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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

AND INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE


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UNIT – 1
PHYSICAL HAZARDS
TOPICS
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 NOISE

 VIBRATION

 IONIZING RADIATION

 NON-IONIZING RADIATION

 ABNORMAL TEMPERATURE
 HOT ENVIRONMENT
 COLD ENVIRONMENT
NOISE
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Definitions
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 Sound:
 Composed of Frequency and Intensity

 Noise :
 Unwanted sound (the most simple).

 Frequency or pitch:
 Hertz (Hz)

 Intensity or loudness:
 Decibels (dBA)

 A doubling of the level of sound is perceived as less


than double
 Do not trust your ears
Physics of sound:

1. Wave: each complete cycle of compression and


rarefaction.
2. Frequency: number of times per second that a
complete vibration occurs.
3. Intensity: a measure of maximum distance an air molecule
moves from its normal position during its vibration.
4. Pitch: that ear hears is a function of frequency
5. Loudness: related to intensity
6. Wave Length: depends on frequency. It is equal to
speed of sound divided by frequencies and different
intensities
Unit of Measuring Sound:

 A dyne is 1/1000,000th of atmospheric pressure. Least


audible quantity of intensity which human ear can
appreciate is 0.002 dyne/cm2 or microbar while the
highest appreciated is 200 dyne/cm2.
Decibel (dB):
 It is a unit of comparison. A ratio between two sound
pressures and it does no have an absolute value. The
decibel is a logarithmic ratio between a certain pressure in
microbar and the reference value.
 Sound pressure level in dB = k 10 g P1 where K is a
constant for correction P2
 Physiology: Human ear is sensitive between 16 C.P.S. (Hz)
and 20,000 Hz. Below 16 Hz vibrations are infra-audible
and those above 20,000 Hz are ultra-sonic. Many animals
e.g., dogs and cats can hear sounds infra-audible to the
human ear. Human ear has a maximum sensitivity
between 1000 and 4000 C.P.S. i.e. least amount of sound
intensity will be necessary for hearing at these frequencies.
As we grow older the upper limit of sensitivity decreases.
Some adults are not able to detect 12,000 cycles tones or
even 10,000 cycles. Below 16 cycles, one will feel rather
than hear the sound since the vibrations will be within
feeling ability.
Biological Process of Hearing

 Outer ear collects sound


energy (pressure waves)

 Sound travels down the


ear canal to the
eardrum

 Sound waves set the


eardrum in motion

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Biological Processes of Hearing

 Inside the cochlea, hair cells


bend as waves pass by
sending pulses via the
auditory nerve to the brain.

 Sound energy is converted


from mechanical vibrations
to fluid waves to electrical
pulses.

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Sources of Noise

 Noise can be a problem both in community and


industry. Sources of community noise are mainly
transportation, hobbies (amplified music),
recreational (radios, TV, etc…,) and air conditioners.
Examples of industrial noise are textile industries,
factories, airplanes industries …etc
Two Types of Hearing Loss
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 Conductive
 Sensory
Conductive Hearing Loss
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 Caused by damage to or a malfunction of the


outer and middle ear
 Some causes
 excessive ear wax
 fluid in the ear
 a torn eardrum
 Colds
 Usually hearing is restored once the cause is
diagnosed and treated
Sensory Hearing Loss

 Caused by damage to or a
malfunction of the inner
ear, auditory nerve, or the
brain
 Causes of sensory hearing
loss
 Aging, Damage to fetus,
Hereditary, Noise, Disease,
Injury, Drugs

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Sensory Hearing Loss
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 Cannot be corrected medically or surgically

 Hearing loss in the workplace is typically a sensory


hearing loss
Regulatory Levels
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Continuous Noise Impulsive or impact Noise
Total Time of exposure Max. allowable sound Peak sound pressure Permitted no. of
per day in Hours level in dB(A) level in dB(A) impulses or impact
per day
8 90 140 100
6 92 135 315
4 95 130 1000
3 97 125 3160
2 100 120 10000
1 1/2 102
1 105
¾ 107
½ 110
1/4 115
No exposure is excess of 115 dB(A) is permitted No exposure is excess of 140dB(A) is permitted

