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Week 13 Lecture

The Z-Transform

Recap: For Discrete Time Fourier Transform,

X (e j )   x[n]exp
n
 jn
ANALYSIS

1
 X (e )exp jn d SYNTHESIS
j
x[n] 
2 2

The signal exp jn is not the only complex exponential signal which we can use as input into an
LTI system. We can also instead use a more general eigenfunction which is of the form signal z n
, where z  r exp j

If the input x[n] into an LTI system is z n , then the output

  
y[n]  x[n]* h[n]  h[n]* x[n]   h[k ]x[n  k ]   h[k ]z nk  z n  h[k ]z  k
  

The output is also of the form z n but the amplitude is modified by the term H ( z ) where

H ( z )   h[k ]z  k . H ( z ) is an eigenvalue (complex constant) which depends on the complex


variable z only.

Definition of Z-Transform

The term H ( z )   h[k ]z  k is the definition of the Z-transform of h[n], the impulse response of


the discrete LTI system. However we do not restrict ourselves in applying the Z-transform to the
impulse response of discrete LTI systems only. We can in fact also use and apply the z-transform
for any discrete time signal x[n] i.e x[n]  X  z 

The z-transform of a general discrete time x[n] is defined as

X ( z )   x[n]z  n where z  r exp j , where r is the magnitude of z and  (the discrete


frequency) is the angle of z

1
Relationship Between the Z-transform and Discrete Time Fourier transform

i) If we replace exp j in the discrete time Fourier transform with z  r exp j , we obtain the z-
transform. Therefore the z-transform is a generalization of the discrete time Fourier
transform i.e when r  1 or z  1 , the z-transform becomes the discrete time Fourier
transform.

ii) Another relationship between the z-transform and the discrete time Fourier transform is
that the z-transform can be interpreted as the discrete time Fourier transform of a modified
x[n] i.e x[n]r  n .

Given x[n] , the discrete time Fourier Transform is X (e j )   x[n]exp
n
 jn

n
Given x[n]r , the discrete time Fourier Transform is
 

 x[n] r exp  
n
X (e j )  
n
x[n]r  n exp  jn 
n
j

 

 x[n] r exp  
n
  x[n]  z 
n
If we let z  r exp j , then X (e j )  j
 X ( z)
n n

Therefore the Z- transform X (z) is actually the discrete time Fourier transform of x(n)r  n

Now, if the signal x[n] is multiplied by r  n first and then we perform the discrete time Fourier

transform such that  x[n]r
n
n
exp  jn converge (for a range of values of r ) , then this process

is as good as saying we are now performing the z-transform.

The purpose of the exponential weighting function r  n is to press down the function x[n] to
converge as the discrete time n goes to infinity. Thus for discrete time signals which do not have
a discrete time Fourier transform, their z-transform do exist for a range of values of r .

The range of values of r (magnitude of z) which the z-transform transform expression exists is
called the region of convergence (ROC). Note that if r >1 , r  n is a decaying function as n
increases and if that if r <1 , r  n is a growing function as n increases.

The signal x[n] for which the z-transform exist is when  x[n]r

n
  . The value of r in the

exponential weighting function r  n is to ensure that x[n]r  n converge.

2
Basic Geometric Series Summation Review

In dealing with the z-transform, you will need to be familiar with the two geometric series
summation shown.
 
1
1.  ak 
k 0 1 a
, provided a  1 N.B a
k 0
k
 1  a  a 2  a3  a 4  ...

n1
n
1 a
2. a
k 0
k

1 a

Example 1

Determine the bilateral z-transform and its region of convergence of the signal x[n]  a nu[n]

  

 a nu[n]z n   a n z n    az 1 
n
X ( z) 
n n 0 n 0

Note that X ( z ) is an infinite series. It will only converge provided az 1  1

1
If az 1  1 , X(s) will converge to X ( z ) 
1  az 1

1
Thus the z-transform for x[n]  a nu[n] is X ( z )  PROVIDED that
1  az 1
a
az 1  1 or  1 or z > a
z

Region of convergence for example 1

z
Note that by multiplying numerator and denominator by z, X ( z ) 
za

3
Example 2

Determine the bilateral z-transform and its region of convergence of the signal
x[n]  a nu[n  1]

