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Concrete frame structures are a very common - or perhaps the most common- type of modern
building internationally. As the name suggests, this type of building consists of a frame or
skeleton of concrete. Horizontal members of this frame are called beams, and vertical
members are called columns. Humans walk on flat planes of concrete called slabs (see figure
2 at the bottom of the page for an illustration of each of the major parts of a frame
structure). Of these, the column is the most important, as it is the primary load-carrying
element of the building . If you damage a beam or slab in a building, this will affect only one
floor, but damage to a column could bring down the entire building.
When we say concrete in the building trade, we actually mean
reinforced concrete. Its full name is reinforced cement concrete, or
RCC. RCC is concrete that contains steel bars, called reinforcement
bars, or rebars. This combination works very well, as concrete is very
strong in compression, easy to produce at site, and inexpensive, and
steel is very very strong in tension. To make reinforced concrete, one
first makes a mould, called formwork, that will contain the liquid
concrete and give it the form and shape we need. Then one looks at
the structural engineer's drawings and places in the steel
reinforcement bars, and ties them in place using wire. The tied steel
is called a reinforcement cage, because it is shaped like one.

Once the steel is in place, one can start to prepare the concrete, by
mixing cement, sand, stone chips in a range of sizes, and water in a
cement mixer, and pouring in the liquid concrete into the formwork
tilll exactly the right level is reached. The concrete will become hard
in a matter of hours, but takes a month to reach its full
strength. Therefore it is usually propped up until that period. During
this time the concrete must be cured, or supplied with water on its
surface, which it needs for the chemical reactions within to proceed

Working out the exact 'recipe', or proportions of each ingredient is a science in itself. It is
called concrete mix design. A good mix designer will start with the properties that are desired
in the mix, then take many factors into account, and work out a detailed mix design. A site
engineer will often order a different type of mix for a different purpose. For example, if he is
casting a thin concrete wall in a hard-to-reach area, he will ask for a mix that is
more flowable than stiff. This will allow the liquid concrete to flow by gravity into every
corner of the formwork. For most construction applications, however, a standard mix is used.

Common examples of standard mixes are M20, M30, M40 concrete, where the number refers
to the strength of the concrete in n/mm2 or newtons per square millimeter. Therefore M30
concrete will have a compressive strength of 30 n/mm2. A standard mix may also specify the
maximum aggregate size. Aggregates are the stone chips used in concrete. If an engineer
specifies M30 / 20 concrete, he wants M30 concrete with a maximum aggregate size of
20mm. He does NOT want concrete with a strength of between 20-30 n/mm2, which is a
common misinterpretation in some parts of the world.

So the structure is actually a connected frame of members, each of which are firmly
connected to each other. In engineering parlance, these connections are called moment
connections, which means that the two members are firmly connected to each other. There
are other types of connections, including hinged connections, which are used in steel
structures, but concrete frame structures have moment connections in 99.9% of cases. This
frame becomes very strong, and must resist the various loads that act on a building during its

The concrete frame rests on foundations, which transfer the forces - from the building and on
the building - to the ground.

Some other important components of concrete frame structures are:

Shear Walls are important structural elements in high-rise buildings. Shear walls are
essentially very large columns - they could easily measure 400mm thick by 3m long - making
them appear like walls rather than columns. Their function in a building is to help take care
of horizontal forces on buildings like wind and earthquake loads. Normally, buildings are
subject to vertical loads - gravity. Shear walls also carry vertical loads. It is important to
understand that they only work for horizontal loads in one direction - the axis of the long
dimension of the wall. These are usually not required in low-rise structures.

Elevator Shafts are vertical boxes in which the elevators move up and down - normally each
elevator is enclosed in its own concrete box. These shafts are also very good structural
elements, helping to resist horizontal loads, and also carrying vertical loads.
Concrete frame structures are strong and economical. Hence almost any walling materials can
be used with them. The heavier options include masonry walls of brick, concrete block, or
stone. The lighter options include drywall partitions made of light steel or wood studs
covered with sheeting boards. The former are used when strong, secure, and sound-proof
enclosures are required, and the latter when quick, flexible lightweight partitions are needed.

When brick or concrete blocks are used, it is common to plaster the entire surface - brick and
concrete - with a cement plaster to form a hard, long-lasting finish.
Concrete frame buildings can be clad with any kind of cladding material. Common cladding
materials are glass, aluminum panels, stone sheets, and ceramic facades. Since these
structures can be designed for heavy loading, one could even clad them in solid masonry
walls of brick or stone.

Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used modern building materials. Concrete
is “artifcial stone” obtained by mixing cement, sand, and aggregates with water. Fresh
concrete can be molded into almost any shape, which is an inherent advantage over
other materials. Concrete became very popular after the invention of Portland cement
in 19th century; however, its limited tension resistance prevented its wide use in building
construction. To overcome this weakness, steel bars are embedded in concrete to
form a composite material called reinforced concrete. Developments in the modern
reinforced concrete design and construction practice were pioneered by European
engineers in the late 19th century. At the present time, reinforced concrete is extensively
used in a wide variety of engineering applications (e.g., buildings, bridges, dams).
The worldwide use of reinforced concrete construction stems from the wide availability
of reinforcing steel as well as the concrete ingredients. Unlike steel, concrete production
does not require expensive manufacturing mills. Concrete construction, does, however,
require a certain level of technology, expertise, and workmanship, particularly in the
feld during construction. In some cases, single-family houses or simple low-rise residential
buildings are constructed without any engineering assistance.
The extensive use of reinforced concrete construction, especially in developing countries,
is due to its relatively low cost compared to other materials such as steel. The cost of
construction changes with the region and strongly depends on the local practice. As
an example, a unit area of a typical residential building made with reinforced concrete
costs approximately US$100 /m2 in India, US$250/m2 in Turkey, and US$500/m2 in Italy.
With the rapid growth of urban population in both the developing and the industrialized
countries, reinforced concrete has become a material of choice for residential
construction. Unfortunately, in many cases there is not the necessary level of expertise
in design and construction. Design applications range from single-family buildings in
countries like Algeria and Colombia to high-rises in Chile, Canada, Turkey, and China
(Figure 1). Frequently, reinforced concrete construction is used in regions of high seismic
Figure 1: Typical residential RC
frame building in Turkey (WHE
Report 64, Turkey)
Reinforced Concrete Frame Construction
risk, such as Latin America, southern Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast
Reinforced concrete (RC) frames consist of horizontal elements (beams) and vertical
elements (columns) connected by rigid joints. These structures are cast monolithically—
that is, beams and columns are cast in a single operation in order to act in unison. RC
frames provide resistance to both gravity and lateral loads through bending in beams
and columns (Figure 2). There are several subtypes of RC frame construction:
• Νon-ductile RC frames with/without infill walls
• Νon-ductile RC frames with reinforced infill walls
• Ductile RC frames with/without infill walls
The current WHE database includes over twenty reports describing RC frame
construction. The most prevalent type is RC frame with masonry infill walls (Figure 3).
This construction is still practiced extensively in many parts of the world, especially in
developing countries. This construction comprises approximately 75% of the building
stock in Turkey, about 60% in Colombia, and over 30% in Greece. Details of this
construction type including regional variations are contained in the WHE reports from
Cyprus (WHE Report 13), India (WHE Report 19), Palestinian Territories (WHE Report
48), Turkey (WHE Report 64), and Romania (WHE Report 71). RC frames with concrete
infill walls, also known as dual systems, are very common in earthquake-prone areas.
The WHE reports from Chile (Report 6) and Syria (Report 59) describe details of this
construction type.
Code requirements related to design and detailing of RC frame buildings in seismic zones
were significantly changed in the early 1970s. Earlier codes focused on the strength
requirements—that is, on providing adequate strength in structural members to resist
the lateral seismic forces. However, based on research evidence and lessons learned
from earthquakes in the early 1970s, code requirements have become more focused
on the proportioning and detailing of beams, columns, and joints with the objective to
achieve a certain amount of ductility in addition to the required strength. Ductility is one
Figure 2: A plan of a typical RC
frame building in Ahmedabad,
India; note the portion that
collapsed in the 2001 Bhuj
earthquake (WHE Report 19, India)
Reinforced Concrete Frame Construction
of the key features required for desirable seismic behavior of building structures. It can
be defned as the ability of a material to stretch (deform) signifcantly before failure.
Steel (and some other metals) exhibit ductile behavior. For example, a metal paper clip
can be bent back and forth without breaking. However, other materials are brittle (the
opposite of ductile). A piece of chalk will break as soon as we try to bend it. In reinforced
concrete, concrete behaves like chalk, whereas steel reinforcement behaves like a
paper clip. Therefore, steel reinforcement has a key role in ensuring ductile behavior
of reinforced concrete structures in earthquakes. Earthquake engineers spend a
considerable amount of time trying to ensure that the amount and distribution of steel
reinforcement are adequate for a specifc design. That part of seismic design is called
seismic detailing, or sometimes the art of detailing. The principles and rules of seismic
detailing of reinforced concrete structures have been emerging over time and are
mainly reflected in seismic provisions of building codes.
Thus, pre-1970 nonductile concrete frames, although often designed to resist lateral
forces, did not incorporate modern ductile seismic detailing provisions. As a result, the
main seismic defciencies of the pre-1970s concrete frame construction include (ATC-

