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Anna University EEE - Electrical and Electronics

Engineering
Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Importants questions answers

1st Semister

Communicative English HS8151 - (Click Here)


Engineering Mathematics I MA8151 - (Click Here)
Engineering Physics PH8151 - (Click Here)
Engineering Chemistry CY8151 - (Click Here)
Problem Solving and Python Programming GE8151 - (Click Here)
Engineering Graphics GE8152 - (Click Here)
2nd Semister

Technical English HS8251 - (Click Here)


Engineering Mathematics II MA8251 - (Click Here)
Physics for Electronics Engineering PH8253 - (Click Here)
Basic Civil and Mechanical Engineering BE8252 - (Click Here)
Circuit Theory EE8251 - (Click Here)
Environmental Science and Engineering GE8291 - (Click Here)
3rd Semister

Transforms and Partial Differential Equations MA6351 - (Click Here)


Digital Logic Circuits EE6301 - (Click Here)
Electromagnetic Theory EE6302 - (Click Here)
Environmental Science and Engineering GE6351 - (Click Here)
Electronic Devices and Circuits EC6202 - (Click Here)
Linear Integrated Circuits and Applications EE6303 - (Click Here)
4th Semister

Numerical Methods MA6459 - (Click Here)


Electrical Machines I EE6401 - (Click Here)
Object Oriented Programming CS6456 - (Click Here)
Transmission and Distribution 1EE6402 - (Click Here)
Discrete Time Systems and Signal Processing EE6403 - (Click Here)
Measurements and Instrumentation 1EE6404 - (Click Here)
5th Semister
Power System Analysis EE6501 - (Click Here)
Microprocessors and Microcontrollers EE6502 EC6504 - (Click Here)
Power Plant Engineering ME6701 - (Click Here)
Power Electronics EE6503 - (Click Here)
Electrical Machines II EE6504 - (Click Here)
Control Systems IC6501 - (Click Here)
6th Semister

Communication Engineering EC6651 - (Click Here)


Solid State Drives EE6601 - (Click Here)
Embedded Systems EE6602 - (Click Here)
Power System Operation and Control EE6603 - (Click Here)
Design of Electrical Machines EE6604 - (Click Here)
7th Semister

High Voltage Engineering EE6701 - (Click Here)


Protection and Switchgear EE6702 - (Click Here)
Special Electrical Machines EE6703 - (Click Here)
Principles of Management MG6851 - (Click Here)
Flexible AC Transmission Systems EE6004 - (Click Here)
Power Quality EE6005 - (Click Here)
8th Semister

Electric Energy Generation, Utilization and Conservation EE6801 - (Click Here)


Professional Ethics in Engineering GE6075 - (Click Here)
Total Quality Management GE6757 - (Click Here)

Subject : Communicative English


UNIT I
1. Listening to Informal Conversations and Participating - Answer (click here)
2. Speaking In Conversation - Answer (click here)
3. Developing Analytical Thinking - Answer (click here)
4. Effective use of SMS - Answer (click here)
5. Use of Emoticons in Email - Answer (click here)
6. Regular & Irregular Verbs - Answer (click here)
7. Active Voice & Passive Voice - Answer (click here)
8. Homonymns & Homophones - Answer (click here)
UNIT II
1. Conversation Practice - Answer (click here)
2. Writing a Book Review - Answer (click here)
3. Reading - Answer (click here)
4. Writing Summary - Answer (click here)
5. Personal Letters - Answer (click here)
6. Modal Verbs - Answer (click here)
7. Phrasal Verbs - Answer (click here)

UNIT III
1. Listening to Conversation - Answer (click here)
2. Conversation with Stress, Intonation & Pronunciation - Answer (click here)
3. Critical reading - Answer (click here)
4. Minutes of meeting - Answer (click here)
5. Writing Technical articles - Answer (click here)
6. Conditional clauses - Answer (click here)
7. Cause and effect expression - Answer (click here)
8. Same word as noun and verb - Answer (click here)
9. Homonys & Homophones Practice - Answer (click here)

UNIT IV
1. Telephone Conversations - Answer (click here)
2. Applying for a Job - Cover Letter & Resume Preparation - Answer (click
here)
3. Numerical Expressions - Answer (click here)
4. Connectives (Discourse Markers) - Answer (click here)
5. Idioms and their Meanings - Using Idioms in Sentences - Answer (click
here)
6. Different forms of resumes - Answer (click here)
7. Filling up a resume and cover letter - Answer (click here)

UNIT V
1. Strategies for Improving Discussion Skills - Answer (click here)
2. Note Making - Answer (click here)
3. Intensive Reading and Extensive Reading - Answer (click here)
4. Check Lists - Yes/No Question Form - Answer (click here)
5. Report Writing - Answer (click here)
6. Report of Meeting - Answer (click here)
7. Use of Clauses - Answer (click here)
8. Vocabulary- Collocation - Answer (click here)

Subject : Engineering Mathematics I


UNIT I DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
1. Differential Calculus - Answer (click here)

UNIT II FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES


1. Functions of several Variables - Answer (click here)

UNIT III INTEGRAL CALCULUS


1. Differential Calculus - Answer (click here)

UNIT IV MULTIPLE INTEGRALS


1. Multiple Integrals - Answer (click here)

UNIT V DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS


1. Ordinary Differential Equations - Answer (click here)
2. Partial Differential Equations - Answer (click here)
3. Important Questions and Answers: Partial Differential Equations -
Answer (click here)
4. Formation of Partial Differential Equations - Answer (click here)
5. Solution of a Partial Differential Equation - Answer (click here)
6. Lagrange’s Linear Equation - Answer (click here)
7. Partial Differential Equations of Higher Order With Constant
Coefficients - Answer (click here)
8. Non Homogeneous Linear Equations - Answer (click here)
9. Applications of Partial Differential Equations - Answer (click here)
10. Important Questions and Answers: Applications of Partial Differential
Equations - Answer (click here)
11. Solution of the wave equation - Answer (click here)
12. Solution of the heat equation - Answer (click here)
13. Solution of Laplace’s equation (Two dimensional heat equation) - Answer
(click here)

Subject : Engineering Physics


UNIT I PROPERTIES OF MATTER
1. Types of Stress and Strain - Answer (click here)
2. Hooke's Law - Answer (click here)
3. Types of Moduli of Elasticity - Answer (click here)
4. Factors affecting Elasticity - Answer (click here)
5. Bending of Beams - Answer (click here)
6. Modes of Heat Transer - Answer (click here)
7. Lee's Disc Method for Bad Conductors - Answer (click here)
8. Radial flow of heat - Answer (click here)

UNIT II WAVES AND FIBER OPTICS


1. Characteristics of Laser - Answer (click here)
2. Principle of Spontaneous and Stimulated emission - Einstein’s Quantum
theory of radiation - Answer (click here)
3. Principle of Laser action and Methods of pumping action - Answer (click
here)
4. Nd: YAG laser: Principle, Construction, Working, Characteristics,
Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications - Answer (click here)
5. CO2 Molecular gas laser: Principle, Construction, Working,
Characteristics, Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications - Answer
(click here)
6. Solid State diode lasers - Answer (click here)
7. Semiconductor Diode laser: Principle, Construction, Working,
Characteristics, Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications - Answer
(click here)
8. Hetro Junction Laser: Principle, Construction, Working, Characteristics,
Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications - Answer (click here)
9. Fiber Optics and Fiber Construction - Answer (click here)
10. Types of Optical Fibers - Answer (click here)
11. Difference between Step Index fiber and Graded Index fiber - Answer
(click here)
12. The Fiber Optic Communication System: Principle, Working, and
Advantages - Answer (click here)
13. Double Crucible Method - Answer (click here)
14. Types of Fiber Optic Sensors - Answer (click here)
15. Temperature Fiber Optic Sensor: Principle, Description and Working -
Answer (click here)
16. Displacement Fiber Optic Sensor (Extrinsic Sensor): Principle,
Description and Working - Answer (click here)
17. Medical Endoscope - Fiber Optic: Construction and working - Answer
(click here)
18. Losses in Optical Fibers - Answer (click here)
19. Principle of operation of a Photo Detector - Answer (click here)
20. PIN Photo Diode - Answer (click here)
21. Light Emitting Diodes: Principle, Construction, Working, Advantages
and Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
22. Important Short Questions and Answers: Photonics and fibre Optics -
Answer (click here)