 1  
X ( z )    a nu[n  1]z  n    a n z  n   a  n z n  1    a 1 z 
n

n  n  n 1 n 0

Note that X ( z ) is an infinite series. It will only converge provided a 1 z  1

1
If a 1 z  1 , or equivalently z  a X(s) will converge to X ( z )  1 
1  a 1 z

1 1  a 1 z  1 a 1 z
X ( z)  1  1
 1
 1
, Dividing numerator and denominator by a 1z we
1 a z 1 a z 1 a z
1
obtain X ( z ) 
1  az 1

1
Thus the z-transform for x[n]  a nu[n  1] is X ( z )  PROVIDED that z<a
1  az 1

Region of convergence for example 2

z
Note that by multiplying numerator and denominator by z, X ( z ) 
za

Summary: In example 1 and example 2, even though the 2 signals are different, the algebraic
expression for the respective z-transform is the SAME. The only difference is their respective
regions of convergence (ROC). Therefore when specifying the z-transform of a signal, both the
algebraic expression and the ROC i.e the range of values of z for which the expression of X(z)
is valid are required.

4
The z-Plane

As shown in examples 1 and 2, a convenient way to display the region of convergence (ROC) is
to plot it on the z-plane. The z-plane is a complex plane consisting of the horizontal Re(z) axis
and the vertical Im(z) axis. The shaded region represents the set of points in the z-plane
corresponding to the region of convergence of the z-transform of a particular signal. A unit circle
is always drawn on the z-plane as reference. All points on this unit circle correspond to
z  1 or r =1 (radius of 1) .

Example 3
n n
1 1
Find the z-transform and the region of convergence of x[n]  7   u[n]  6   u[n]
3 2

We first perform the z-transform of each term individually and note its ROC.

We let x[n]  x1[n]  x2 [n]

n
1
For the z- transform of x1[n]  7   u[n]
3
 n  n
1 1  7
X 1 ( z )  7   u[n]z  n  7  z 1  u[n] 
1
, ROC z 
  3    3  1 3
1  z 1
3

1
Region of convergence z 
3

5
n
1
For the z- transform of x2 [n]  6   u[n]
2
 n  n
1 1  6
X 2 ( z )  6   u[n]z  n  6  z 1  u[n] 
1
ROC z 
  2    2  1 2
1  z 1
2

1
Region of convergence z 
2

3
1  z 1
7 6 2
Therefore X ( z )   
1 1
1  z 1 1  z 1  1 1  1 1 
1  z 1  z 
3 2  3  2 

Alternatively, X ( z ) can be expressed in another form by multiplying the numerator and

 3
zz  
denominator by z 2 i.e X ( z )   2
 1  1
 z   z  
 3  2

For the of convergence of X(z), we require that both X1(z) and X2(z) must converge i.e
 1  1  1  1 1 1
  z  1 and   z  1 or equivalently, z  and z  .
3 2 3 2

The region of convergence of the OVERALL signal is the COMBINED region of convergence.
The combined region of convergence must be such that BOTH terms must converge. In this case
1
the ROC is z 
2

6
1
Overall region of convergence z 
2

Zero –Pole Plot

n n
1 1
In example 3 above, we noted that for the discrete time signal x[n]  7   u[n]  6   u[n] ,
3 2
 3
zz  
the z-transform is X ( z )   2 1
and the ROC is z  .
 1  1 2
 z   z  
 3  2 

We note that the z-transform can be expressed as a ratio of polynomials in the complex variable
N ( z)
z i.e X ( z )  . X ( z ) is called rational function of z whenever X ( z ) can be expressed as a
D( z )
N ( z)
ratio of .
D( z )

In the expression for X(z), the roots of the denominator are referred to as the poles of X(z). The
poles are the values of z such that X(z) becomes infinite. The roots of the numerator in X(z) are
referred to as the zeros of X(z). The zeros are values of z such that X(z) becomes zero.

