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TECHNIQUE

OF
ANSWERING SPM
CHEMISTRY

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 1


MISTAKES
normally made by students
I.Writing equations
II Describing colours
III Mistakes in drawing diagrams
IV Calculations
V Chemical Tests
VI Mistakes in experiment-based
questions
VII Incomplete/Inaccurate
2 statements or
phrases.

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007


(I)Writing Equations
1. Equation not balanced
Eg: Na + O2 Na2O
2. Cannot differentiate between
• Ionic equations : Zn + 2H+  Zn2+ + H2
• Half equations : 2H+ + 2e  H2
Zn  Zn2+ + 2e
• Chemical equations (complete equations)
2HCl + Zn  ZnCl2 + H2
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 3
Writing Equations

3. Do not write WORD EQUATIONS


4. Do not use symbol or formulae in
answering structured and essay questions.
(except for ions or in diagrams)
5. Wrong half -equation.
Eg: 4OH- - 4e  O2 + 2H2O

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 4


(II)Describing Colours

1. Not able to state the


colour of of
chemical/reagent
accurately or correctly

2. Describing water or
solution which is
colourless ,as clear

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 5


Describing Colours
3. Fail to mention the initial colour when
there is a colour change
Eg: A pink coloured solution is produced
Correct: The colourless solution turns pink.
4. Change in colour of bromine water
Eg(1): bromine water is bleached
Correct: Brown bromine water is
decolourised
eg(2): Copper is formed at the cathode
Correct: A brown deposit is formed at the
cathode
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 6
(III)Mistakes
in drawing diagrams
1. Drawing the stopper below the mouth level of the
test tube. Eg

WRONG CORRECT

Diagram A Diagram B

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 7


2. No ‘Heat’ beside the arrow
WRONG CORRECT
No ‘Heat’
label
Crucible
Crucible

Heat

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 8


3. Gas passed through and excess gas must be
allowed to escape
WRONG
No gas outlet CORRECT

Heat
Heat

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 9


4. To represent solution drawing ‘dash’ lines

WRONG CORRECT

No indication of solution

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 10


5. Drawing a battery in the circuit of a chemical cell

WRONG CORRECT
Symbol for battery given in the diagram

Copper(II) sulphate Copper(II) sulphate


solution solution
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 11
6. Certain apparatus not supported.Eg Burettes not
attached to clamp/retort or test/combustion tubes
floating while being heated
WRONG CORRECT
Boiling Tube
Boiling Tube

Lead(II) Lead(II)
Carbonate Carbonate
Heat
Heat Lime water
Lime water

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 12


WRONG
CORRECT
Excess
7. Diagram not labelled copper(II) oxide Filter Paper

Filter funnel

Filterate
(Copper(II) sulphate
solution)

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 13


WRONG CORRECT

8.Wire gauge
should not be used

Clay
pipe
triangle

Wire
gauge

10/16/12 Heat Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 Heat 14


WRONG CORRECT

9.Delivery tube not


inserted inside lime water

Heat Lime water Heat Lime water

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 15


WRONG CORRECT
Direction of water flow
is not correct

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 16


WRONG
CORRECT
e
e

Copper(II) sulphate Copper(II) sulphate


solution solution
Direction of electron flow
shown is not right
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 17
WRONG
CORRECT
Thistle funnel Thistle funnel

Dilute Dilute
hydrocloric acid Hydrocloric acid

Thistle funnel must be


immersed in solution
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 18
WRONG
CORRECT

All electron shells must be shown

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 19


(IV)Calculations
1. Steps not shown
6.62 g of lead(II) nitrate is dissolved in 500 cm3 of
distilled water. Calculate the concentration of the
solution formed.

Incorrect: Concentration = 0.04 mol dm-3

Correct : Relative formula mass of lead(II) nitrate,Pb(NO3)2


= 207 + 2(14 + 48)
= 331
Number of mole of lead(II) nitrate
= 6.62/331 =0.02
Concentration = 0.02/0.5 = 0.04 mol dm-3
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 20
(IV)Calculations
2. 1/Time (Rate of reaction) should be given to 3
decimal place.
3. Units not shown or wrong unit given
Contoh:

wrong correct

∆H = a kJ mol -1 ∆H = +/- a kJ mol -1

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 21


(V)Chemical Tests
1. Add sodium hydroxide into a test tube to
test for Fe2+ ions.
2. Correct : Add sodium hydroxide solution
into a test tube until excess. Green
precipitate which cannot dissolve in
excess is formed.