UNIT III THERMAL PHYSICS


1. Types of Stress and Strain - Answer (click here)
2. Hooke's Law - Answer (click here)
3. Types of Moduli of Elasticity - Answer (click here)
4. Factors affecting Elasticity - Answer (click here)
5. Bending of Beams - Answer (click here)
6. Modes of Heat Transer - Answer (click here)
7. Lee's Disc Method for Bad Conductors - Answer (click here)
8. Radial flow of heat - Answer (click here)

UNIT IV QUANTUM PHYSICS


1. Quantum Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Important Short Question and Answers: Quantum Physics - Answer (click
here)
3. Black Body Radiation - Answer (click here)
4. Planck's Hypothesis - Answer (click here)
5. Theory Compton Effect - Answer (click here)
6. Experimental Verification of Compton Effect - Answer (click here)
7. Dual Nature of Radiation (Light) And Matter (Particles) - Matter Waves
- Answer (click here)
8. Schroedinger wave equation - Answer (click here)
9. Electron microscope - Principle, Construction, Working, Advantages and
Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
10. Scanning electron microscope - Principle, Construction, Working,
Advantages and Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
11. Transmission Electron microscope - Principle, Construction, Working,
Advantages and Disadvantages - Answer (click here)

UNIT V CRYSTAL PHYSICS


1. Crystalllography - Answer (click here)
2. Lattice Parameters or Unit Cell Parameters - Answer (click here)
3. Bravais Space Lattice - Answer (click here)
4. Lattice Planes - Answer (click here)
5. Miller Indices - Procedure for finding and Important Features - Answer
(click here)
6. Separation between Lattice Planes in a cubic Crystal - Answer (click here)
7. Characteristics of the Unit Cell - Answer (click here)
8. Body centered cubic(BCC) Structure - Answer (click here)
9. Face centered cubic (FCC) Structure - Answer (click here)
10. Hexagonal Closely Packed Structure(HCP) - Answer (click here)
11. Properties of some Crystal Structure - Sodium choride, Diamond cubic -
Answer (click here)
12. Crystal growth - Solidification and Crystallization - Answer (click here)
13. Czochralski technique - Answer (click here)
14. Bridgeman Technique - Answer (click here)
15. Low temperature solution growth : Slow cooling and Slow evaporation
method - Answer (click here)
16. Epitaxial growth - Answer (click here)

Subject : Engineering Chemistry


UNIT I WATER AND ITS TREATMENT
1. Water Technology - Answer (click here)
2. Important Questions and Answers: Water Technology - Answer (click here)

UNIT II SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND CATALYSIS


UNIT III ALLOYS AND PHASE RULE
1. Phase Rule and Alloys - Answer (click here)

UNIT IV FUELS AND COMBUSTION


1. Fuels and Combustion - Answer (click here)
2. Important Questions and Answers: Fuels and Combustion - Answer (click
here)

UNIT V ENERGY SOURCES AND STORAGE DEVICES


1. Energy Sources - Answer (click here)
2. Important Questions and Answers: Energy Sources - Answer (click here)
Subject : Problem Solving and Python
Programming
Python
1. Python - Answer (click here)
2. Basic Data Types, Control Structures and Functions - Python - Answer
(click here)
3. Tuples, Lists and Dictionaries - Python - Answer (click here)
4. String Processing and Regular Expressions - Python - Answer (click here)
5. Exception Handling - Python - Answer (click here)
6. Introduction to CGI Programming - Python - Answer (click here)
7. Form Processing and Business Logic - Python - Answer (click here)
8. Cookies - Python - Answer (click here)
9. Database Application Programming Interface (DB-API) - Python -
Answer (click here)

UNIT I ALGORITHMIC PROBLEM SOLVING


UNIT II DATA and EXPRESSIONS and STATEMENTS
UNIT III CONTROL FLOW and FUNCTIONS
UNIT IV LISTS and TUPLES and DICTIONARIES
UNIT V FILES and MODULES and PACKAGES

Subject : Engineering Graphics


Engineering Graphics
1. Importance of Engineering Graphics - Answer (click here)
2. Plane Curves and Introduction to Orthographic - Answer (click here)
3. Projection of Straight Lines and Planes [First Angle] - Answer (click here)
4. Projection of Solids and Section of Solids - Answer (click here)
5. Development of Surfaces and Isometric Projection - Answer (click here)
6. Free Hand Sketching and Perspective Projection - Answer (click here)
7. Important Keypoints and Notation in Engineering Graphics - Answer (click
here)

CONCEPTS AND CONVENTIONS (Not for Examination)


1. Importance of Engineering Graphics - Answer (click here)

UNIT I PLANE CURVES AND FREEHAND SKETCHING


1. Plane Curves and Introduction to Orthographic - Answer (click here)

UNIT II PROJECTION OF POINTS and LINES AND PLANE


SURFACE
1. Projection of Straight Lines and Planes [First Angle] - Answer (click here)

UNIT III PROJECTION OF SOLIDS


1. Projection of Solids and Section of Solids - Answer (click here)

UNIT IV PROJECTION OF SECTIONED SOLIDS AND


DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES
1. Development of Surfaces and Isometric Projection - Answer (click here)

UNIT V ISOMETRIC AND PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS


1. Free Hand Sketching and Perspective Projection - Answer (click here)

Subject : Technical English


UNIT I
1. Listening to Informal Conversations and Participating - Answer (click here)
2. Speaking In Conversation - Answer (click here)
3. Developing Analytical Thinking - Answer (click here)
4. Effective use of SMS - Answer (click here)
5. Use of Emoticons in Email - Answer (click here)
6. Regular & Irregular Verbs - Answer (click here)
7. Active Voice & Passive Voice - Answer (click here)
8. Homonymns & Homophones - Answer (click here)

UNIT II
1. Conversation Practice - Answer (click here)
2. Writing a Book Review - Answer (click here)
3. Reading - Answer (click here)
4. Writing Summary - Answer (click here)
5. Personal Letters - Answer (click here)
6. Modal Verbs - Answer (click here)
7. Phrasal Verbs - Answer (click here)

UNIT III
1. Listening to Conversation - Answer (click here)
2. Conversation with Stress, Intonation & Pronunciation - Answer (click here)
3. Critical reading - Answer (click here)
4. Minutes of meeting - Answer (click here)
5. Writing Technical articles - Answer (click here)
6. Conditional clauses - Answer (click here)
7. Cause and effect expression - Answer (click here)
8. Same word as noun and verb - Answer (click here)
9. Homonys & Homophones Practice - Answer (click here)

UNIT IV
1. Telephone Conversations - Answer (click here)
2. Applying for a Job - Cover Letter & Resume Preparation - Answer (click
here)
3. Numerical Expressions - Answer (click here)
4. Connectives (Discourse Markers) - Answer (click here)
5. Idioms and their Meanings - Using Idioms in Sentences - Answer (click
here)
6. Different forms of resumes - Answer (click here)
7. Filling up a resume and cover letter - Answer (click here)

UNIT V
1. Strategies for Improving Discussion Skills - Answer (click here)
2. Note Making - Answer (click here)
3. Intensive Reading and Extensive Reading - Answer (click here)
4. Check Lists - Yes/No Question Form - Answer (click here)
5. Report Writing - Answer (click here)
6. Report of Meeting - Answer (click here)
7. Use of Clauses - Answer (click here)
8. Vocabulary- Collocation - Answer (click here)

Subject : Engineering Mathematics II


UNIT I MATRICES
1. Matrix - Answer (click here)

UNIT II VECTOR CALCULUS


1. Vector Calculus - Answer (click here)

UNIT III ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS


1. Analytic Functions - Answer (click here)

UNIT IV COMPLEX INTEGRATION


1. Complex Integration - Answer (click here)

UNIT V LAPLACE TRANSFORMS


1. Laplace Transformation - Answer (click here)

Subject : Physics for Electronics Engineering


UNIT I ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
1. Conducting Materials - Answer (click here)
2. Important Questions and Answers: Conducting Materials - Answer (click
here)
3. Conducting Materials - Answer (click here)
4. Solved Problems: Conducting Materials - Answer (click here)
5. Important Short Questions and Answers: Conducting Materials - Answer
(click here)

UNIT II SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS


1. Semiconducting Materials - Answer (click here)
2. Important Questions and Answers: Semiconducting Materials - Answer
(click here)
3. Semiconducting Materials - Answer (click here)
4. Solved Problems: Semiconducting Materials - Answer (click here)
5. Important Short Questions and Answers: Semiconducting Materials -
Answer (click here)

UNIT III MAGNETIC AND DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF


MATERIALS
1. Magnetic Materials - Answer (click here)
2. Important Questions and Answers: Magnetic Materials - Answer (click here)
3. Super Conducting Materials - Answer (click here)
4. Important Questions and Answers: Super Conducting Materials - Answer
(click here)
5. Dielectric Materials - Answer (click here)
6. Important Questions and Answers: Dielectric Materials - Answer (click
here)
7. Magnetic Materials - Answer (click here)
8. Super Conductors - Answer (click here)
9. Solved Problems: Magnetic and Superconducting Materials - Answer
(click here)
10. Important Questions and Answers: Magnetic and Superconducting
Materials - Answer (click here)
11. Dielectric Materials - Answer (click here)
12. Solved Problems: Dielectric Materials - Answer (click here)
13. Important Short Questions and Answers: Dielectric Materials - Answer
(click here)

UNIT IV OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS


1. Characteristics of Laser - Answer (click here)
2. Principle of Spontaneous and Stimulated emission - Einstein’s Quantum
theory of radiation - Answer (click here)
3. Principle of Laser action and Methods of pumping action - Answer (click
here)
4. Nd: YAG laser: Principle, Construction, Working, Characteristics,
Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications - Answer (click here)
5. CO2 Molecular gas laser: Principle, Construction, Working,
Characteristics, Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications - Answer
(click here)
6. Solid State diode lasers - Answer (click here)
7. Semiconductor Diode laser: Principle, Construction, Working,
Characteristics, Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications - Answer
(click here)
8. Hetro Junction Laser: Principle, Construction, Working, Characteristics,
Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications - Answer (click here)
9. Fiber Optics and Fiber Construction - Answer (click here)
10. Types of Optical Fibers - Answer (click here)
11. Difference between Step Index fiber and Graded Index fiber - Answer
(click here)
12. The Fiber Optic Communication System: Principle, Working, and
Advantages - Answer (click here)
13. Double Crucible Method - Answer (click here)
14. Types of Fiber Optic Sensors - Answer (click here)
15. Temperature Fiber Optic Sensor: Principle, Description and Working -
Answer (click here)
16. Displacement Fiber Optic Sensor (Extrinsic Sensor): Principle,
Description and Working - Answer (click here)
17. Medical Endoscope - Fiber Optic: Construction and working - Answer
(click here)
18. Losses in Optical Fibers - Answer (click here)
19. Principle of operation of a Photo Detector - Answer (click here)
20. PIN Photo Diode - Answer (click here)
21. Light Emitting Diodes: Principle, Construction, Working, Advantages
and Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
22. Important Short Questions and Answers: Photonics and fibre Optics -
Answer (click here)

UNIT V NANOELECTRONIC DEVICES


1. Advanced Engineering Materials Metallic Glasses - Answer (click here)
2. Important Questions and Answers: Advanced Engineering Materials
Metallic Glasses - Answer (click here)
3. Modern Engineering Materials - Answer (click here)
4. Important Short Questions and Answers: Modern Engineering Materials
- Answer (click here)

Subject : Basic Civil and Mechanical Engineering


UNIT I SCOPE OF CIVIL AND MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
UNIT II SURVEYING AND CIVIL ENGINEERING
MATERIALS
1. Surveying and Principle of surveying - Answer (click here)
2. Instruments used for chain surveying - Answer (click here)
3. Calculation of Areas from offsets to a Base line - Answer (click here)
4. Compass survey - Answer (click here)
5. Theodolite survey - Answer (click here)
6. Levelling and Principle of leveling - Answer (click here)
7. Plane table survey - Answer (click here)
8. Stones - Answer (click here)
9. Bricks - Answer (click here)
10. Cement - Answer (click here)
11. Sand - Answer (click here)
12. Plain and Green concrete - Answer (click here)
13. Ferrous Metals - Answer (click here)

UNIT III BUILDING COMPONENTS AND STRUCTURES


1. Elements of a building - Answer (click here)
2. Basic requirements of a building - Answer (click here)
3. Planning For Building - Answer (click here)
4. Conventional spread footings: R.C.C. footings and Grillage footing -
Answer (click here)
5. Arch foundation and Pile foundations - Answer (click here)
6. Stone masonry - Answer (click here)
7. Brick masonry - Answer (click here)
8. Beams and Columns - Answer (click here)
9. Lintels - Answer (click here)
10. Flooring: Ground Floor - Answer (click here)
11. Flooring: Upper Floor - Answer (click here)
12. Roof - Answer (click here)
13. Plastering - Answer (click here)
14. Stress, strain and its type - Answer (click here)
15. Elasticity - Answer (click here)
16. Bridges - Answer (click here)
17. Dams - Answer (click here)
18. Basics of interior design - Answer (click here)

UNIT IV INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND POWER


PLANTS
1. Layout of steam power plant - Answer (click here)
2. Selection of Site for Thermal Power Plant - Answer (click here)
3. Gas power plant - Answer (click here)
4. Diesel Power Plant - Answer (click here)
5. Hydro Electric Power Plant - Answer (click here)
6. Nuclear power plant - Answer (click here)
7. Pumps - Answer (click here)
8. Centrifugal Pumps - Answer (click here)
9. Impulse Turbine and Reaction Turbine - Answer (click here)
10. Classification of Heat Engines - Answer (click here)
11. Main Components of IC Engines and IC Engine - Answer (click here)
12. Two Stroke Cycle Petrol Engines - Answer (click here)
13. Two Stroke Cycle Diesel Engines - Answer (click here)
14. Four Stroke Cycle Petrol Engines - Answer (click here)
15. Four Stroke Diesel Engine - Answer (click here)
16. Scavenging - Answer (click here)
17. Comparison Between SI and CI Engines - Answer (click here)
18. Comparison Between Four Stroke Cycle And Two Stroke Cycle Engine
(Merits And Demerits) - Answer (click here)
19. Terminolgogy and Major Parts of an IC Engine - Answer (click here)
20. Steam Boilers - Answer (click here)
21. Boiler Mountings and Accessories - Answer (click here)
22. Boiler Accessories - Answer (click here)