The representation of X(z) through its poles and zeros in the z-plane is referred to as the pole-
zero plot of X(z)

7
Thus, a convenient pictorial way to describe a rational z-transform is to perform the pole-zero
plot in the z-plane and also shade the ROC.

 3
zz  
In this example, X ( z )   2 1 1
X(z) has poles z  , z  and zeros at z and z 
3
 1  1 3 2 2
 z   z  
 3  2

The Region of Convergence (ROC)

We have noted that 2 different signals can have identical algebraic expression for their z-
transform and they are only distinguishable by their respective ROCs. Here we explore some
important properties of ROC and how these properties can provide insights to the characteristic
of the discrete time signal x[n].

Property 1: The ROC of X(z) consists of a ring centered about the origin

i) This property follows from the condition for the convergence of the z-transform

i.e 
n 
x[n] r  n   , That the region of convergence of X(z) depends only r  z , the

magnitude of z and NOT on  . This means that if X(z) converge for a particular value of
r  z , then it should also converge for all values of z on the same circle (same radius r),
regardless of the frequency  .

ii) For a signal x[n] which has a discrete time Fourier transform, its z-transform X(z) must
include the unit circle. This is because since z  r exp j , the z-transform X(z) is simply the
discrete time Fourier transform of x[n] when r  1 , therefore the ROC of X(z) must
include the unit circle (circle of which the radius is one)

Property 2: For rational z-transform, the ROC contains no poles.

Since X(z) is infinite at a pole, by definition the z-transform of x(t) i.e X(z) will not converge
and thus do not exist if it contain a pole.

Property 3: If x(n) is of finite duration and thus is absolutely summable, then the ROC is the
entire z-plane except possibly z  0 and /or z   .

A finite duration sequence has only a finite number of non-zero values, extending from n  N1 to
n  N 2 where N and N are finite. Thus in this case, the z-transform is simply the sum of a finite
N2
number of terms only i.e X  z    x[n]z
n  N1
n

8
For z not equal to zero or infinity, each term in the sum will be finite and consequently X  z 
will converge.

Property 4: If the discrete time signal x[nI is a right sided sequence, and if the line circle z  r0
is in the ROC, then all finite values of z for which z  r0 will also be in the ROC

The region of convergence for a right-handed sequence

Property 5: If the discrete time signal x[nI is a left handed sequence, and if the circle z  r0 is
in the ROC, then all finite values of z for which 0  z  r0 will also be in the ROC

The region of convergence for a left-handed sequence

Property 6: If the discrete time signal x[n) is two sided, and if the circle z  r0 is in the ROC,
then the ROC will consists of a ring in the z-plane that include the circle z  r0

9
The region of convergence for a two-sided sequence

Property 7: If the z-transform X(z) of x[n] is rational, then its ROC is bounded by poles or
extends to infinity. In addition, no poles of X(z) are contained in the ROC.

Property 8: If the z-transform X(z) of x[n] is rational, then if x[n] is right-sided, then the ROC is
the region in the z-plane to the right of the rightmost pole i.e outside the circle of radius equal to
the largest magnitude of the poles of X(z). Furthermore if x[n] is causal, (i.e it is right sided and
equal to 0 for n < 0), then the ROC also includes z  

Property 9: If the z-transform X(z) of x[n] is rational, then if x[n] is left-sided, then the ROC is
the region in the z-plane inside the innermost nonzero pole i.e inside the circle of radius equal to
the smallest magnitude of the poles of X(z) other than any at z=0 and extending inward to and
possibly including z=0. In particular if x[n] is anticausal (i.e if it is left handed and is equal to 0
for n>0), then the ROC also includes z=0

