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That which the Prophet passed down as inheritance was the Quran (nothing else), and he was
the walking Quran.

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Called “Qur’an” which is a masdar of qara’a; i.e. “the recital” (shukr to shukran, ghafara to
ghufran); refers to the spoken portion

“Kitab” refers to the written aspect

(though incidently both k t b and q r a have the similar (original meaning of “gathering
together”)

Not only words/surahs gathered together on paper or in speech but of


knowledge and meanings, or wisdom and rulings- fiha kutubun qayyima.

It’s having these two names means the Quran depends on both modes of transmission- one
must always check the other;

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The earlier books were entrusted to their scholars to preserve (maidah: 44); it was sought of
them to protect it.

Whereas Allah promised to protect the Quran.

Rely on His grace alone; without Him we would fall into error and misguidance just as they did.

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Definition cannot be bound by the linguistic meaning alone, but rather:

The words of God revealed to Muhammad the recital of which is an act of worship
(unlike hadith qudsi or qira’a ahad).

The speech of God which is NOT revealed is that which is endless.

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The words of the Prophet which are tawfiqi are certainly not the words of Allah (i.e. from his
own reflection of the Book or of the world in general); neither are those which are tawqifi- even
if he received the meanings from Allah.

According to the stronger opinion, the hadith qudsi are also the words of the Rasul; otherwise
what would be the difference between it and the Quran.