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 22


2. Incomplete method of testing for a gas.
Suggest a test for the gas given off when sodium
nitrate is heated

Incorrect Answer : Test with a glowing splinter


Incorrect Answer: Insert a glowing splinter into
the test tube containing the gas

Correct Answer : Insert a glowing splinter into


the test tube containing the gas.The gas
relights/rekindles the glowing splinter.
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 23
(VI)Mistakes in experiment-based
questions
1. Leaving out the key action
words/phrase:
Add something to something
else
Stir evenly
Mix together more than two
substances
Heat gently/warm
Heat strongly
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 24
2. Not stating the quantities used
•For solutions a certain volume(based
on apparatus used) and molarity(0.1 –
2.0 mol dm-3) should be mention
•For change in temperature, a certain
range/increase/decrease in
temperature should be mentioned
•For solids a certain mass should be
mentioned, or whether it should be
used in excess
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 25
3. Describing an observation
Eg : Hydrogen gas is released
Correct : Effervescence or
gas bubbles released

4. Drawing graphs:
The axes not labelled and/or units not
mention
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 26
5. Electrochemical Series confused
with Reactivity Series
Eg.Zinc can displace copper from
copper(II) sulphate solution because zinc
is higher than copper in the Reactivity
Series(should be Electrochemical Series)

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 27


6. Not stating the state/size of
substance
eg. Not stating aqueus potasium iodide
or potassium iodide solution
Not stating magnesium powder where
size of reactant matters

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 28


7.Not knowing the meaning of
compare and contrast (differentiate)
Compare: find the similarities and
differences between 2 or more things
Contrast : to find only the differences
between 2 things

.
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 29
Calon hanya memberikan sifat fizikal
7(b) Eg : Not knowing the meaning of
compare and contrast:
Ques: Compare the properties of ionic and
covalent compound
Students Ans: ionic compounds have
high boiling point/melting point, can
dissolve in water and conduct electricity in
molten or aqueous form.
(No mention about covalent compound)
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 30
Incomplete/Inaccurrate
statement/phrases
1.Sodium donates electron.
Correct :One sodium atom donates one electron

1.Stable electron arrangement


Correct: Stable octet arrangement of electrons

1.Rate of reaction described as fast or slow


Correct:Fast reaction – high rate
Slow reaction – low rate
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 31
4.Rate of reaction getting slower
Correct : Rate of reaction
decreases

4.The smaller the size of


substance the bigger the
surface area
Correct : The smaller the size of
the substance the
bigger is the total
10/16/12 surface area.
Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 32
6.An ionic compound can conduct
electricity

Correct: An ionic compound can


conduct electricity in the molten
state/aqueous solution

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 33


7.Relative atomic mass of an element is
the number of times an atom of an
element is heavier than hydrogen.

Correct : Relative atomic mass of an


element is the number of times an atom of an
element is heavier than one atom of
hydrogen.

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 34


8. A Hydrocarbon is a
compound that contains
carbon and hydrogen.

Correct : A Hydrocarbon is a
compound that contains carbon
and hydrogen only.

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 35


9. A base is a substance that
contains oxide/hydroxide
ions

Correct : A base is a
substance that produces
hydroxide ions when dissolved
in water
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 36
10. An acid is a substance that
contains hydrogen ions.

Correct : An acid is a substance


that produces
hydrogen ions when
dissolved in water.

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 37


11. Calsium is situated in
Period IV

Correct : Calsium is situated


in Period 4

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 38


12. A chloride ion has three
electron shells

Correct : A chloride ion has


three shells filled with
electrons.

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 39


13. When the temperature is increased,
the number of collisions also
increases

Correct : When the temperature is


increased, the number of collisions
between the named particles also
increases

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 40


14. The oxidation nombor of
Fe ion changes/
2+

increase
Correct : The oxidation
nombor of iron in Fe 2+ ion
changes/ increase from +2 to
+3

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 41


15. A polystyrene cup is used to
prevent heat loss.

Correct : A polystyrene cup is


used to reduce
heat loss.