UNIT V REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING


SYSTEM
1. Refrigeration - Answer (click here)
2. Air Conditioning - Answer (click here)

Subject : Circuit Theory


UNIT I BASIC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS
1. Fundamentals of Communication Engineering - Answer (click here)
2. Basic Circuits Analysis - Answer (click here)
3. Important Short Questions and Answers: Basic Circuits Analysis -
Answer (click here)
4. Basic Elements and Introductory Concepts - Answer (click here)
5. Kirchoff's Law with Example Problems and Calculations - Answer (click
here)
6. DC Circuits and AC Circuits - Answer (click here)
7. Difference Between AC And DC - Answer (click here)
8. Problem on Parallel Networks - Answer (click here)
9. Mesh Analysis - Answer (click here)
10. Nodal Analysis - Answer (click here)

UNIT II NETWORK REDUCTION AND THEOREMS FOR DC


AND AC IRCUITS
1. Network Reduction and Network Theorems for DC And AC Circuits -
Answer (click here)
2. Important Short Questions and Answers: Network Reduction and
Network Theorems for DC And AC Circuits - Answer (click here)
3. Potential Divider - Answer (click here)
4. Star Delta Conversion - Answer (click here)
5. Thevenins Theorem - Answer (click here)
6. Norton’s Theorem - Answer (click here)

UNIT III TRANSIENT RESPONSE ANALYSIS


1. Transient Response For DC Circuits - Answer (click here)
2. Current through purely resistive circuit, inductance and capacitance -
Answer (click here)
3. Current lags and leads voltage in R-L series circuit - Answer (click here)
4. Phasor diagram for a series RLC circuit - Answer (click here)
5. Solved Problems: Transient Response For DC Circuits - Answer (click here)
6. Time constant and step response of series RL circuit - Answer (click here)
7. Time constant and step response of series RC circuit - Answer (click here)
8. Analysis of undriven(source free) series RC and RL circuits - Answer
(click here)
9. Transient Response of RL Circuits - Answer (click here)
10. Transient Response of RC Circuits - Answer (click here)
11. Transient Response of RLC Circuits - Answer (click here)
12. Characterization of Two Port Networks in Terms Of Z,Y and H
Parameters - Answer (click here)
13. Important Short Questions and Answers: Transient Response For DC
Circuits - Answer (click here)

UNIT IV THREE PHASE CIRCUITS


1. Analysing Three Phase Circuits - Answer (click here)
2. Important Short Questions and Answers: Analysing Three Phase Circuits
- Answer (click here)
3. Star connection and Star connection - Answer (click here)
4. Solved Problems: Analysing Three Phase Circuits - Answer (click here)

UNIT V RESONANCE AND COUPLED CIRCUITS


1. Resonance and Coupled Circuits - Answer (click here)
2. The step response of series RLC circuit - Answer (click here)
3. Expressions for Q-factor of inductor and capacitor - Answer (click here)
4. linear transformer - Answer (click here)
5. Solved Problems: Resonance and Coupled Circuits - Answer (click here)
6. Important Short Questions and Answers: Resonance and Coupled
Circuits - Answer (click here)

Subject : Environmental Science and Engineering


UNIT I ENVIRONMENT and ECOSYSTEMS AND
BIODIVERSITY
1. Definitions and Scope of Environmental Science - Answer (click here)
2. Concept, Structure, Components of Ecosystem - Answer (click here)
3. Structure and Function of Forest Ecosystem(Terrestrial Ecosystem) -
Answer (click here)
4. Structure and functions of Grassland Ecosystems - Answer (click here)
5. Structure and Functions of Desert Ecosystms - Answer (click here)
6. Aquatic ecosystems - Answer (click here)
7. Energy Flow in Ecosystem - Answer (click here)
8. Ecological pyramid - Answer (click here)
9. Nutrient cycles: Carbon, Nitrogen and phosphorus cycle - Answer (click
here)
10. Ecological succession - Answer (click here)
11. Biodiversity - Answer (click here)
12. Levels and Values of Biodiversity - Answer (click here)
13. Hot-Spots of Biodiversity - Answer (click here)
14. Threats to Biodiversity - Answer (click here)
15. Man-Wildlife Conflicts and Endangered Species - Answer (click here)
16. Conservation of Biodiversity - Answer (click here)
17. Important Short Questions and Answers: Environment, Ecosystems and
Biodiversity - Answer (click here)

UNIT II ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION


1. Environmental pollution - Answer (click here)
2. Classification of Pollution - Answer (click here)
3. Nuclear Hazards - Answer (click here)
4. Management of solid waste - Answer (click here)
5. Disaster Management - Answer (click here)
6. Important Short Questions and Answers: Environmental Pollution -
Answer (click here)
UNIT III NATURAL RESOURCES
1. Forest Resources - Answer (click here)
2. Deforestation - Answer (click here)
3. Water Resources - Answer (click here)
4. Mineral Resources - Answer (click here)
5. Food Resources - Answer (click here)
6. Energy Resources - Answer (click here)
7. Renewable Energy Resources and Methods of Harvesting - Answer (click
here)
8. Non-Reneable Energy Sources - Answer (click here)
9. Nuclear Energy - Answer (click here)
10. Uses of Alternate (Renewable) Energy Sources - Answer (click here)
11. Land Resources - Answer (click here)
12. Desertification: Harmful effect and Causes - Answer (click here)
13. Landslides: Causes and Harmful effect - Answer (click here)
14. Conservation of Natural Resources - Role of an Individual - Answer (click
here)
15. Equitable Use of Resources for Sustainable Life Style - Answer (click here)
16. Important Short Questions and Answers: Natural Resources - Answer
(click here)

UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT


1. Social Issues and the Environment - Answer (click here)
2. Important Short Questions and Answers: Social Issues and the
Environment - Answer (click here)

UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT


1. Human Population and the Environment - Answer (click here)
2. Important Short Questions and Answers: Human Population and the
Environment - Answer (click here)

Subject : Transforms and Partial Differential


Equations
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1. Partial Differential Equations - Answer (click here)
2. Important Questions and Answers: Partial Differential Equations -
Answer (click here)
3. Formation of Partial Differential Equations - Answer (click here)
4. Solution of a Partial Differential Equation - Answer (click here)
5. Lagrange’s Linear Equation - Answer (click here)
6. Partial Differential Equations of Higher Order With Constant
Coefficients - Answer (click here)
7. Non Homogeneous Linear Equations - Answer (click here)

FOURIER SERIES
1. Fourier Series - Answer (click here)
2. Important Questions and Answers: Fourier Series - Answer (click here)
3. Periodic Functions - Answer (click here)
4. Even and Odd functions - Answer (click here)
5. Half Range Series - Answer (click here)
6. Parseval’s Theorem and Change of Interval - Answer (click here)
7. Harmonic Analysis - Answer (click here)
8. Formula For Fourier Series - Answer (click here)

APPLICATIONS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS


1. Applications of Partial Differential Equations - Answer (click here)
2. Important Questions and Answers: Applications of Partial Differential
Equations - Answer (click here)
3. Solution of the wave equation - Answer (click here)
4. Solution of the heat equation - Answer (click here)
5. Solution of Laplace’s equation (Two dimensional heat equation) - Answer
(click here)

