)
247. Evading pursuit - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
248. Preventing and deflecting attacks - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
249. Discouraging capture and handling - Fishes as prey - Answer (click here)
250. Balancing foraging against predatory threat - Fishes as prey - Answer
(click here)
251. Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer (click here)
252. Lifetime reproductive opportunities - Reproductive patterns among
fishes - Answer (click here)
253. Mating systems - Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer (click here)
254. Gender roles in fishes - Reproductive patterns among fishes - Answer
(click here)
255. Sexual selection, dimorphism, and mate choice - Fishes as social
animals: Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
256. Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals:
Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
257. Courtship patterns - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning -
Answer (click here)
258. Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals:
Courtship and spawning - Answer (click here)
259. The spawning act - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click here)
260. Extent and diversity of care - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
261. The gender of care-givers - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
262. The costs of care - Parental care of Fishes - Answer (click here)
263. Alternative mating systems and tactics - Fishes as social animals -
Answer (click here)
264. Visual communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click
here)
265. Acoustic communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
266. Chemical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
267. Tactile communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer (click
here)
268. Electrical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals - Answer
(click here)
269. Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
270. Behavioral hierarchies - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
271. Territoriality - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
272. Home ranges - Agonistic interactions of Fishes - Answer (click here)
273. Aggregations Shoaling of Fishes - Answer (click here)
274. Optimal group size - Aggregations of Fishes - Answer (click here)
275. Parasitism - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses - Answer (click
here)
276. Mutualism and commensalism - Interspecific relations of Fishes:
symbioses - Answer (click here)
277. Interspecific shoaling - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses -
Answer (click here)
278. Light-induced activity patterns - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
279. Vertical migrations - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
280. Circadian rhythms - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
281. Tidal patterns - Fishes: Diel patterns - Answer (click here)
282. Semilunar and lunar patterns - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
283. Activity and distribution - Seasonal patterns of Fishes - Answer (click here)
284. Reproductive seasonality - Seasonal patterns of Fishes - Answer (click here)
285. Seasonal reproduction: proximate and ultimate factors - Seasonal
patterns of Fishes - Answer (click here)
286. Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
287. Diadromy - Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes -
Answer (click here)
288. Mechanisms of migration - Annual and supra-annual patterns:
migrations of Fishes - Answer (click here)
289. Representative life histories of migratory fishes - Answer (click here)
290. Life histories and reproductive ecology of Fishes - Answer (click here)
291. Population dynamics and regulation - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click
here)
292. Production of Fishes - Answer (click here)
293. Genetic structure of populations - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
294. Hybridization - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
295. Assemblages - Diversity of Fishes - Answer (click here)
296. Niches and guilds: the ecological role of a species - Diversity of Fishes:
Assemblages - Answer (click here)
297. Habitat use and choice - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages - Answer (click
here)
298. Habitat choice and spatial structure: zonation - Diversity of Fishes:
Assemblages - Answer (click here)
299. Competition - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages - Answer (click here)
300. Predation - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages - Answer (click here)
301. Synthesis: what determines assemblage structure among coral reef
fishes? - Answer (click here)
302. Community-level interactions between fishes and other taxonomic
groups - Answer (click here)
303. The effects of fishes on plants - Answer (click here)
304. Effects of fishes on zooplankton - Answer (click here)
305. Effects of fishes on benthic invertebrates - Answer (click here)
306. Turnover rates and the inverted food pyramid - Effects of fishes - Answer
(click here)
307. Fishes in the ecosystem - Answer (click here)
308. Indirect effects and trophic cascades - Fishes in the ecosystem - Answer
(click here)
309. Nutrient cycling and transport by fishes - Answer (click here)
310. Fishes in food webs - Answer (click here)
311. Fishes as producers and transporters of sand, coral, and rocks - Answer
(click here)
312. Influence of physical factors and disturbance - Diversity of Fishes -
Answer (click here)
313. Extinction and biodiversity loss - Answer (click here)
314. Threatened and endangered fishes - Extinction and biodiversity loss -
Answer (click here)
315. General causes of biodiversity decline - Answer (click here)
316. Habitat loss and modification - General causes of fish biodiversity
decline - Answer (click here)
317. Species introductions - General causes of fish biodiversity decline -
Answer (click here)
318. Pollution - General causes of fish biodiversity decline - Answer (click here)
319. Commercial exploitation - General causes of fish biodiversity decline -
Answer (click here)
320. Global climate change - General causes of fish biodiversity decline -
Answer (click here)
321. What can be done against fish Biodiversity loss? - Answer (click here)