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 42


16. Attractive forces between molecules are
small /lower/higher
Correct Ans : Attractive forces between
molecules are weak / strong
17. Copper attracted to to the cathode
Correct Ans :Copper ions attracted to to
the cathode
18. The ions in the electrolyte can move
Correct Ans :The ions in the electrolyte
can move freely
10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 43
Guidelines on answering questions in
chemistry paper 2
• 1 General
• (a) Read all questions carefully and circle all
important key words
• (b) Answers can be short but they must be precise
and complete
• © The space provided for your answer gives an
indication as to ‘how long’ the answer should be
• (d) Always look at the marks alloted for each
question as a guide to how many points you should
give
Answers must be precise
• eg. State the conversion of energy that occurs
during the electrolysis
• Answer: The energy conversion that occurs
during electrolysis is from electrical to
chemical energy or from electrical energy to
chemical energy
Answers must relate to the needs
of the questions
• Example
• State the observation(s)
• (a)Incorrect observation: chlorine gas released
• Correct observation: Efferverscence/ gas
bubbles released/ light greenish yellow gas
given out.
• (b) Incorrect observation: copper formed
• Correct observation: brown solid deposited
• © Incorrect observation :Deflection of the
galvanometer
• Correct observation: Deflection of the
galvanometer needle
Use the correct terminology
• 1)If the name of a person is used as unit or a
chemical process, it must be in capital letter
• Do not use the abbreviation such as
ESC,RAM,RMM
• 2)Common inaccurate or incomplete answers
• Wrong: Purple solution disappears
• Correct: Purple solution decolourised
Use the correct terminology
• Wrong observation: No reaction
• Correct observation: No change
• Wrong: rate of reaction is faster or
slower
• Correct: rate of reaction is higher or
lower
• Wrong: zinc donates two electrons
• Correct: zinc atom donates two
electrons
Use the correct terminology
• Wrong: copper molecule
• Correct: copper atom
• Wrong: bromine ion
• Correct: bromide ion
• Wrong: H+ ion increase
• Correct: Concentration or number of moles of
hydrogen ion increases
• Wrong: Electrons flow from zinc metal to
copper metal
• Correct: Electrons flow from zinc metal to
copper metal through the wire
Use the correct terminology
• Wrong:Forces of attraction are weak
• Correct: Intermolecular forces of attraction
are weak
• Wrong:Soap consist of two parts
• Correct: Soap anion consist of two parts
• Wrong: Position of zinc is above copper
• Correct: Position of zinc is above copper in the
electrochemical series or zinc is more
electropositive than copper
• WrongReagent to verify iodine – starch
• Correct: Starch solution
• Wrong: Colour of water is clear/ white
• Correct: Colourless
Describing chemical test
• Description must have
• 1) correct reagent 2) procedure3) expected observation
• You must state how you would carry out the test using the
reagent and what is the observation to verify the identity of
the substance
• Eg Name gas Y and describe a method to verify its identity
• Wrong: Test with lime water
• Correct: Pass the gas into lime water. Lime water turns
milky/chalky verifying the gas is carbon dioxide.
Stating the correct changes in observation
or state
• You must state the change from the initial
colour or state to the final colour or state
• Wrong: Moist litmus paper turns red
• Correct: Moist litmus paper turns from blue to
red
• Wrong:Oxidation number changes to +2
• Correct: Oxidation number changes from 0 to
+2
Write clearly the working of the calculation

• Marks are given for working and hence they


must be written clearly
• Unit must be correct
• Wrong: 16/64 = 0.25 0.25 x 32= 8g
• Correct:Number of mole copper = 16/64
• = 0.25 mol
• Mass of oxygen gas = 0.25 x 32 = 8g
Plotting the graph
• Both axes must be labelled with the correct variable
and unit(if any) must be written
• If no scale is given, use the appropriate scale so that
the graph drawn covers at least half of the page
• Points plotted must be correct
• Draw the best smooth straight line or curve
• If the value of the variable needs to be obtained
from the graph, you must show how this value is
obtained by marking on the graph
Drawing the set-up apparatus
• Set-up apparatus drawn must be functional
• Materials and main apparatus must be
labelled
• Areas representing solids, liquids and
solutions must be shaded
• A two dimensional diagram should be drawn
Guidelines on answering Paper 2
Essay question
• A )General
• Read all questions carefully
• Always note the marks alloted for each part of the
question. This will be an indication as to how many
points or facts you need to give
• Whenever possible, substantiate your answer with
labelled diagrams or equations
• Answer according to the instruction of the question.
Marks are alloted for each instruction
Answering Paper 2 Essay question