FOURIER TRANSFORMS
1. Fourier Transforms - Answer (click here)
2. Important Questions and Answers: Fourier Transforms - Answer (click here)
3. Fourier Transforms and its properties - Answer (click here)

Z TRANSFORMS AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS


1. Z-Transforms and Difference Equations - Answer (click here)
2. Important Questions and Answers: Z-Transforms and Difference
Equations - Answer (click here)
3. Linear Difference Equations - Answer (click here)
4. Z - Transforms and its Properties - Answer (click here)
5. Inverse Z-Transforms - Answer (click here)
6. Application of Z - transform to Difference equations - Answer (click here)

Subject : Digital Logic Circuits


NUMBER SYSTEMS AND DIGITAL LOGIC FAMILIES
1. Review of Number Systems - Answer (click here)
2. Boolean Arithmetic - Answer (click here)
3. Theorems of Boolean algebra - Answer (click here)
4. Demorgan's Theorem - Answer (click here)
5. Canonical Form of Boolean Expressions - Answer (click here)
6. Min Terms and Max Terms - Answer (click here)
7. Error Detection and Correction - Answer (click here)
8. Register Transfer Level ( RTL) - Answer (click here)
9. TTL - Answer (click here)
10. DTL Basic Gates - Answer (click here)
11. Emitter coupled logic (ECL) - Answer (click here)
12. Important Short Questions and Answers: Digital Logic Circuits: Number
Systems and Digital Logic Families - Answer (click here)

COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS
1. Minimization Technique - Answer (click here)
2. Karnaugh Map Method - Answer (click here)
3. Different Styles of row and column identification - K map - Answer (click
here)
4. Combinational Logic Design - Answer (click here)
5. Logic Implementation and circuit diagram of Half and Full Adder -
Answer (click here)
6. Half Subtractor - Answer (click here)
7. Full Subtractor - Answer (click here)
8. Multipliers - Answer (click here)
9. Multiplexers - Answer (click here)
10. Demultiplexers - Answer (click here)
11. Decoders and Encoders - Answer (click here)
12. Magnitude Comparator - Answer (click here)
13. Important Short Questions and Answers: Combinational Circuits -
Answer (click here)

SYNCHRONOUS SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS


1. RS Flip Flop - Answer (click here)
2. JK Flip Flop - Answer (click here)
3. D Flip Flop - Answer (click here)
4. Analysis and Synthesis of Synchronous Sequential Circuit - Answer (click
here)
5. Design of synchronous sequential circuit - Answer (click here)
6. Counters and Counters Types - Answer (click here)
7. Types of shift register - Answer (click here)
8. Synchronous and Asynchronous Operation - Answer (click here)
9. Summary of the Types of Flip flop Behaviour - Answer (click here)
10. Analysis and Design of Sequential Circuits - Answer (click here)
11. Important Short Questions and Answers: Synchronous Sequential
Circuits - Answer (click here)

ASYNCHRONOUS SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS AND


PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC DEVICES
1. Analysis Procedure of Asynchronous Sequential Circuits - Answer (click
here)
2. Equivalent States and Reduction of State Table - Answer (click here)
3. Using a One Hot State Assignment - Answer (click here)
4. Classification of memories - Answer (click here)
5. ROM Organization - Answer (click here)
6. Mask programmed ROM - Answer (click here)
7. Programmable ROM - Answer (click here)
8. Basic Memory Cell of a PROM: Erasable PROM - Answer (click here)
9. Random Access Memory - Answer (click here)
10. VLSI Programmable Logic Devices - Answer (click here)
11. Programmable Array Logic - Answer (click here)
12. Fixed Logic Versus Programmable Logic - Answer (click here)
13. CPLDs and FPGAs - Answer (click here)
14. The PLD Market - Answer (click here)
15. The PLD Advantage - Answer (click here)
16. Features in common with PALs and FPGAs - Answer (click here)
17. Important Short Questions and Answers: Asynchronous Sequential
Circuits and Programmable Logic Devices - Answer (click here)

VHDL
1. Hardware Description Language(HDL) - Answer (click here)
2. Design using HDL - Answer (click here)
3. HDL and programming languages - Answer (click here)
4. Combinational logic - Answer (click here)
5. Sequential logic - Answer (click here)
6. Clocked sequential system - Answer (click here)
7. VHDL Operators - Answer (click here)
8. VHDL for Serial Comparator - Answer (click here)
9. Code Generation Examples - Answer (click here)
10. Important Short Questions and Answers: VHDL - Answer (click here)

Subject : Electromagnetic Theory


EMT
1. Electromagnetic Theory - Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Electrostatics - Answer (click here)
3. Magnetostatics - Answer (click here)
4. Electrodynamic fields - Answer (click here)
5. Electromagnetic waves - Answer (click here)

ELECTROSTATICS I
1. Electromagnetic Theory - Introduction - Answer (click here)

ELECTROSTATICS II
1. Electrostatics - Answer (click here)

MAGNETOSTATICS
1. Magnetostatics - Answer (click here)

ELECTRODYNAMIC FIELDS
1. Electrodynamic fields - Answer (click here)

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
1. Electromagnetic waves - Answer (click here)

Subject : Environmental Science and Engineering


ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY
1. Definitions and Scope of Environmental Science - Answer (click here)
2. Concept, Structure, Components of Ecosystem - Answer (click here)
3. Structure and Function of Forest Ecosystem(Terrestrial Ecosystem) -
Answer (click here)
4. Structure and functions of Grassland Ecosystems - Answer (click here)
5. Structure and Functions of Desert Ecosystms - Answer (click here)
6. Aquatic ecosystems - Answer (click here)
7. Energy Flow in Ecosystem - Answer (click here)
8. Ecological pyramid - Answer (click here)
9. Nutrient cycles: Carbon, Nitrogen and phosphorus cycle - Answer (click
here)
10. Ecological succession - Answer (click here)
11. Biodiversity - Answer (click here)
12. Levels and Values of Biodiversity - Answer (click here)
13. Hot-Spots of Biodiversity - Answer (click here)
14. Threats to Biodiversity - Answer (click here)
15. Man-Wildlife Conflicts and Endangered Species - Answer (click here)
16. Conservation of Biodiversity - Answer (click here)
17. Important Short Questions and Answers: Environment, Ecosystems and
Biodiversity - Answer (click here)

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
1. Environmental pollution - Answer (click here)
2. Classification of Pollution - Answer (click here)
3. Nuclear Hazards - Answer (click here)
4. Management of solid waste - Answer (click here)
5. Disaster Management - Answer (click here)
6. Important Short Questions and Answers: Environmental Pollution -
Answer (click here)

NATURAL RESOURCES
1. Forest Resources - Answer (click here)
2. Deforestation - Answer (click here)
3. Water Resources - Answer (click here)
4. Mineral Resources - Answer (click here)
5. Food Resources - Answer (click here)
6. Energy Resources - Answer (click here)
7. Renewable Energy Resources and Methods of Harvesting - Answer (click
here)
8. Non-Reneable Energy Sources - Answer (click here)
9. Nuclear Energy - Answer (click here)
10. Uses of Alternate (Renewable) Energy Sources - Answer (click here)
11. Land Resources - Answer (click here)
12. Desertification: Harmful effect and Causes - Answer (click here)
13. Landslides: Causes and Harmful effect - Answer (click here)
14. Conservation of Natural Resources - Role of an Individual - Answer (click
here)
15. Equitable Use of Resources for Sustainable Life Style - Answer (click here)
16. Important Short Questions and Answers: Natural Resources - Answer
(click here)

SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT


1. Social Issues and the Environment - Answer (click here)
2. Important Short Questions and Answers: Social Issues and the
Environment - Answer (click here)

HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT


1. Human Population and the Environment - Answer (click here)
2. Important Short Questions and Answers: Human Population and the
Environment - Answer (click here)

Subject : Electronic Devices and Circuits


PN JUNCTION DEVICES
1. Semiconductor: Diode - Answer (click here)
2. Review of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors - Answer (click here)
3. PN Junction Diode:Operation, V-I characteristics of Forward and
Reverse Bias Condition - Answer (click here)
4. Transition capacitances - Answer (click here)
5. Diffusion capacitance - Answer (click here)
6. Half Wave Rectifier: Characteristics and Working - Answer (click here)
7. Full wave rectifier: Center Tapped Full Wave and Full Wave Bridge
Rectifier - Answer (click here)
8. Light Emitting Diode (LED) - Answer (click here)
9. Laser diode and its L/I characteristic - Answer (click here)
10. A Zener Diode and its characteristics, Regulator - Answer (click here)
11. Important Short Questions and Answers: PN Junction Devices - Answer
(click here)

TRANSISTORS
1. Transistors: Types, Construction, Currents - Answer (click here)
2. Operation of an NPN and PNP Transistor - Answer (click here)
3. Configuration of Transistor Circuit: CB, CE, CC configuration Input and
Output Characteristics - Answer (click here)
4. Common base(CB) configuration of Transistor - Answer (click here)
5. Common emitter (CE) configuration of Transistor - Answer (click here)
6. Common collector (CC) configuration of Transistor - Answer (click here)
7. Field Effect Transistor(FET) and its Operation - Answer (click here)
8. MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) -
Depletion and Enhancement mode: Construction, Operation, Symbol,
Characteristics - Answer (click here)
9. Biasing: Fixed Bias or Base Bias and Stability of Operating Point -
Answer (click here)
10. Uni Junction Transistor (UJT): Construction, Operation, Characteristics,
Applications - Answer (click here)
11. Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR): Construction, Working Principle -
Answer (click here)
12. V-I Characteristics of SCR - Answer (click here)
13. DIAC (Diode A.C. Switch): Circuit symbol, Construction, Operation, V-
I characteristics, Applications - Answer (click here)
14. TRIAC: symbol, basics, Operation, Characteristics, Advantages and
disadvantages - Answer (click here)
15. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor(IGBT) and its Characteristics - Answer
(click here)
16. Important Short Questions and Answers: Transistors - Answer (click here)

AMPLIFIERS
1. CE, CB and CC Amplifiers Circuits - Answer (click here)
2. Small Signal Low Frequency h-parameter Model - Answer (click here)
3. General shape of frequency response of amplifiers - Answer (click here)
4. Low frequency analysis of amplifier to obtain lower cut-off frequency -
Answer (click here)
5. MOSFET small signal model Amplifiers - Answer (click here)
6. High frequency analysis of MOSFET - Answer (click here)
7. Frequency Response of Common Source Amplifier - Answer (click here)
8. Important Short Questions and Answers: Amplifier Circuits - Answer
(click here)

MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIERS AND DIFFERENTIAL


AMPLIFIER
1. Multistage Amplifiers - Answer (click here)
2. Advantages of Representation of Gain in Decibels - Answer (click here)
3. Basics of Differential Amplifier - Answer (click here)
4. Transistorised Differential Amplifier - Answer (click here)
5. Differential Mode Operation - Differential Amplifier - Answer (click here)
6. Common Mode operation and Configurations - Differential Amplifier -
Answer (click here)
7. D.C. Analysis of Differential Amplifier - Answer (click here)
8. Tuned amplifier - Answer (click here)
9. General shape of frequency response of amplifiers - Answer (click here)
10. Neutralization Methods - Answer (click here)
11. Power Amplifiers - Answer (click here)
12. Important Short Questions and Answers: Multistage Amplifiers and
Differential Amplifier - Answer (click here)

FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS AND OSCILLATORS


1. Feed Back Amplifiers and Oscillators - Answer (click here)
2. Feedback: Positive and Negative feedback - Answer (click here)
3. Principles of Negative Voltage Feedback In Amplifiers - Answer (click
here)
4. Gain of Negative Voltage Feedback Amplifier - Answer (click here)
5. Advantages of Negative Voltage Feedback - Answer (click here)
6. Effects of Negative Current Feedback - Answer (click here)
7. Oscillators - Answer (click here)
8. The Hartley Oscillator - Answer (click here)
9. The Colpitts Oscillator - Answer (click here)
10. Wien Bridge Oscillator - Answer (click here)
11. Quartz Crystal Oscillators - Answer (click here)
12. Important Short Questions and Answers: Feed Back Amplifiers and
Oscillators - Answer (click here)

Subject : Linear Integrated Circuits and


Applications
IC FABRICATION
1. IC Fabrication and Circuit Configuration for Linear ICs - Answer (click
here)
2. Classification of ICs - Answer (click here)
3. Construction of a Monolithic Bipolar Transistor - Answer (click here)
4. Transistor Fabrication: PNP Transistor - Answer (click here)
5. Schottky Barrier Diode - Answer (click here)
6. Schottky transistor - Answer (click here)
7. Monolithic diodes - Answer (click here)
8. Monolithic Capacitors - Answer (click here)
9. Current Mirror and Current Sources - Answer (click here)
10. Important Short Questions and Answers: IC Fabrication and Circuit
Configuration for Linear ICs - Answer (click here)

CHARACTERISTICS OF OPAMP
1. General Operational Amplifier - Answer (click here)
2. IC 741 Bipolar operational amplifier - Answer (click here)
3. Ideal op-amp characteristics - Answer (click here)
4. AC Characteristics of op-amp - Answer (click here)
5. Circuit Stability of op-amp - Answer (click here)
6. Slew Rate - Answer (click here)
7. DC Characteristics of op-amp - Answer (click here)
8. Open loop-op-amp Configuration - Answer (click here)
9. Limitations of Open - loop Op - amp configuration - Answer (click here)
10. Closed - loop op-amp configuration - Answer (click here)
11. Differential amplifier - Answer (click here)
12. Important Short Questions and Answers: Characteristics of op-amp -
Answer (click here)

APPLICATIONS OF OPAMP
1. Application of Op-Amp - Answer (click here)
2. Voltage follower - Answer (click here)
3. Current to Voltage Converter (I-V) - Answer (click here)
4. Summing Amplifier - Answer (click here)
5. Subtractor - Answer (click here)
6. Adder/Subtractor - Answer (click here)
7. Differentiator - Answer (click here)
8. Integrator - Answer (click here)
9. Log and Antilog Amplifier - Answer (click here)
10. Comparator - Answer (click here)
11. Zero Crossing Detector: [ Sine wave to Square wave converter] - Answer
(click here)
12. Drawbacks of Zero- crossing detector - Answer (click here)
13. Important Short Questions and Answers: Applications of Op Amp -
Answer (click here)
SPECIAL ICs
1. The 555 Timer IC and its Pin Configuration - Answer (click here)
2. Block Diagram of 555 Timer IC - Answer (click here)
3. Applications of Monostable Mode of Operation - Answer (click here)
4. The 555 timer as an Astable Multivibrator - Answer (click here)
5. Astable Multivibrator Applications and Ramp generator - Answer (click
here)
6. Important Short Questions and Answers: Spical ICs - Answer (click here)

