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College of Engineering & Technology

Electrical and Control Engineering


Automatic Control Engineering
EE 417

Sheet 1
Laplace Transform

1- Find the Laplace transform of the following time functions:


a) 𝑓(𝑡) = 6𝑒 −5𝑡 sin 2𝑡 + 2𝑒 −5𝑡 cos 4𝑡 − 𝑡 4 𝑒 −2𝑡
b) 𝑓(𝑡) = 4𝑒 −𝑡 cos 10𝑡 − 𝑡 2 𝑒 −3𝑡 + 𝑡 5

2- Find the inverse Laplace Transform of the following S-domain functions:


(𝑠+1)
a) 𝐹(𝑠) = (𝑠+2)(𝑠+4)
1
b) 𝐹(𝑠) = (𝑠+1)2 (𝑠+3)
26
c) 𝐹(𝑠) = 𝑠3 +6𝑠2 +13𝑠

3- Using Laplace Transform, find the solution of the following differential


equation.
5𝑥̇ (𝑡) + 𝑥(𝑡) = 100 sin 2 𝑡, 𝑥(0) = 0

4-Solve the following differential equation.


2𝑦̈ (𝑡) + 6𝑦̇ (𝑡) + 4𝑦(𝑡) = 𝑢(𝑡) 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑦̇ (0) = −1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦(0) = 0
College of Engineering & Technology
Electrical and Control Engineering
Automatic Control Engineering
EE 417

Sheet 2
Mechanical Systems Modeling

1- For the mechanical system shown in figure below, write the differential equation and obtain
𝑦 𝑦
the transfer function or .
𝑓 𝑥

2- The figure below shows a dynamic vibration absorber, often used for the control of
mechanical vibrations. A relatively small mass m2 is attached to the main mass m1 via spring
k2. For a sinusoidal force f of constant frequency, m2 and k2 can be chosen so that the main
mass m1 will not vibrate. Write the system differential equation and obtain the transfer
𝑥
function 𝐹1.

3- For each of the mechanical network shown in figure below, assuming zero initial conditions
𝑥
obtain the transfer function 𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝐹
.
College of Engineering & Technology
Electrical and Control Engineering
Automatic Control Engineering
EE 417

Sheet 3
Electrical Circuits Modeling
𝐸
1-Derive the transfer function 𝐸𝑜 for the RLC circuits shown in the figures below:
𝑖

R C R L C L

Ei L Eo Ei C Eo Ei R Eo

2- For the electrical networks shown in figure below, assuming zero initial conditions, obtain
𝐸
the transfer function 𝐸𝑜
𝑖

R1

C
L1
L1 R2 R2
R2
R1
Ei Eo
Ei R1 C
Eo Ei R3 Eo
L2

𝐸
3-Obtain the transfer function 𝐸𝑜 for the circuit given below:
𝑖

L1

R1 R2

Ei C1 Eo
R3 C2

𝐸
4- Obtain the transfer function 𝐸𝑜 for the circuits shown in the figure below:
𝑖

L1

C1

Ei R1 C2 Eo

𝐸𝑜
5- Derive for the RLC network given in the figure below:
𝐸𝑖

R1 R2

Ei C1 C2 Eo
College of Engineering & Technology
Electrical and Control Engineering
Automatic Control Engineering
EE 417

Sheet 4
Electro-Mechanical Systems Modeling

1- An electromechanical open loop control system is shown in the following figure. The
generator when driven at constant speed, provides the field voltage for the motor. The motor
𝜃 (𝑠)
has inertia Jm and bearing friction Bm. Obtain the transfer function 𝑉 𝑙 (𝑠) and draw the block
𝑓
diagram for the system, the generator voltage can be assumed to be proportional to the field
current.

Rfg Lg Rg Rfm
Ia

Lfm θm
Vf Lfg N1
Vg
JL,BL

Ig Load
N2 θL
Generator Motor

2- An AC-DC servo system is shown in the following figure. The motor inertia and friction are
negligible, Draw the block diagram of the system indicating the transfer function of each block.
𝜃 (𝑠)
Obtain the transfer function 𝑐 .
𝜃𝑅 (𝑠)
JL,BL
Rfg Lg Rg Ra La N2 θL
Load

θm
Ea N1
Vf Lfg Vg

θc
Ia
N2 θR
Generator Motor

Ka Kd
3- A simple closed loop positioning system is shown in the following figure. Determine a control
𝜃 (𝑠)
system block diagram for this closed loop system. What is the transfer function 𝑧
𝜃𝑢 (𝑠)
Zo

Zi
Lm Rm
Vi
Vo JL,BL
Em Load

θu
θz
College of Engineering & Technology
Electrical and Control Engineering
Automatic Control Engineering
EE 417

Sheet 5
Block Diagram Reduction
𝑌(𝑠)
1- Find the transfer function 𝑅(𝑠) for:

a-

b-

c-

d-

e-
f-

g-

h-
College of Engineering & Technology
Electrical and Control Engineering
Automatic Control Engineering
EE 417

Sheet 6
Time Response

1- Measurements conducted on a servomechanism show the system response to be:

𝑐(𝑡) = 1 + 0.2𝑒 −60𝑡 − 1.2𝑒 −10𝑡

When subjected to a unit step input:


a) Obtain the system closed-loop T.F.
b) Determine the system undamped natural frequency and damping ratio.

2- A unity feedback system is characterized by an open-loop T.F.,

𝐾
𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑠(𝑠 + 10)

Determine the gain K so that the system will have a damping ratio of 0.5, for this value of K
determine the settling time, peak overshoot and time to peak overshoot for a unit-step input.

3- For the system shown in figure below, find the value of K which gives a maximum overshoot
Mp=5% for a unit strep input, then find the corresponding values of ts, tp and ess.

1 C
R +
K/s 𝑠+2

- -
2s

4- A unity feedback system has an open-loop T.F.

𝐺(𝑠) = 𝐾/𝑠 2 (𝑠 + 2)(𝑠 2 + 2𝑠 + 2)

a) Calculate the position, velocity and acceleration error constants.


b) Determine ess for a unit step, a unit-ramp and a unit parabolic inputs.

5- For the process control system shown below, find the unit-step input response. Calculate Mp,
Tr, Tp,Tss and ess. Sketch C(t).
R + 1 2 C
8
1 + 0.2𝑠 𝑠
-

1.0
College of Engineering & Technology
Electrical and Control Engineering
Automatic Control Engineering
EE 417

Sheet 7
Routh-Hurwitz Stability Criterion

1- For the control system shown in figure below, using Routh-Hurwitz criterion. Find the gain K
which makes the system critically stable.

𝐾
R + Y
𝑠(𝑠2 + 2𝑠 + 2)

-
1
𝑠+2

2- Find the range of K which makes the system with the characteristic equation:

𝑠 3 + (2𝐾 + 1)𝑠 2 + (𝐾 + 3)𝑠 + 4 = 0

3- For the unity negative feedback system with forward loop T.F.
𝐾
𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑠(𝑠 + 2)(𝑠 + 4)

Find, using Routh criterion, the value of K for which the system has undamped oscillatory
response.

4- A system has a forward loop T.F. of: G(s)=K/(s+1)(s 2+4s+5), and a feedback loop T.F. of
H(s)=4/(s+3). Using Routh stability criterion, find K which make the system critically stable.
Calculate the frequency of the sustained oscillations.

5- A unity feedback control system has the following open-loop T.F and is subjected to ramp
input r(t)=t.
𝐾1
𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑠(𝑠 + 1)(0.5𝑠 + 1)
a) If K1=1.5sec-1, determine ess.
b) It is desired that ess<0.1. What minimum value must K1 have for this condition to be
satisfied?
c) For the value of K1 determine in b), is the system stable or unstable?
College of Engineering & Technology
Electrical and Control Engineering
Automatic Control Engineering
EE 417

Sheet 8
Root Locus 1

1- Construct the root-locus diagram of the following systems: (H(s)=1)


𝐾
a) 𝐺(𝑠) = 𝑠(𝑠+10)(𝑠+20)
𝐾
b) 𝐺(𝑠) = 𝑠2 (𝑠+1)(𝑠+5)
𝐾(𝑠+3)
c) 𝐺(𝑠) = 𝑠(𝑠2 +4𝑠+4)(𝑠+5)(𝑠+6)
𝐾
d) 𝐺(𝑠) = 𝑠(𝑠+2)(𝑠+4)(𝑠+10)

𝐾(𝑠2 +2𝑠+8)
e) 𝐺(𝑠) = 𝑠(𝑠+5)(𝑠+10)