Reinforced concrete
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The novel shape of the Philips Pavilion in Brussels was allowed by reinforced concrete.
Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite
material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by
the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement
is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded
passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally
designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause
unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain
varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in
conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may also be permanently stressed (in
tension), so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the
United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-
For a strong, ductile and durable construction the reinforcement needs to have the following
properties at least:
 High relative strength
 High toleration of tensile strain
 Good bond to the concrete, irrespective of pH, moisture, and similar factors
 Thermal compatibility, not causing unacceptable stresses in response to changing
 Durability in the concrete environment, irrespective of corrosion or sustained stress
for example.


The Irregularity in the building structures may be due to irregular distributions in their mass,
Strength and stiffness along the height of building. When such buildings are constructed in
high Seismic zones, the analysis and design becomes more complicated. There are two types
of Irregularities :-

1. Plan irregularities
2. Vertical irregularities.

Vertical irregularities are one of the major reasons of failures of structures during
earthquakes. Vertical Irregularities are mainly of five types :-
i) Stiffness Irregularity :- Under stiffness irregularity the stiffness of the members in a frame
are not equal
and they vary according to the floor height, modulus of elasticity of concrete and moment of
of that member.
ii) Mass Irregularity :- Mass irregularity shall be considered to exist
where the seismic weight of any storey is more than 200
percent of that of its adjacent storeys. In case of roof
not be
irregularity need
iii) Vertical Geometric Irregular :- A structure is considered to be
vertical geometric irregular when the horizontal dimension of the
lateral force resisting system in any storey is more than 200 percent
of that in its adjacent storey. In case of roofs irregularity need not be

A soft storey is one in which the

Stiffness lateral stiffness is less than 70 % of
1. irregularity (soft that in the storey above or less than
storey) 80% of the average stiffness of the
three storey above.
Mass irregularity shall be considered
to exist where the effective mass of
any storey is more than 150 % of the
2. Mass irregularity
effective mass of an adjacent storey.
A roof which is lighter than floor
below need not be considered.
Vertical geometric irregularity shall
be considered to exist where
horizontal dimension of the lateral
Vertical geometric
3. force-resisting system in any storey
is more than 130 % of that in an
adjacent storey, one storey
penthouse need not to be considered.


These loads include:
 Dead Loads: the downwards force on the building coming from the weight of the
building itself, including the structural elements, walls, facades, and the like.
 Live Loads: the downwards force on the building coming from the expected weight
of the occupants and their possessions, including furniture, books, and so on.
Normally these loads are specified in building codes and structural engineers must
design buildings to carry these or greater loads. These loads will vary with the use of
the space, for example, whether it is residential, office, industrial to name a few. It is
common for codes to require live loads for residential to be a minimum of about 200
kg/m2, offices to be 250 kg/m2, and industrial to be 1000 kg/m2, which is the same as
1T/m2. These live loads are sometimes called imposed loads.
 Dynamic Loads: these occur commonly in bridges and similar infrastructure, and are
the loads created by traffic, including braking and accelerating loads.
 Wind Loads: This is a very important design factor, especially for tall buildings, or
buildings with large surface area. Buildings are designed not to resist the everyday
wind conditions, but extreme conditions that may occur once every 100 years or so.
These are called design windspeeds, and are specified in building codes. A building
can commonly be required to resist a wind force of 150 kg/m2, which can be a very
significant force when multiplied by the surface area of the building.
 Earthquake Loads: in an earthquake, the ground vigorously shakes the building both
horizontally and vertically, rather like a bucking horse shakes a rider in the sport of
rodeo. This can cause the building to fall apart. The heavier the building, the greater
the force on it. Its important to note that both wind and earthquake impose horizontal
forces on the building, unlike the gravity forces it normally resists, which are vertical
in direction.

STAAD.Pro is a structural analysis and design computer program

originally developed by Research Engineers International at Yorba Linda, CA in 1997. In late
2005, Research Engineers International was bought by Bentley Systems.
STAAD.Pro, is one of the most widely used structural analysis and design software products
worldwide. It supports several steel, concrete and timber design codes.