Source : Facatories Act 1948 and TNFR 1950


Audiometric Testing
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 Audiogram
 Measures how loud a sound has to be before you can hear it

 Comparing current to previous audiograms

 Shows if hearing loss has occurred and at which frequencies


Measuring Noise
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 Sound Level Meter - Instant reading


 grab sample

 Quest 215

 Dosimeter - TWA
 noise exposure is integrated over time

 Quest 7 B

 Du Pont MK 1, 2, 3
Types of Hearing Protection Devices

 Foam earplugs
 Earmuffs
 Noise Reduction
Rating ( NRR )

 Plugs + Muffs
 Take the higher NRR
and add 5 dB to it

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NRR - Noise Reduction Rating
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 NRR and choosing an ear plug:

Earmuff’s NRR - Subtract 25%


Foam/expanding ear plugs - Subtract 50%
All other plugs - Subtract 75%
Earplugs
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 Advantages:
 small and lightweight

 comfortable in hot environments

 easily used with other safety equipment

 Disadvantages:
 may become loose and require occasional refitting

 frequently soiled
Earmuffs
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 Advantages:
 fits better for longer periods of time

 Disadvantages:
 may fit tight on your head

 uncomfortable in warm environments

 effectiveness is limited to the quality of the seal around your


ear
Inserting foam earplugs properly:

 Reach around back of your


head
 Gently pull your ear back and
up
 Roll the plug into a small
diameter
 Insert the plug well into the
ear canal
 Hold the plug in place for a
few seconds while it expands
and forms a good seal
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Hearing Protection
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 Make sure that the earmuffs fit snugly around your


ears

 Use earplugs if you wear glasses, earrings, or have


facial hair which prevent the earmuffs from forming
a good seal
Caring for Hearing Protection Devices
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 Foam Earplugs:
 store them in a clean, cool, dry place

 if earplugs become soiled, torn, or stiff, discard them and get a


new pair
 Earmuffs:
 store them in a clean, cool, dry place

 inspect your earmuffs for cracks around the foam cups.


Harmful effects of noise

 Physiological:
 Annoyance: The major factor causing it is the difficulty
in communication and the inability to hear speech in loud
noise.
 Dissatisfaction: personality changes, loss of coordination
and aggressiveness.
Harmful effects of noise

 Performance:
 Physical work usually not affected.
 Two factors are important in this respect
namely; nature of work and sensitivity of
individual to noise:
 Mental work usually affected specially the quality of the work
e.g., more faults are met with typists
 Sensitive individuals to noise usually affected in both quantity
and quality of work.
 Non-sensitive individuals usually not affected but they may
be malingers.
Harmful effects of noise

 Accidents & Absenteeism:


Usually increase on the basis that annoyance;
visual disturbances and difficulty in hearing
warning signals are important predisposing
causes.
Harmful effects of noise

 Physiological (Non-auditory) Effects:


 Pain in the ears
 Increase secretion of adrenaline, nor-adrenaline and
cortisone, this may be the cause of increased incidence of
duodenal ulcer in animals.
 Chest feeling associated with nausea, vomiting.
 Rise of both intracranial and diastolic blood pressures.
 Interference with sleep
 Giddiness, nausea and fatigue
 Visual disturbance; narrowing of pupils – affection of
colour perception – reduction of night vision
Harmful effects of noise

 Auditory Effects:
 The most important
 a) Air-conduction deafness:
 Usually occurs as a result of explosion or
sudden intense noise and may result in rupture
of eardrums and in severe cases dislodgment of
the ossicles. This kind of deafness is reversible
by healing of the tympanic membrane. It
involves usually a loss of 5 to 10 dB in auditory
ability.
b) Nerve conduction deafness:
Usually met with among workers continuously exposed to
more than 85 dB for long periods.
Two types were notified:
1. Transient auditory fatigue:
Suppression of hearing acuity noticed for the higher
frequencies being centered about 4000 C.P.S. (Hz).
Recovery begins on cessation of exposure. This type is due
to reversible biochemical changes in the nerve endings of
the auditory nerve. This is also referred to as Temporary
Threshold Shift (T.T.S.).
Harmful effects of noise

