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5. Let F be prestress at one end


and F – dF the prestress at
the other end.

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7. If N is the normal component
of be
1. Consider a small length of the cable. Let ds F, we have and R
its length
be the radius of curvature. (Figure below).
In the post tensioned beams several 8. cables are provided.
The cables are stretched in succession.9. If Whenis the coefficient
a cable is of
stretched, this cable Frictional loss due friction,
to wobble effect isloss =
frictional
calculated as dF=
10. dF = –KFds
Friction between the tendon and its surrounding material is the length
11.effect. where
effect and is sometimes described as wobbling K is coefficient
Friction
of wave effect.
12. Therefore, total
frictional loss = dF
=

13. or
14. if F is the prestress at a
2. due to length effect depends
distance S subtending an
on the length, stress in the
angle , integrating the
tendon (cable) and the
above equation between
coefficient of friction between
limits F and Fx, we have
the contact materials.
15.
3. Curvature effect is caused by
16. Value of and K may
the friction due to designed
be taken as follows:
curvature of the cable. Loss
17. There are several
due to these effects is
means of reducing or
estimated as follows:
balancing the loss of
4. Let be the angle
prestress due to creep.
subtended at the centre by
18. suffers no loss, but
the length ds.
the cable stretched before
suffers a loss due to 21. girders By AASHTO
prestress in the cable specifications, an allowable concrete
being stretched. Thus the stress of fc = 0.40 fc ’ = 1200 psi And an
cable which is stretched allowable steel stress of fs = 0.5 fy =
first will suffer maximum 20,If prestress is measured at
loss due to stretching of the time of pulling the wire,
(n – 1) cables where n is the stress is termed as the
the total number of jacking stress. Deducting the
cables. The cable loss due to anchorage take-
stretched last will not up and friction, initial
suffer any loss. To prestress is obtained.
calculate the loss due to Effective stress is usually the
elastic shortening, loss in initial stress minus other four
the first cable is losses namely:
calculated and half of this 22. Loss due to
value is taken as the 23.
average loss of all the 24. vc) Creep of Concrete:
cables. 25. Creep is the time
19. girders By AASHTO dependent deformation due
specifications, an allowable concrete to permanent force. In
stress of fc = 0.40 fc ’ = 1200 psi And an prestressed concrete,
allowable steel stress of fs = 0.5 fy = prestress is the permanent
20,If prestress is measured at force in the member, causing
the time of pulling the wire, compressive stress at the
the stress is termed as the level of steel. Hence there is
jacking stress. Deducting the creep strain in the member.
loss due to anchorage take-
26. relaxation of steel
up and friction, initial
prestress is obtained. TOTAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS:
Effective stress is usually the 27. elastic shortening
initial stress minus other four 28. shrinkage of concrete
losses namely:
29. creep of concrete
20. Loss due to
30. relaxation of steel Loss due to

and Specifications Clear Span 48 ft Clear width


29 ft Live Loading HS20 Concrete strength fc ’
3000 psi Future protective cover 15 pf Grade 40
reinforcement The bridge will consist of six c Elastic strain =
girders By AASHTO specifications, an allowable
concrete stress of fc = 0.40 fc ’ = 1200 psi And is the stress in concrete at the
an allowable steel stress of fs = 0.5 fy = 20,If level of steel.
prestress is measured at the time
of pulling the wire, the stress is Loss in prestress = creep strain

termed as the jacking stress. x

Deducting the loss due to


anchorage take-up and friction,
initial prestress is obtained.
Effective stress is usually the initial
stress minus other four losses
namely:
x
Loss due to

girders By AASHTO specifications, an allowable


concrete stress of fc = 0.40 fc ’ = 1200 psi And
an allowable steel stress of fs = 0.5 fy = 20,If
prestress is measured at the time
of pulling the wire, the stress is
termed as the jacking stress.
Deducting the loss due to
anchorage take-up and friction,
initial prestress is obtained.
Effective stress is usually the initial
stress minus other four losses
namely: