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Integrated Surface Modification

Develop and demonstrate an emissions compliant engine system for Class 7-8 highway
Integrated Surface Modification 21CTP Technical Goal: trucks that improves the engine system efficiency from ~42% today to 50% by 2010.
Project Objectives

Develop surface texture features and patterns that will control friction

Technology Development

and increase durability. Develop cost-effective fabrication techniques. 0.08 Ellipse A
Ellipse W
Develop thin films to enhance/protect the textures. Develop lubricant TV

Friction coefficien
chemistry to further increase the robustness of the surface technology. 0.06

Work with industrial partners to validate the technology. Develop a
design guideline (tool chest) for various materials and application
•FY 2005 Focus
Project ID 9407 Develop ISM processing, modeling, and validation.
Planned Duration

October 2004 to September 2007 0
0.0000001 0.000001 0.00001 0.0001

DOE Funding/Industry Cost Share Sommerfeld number

FY04: $200K; FY05: $200K Effect of shape & orientation of texture on friction

Stephen M. Hsu Principal Investigator(s)
•Demonstrated size and shape effect on friction under high speed low load
Stephen Hsu, National Institute of Standards and Technology •Developed a low-cost lithographic-electrochemical etching technique to

National Institute of Standards & Technology (301) 975-6120; stephen.hsu@nist.gov
fabricate surface textures on metal surfaces suitable for high speed low
load applications
•Developing a new texturing design based on size and built-in wedge for
Technology Development Manager high load medium speed conditions

September 15, 2005 Sid Diamond, DOE/OFCVT
(202) 586-8032; sid.diamond@ee.doe.gov Significant Future Milestones
Working with industrial partners to develop thin films and lubricant
chemistry to demonstrate the friction reduction potential of the combined
effects ( 9-30-06)

This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information
Project ID/Agreement ID Program Structure Sub-Program Element R&D Phase Date
PM_9407 Materials Technology HV Propulsion Materials Applied Research 8-15-05

low speed conditions. dimples. After the optimum textural features are determined. add ¾Moving into high load. Use surface chemistry to achieve additional friction ¾Initiate modeling to develop design guidelines for surface textures reduction 3 4 8. shape. Fabricate surface features such as grooves. Conduct friction experiments to measure friction reduction ¾Conduct experiments to assess the effects of size. Design surface texture patterns based on theory controlled surface textures at low cost without damage 3. Repeat steps 1-7 for more severe contact conditions . and lubricating triangles using two techniques: chemistry to achieve durable friction control of engine o micro-mechanical actions for precisely controlled components under a wide operating conditions to reduce size & shape parasitic energy losses by 3-5% o Lithographic/electrochemical etching for low cost Last year’s objectives: fabrication ¾Develop lithography/electrochemical etching technique to fabricate 2. Objectives Approach Overall Project Objective 1. Develop models to develop surface feature design ¾Moving into medium load & speed conditions. Conduct controlled experiments to test various friction under high speed low load conditions and to understand the friction reduction mechanisms reduction mechanism(s) of surface feature in this regime 5. & pattern 4. Integrating surface texture. thin films/coatings. use right textures that will reduce friction chemistry to protect the thin films ¾Develop low-cost fabrication technique for features 7. develop surface thin films to protect the surface features. develop surface principles for next generation of surface features textures that will reduce friction 6.

lower operating 1/3 friction reduction in seals temperatures in moving parts and energy transmission • Near frictionless carbon films (durability) components. Relevance to 21 CT Goals • Emissions ¾ Hydrocarbons • Develop and demonstrate an emission compliant engine Fuel ¾ NOx system for class 7 & 8 trucks that improves the engine system economy ¾ Nanoparticles efficiency from 42% today to 50% by 2010 • This project addresses friction reduction in various engine components where parasitic energy losses are occurring such Implications for material engine technology as bearings. increase • Surface texturing (friction reduction) laser texturing demonstrated 3X life and wear resistance. enable application of some new materials with poor tribological properties but possess other needed attributes. • It has the potential of reducing wind resistance by controlling 5 reduce parasitic losses. United Technology. Timken. weight Reduction • We are organizing a working group involving Caterpillar. Crane Packing and other smaller An integrated surface modification for friction and wear control engine manufacturing to jointly developing this technology Combining recent advances in • Surface modification technology offers friction control. • Directionally controlled solid lubricant films • Nanostructured hard lubricious films • It also enables the utilization of light weight materials which • Self-adjusting boundary lubricating films may not have the necessary friction and wear characteristic to To create a tailored surface for a particular applicaion be used in engine applications. etc. • This would yield improved lubricant flow distribution. transmissions. • Friction reduction re-emerges as a priority • Texturing and surface modification technology have the – Heavy duty diesel engine highly loaded potential of reducing the parasitic losses by at least 5% while – High operating temperatures improving durability significantly by preventing seizure and – Friction reduction is very difficult scoring – Largest fuel economy gains have been in aerodynamics. prevent seizure/scoring. cams. seizure prevention. multi-grade oils. 6 the aerodynamics of trucks . piston-liner interfaces.

7 lubricant compressibility.II. low load: hydrodynamic effects. 2000) Laser (M. 1995) Regime I: seals. 1968) (M. 1991) (P. Geiger. feasibility not yet shown8 (T. Low thrust bearings Medium Regime II (J. Lai. Haeflke. Ranjan.III.N.History of surface texturing Micro- Blaster Current state-of-the-art surface texture friction reduction technology as a function of speed and load Island Speed Photoengraving Low Medium High Load (R. 2002) High transmission. Wakuda.Anno. Baumgart.I. (H. high load: combing effects of contact mechanics. Low-medium speed. demonstrated success in seals Grooves Micro- Grooved . 1993) . 2000) Regime III: piston-liner. increases friction . 1995 . bearings TAIHO. High speed. High-medium speed. and wear particle trapping. medium load: combing effects of hydrodynamics and bearing contact mechanics.

distribution • with same number. same area density. different shape and distribution at low loads and high speeds 9 10 . Regime I study: validation of bench test procedures Micro-lithograph and Electrochemical etching Would geometric shapes affect friction? Spin coating Photoresist Shape factor? Orientation of features? UV expose Mask Pattern design? NaCl pitch Develop Electrochemical etching by controlling the electrolyte and voltage • The effect of shape.

(µm) (µm) (µm) dimple (µm2) density (%) Material: steel/steel Circle 150 8 500 17671 7 Diameter of small disk: 6. Features of surface texture: Modified flat-on-disk test conditions Pattern & Dimension Depth Pitch Area of a Area Sliding dir.23 m/s Lubricant : purified parafin oil with Triangle 187 8 500 17671 7 TCP & antioxidant (Saybolt number 125/135) Temperature: room temperature Same 11 12 .1 MPa Speed range: 0.35 mm Load Load range: 1-35 N Ellipse 300/75 8 500 17671 7 Pressure: 0.023-0.03-1.

04 . Cavitation Examples 0. Cylinder liners 0. Back flow 0.1 Flow direction Regime I : Apparent contact Pressure < 15MPa Notexture Circle 0.0000001 0.08 Ellipse A Ellipse W Possible Mechanisms – TV additional hydrodynamic lift Friction coefficien TA .0001 Hydrodynamic effects? Sommerfeld number µ V /P effects 14 .000001 0. 0.06 . Thrust bearings .00001 0. Seals .02 V 0 Hydrodynamic 0.

20 15 25 20 0.10 m d.00 0.15 ee 0.04 0.00 ee 0.06 0.06 nt 0.15 5 Hydrodynamic contact Sp 10 15 ellipse ╧ to sliding effect 20 0.N 30 35 hydrodynamic pressure lift Untextured 0.20 Load.00 ee 0.00 0.08 Friction coefficie 0.08 0. Medium Load Region: Apparent Untextured contact Pressure – 15-120MPa 0.04 Friction change mechanisms μincrease: 0.00 μreduction: d.N 35 Load .15 5 5 Sp Sp 10 15 10 20 0.04 0.08 0.06 increase in roughness Friction coefficient 0.06 0.06 V 0.20 Load 30 25 .04 0.02 Circular dimples leakage rate vs sealing rate 0.00 0.10 0.05 High edge stresses s 0.02 0.05 turbulence & mixing 0.10 m/ /s 0.02 0.02 0.08 Friction coefficie 0.10 EHL dominated s m/ Edge d.10 0. 25 30 15 effects 16 N 35 .08 0.02 0.02 0.04 contact pressure increase 0.04 0.08 0. Circle Speed and load boundaries for friction reduction Regime II: Medium Speed. Ellipse ⊥ Sliding 0.06 nt 0.10 fluid compression lift force 0.10 0. 0.05 0. 0.

35 mm Diameter= 4 mm Lubricant pushed Deformation along the wedge. Lower Change depth shaped bottom Friction Eaton & Northwestern –EHL model confirmed friction increase 17 To provide lift 18 . Built-in artificial wedge friction increases with resultant wear Under elastic or plastic deformation conditions Why? Edge stresses = equivalent roughness increases Dimples lubricant reservoirs incompressible liquid What does the elastohydrodynamic theory tell us? Diameter= 6. New surface texture design principle: When the apparent contact pressure exceeds 150 MPa.

08 0. 0. Ball-on-three-flats test done in a Four Ball wear tester New texture design Steel on Brass 5 Kg 2 Kg Load: 5.04 Tex 13 Tex 13 Tex 22 10 Kg Tex 22 20 Kg 0. Depth: 8 µm Friction coefficien Friction coefficien 0.12 0.01 0 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotation speed Rotation speed 10 kg Steel on steel 20 kg 0.02 direction 0. rpm .06 0.05 0.04 Untextured 0.1 0.06 0. rpm Rotational speed.02 0.06 0.03 Sliding 0. Pitch: 100 µm.08 0. 10 Kg (maxima pressure 500MPa) 0. others: room temperature.1 Friction coefficient Friction coefficient 0.02 Tex 31 0.03 Textured 0.05 Diameter: 40-60.01 At 2 Kg 0.02 Tex 31 hydrodynamic pressure Tex 33 Tex 33 19 0 0 20 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Rotational speed.04 0.06 0.04 Untextured Untextured Sloped bottom to artificially generate Tex 11 Tex 11 0.07 Speed: 600 rpm.

Australia. PNWL (friction stirring). Timken. China. test method/characterization round robin (summer 06). validation via modeling and experiments. Ford. Northwestern University pressure and slower speed (modeling) • Demonstrated for the first time. Finland. Israel through IEA (technical information exchange. Beamalloy (thin films). • Show for the first time. reduction under GPa contact pressures in steel-on. John Crane. GM. orientation effects on friction reduction Federal Mogul). • Other partners: ANL (low friction DLC). Summary of accomplishments Technology Transfer • Developed a low cost lithographic electrochemical • Organizing a domestic surface modification working group etching technique to fabricate simple surface features within the IEA activity (the following companies have on metal surfaces expressed interest in joining: Caterpillar. consistent friction • Internationals: UK. ORNL (ceramic • Developed a new designed principle of artificial texturing). Fricso. Japan. Lubrizol (lubricant wedge features that overcame the high contact chemistry). steel surfaces see symposium in supplemental information) • Technology validation through domestic working group via • Test methods have been developed to evaluate actual component testing and implementation friction of textured surfaces • Projected time frame: establishment of the working group (Fall • The design principle needs further development and 05). demonstrate chemistry to protect the textures need to be thin film/chemistry (winter 07). Sweden. Waukesha. Norway. shape. component validation (summer 07) developed 21 22 . Eaton. the dependence of geometric United Technology. Coating and design guideline for some components (Fall 06).

” Surface texturing for friction control.” The fourth China International Symposium on Tribology. Ives. Hsu. Japan. • S. San Diego. • S. “An Integrated surface modification technique to reduce friction and increase durability. Lew Ives. M. 2006 • Jorn Larson Basse. M. 1-3. Ives. S. “Surface texturing: Comparison of various geometric shapes on friction under high Feasibility of integrated surface modification techniques under speed low load conditions. 2004. 2004. 2. May 17-20. 2003. “An integrated surface texture design with surface modification techniques and thin lubricating by March 2006 films. 23 24 . Oakland. • Develop directed electrochemical technique to fabricate such • S. 27-29. M. Hsu. Wang. • Develop design principle for regime III and demonstrate Canada. “An Integrated surface modification technique to control friction: a new paradigm. “Surface texturing: a new design principle for friction control under boundary lubricated • Project decision point conditions. S. Norway. M.” Smart Surfaces in Tribology: Advanced additives and structured coatings Conference. Ponte Vedra. Chae.” Keynote speaker. M.2004. Kobe.” STLE annual meeting.” STLE for various applications annual meeting. M. Nov. “An integrated surface technology international program under IEA” International Energy Agency by such design by June 2006 Executive Committee meeting. Las Vegas. May 29-June 2. 2003. 20-23. 2005. M. Jorn Larson Basse. • S.Xian. “Surface texturing under boundary lubrication for friction control. Japan. Zurich. Kobe. Hsu. Xian. L. “An integrated approach to design intelligent surfaces for heavily loaded contacts. Troms. “Some friction experiments with textured surfaces. Oct. 2005. Hsu. Singapore. May 15-19. China. 8-11.” The First International and lubricant chemistry to develop a robust surface textures • Conference on Advanced Tribology.” International Tribology Congress. M. benefits that can be achieved • S. 10-12. Troms. 2004. X. May 29-June 2.” International • Develop design guidelines for surface textures for regime I & II Joint Tribology Conference. S.China. “Some friction experiments with textured surfaces. Xiaoli Wang. Hsu. June. S. 30. CA. M. M.” Nordic feasibility experimentally by Sept 2006 Symposium on Tribology. May 15-19. Wang. Nevada. November 8-11. • Estimate theoretically the max.. Supplemental slides Future Work • Presentations: Publications. 2007 Proceedings of Nordic Symposium on Tribology. Hsu. L. 2004. M. X. S. 2004 surface textural features by Sept. FL. Hsu. Sept. 2005. a variety of operating conditions (where it worked & where it • Publications: • Jorn Larson Basse. Wang. Dec. Wang. Oct. Hsu. 29-Sept. “Lubricated friction experiments with coarse groove texture. “The size effect of surface texture on lubricated friction.” International Tribology Congress. Toronto.” DEER Conference. • Work with US industrial partners to jointly develop thin films • Y. June. M. Xiaoli Wang. M. Hsu. “Some friction experiments with dimpled surface texture. • S.” did not work) established by Sept. • S. 2003. Las Vegas. Hsu. Norway. M. Presentations • S. 2004. Hsu. • Jorn Larson Basse. L. Hsu. Switzerland. 2005. CA Aug. Hsu. • S. Ives. X. X. the 4th China International Symposium on Tribology.” STLE annual meeting. Hsu.