2. Permanent Hearing Loss:


In susceptible individuals, continuous exposure
to noise causes permanent impairment of hearing
first noted around 4000 C.P.S. and later on, involves
other frequencies.
Harmful effects of noise

Complaints:
 Tinnitus
 Inability to follow conversation in a group
 Inability to hear telephone
 Inability to hear high pitched feminine voice
 Hears his own voice less clearly and he speaks with a
loud voice to hear his own words.
Factors responsible for hearing loss:

 Kind of noise continuous or intermittent


 In open or in closed space (closed more harmful)
 Intensity of noise at different frequencies.
Audible comfortable range between 20-60 dB.
Discomfort occurs between 60-85 dB. Above
>85 dB noise is harmful.
 Duration of exposure.
 Age of individual.
Diagnosis of Industrial Deafness:

 History of exposure to noise


 Characteristic audiogram:
 Loss of hearing, particularly between 2000 and
6000 Hz. A V-shape depression, the center of which
is around 4000 C.P.S. “acoustic notch”. This is to
differentiate it from presbycusis due to old age and
other functional and organic causes of deafness.
Control and prevention

1. Control at the source:

Substitution: of noisy process by a less noisy one


Segregation: segregate the machines that produce the
longest level of noise.
Isolation: to minimize the number of exposed workers
Enclosure: provide an enclosure
Technical devices:
Suspension using rubber, springs or padding the
points of friction.
Mufflers: The velocity and pressure of air get reduced
Control and prevention

At the working environment


Using sound-absorbing materials that prevent
reflection of sound waves. Covering the floor and
walls by rubber, tile, etc….
Control and prevention

1. Pre-placement medical examination:


2. Periodic audiometric examination:
3. Every 2 years to discover the cases as early as
possible.
4. Health education
5. Personal protective equipments: Use of ▪ ear plugs
▪ear muffs
6. Legislation
Radiation
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1. Ionizing Radiation
2. Non-ionizing
Radiation
Terminology related to Radiation
39

The most important concepts to understand in the


field of radiation are
1. Ionizing and non ionizing radiation
2. Exposure and dose
3. Half-life and activity
4. risk
Ionizing Radiation Is caused when an electron is ejected from its
atomic structure
Non Ionizing Radiation Does not40eject electron, but causes
molecules to vibrate
Exposure Represent the amount of radiation that is
absorbed in air
Dose Refers to the amount of energy absorbed in a
specified materials other than air, usually
tissue
Half Life Is the amount of time it takes for half of the
radioactive material to decay
Activity Represents the decay rate or how quickly that
radioactivity material decay
Risk Is defined as the increment of some adverse
health affect associated with a known amount
cumulative radiation dose
Ionizing Radiation exposures
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External Occur when the body is irradiated by


exposures a radioactive sources outside the
body

Internal Occur when a radioactive material


exposures enters the body via inhalation,
ingestion, injection, or absorption
through the skin
Health effects of Radiation
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Vary with
1. The type
2. Amount, and
3. Duration of exposure
43

 When radiation exposes a cell, it may


1. Pass through without doing any damage
2. Interact and damage the cell, with later repair
by the cell
3. Interact and damage the cell in such a way
that it continues to reproduce itself in a
damaged state
4. Kill the cell

The death of single cell may not be harmful,


but if many cells are killed within an organ
then that organ may not function properly
Ionizing Radiation
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1. Electromagnetic
- x-rays
- gamma rays
2. Particulate
- electrons
- protons
- neutrons
Non-ionizing Radiation
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 Ultraviolet
 Infrared
 Microwave
 Laser radiation
Type of Radiation Injury
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Irradiation can cause many types of effect on the


human body, depending on the dose and the
condition of exposure

- Mutagenic effect
- Carcinogenic effect
- Teratogenic effect

Radiation Sickness
Prevention and Protection from radiation
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1. Engineering controls  eliminate or reduce


the potential exposures at the source Exp.
Interlocks, shielding, bonding, grounding and
filtering
2. Administrative control
Increasing the distance between the source
and the worker, controlling the duration of
exposure, restricting access, placing warning
signs
THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE
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 The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) is the amount of laser radiation that nearly all individuals
may be exposed to without experiencing adverse effects. TLVs have been developed for
exposure to the eye and skin. TLVs for the eye are based on possible exposure to the direct
beam or from extended diffuse reflections. No person shall operate a laser in a manner that
exposes the unprotected eye or skin to laser radiation in excess of the applicable TLV. If
engineering controls are not suitable to reduce levels below the TLV then laser safety eyewear
must be worn.
 If the laser classification is known it is generally unnecessary to perform calculations or monitor
the laser environment to determine if exposure of the eyes or skin is dangerous. Appropriate
control measures for the classification should be implemented. For example, if a class 3b or 4
laser is used, the TLV for the eyes may be exceeded from viewing the direct or specular beam
and appropriate eye protection must be worn. Because only Class 4 lasers can produce
hazardous diffuse reflections, calculations for viewing diffuse reflections from class 1, 2, and 3
systems are not necessary.
 The TLV should be determined if the laser has not been classified by the manufacturer and a
quantitative evaluation of the hazard associated with a laser is needed. Monitoring is often
improperly performed and has a high degree of error. Calculations should be used in most
situations to determine if exposures are below the applicable TLV. The ANSI Guide for the Safe
Use of Lasers should be consulted to calculate TLVs and the latest edition of the ACGIH
Threshold Limit Values should be consulted for current TLVs (available from the Safety Office).
Irradiance and radiant exposure are used to describe exposure limits from direct laser sources.
Exposure limits from extended sources are described in radiance and time-integrated radiance.
Radiation monitoring instruments
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 Ionization chambers
 Proportional counters
 Neutron area survey meters
 Geiger–Müller counters
 Scintillator detectors
 Semiconductor detectors
VIBRATION
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Vibration
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 Is a complex physical exposure, which lends itself to


electro-physical measurement
 Vibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an
equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such
as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the
movement of a tire on a gravel road.
 Vibration is occasionally "desirable". For example the
motion of a tuning fork, the reed in a woodwind
instrument or harmonica, or the cone of a loudspeaker is
desirable vibration, necessary for the correct functioning
of the various devices.
52

 Vibration cause vascular disorders of the arms and


bony changes in the small bone of the wrist
 Vascular changes are difficult to detect.
 Test are complicated and non specific
 Bony changes can be detected by x ray examination
 The most common finding is rarefaction of the
lunate bone
Type of vibration
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1. Whole body vibration


1. With frequency range 1 to 80 Hertz
2. At very low frequencies which causes motion sickness
2. Segmental vibration (Hand arm)
 health effects are usually related to energy
transfer to the upper extremity (4 to 2000 Hertz)
Type of vibration
54

 Free vibration occurs when a mechanical system is set off


with an initial input and then allowed to vibrate freely.
Examples of this type of vibration are pulling a child back on a
swing and then letting go or hitting a tuning fork and letting it
ring. The mechanical system will then vibrate at one or more
of its "natural frequency" and damp down to zero.
 Forced vibration is when an alternating force or motion is
applied to a mechanical system. Examples of this type of
vibration include a shaking washing machine due to an
imbalance, transportation vibration (caused by truck engine,
springs, road, etc.), or the vibration of a building during an
earthquake. In forced vibration the frequency of the vibration
is the frequency of the force or motion applied, with order of
magnitude being dependent on the actual mechanical system.
Segmental vibration (hand-arm)
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 Vibration  effects on the peripheral nerves and


small vessels of the upper extremity from hand
 There are variety tool types and qualities of
exposure that are associated with vibration related
upper extremity disorders.
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Air powered rotary Grinders, sanders,


tools cutting wheels
Gasoline powered Chain saws, brush
oscillating tools cutter
Electrical power tools

Power tools Chipping hammers,


pavement breakers
Health effects of Segmental vibration
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 Traumatic vasospasm
 Vibration white fingers (VWF)
 Hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS)
Clinical presentation
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White finger
Peripheral neuropathy, with or without increased cold
sensitivity
Distal compressive and demyelinating neuropathies of
digital nerves, the median nerve at the carpal tunnel,
less plausibly, the ulnar nerve
Musculoskeletal disturbances : weakness, lancinating
forearm pain, and bone and joint degeneration
Antivibration
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 VWF declined 40% 5 %