𝐾(𝑠2 +4)
f) 𝐺(𝑠) = (𝑠+2)2 (𝑠+5)(𝑠+6)
𝐾(𝑠+10)
g) 𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑠2 (𝑠+2.5)(𝑠2 +2𝑠+2)

2- Determine the value of K and the closed loop poles in Question (1) for the following cases:
a) Damping ratio=0.707
b) Maximum overshoot=20%
c) Time constant τ=1 sec
d) Damped natural frequency=2 rad/sec
e) Undamped natural frequency=1 rad/sec
College of Engineering & Technology
Electrical and Control Engineering
Automatic Control Engineering
EE 417

Sheet 9
Root Locus 2

1. Sketch the root locus of the unity feedback control systems whose forward transfer functions
are:
𝐾(𝑆+12)
a. 𝐺(𝑠) = 𝑆(𝑆 2 +16𝑆+100)
𝐾
b. 𝐺(𝑠) = (𝑆+5)(𝑆 2 +4𝑆+7)

𝐾(𝑆 2 +4𝑆+5)
c. 𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑆 2 (𝑆+1)(𝑆+3)
𝐾(𝑆+12)
d. 𝐺(𝑠) = 𝑆(𝑆 2 +2𝑆+2)(𝑆 2 +6𝑆+10)

2. A unity feedback control system has the following forward transfer function:

𝐾
𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑆(𝑆 2 + 8𝑆 + 20)
a. Plot the root locus.
b. A damping ratio of 0.5 is required for the dominant roots, find the transfer function.

3. For control systems whose forward transfer and feedback functions are:

𝑆
𝐾(1 + ) 𝑆
𝐺(𝑠) = 5 , 𝐻(𝑠) = (1 + )
𝑆 10
𝑆 2 (1 + 12)
a. Sketch the root locus.
1
b. Choose the closed loop pole locations which produce a time constant T= second for the
3
complex roots and indicate the roots on the root locus.
College of Engineering & Technology
Electrical and Control Engineering
Automatic Control Engineering
EE 417

Sheet 10
Phase lead and lag compensator design in time domain

1. Design a compensator for the following systems:


𝑘
 𝐺(𝑠) = 2
𝑠
a) Ts< 4 sec
b) Mp < 20%
c) ζ > 0.45
d) K<10

𝑘
 𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑠2 (𝑠+1.5)
a) Ts< 4 sec
b) Mp < 20%
c) ζ > 0.45
d) K<10

2. Consider a unity feedback system with an open loop transfer function of:

𝐾
𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑠(𝑠 + 1)(𝑠 + 4)

The system is to be compensated such that damping ratio = 0.5 and natural frequency, ωn= 2
rad/sec:
a) Determine which type of compensator is to be used and find its transfer function
b) Determine the system closed loop transfer function and the closed loop system poles
c) Find the system velocity error constant and the steady state error.

3. The forward loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by:

𝐾
𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑠(𝑠 + 3)(𝑠 + 6)

It is specified that the dominant poles of the closed loop system have a damping ratio equal to
0.5 and that the magnitude of the real part of the poles be ≤ 1.0. Also the steady state error to a
unit ramp input must not exceed 0.1.design a suitable compensator.

4. The forward loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by:

𝐾
𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑠(𝑠 + 3)(𝑠 + 6)

It is specified that the dominant poles of the closed loop system have a damping ratio equal to
0.5 and that the magnitude of the real part of the poles be not less than 4. Also the steady state
error to a unit ramp input must not exceed 0.1.design a suitable compensator.
5. Design a phase lead compensator for a unity feedback system whose open loop transfer function
is given by:
𝐾
𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑠(𝑠 + 1)

The lead compensator together with the system should meet the following specifications:
 Damping ratio = 0.5
 Settling time ,ts = 1.4 sec

6. Design a phase lag compensator for a unity feedback system whose open loop transfer function
is given by:
𝐾
𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑠(𝑠 + 2)(𝑠 + 5)

The lag compensator together with the system should meet the following specifications:
 Damping ratio = 0.5
 Settling time ,ts ≤ 6 sec
 The steady state error to a unit ramp input ≥ 7

7. The process of a unity feedback control system has the transfer function:

100
𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑠2 + 10𝑠 + 100

Design the suitable compensator so that:


 Steady-state error due to step input=0
 Maximum overshoot < 2 %
 Rise time < 0.02 sec