• B) Why students lose marks


• 1. Did not give enough facts or points or
incomplete facts
• 2 Did not give the correct conditions of the
experiment
• 3 Did not write chemical equation
• 4 Wrong words or terms used
Suggested format when answering paper 2
question involving experiment
• Item to be written
• (a) title/aim (b) Apparatus and materials
• © Set-up of apparatus diagram-
functional,labelled
• (d) Procedure- (i)You must describe how you
measure and pour the chemical substances into
appropriate containers
• (ii) Values of concentration and volume of the
solution must be stated
• (iii) Steps taken while carrying our the experiment
must be written in the correct order
Paper 2 involving experiment
• (iv) Write “ readings or measurements are recorded”
• (v) You must ensure that the chemical substances
you choose are correct and will react accordingly to
give the desired result –giving the correct products
• (vi) Chemical substances can be written in words or
chemical formulae. If chemical formuale are used,
they must be correct
• The physical state of the chemical substances must
also be stated. Example solution or solid or gas,
powdered or pieces of ribbon, acidified or neutral etc
Essay questions involving experiment

• (d) Observation or theory or explanation


• (i) Answer according to the needs of the
experiment. If certain facts are not asked, you
can write briefly.
• (ii) Include chemical equation or half equation
or graph in your answer to make your answer
easily understood.
Essay questions paper 2 involving
experiment
• (e) Tabulation of data / result
• The readings normally need to be presented
in a table. Your table must have the correct
headings and units. Values must be give for
the manipulated variable.Symbols can be used
for the responding variable

Time(s) 30 60 90 120
Temperatu
re (oC)
t1 t2 t3 t4
Essay Questions involving experiment

• (f) Calculation
• If real values are not given, you can use
unknown such as x,y,z in your calculations
• All steps must be clearly shown and units
must be written
• (g) Conclusion
• A conclusion must be written based on the
aim of the experiment
Guideline on answering questions Paper 3
• 1) Scientific skills ( assessed in structed question-
total marks :33)
• (a) Observing (b) classifying
• © Measuring and using numbers
• (d)inferring (e) predicting
• (f) communicating
• (g) Using space-time relationship
• (h) Intepreting data
• (i) Defining operationally
• (j) Controlling variables
• (k) Hypothesizing
Techniques on answering questions in
paper 3
• (a) classifing- draw a table with a ruler, every column
must have a correct heading and units must be
written (if any)
• (b) observing- Write what you see, hear, feel, taste
or smell
• © making inference- State the appropriate inference
that explains the observation/results. You must give
an inference that corresponds with the
observation/results
Technique paper 3
• (d) predicting- You need to analyse all the
information given(observations, previous
experiences or data that can be trusted) and
hence make a forecast(prediction) according to
the need of the question
• (e) measuring and using numbers- You must
write the value of the measurement according
to the accuracy of the apparatus used. All the
values written must be uniform and have the
correct unit.
• Ruler- one decimal place eg.9.6 cm
• Measuring cylinder, pipette 25cm3 ,stop watch,
thermometer ,– one decimal place
• Burette 50cm3 two decimal places, the second
decimal place must end with 0 or 5
Paper 3- Question 3(17 marks) involving
planning an experiment
• 1)Answer according to the need of the question. Write the
report according to the headings required in the question.You
must write the headings and not the question number or part
question
• 2)Technique
• (a) Aim of the experiment- Read the question carefully and
the aim for the experiment is clearly stated in the question.
The aim must be written accurately
• (b) Problem statement- the problem statement must be a
question ending with a question mark’?’ The problem
statement should used certain key word such as ‘WHATt” ,
‘HOW’. The problem statement need to be accurate and
complete
Question 3-Paper 3
Technique
• © Hypothesis- The statement usually correlated the
manipulated variable and the responding variable. The
manipulated variable must be written in front of the
statement and followed by the responding variable. Need to
state the ‘direction-right one’ of change for both the variable
• (d) All variables
• Manipulated variable: Materials that we use and change in
the experiment
• Responding variable: Measurement(using apparatus, through
observation or product of the reaction) that is recorded for
each material that we change in the experiment
Question 3-paper3
technique
• (e) List of apparatus and materials
• State the name of all materials(including its concentration)
and all apparatus
• A labelled diagram of the set-up apparatus may complement
the list
• (f) Procedure-
• Voume and concentration must be written. State the quantity
of the material used. Do not write ‘about 3 gram”. The steps
in the procedure must be in order. Use passive sentences.
• (g) Tabulation of data
• Must draw table using a ruler. Every column must have a
heading and its unit (if any). Manipulated variable must be on
the left side of the table and responding variable on the right
side.
Thank
You

10/16/12 Program Intervensi PPSMI 2007 69