 Hand and finger numbness 78%28%
WHOLE BODY VIBRATION
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 Transmitted to the anatomic supporting surfaces,


especially the legs when standing and the buttocks
and back when sitting
Source of whole body vibration
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Activity Source
1. Warehousing and Forklifts
material handling
2. Construction Cranes, power shovels,
bulldozers, off road
trucks, tractors
3. Farming Tractors

4. Transportation Metros, buses, trains,


helicopters, tractor trailers
5. Buildings Metro and rail vibration
and ventilation system
Factors that influence the effect of
vibration on62 the hand
Physical Factors Biodynamic Factors Individual Factors

Acceleration of vibration Grip forces - how hard the Operator's control of tool
worker grasps the vibrating
equipment

Frequency of vibration Surface area, location, and Machine work rate


mass of parts of the hand in
contact with the source of
vibration

Duration of exposure each Hardness of the material being Skill and productivity
workday contacted by the hand-held
tools, for example metal in
grinding and chipping

Years of employment involving Position of the hand and arm Individual susceptibility to
vibration exposure relative to the body vibration

State of tool maintenance Texture of handle-soft and Smoking and use of drugs.
compliant versus rigid material Exposure to other physical and
chemical agents.

Protective practices and Medical history of injury to Disease or prior injury to the
equipment including gloves, fingers and hands, particularly fingers or hands
boots, work-rest periods. frostbite
Health effects of WBV
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Affecting musculoskeletal system


 Create chronic stress
 Permanent damage to the affected organs or body
parts
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 Exposure of the human body to too much vibration is


recognized as a health hazard whole body vibration
is found at frequencies 0.1 Hz ~ 30Hz.
 The result may be loss of co-ordination, giddiness,
spinal disorder, headache, bone damage.
 Vibration at frequencies of 10 ~ 20Hz
 Can damage lungs
 Blood in the urine
 Heart failure in extreme causes
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 Vibration at 20 Hz can cause resonance of internal


head organs
 Vibration in the range of 30-40 may affect vision
 Drivers of heavy construction equipment are prone
to heart disease, muscle and bone problems.
Permissible level
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Prevention
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 Measurement standard and prophylactic design


 Transportation Use absorbent or air ride seats
 Sophisticated designs : front back attenuation, cab
isolation, vehicle suspension
 Industrial environment  antishock mounting of
machinery, vibration isolated
Abnormal Air Temperature
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HOT TEMPERATURE COLD TEMPERATURE


Abnormal Air Temperature

 Man is a homoeothermic i.e. his blood


temperature is constant (37 ± 0.5°C) whatever the
environmental air temperature would be. This is
in contrast to some other animals, particularly
reptiles. To keep this body temperature constant,
heat gained by the body from metabolism (M)
must equal heat loss from the body surfaces by
convection (C), radiation (R) and insensible
perspiration i.e., Evaporation (E).
 ( M = C + R+E )
 Comfortable thermal environment conditions are
those under which a person can maintain normal
balance between production and loss of heart at
normal body temperature and without sweating.
This comfort zone temperature has been evaluated to
be between 25 - 28°C
 The effect of temperature on human body depends on many
factors:
 1. Air temperature → which can be measured by the
ordinary dry bulb thermometer.
 2. Air velocity → which is usually measured by
anemometers or Kata thermometer. Kata therometer is an
alcohol thermometer with a glass bulb 4 cm long and 1.8
cm in deg. to 95 deg. F. Before taking the reading, the bulb
is immersed in hot water to warm it slightly above 130 deg.
F and then the thermometer suspended in air. The time in
seconds required for the temperature to fall from 100 deg.
to 95 deg. is noted with a stopwatch. The length of time
depends on the cooling power of the air.
 3. Mean radiant temperature → measured by
globe thermometer. The globe thermometer
consists of a hollow copper bulb 6 inches (15 in
diameter and is coated on the outside with black
paint which absorbs the radiant heat from the
surrounding objects. A specially calibrated
mercury thermometer is inserted, with its bulb at
the center of temperature and that of the ordinary
dry bulb is a measure of the heat.
 4. Relative humidity, which is the percentage of
moisture present in the air; complete saturation
being taken as 100. The greater the relative
humidity the nearer the air to saturation.
 Dry and wet bulb hygrometer is the most
widely used for measuring humidity. The
instrument consists of two similar thermometers –
a dry bulb and wet bulb thermometers that are
mounted side by side on stand. The dry bulb
measures the air temperature
 Air temperature:
 Velocity
 Effective temp
 Corrected effective temp
Effects of Cold Stress:

 Injury to cold may be general or local:


 General cold injury (hypothermia) is characterized by
numbness, loss of sensation, muscular weakness, desire for
sleep, coma and death.
 Local cold injury: a) above freezing. Immersion or
trench foot. After exposure for 12 hours. b) below
freezing. Frostbite, tissues freeze and ice crystals form in
between the cells.
 Management is done by warming the effected part
using water at 44°C for 20 minutes. Intake of hot fluids
promotes general re-warming.
Prevention of ill-effects of Heat:
 1. Health education.
 2. Balanced diet.
 3. High fluid and salt intake.
 4. Avoid Excessive physical fatigue.
 5. First-aid provisions.
 6. Heat Stroke management centers in concerning
hospitals.
 7. Pre-placement and periodic medical examinations for
workers in hot environment. Daily exposure hours must be
cut down for those workers.
 8. Clothing worn should be light, white, porous, loose
and better if make of asbestos.
 9. Protective goggles, shields and helmets are helpful.
77

 Hypothermia: Abnormally low body temperature. The


condition needs treatment at body temperatures of 35C
(95 F) or below. And hypothermia becomes life
threatening below body temperatures of 32.2 C (90 F).
 The signs and symptoms of hypothermia depend
upon the body temperature. The major initial sign of
hypothermia is a decrease in mental function that leads
to impaired ability to make decisions. Tiredness or
lethargy, changes in speech, and disorientation are
typical. The person will act as if they are "drunk".
78

 The body gradually loses protective reflexes such as


shivering which is an important heat-generating
defense. Other muscle functions also disappear so
that the person cannot walk or stand. Eventually
consciousness is lost.
 Treatment involves slow heating of the body using
blankets or other ways of increasing body warmth.
Body temperature should increase by NO MORE
than a couple of degrees per hour. What is done for
the hypothermic individual depends on the
seriousness of the problem.
 4. Heat Exhaustion: occurs among persons exposed in
mildly hot environment which results in diminution of
blood supply to the brain as a result of vaso-dilatation of
peripheral blood vessels of exposed parts. However body
temperature is normal yet the main warning signs and
symptoms include moist skin, low B.P, high pulse, dilated
pupils, headache, giddiness, loss of power of concentration,
loss of appetite, nausea, personality changes, irritability,
liability to sleep and confusion. Removal to a cool
atmosphere and cool water to drink will soon restore
patient to normal.
80

 People with mild or moderate hypothermia (are alert


and conscious, and have not lost the shivering reflex)
will usually just require removal from the cold
environment and providing additional insulation.
The use of warm sleeping bags, lighting a fire, warm
food and fluids are just some of the various methods.
Persons who have a more severe degree of body heat
loss (not alert, can't shiver or stand) should also be
brought to a medical facility as quickly as possible;
rewarming of the body should continue as well
 7. Heat Stroke: It is one of the main health problems during Haj.
Case fatality ratio reaches 40%. It is attributed to failure of heat
regulating mechanism. It is characterized by very high body
temperature that may rise to 44°C and profound disturbances including
delirium, convulsions and partial or complete loss of consciousness.
The skin is dry and hot, high pulse, normal or high B.P and keep
breathing. Death is often sudden and may e due to hyperpotassemia,
due to release of potassium from red blood cells that have been injured
by the heat.
 Treatment consists of cooling the body in the Makkah Heat Regulating
Apparatus at 4-20°C. This apparatus is available in all Makkah, Mena
and Arafat hospitals especially during Haj. The old trend of rapid
cooling in ice water baths is stopped now, because this provokes reflex
shivering which in turn increases body heat gained, metabolism and
consequently body temperature.
82