APPLICATION ICs
1. IC Voltage Regulators - Answer (click here)
2. Switching Fundamentals - Answer (click here)
3. Transformer Operation - Answer (click here)
4. Spark Firing Circuit - Answer (click here)
5. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) - Answer (click here)
6. Buck Regulator - Answer (click here)
7. Boost Regulator - Answer (click here)
8. Buck-Boost (Inverting) Regulator - Answer (click here)
9. Flyback Regulator - Answer (click here)
10. Generating Multiple Outputs - Answer (click here)
11. Bypass Capacitors - Answer (click here)
12. Linear Regulators - Answer (click here)
13. Classifications of IC voltage regulators - Answer (click here)
14. IC 723 - General Purpose Regulator - Answer (click here)
15. IC723 as a LOW voltage LOW current - Answer (click here)
16. IC723 as a HIGH voltage LOW Current - Answer (click here)
17. IC723 as a HIGH voltage HIGH Current - Answer (click here)
18. Switching Regulator - Answer (click here)
19. Power Audio Amplifier IC LM380 - Answer (click here)
20. Applications of LM 380 - Answer (click here)
21. Optocouplers/Optoisolators: Characteristics, Types, Advantages,
Disadvantages, Applications - Answer (click here)
22. Optocoupler IC - Answer (click here)
23. Important Short Questions and Answers: Application of ICs - Answer
(click here)

Subject : Numerical Methods


SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS AND EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS
1. Solution of Equations and Eigenvalue Problems - Answer (click here)
2. Important Short Objective Question and Answers: Solution of Equations
and Eigenvalue Problems - Answer (click here)

INTERPOLATION AND APPROXIMATION


1. Interpolation And Approximation - Answer (click here)
2. Important Short Objective Question and Answers: Interpolation And
Approximation - Answer (click here)

NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION


1. Numerical Differentiation and Integration - Answer (click here)
2. Important Short Objective Question and Answers: Numerical
Differentiation and Integration - Answer (click here)

INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS FOR ORDINARY


DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1. Initial Value Problems for Ordinary Differential Equations - Answer (click
here)
2. Important Short Objective Question and Answers: Initial Value
Problems for Ordinary Differential Equations - Answer (click here)

BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS IN ORDINARY AND


PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1. Boundary Value Problems In Ordinary And Partial Differential
Equations - Answer (click here)
2. Important Short Objective Question and Answers: Mathematics (maths)
- Boundary Value Problems In Ordinary And Partial Differential
Equations - Answer (click here)

Subject : Electrical Machines I


MAGNETIC CIRCUITS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS
1. Magnetic Circuits and Magnetic Materials - Answer (click here)
2. Laws Governing Magnetic Circuits - Answer (click here)
3. Flux Linkage, Inductance and Energy - Answer (click here)
4. Statically and Dynamically Induced Emf - Answer (click here)
5. Properties of Magnetic Materials - Answer (click here)
6. Iron or Core losses - Answer (click here)
7. AC Operation of Magnetic Circuits - Answer (click here)
8. Transformer as a Magnetically Coupled Circuit - Answer (click here)
9. Solved problems - Magnetic Circuits and Magnetic Materials - Answer
(click here)
10. Important Short Questions and Answers : Electrical machines -
Magnetic Circuits and Magnetic Materials - Answer (click here)

TRANSFORMERS
1. Transformer: Principle of Operation - Answer (click here)
2. An ideal Transformer: Principle of Operation - Answer (click here)
3. Induction Law - Transformer - Answer (click here)
4. Equivalent Circuit of Transformer - Answer (click here)
5. Transformer Losses - Answer (click here)
6. Transformer Tests - Answer (click here)
7. Efficiency of a Transformer - Answer (click here)
8. Voltage Regulation of Transformer - Answer (click here)
9. Auto Transformer - Answer (click here)
10. Three-phase autotransformer connection - Answer (click here)
11. Parallel Operation of Transformers - Answer (click here)
12. Tap Changing in Transformer - Answer (click here)
13. Solved Problems - Transformer - Electrical machines - Answer (click here)
14. Important Short Questions and Answers: Electrical machines -
Transformer - Answer (click here)

ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION AND


CONCEPTS IN ROTATING MACHINES
1. Energy In Magnetic Systems - Answer (click here)
2. The Field Energy - Answer (click here)
3. The Co Energy - Answer (click here)
4. Force In A Singly Excited Magnetic Field System - Answer (click here)
5. Force in a Multiply Excited Magnetic Field System - Answer (click here)
6. Mmf of Distributed Windings - Answer (click here)
7. Magnetic Fields In Rotating Machines - Answer (click here)
8. Rotating Mmf Waves - Answer (click here)
9. Torque in Ac And Dc Machines - Answer (click here)
10. Solved Problems - Electromechanical Energy Conversion and Concepts
in Rotating Machines - Answer (click here)
11. Important Short Questions and Answers - Electromechanical Energy
Conversion and Concepts in Rotating Machines - Answer (click here)

DC GENERATORS
1. Construction of DC Machines - Answer (click here)
2. Lap Winding - Answer (click here)
3. Wave Winding - Answer (click here)
4. EMF Equation of DC Generators - Answer (click here)
5. Armature reaction - Answer (click here)
6. Methods of excitation of the field windings - Answer (click here)
7. Methods of Excitation used for DC Generator - Answer (click here)
8. Commutation and Interpoles - Answer (click here)
9. DC Generator Characteristics - Answer (click here)
10. Important short questions and answers: DC Generators - Answer (click here)

DC MOTORS
1. Principle of operation of a D.C. Motor - Answer (click here)
2. Working of D.C. Motor - Answer (click here)
3. Types of DC Motors - Answer (click here)
4. DC Motor Characteristics - Answer (click here)
5. Speed Control of DC Shunt Motor: Varying Armature Resistance, Field
Resistance - Answer (click here)
6. Starting of DC Motors - Answer (click here)
7. Three Point Starter: Working principle - Answer (click here)
8. Four Point Starter - Answer (click here)
9. Swinburne’s Test - Answer (click here)
10. Hopkinson’s test: Procedure, Calculation of efficiency, Advantages,
Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
11. Braking of DC shunt motor - Answer (click here)
12. Important Short questions and answers: DC Motor - Electrical machines
- Answer (click here)

Subject : Object Oriented Programming


OVERVIEW
1. Why Object-Oriented Programming In C++ - Answer (click here)
2. Native Types - C++ - Answer (click here)
3. Functions and Pointers - Answer (click here)
4. Pointers - C++ - Answer (click here)
5. Implementing ADTS in the Base Language - Answer (click here)
6. Important Short Questions and Answers: Object Oriented
Programming(OOP) - Overview - Answer (click here)

BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF OOP


1. Data Hiding - Answer (click here)
2. Member Functions - Answer (click here)
3. Object Creation and Destruction - Answer (click here)
4. Polymorphism - C++ - Answer (click here)
5. Data Abstraction - C++ - Answer (click here)
6. Iterators - C++ - Answer (click here)
7. Containers - C++ - Answer (click here)
8. Important Questions and Answers: Basic Characteristics of OOP - Answer
(click here)

ADVANCED PROGRAMMING
1. Templates - C++ - Answer (click here)
2. C++ Templates and Classes and its Advantages, disadvantages - Answer
(click here)
3. The nature of template meta-programming - C++ - Answer (click here)
4. Generic Programming - Answer (click here)
5. Standard Template Library (STL) - Answer (click here)
6. Inheritance - C++ - Answer (click here)
7. Exception handling - C++ - Answer (click here)
8. OOP Using C++ - Answer (click here)
9. Important Short Questions and Answers: OOP - Advanced Programming
- Answer (click here)