It is a well-known software for analyzing many types of structures with different loads, it is
widely used due to its usefull interface and somewhat easy to draw and easy to apply loads on
structures, It is also known for a helpful feature namely staad editor, which allows user to edit
the series of commands as per requirement.
This software allowed me to model many types of structures for analysis –
1. Regular 3 storey building
2. Regular 10 storey building
3. C Shape plan irregular building
4. H Shape plan irregular building
5. L Shape plan irregular building
6. I Shape plan irregular building
7. T Shape plan irregular building
8. STEP Like vertical irregular building
9. STACK Like vertical irregular building


We are comparing the IS-1893: 1984, 2002 and 2016
PRAMETER IS-1893:1984 IS-1893:2002 IS-1893:2016

Seismic design Zone I,II,III,IV,V Zone II,III,IV,V Zone II,III,IV,V

Time period T= 0.1n (n= no of T= 0.075h^0.75 T= 0.075h^0.75 (RC FRAME)

floors) (RC FRAME) T= 0.085h^0.75 (STEEL
T= 0.09h/√d T= 0.085h^0.75 FRAME)
(STEEL T= 0.09h/√d
FRAME) Ta=0.075h^0.75/√Aw
Or For buildings with RC Struc
T= 0.09h/√d wall


coefficient coefficient COEFFICIENT METHOD
method METHOD Ah= Z/2*I/R*Sa/g
Ah=β*I*α0 Ah= Z/2*I/R*Sa/g
spectrum method

Design base Vb= K*C*Ah*W Vb= Ah*W Vb= Ah*W


Performance K=1 for --------------------- -----------------------

factor buildings with --
good ductility
K=1.6 for

Response ---------------------- S.M.R.F=5 S.M.R.F=5

reduction factor - O.M.R.F=3 O.M.R.F=3
Importance 1 for regular 1 for regular 1 for regular buildings
factor buildings buildings 1.2 for business structure
1.5 for important 1.5 for important 1.5 for important buildings
buildings buildings

GENERAL- This chapter provides an information of analysis of seismic loads on different RC
frames and comparing the results due to revision of earthquake design codes viz revised in
2016 latest. As we know the buildings designed as per old codes are not safe as the structures
designed with new and revised codes, we need to check how much changes will occur due to
this revision and check the difference between base shear and story drift values. The below
mentioned papers are referred by me to take the better methods and ways to analyze the frames,
and building properties of RC frames as shown in referred papers to validate some of the results
and, ultimately check the changes due to revised methods.

1. S.K. Ahirwar, S.K. Jain and M. M. Pande(2008) has carried out an seismic analysis
on three different RC frames. He did seismic analysis with static and dynamic method.

Load combinations as per revised codes

IS:1893- 1984 taken from IS:1343- 1980
1.5(D.L + L.L)
1.5(D.L + E.L)
1.2(D.L + L.L + E.L)
IS:1893- 2002
1.5(D.L + L.L)
1.2(D.L + L.L [+ -] EL)
1.5(D.L [+ -] EL)
0.9D.L [+ -] 1.5 EL
IS:1893- 2016
1.2[D.L + L.L + - (ELx +- 0.3Ely)] and
1.2[D.L + L.L + - (ELy + - 0.3ELx)]
1.5[D.L + - (ELx +- 0.3Ely)] and
1.5[D.L + - (ELy + - 0.3ELx)]
0.9D.L +- 1.5(ELx +- 0.3Ely)
0.9D.L +- 1.5(ELy + - 0.3ELx)


OF 2002 2016 2002 2016
BASE Zx Zy Zx Zy Zx Zy Zx Zy
SHEAR (kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2)
3 424.7161 424.7161 509.6594 509.6594 658.4377 658.4377 1316.875 1316.875
10 584.4447 584.4447 701.3336 701.3336 1319.383 1319.383 3754.701 3754.701
C 868.796 868.796 1042.555 1042.555 1430.89 1959.528 4829.257 4829.257
SHAPE 2 2 1 1
H 1610.029 1610.029 1932.035 1932.035 3804.189 3804.189 9375.426 9375.426
SHAPE 8 8 7 7 9 9
T 1049.923 1049.923 1259.908 1259.908 2322.449 2119.88 5723.676 5723.676
SHAPE 4 4 1 1 2
L 424.5968 424.5968 509.5162 509.5162 949.6121 849.2731 1777.104 1777.104
STACK 1488.279 1488.279 3305.753 3305.753 3372.93 3372.93 4047.516 4047.516
SHAPE 1 1 6 6
STEP 1570.981 1570.981 3313.101 3313.101 4718.819 3336.20 15012.92 9007.753
SHAPE 9 9 6 6 2