The Inverse z-Transform

1
2 j 
n 1
The inverse z-transform is defined as x[n]  X ( z) z dz

For finding the inverse of the z-transform, we usually do not use the above equation. We will
usually use the partial fraction expansion and look-up table for the z-transform pair to find the

Example

Consider the z-transform

5
3  z 1
6 1
Let X ( z )  z 
 1 1  1 1  3
1  z 1  z 
 4  3 

10
1 1
X(z) is a rational function of z and it has 2 poles i.e z  and z  . The ROC lies outside the
3 4
1
outmost pole at z  . Thus we know that the inverse z-transform is a right-handed sequence
3

To obtain the inverse z-transform, we first perform a partial fraction expansion, expressed in z 1
to obtain

5
3  z 1
6 A B
X ( z)   
 1 1  1 1   1 1   1 1 
1  z 1  z  1  z  1  z 
 4  3   4   3 

1 1
To obtain A, we multiply both sides by 1  z 1 and substitute z  or z 1  4 ,
4 4
5 1
3  .4 
A 6  3 1
 1  1
1  .4 
 3  3

1 1
To obtain B, we multiply both sides by 1  z 1 and substitute z  , z 1  3
3 3
5 1
3  .3
B 6  2 2
 1  1
1  .3  4
 4 

1 2
 X ( z)  
1 1
1  z 1 1  z 1
4 3

We know that 2 different discrete time signals x[n] can have the same z-transform. How do we
identify the correct inverse z-transform ? The trick is to look at the properties for the ROC

1
In this example, the overall ROC for X(z) is given as z  . So the first thing to note is that the
3
1
ROC for the individual terms in the partial expansion must include z  Since the given ROC
3
is to the right of both poles, the same must be true also for the individual terms, By property 8, if
the ROC in the z-plane is to the right of the rightmost pole, the signal x[n] is right sided.

Based on the table for z-transform pair and the deduction that the individual terms are right-
sided sequences, we can conclude

11
n
1 1 1
the inverse z-transform for with ROC z  is x[n]    u[n]
1
1  z 1 4 4
4
n
2 1 1
and the inverse z-transform for with ROC z  is x[n]  2   u[n]
1
1  z 1 3 3
3
n n
1 1
Therefore x[n]    u[n]  2   u[n]
4  3

Example

Consider the z-transform X  z   4 z 2  2  3z 1 , 0< z  

Since X (n)   x[n]z  n , and also taking note of the time shifting property


x[n]  X [k ]  x[n-n 0 ]  z  n0 X [k ]  x[n+n 0 ]  z n0 X [k ]

 [n]  1   [n  n0 ]  z  n0 1  z  n0   [n  n0 ]  z n0 1  z n0

we can obtain x[n] by inspection i.e𝑥[𝑛] = 4𝛿[𝑛 + 2] + 2𝛿[𝑛] + 3𝛿[𝑛 − 1]

The power series expansion is particularly useful for obtaining the inverse z-transform of non-
rational z-transforms.

Analysis and Characterization of LTI Systems Using z-Transform

One of the important applications of the z-transform is in the analysis and characterization of
LTI systems. Its role stems from the convolution property which says that convolution of 2
discrete signals in the time domain has the effect of multiplication in the z-Domain.

Y ( z)  H ( z) X ( z)

where X(z) is the z-transform of the input, H(z) is the z-transform of the impulse response, and
Y(z) is the z-transform of the output.

12
The response of LTI systems to complex exponentials is such that if the input x[n]  z n , with z
in the ROC of H(z), then the output will be H ( z ) z n . The input z n is the eigenfunction of the
LTI system, and H(z) is the eigenvalue equal to the z-transform of the impulse response.

If the ROC of H(z) is ON the unit circle which means that z  exp j at all times, H(z) is called
the frequency response. In the broader context of the z-transform, H(z) is called the transfer
function or system function.