 Hypothermia is intentionally induced in some types of


surgery and other situations in order to slow the
metabolism of the patient and decrease their need for
oxygen during the procedure.
 Wind chill: The term used to describe the rate of heat
loss on the body resulting from the combined effect of
low temperature and wind. As winds increase, heat is
carried away from the body at a faster rate, driving down
both the skin temperature and eventually the internal
body temperature. Exposure to low wind chills can be life
threatening to both humans and animals alike. Water
freezes at 32°F (0°C) regardless of what the wind chill is.
The basic heat balance equation
83

The basic heat balance equation is:


∆S= (M–Wex) ± (R+C) –E ........................ (eq 1)

Where: ∆S = change in body heat content; (M–Wex) = net metabolic heat production
from total metabolic heat production (Wex=mechanical work); (R+C) =convective
and radiative heat exchange; E=evaporative heat loss.
In the situation of thermal balance ∆S=0, then:

(M–Wex) ± (R+C) =Ereq ............................. (eq 2)

This form defines the required evaporation to achieve


thermal balance (Ereq).

Noteworthy, evaporative capacity of the environment is in most of the cases lower


than Ereq; and thus, the maximal evaporative capacity of the environment (Emax)
should be considered. The ratio Ereq/Emax, which denotes the required
skin wettedness to eliminate heat from the body, is a “heat
strain index” (HSI)
Heat stress indices
84

The HSI method allows calculation of the Allowable


Exposure Time (AET).
HSI
The heat stress index is given by,
HSI = 100 M + R + C/EMAX,
 Where M is the metabolic heat rate; R is the radiant
heat load; C is the convective heat load; and EMAX is
the maximum evaporative capacity. The numerator
is often called the "total heat load."
Heat acclimatization
85

Heat acclimatization refers to biological adaptations that reduce


physiologic strain (e.g., heart rate and body temperature), improve physical
work capabilities, improve comfort and protects vital organs (brain, liver,
kidneys, muscles) from heat injury. The most important biological
adaptation from heat acclimatization is an earlier and greater sweating
response, and for this response to improve it needs to be invoked.

 Heat acclimatization is specific to the climate (desert or jungle) and


physical activity level. However, acclimatization to desert or jungle climates
markedly improves the ability to work in the other climate. Soldiers who
only perform light or brief physical work will achieve the level of heat
acclimatization needed to perform that task. If they attempt a more
strenuous or prolonged task, additional acclimatization and improved
physical fitness will be needed to successfully perform that task in the heat.
Heat acclimatization
86
The 6 key factors in determining thermal
comfort
87

The 6 key factors in determining thermal comfort


 Environmental
1. Dry-bulb temperature (Ta) To
 T =0.5(T +MRT)
o a

 (T Η2/3T +1/3T )
o a g

2. Black-globe temperature (Tg) MRT


 MRT=(1+0.22V )(T
)(T–T)+T
–T )+T 0.5 g a a

3. Wind velocity (V)


4. Wet-bulb temperature (T ) rh; VP w

 behavioral
5. Metabolic rate (M) met
6. Clothing
 Insulation (clo)
 Moisture permeability (i ) m
88

 Radiant temperature (MRT): a change of 1°C in MRT


 can be offset by a 1°C in Ta.
 Wind speed: a change in 0.1 m/sec in wind speed is
 equivalent to a change in 0.5°C in Ta (up to 1.5°C).
 Humidity: a 10% change in relative humidity can be
offset
 by a 0.3°C in Ta.
Thermal Comfort
89

 Thermal comfort is defined as: “that condition of


mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal
environment”
 Heat stress indices can be divided into 3 groups,
according to their rationale): indices that are based
on calculations involving the heat balance equation
(“rational indices”), indices that are based on
objective and subjective strain (“empirical indices”),
and indices based on direct measurements of
environmental variables (“direct indices”).
Clinical effect of temp

 Sun burn
 Prickly heat
 Heat exhaustion
 Heat hyperpyrexia
 Heat stroke
 Heat syncope
 Heat cramps