Ajayi. NIST. 3:00 PM Break Michigan. and establish a community network. October 26-29. We intend to explore Chairmen: Stephen Hsu. Lanzhou. Fang. Japan University." Northwestern University. Ecole Cenrale de Lyon. “Laser surface texturing (LST) of engine components. identify future •Presentations: potentials. “Surface engineering at NSF and the role of grooves on friction. Argonne National •16:30-17:00Kristian Tonder. David-A. Finland 4:30 PM "Nanoscale engineering of surface coatings for improved boundary lubrication.Surface texture symposium I Surface Texture in Tribology arranged jointly arranged with COST 532 (European Cooperation on science A Special Symposium on Integrated Engineered Surfaces held at The joint ASME/STLE Tribology Conference. Argonne National Laboratory. 2005 in Porto. USA •17:00-17:30Gwidon Stachoviack. USA National Physical Laboratory. MI. This symposium will seek to bridge academic research with industrial •8:30-9:00 Jorn Larson Basse. China 2:00 PM “Effect of Laser texturing on lubrication regime transitions” L. Japan •11:00-11:30Staffan Jacobsson. "Description of surface topography". friction. Mendels.” Jorn Larson Basse.. and Techn.Ponte Vedra Beach. "Contact analysis of MEMS: texturing for reducing stiction" Lanzhou Institute of Chemical INTEGRATED ENGINEERED SURFACES II Physics. 12-14th October." H. and lubrication chemistry. Sweden 11:30 AM "Challenges for the application of engineered surfaces to tribosystems subjected to multiple contact modes" Peter Blau. Japan •11:30-12:00Shinya Sasaki. Tohoku University. USA 25 26 . USA 3:30 PM “Surface distress modeling fro engineered surfaces in low lambda regime. VTT Technical Research Centre. Norway labs. Sweden 10:30 AM “The effect of surface texture on stiction. and wear.A Modelling Approach. Uppsala and Technology. Sawgrass Marriott and technology. Argonne National Lab.USA •9:30-10:00 Itzak Etsion. Hsu.” Koji Kato. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. USA •15:00-15:30 Ali Erdemir. Florida. "Fracture behaviour of coated surfaces". Uppsala University. University of Western Australia. thin film modifications." Diann Hua. •13:30-14:00Jane Wang. VA. Technion.” US National applications. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 2003 Porto (ISEP). W. USA 8:30 AM –"An integrated approach to design intelligent surfaces for heavily loaded contacts" S. National Institute of Standards 9:30 AM “State of the art in laser surface Texturing. NSF. “Computer Simulation of Surface Evolution Due to Wear in Mixed Lubrication. ”Multi-scale surface architecture for boundary lubrication" Advanced Industrial Science 11:00 AM "Tribological mechanisms of textures in dry and boundary lubricated sliding" Prof. NIST.” Eaton Corp. M. Triboscience & Tribotechnology consortium) to be held at Institute for Engineering of Resort and Beach Club." Caterpillar. USA Centre of Finland FINLAND •15:30-16:00Kenneth Holmberg. USA •9:00-9:30 Edward Becker. Israel 9:00 AM “Tribology opportunities from surfaces engineered at the nanoscale.” Kenneth Holmberg Technical Research surface texturing with multifunctional coatings". NIST." Ali Erdemir. Arlington. Science Foundation. “to be announced later” Norwegian Univ.”Izhak Etsion. "Physics-based Tribological Interface Modeling. USA 10:00AM Break •10:30-11:00Koij Kato “The Effect of Surface Texture on Friction and Wear” Tohoku University. Sendai. Australia 5:00 PM “Surface texturing to produce specific size and shape of UHMWPE particles for biomaterial application. Caterpillar.Israel and Technology. S. USA 2:30 PM “Measurement of Materials Properties at the Nanoscale: Directions and Limitations”Dr. •14:00-14:30Diann Hua. USA and Philippe Kapsa. "Integrated surface engineering approaches to improved boundary lubrication: merging 4:00 PM “Tribological Optimisation of Thin Coatings . Portugal Engineered surfaces involve surface texturing. France this emerging field with many invited speakers around the world to assess the current knowledge.” Technion. "Virtual surface texture modeling. "Surface textures for high load low speed applications". Department of Mechanical Engineering. Staffan Jacobson. USA •12:00-13:00 Lunch •13:00-13:30Mingwu Bai. USA •10:00-10:30 Stephen Hsu. UK •14:30-15:00Dong Zhu. "Trends in Engine Tribological Materials" General Motors. of Sci. M. Hsu.