The system function or transfer function characteristics are closely related to the LTI system
properties. We now explore 2 important properties here.

i) Causality

A causal LTI system has an impulse response h[n] that is zero for n < 0. Therefore
h[n] must be a right sided signal and the ROC for H(z) is the exterior of a circle in the
z-plane. With property 8, the ROC for H(z) for a causal system must include a pole at
z 

N ( z)
If H(z) is rational, i.e H ( z )  , the order of the numerator cannot be greater than
D( z )
the order of the denominator if H(z) is to be causal.

ii) Stability

A discrete time LTI system is stable if and only if that the impulse response h[n] is
absolutely summable. We have also learned that if the impulse response h[n] is
absolutely summable, its discrete time Fourier transform converges. Since on the unit
circle, the z-transform is equal to the discrete time Fourier transform, we can
conclude that

an LTI system is stable if and only if the ROC of its system transfer function H(z)
includes the unit circle z  1 .

13
LTI Systems Characterized by Linear Constant Coefficient Differential
Equations.(LCCDE)

We have earlier learned how to use the discrete time Fourier transform to obtain the frequency
response of an LTI system characterized by LCCDE without first obtaining the time domain
impulse response h[n]. In the same manner, the z-transform can be exploited to directly obtain
the system function (transfer function) for an LTI LCCDE system

Example

Consider an LTI system for which the input and output satisfy the LCCDE

1 1
y[n]  y[n  1]  x[n]  x[n  1]
2 3

Applying the z-transform to each term and also using the time shifting and linearity property, we
1 1
obtain Y ( z )  z 1Y ( z )  X ( z )  z 1 X ( z )
2 3

 1   1 
or Y ( z ) 1  z 1   X ( z ) 1  z 1 
 2   3 

Y ( z)
Since the system function is defined as H ( z )  , we obtain the system function
X ( z)
1
1  z 1
Y ( z) 3
H ( z)  
X ( z ) 1  1 z 1
2

The difference equation in itself does not provide the complete specification of the LTI systems,
as we do not know the region of convergence. In fact for this example, there are 2 possibilities
for the impulse responses h[n] depending on the ROC. The impulse response h{n] could be right
1 1
sided if the ROC z  or left sided with the ROC z  If further information is given, say
2 2
the LTI system is causal, then the ROC must be exterior to the circle. In such a case, the ROC
1
must be z  , and thus we can conclude that h[n] is a right-sided sequence.
2

Using the time shifting and linearity properties, and the z-transform pair table, and the
conclusion that h[n] is a right sided sequence, we can now deduce that
n n1
1 1 1 
h[n]    u[n]    u[n  1]
2 3 2 

14
Properties of the z-transform

Many of the properties of the z-transform are similar to the Laplace transform.

i) Linearity

Because the z-transform is linear, we can write:

ax1[n]  bx2 [n]  aX1 ( z)  bX1 ( z) with ROC containing the intersection of R1 and R2

where X1(z) is the z-transform of x1[n] and X2(z) is the z-transform of x2[n] .

x[n]  X ( z ) , with ROC = R

then x[n  n0 ]  z  n0 X ( z ) with ROC = R, except for the possible addition or deletion of
the origin or infinityConvolution Property

Then x1[n]* x2[n]  X1 ( z ) X 2 ( z )

The ROC of X1 ( z ) X 2 ( z ) includes the intersection of the ROC of X1(z) and X2(z) and
maybe larger if pole –zero cancellation occurs.

x[n]  X ( z ) with ROC = R

dX ( z )
nx[n]   z with ROC = R
dz

15
z-Transform Pairs of Some Elementary Functions

Signal Transform ROC

 [ n] 1 All z

1
u[n] z 1
1  z 1

1
u[n  1] z 1
1  z 1

 [n  m] z m All z, except 0 if

(m  0) or  if (m  0)

1
 nu[n] z 
1   z 1

1
 nu[n  1] z 
1   z 1

az 1
n nu[n] z 
1   z 1 
2

16