OVERVIEW OF JAVA
1. Java - Data Types, Variables - Answer (click here)
2. Java - Arrays - Answer (click here)
3. Java - Operators - Answer (click here)
4. Java - Control Statements - Answer (click here)
5. Java - Classes and Objects,Methods - Answer (click here)
6. Java - Inheritance - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: OOP - Overview of Java -
Answer (click here)

EXCEPTION HANDLING
1. Packages - Java - Answer (click here)
2. Interface - Java - Answer (click here)
3. Exception Handling - Answer (click here)
4. Multithreaded Programming - Answer (click here)
5. Strings - Java - Answer (click here)
6. Java I/O – The Basics - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: Java Exception Handling -
Answer (click here)

Subject : Transmission and Distribution


STRUCTURE OF POWER SYSTEM
1. Basic Electric Power and Structure of Power System - Answer (click here)
2. Components and Elements of Power System - Answer (click here)
3. Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power - Answer
(click here)
4. Distribution Systems - Answer (click here)
5. Classification of Distribution Systems - Answer (click here)
6. AC and DC Distribution - Answer (click here)
7. Overhead Versus Underground Power System - Answer (click here)
8. Connection Schemes of Distribution System - Answer (click here)
9. Requirements of a Distribution System - Answer (click here)
10. Design Considerations in Distribution System - Answer (click here)
11. A.C. Distribution -Introduction - Answer (click here)
12. Types of D.C. Distributors - Answer (click here)
13. EHVAC and HVDC Transmission System - Answer (click here)
14. Merits & Demerits of HVDC - Answer (click here)
15. Economical Comparision EHVAC and HVDC - Answer (click here)
16. Concept of FACTS - Answer (click here)
17. Important Short Questions and Answers: Transmission and Distribution
- Structure of Power System - Answer (click here)

TRANSMISSION LINE PARAMETERS


1. Parameters of Single and Three Phase Transmission Lines With Single
and Double Circuits - Answer (click here)
2. Inductance of a Single Phase Two-Wire Line - Answer (click here)
3. Spiraling and Bundle Conductor Effect - Answer (click here)
4. Concept of Self-GMD and Mutual-GMD - Answer (click here)
5. Skin Effect - Answer (click here)
6. Proximity Effect - Answer (click here)
7. Capacitance of a Single Phase Two-Wire Line - Answer (click here)
8. Inductive Interference with Neighbouring Communication Circuits -
Answer (click here)
9. Types of Conductor - Answer (click here)
10. Corona - Answer (click here)
11. Important Short Questions and Answers: Transmission Line Parameters
- Answer (click here)

MODELLING AND PERFORMANCE OF TRANSMISSION


LINES
1. Classification of Overhead Transmission Lines - Answer (click here)
2. Performance of Single Phase Short Transmission Lines - Answer (click
here)
3. Medium Transmission Lines - Answer (click here)
4. Long Transmission Lines - Answer (click here)
5. Circle Diagrams - Transmission line - Answer (click here)
6. Surge Impedance Loading - Answer (click here)
7. Voltage Control - Introduction - Answer (click here)
8. Location of Voltage Control Equipment - Answer (click here)
9. Ferranti Effect - Answer (click here)
10. Important Short Questions and Answers: Modelling and Performance of
Transmission Lines - Answer (click here)

INSULATORS AND CABLES


1. Insulator - Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Types of Insulator - Answer (click here)
3. Potential Distribution Over Suspension Insulator String - Answer (click
here)
4. String Efficiency - Answer (click here)
5. Methods of Improving String Efficiency - Answer (click here)
6. Testing of Insulator - Answer (click here)
7. Insulator Testing Types - Answer (click here)
8. Insulated Cable - Introduction - Answer (click here)
9. Construction of Cables - Answer (click here)
10. Insulating Materials For Cables - Answer (click here)
11. Classification of Cables - Answer (click here)
12. Grading of Cables - Answer (click here)
13. Important Short Questions and Answers: Transmission and Distribution
- Insulators and Cables - Answer (click here)

MECHANICAL DESIGN OF LINES AND GROUNDING


1. Mechanical Design of Transmission Line - Answer (click here)
2. Tower spotting - Mechanical Design of Lines and Grounding - Answer
(click here)
3. Towers and Type of Towers - Mechanical Design of Lines and
Grounding - Answer (click here)
4. Substation: Classification and Layout - Answer (click here)
5. Methods of Neutral Grounding - Answer (click here)
6. Important Short Questions and Answers: Mechanical Design of Lines
and Grounding - Answer (click here)

Subject : Discrete Time Systems and Signal


Processing
FEW TOPICS
1. Signals and System - Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Classification of Signal Processing - Answer (click here)
3. Advantages and Disadvantages of DSP(Digital) Over ASP(Analog
signal Processing) - Answer (click here)
4. Classification of Signals - Answer (click here)
5. Discrete Time Signals and System - Answer (click here)
6. Basic Block Diagram of A/D Converter - Answer (click here)
7. Z Tranform - Analysis of LTI System - Answer (click here)
8. Properties of Z Transform (ZT) - Answer (click here)
9. Relationship Between Fourier Transform and Z Transform - Answer (click
here)
10. Inverse Z Transform (IZT) - Answer (click here)
11. Linear Convolution Sum Method - Answer (click here)
12. Properties of Linear Convolution - Answer (click here)
13. Correlation: Types, Properties - Answer (click here)
14. Difference Between Linear Convolution and Correlation - Answer (click
here)
15. Important Short Questions and Answers: Signals and System - Answer
(click here)
16. Frequency Transformations - Answer (click here)
17. Properties of Discrete Fourier Transform(DFT) - Answer (click here)
18. Application of Discrete Fourier Transform(DFT) - Answer (click here)
19. Fast Fourier Algorithm (FFT) - Answer (click here)
20. Radix-2 FFT Algorithms - Answer (click here)
21. Computational Complexity FFT V/S Direct Computation - Answer (click
here)
22. Bit Reversal - Answer (click here)
23. Decimation In Frequency (DIFFFT) - Answer (click here)
24. Goertzel Algorithm - Answer (click here)
25. Important Short Questions and Answers: Frequency Transformations -
Answer (click here)
26. IIR Filter Design - Answer (click here)
27. Difference Between Analog Filter and Digital Filter - Answer (click here)
28. Filter Types and Ideal Filter Characteristic - Answer (click here)
29. Difference Between FIR Filter and IIR Filter - Answer (click here)
30. Structures For FIR Systems - Answer (click here)
31. Structures For IIR Systems - Answer (click here)
32. Conversion of Analog Filter into Digital Filter - Answer (click here)
33. IIR Filter Design - Bilinear Transformation Method (BZT) - Answer (click
here)
34. Method For Designing Digital Filters Using BZT - Answer (click here)
35. Butterworth Filter Approximation - Answer (click here)
36. Frequency Response Characteristic - Answer (click here)
37. Frequency Transformation - Answer (click here)
38. Important Short Questions and Answers: IIR Filter Design - Answer (click
here)
39. Features of FIR Filter - Answer (click here)
40. Symmetric and Anti-symmetric FIR filters - Answer (click here)
41. Gibbs Phenomenon - Answer (click here)
42. Designing Filter From Pole Zero Placement - Answer (click here)
43. Notch and Comb Filters - Answer (click here)
44. Digital Resonator - Answer (click here)
45. Roundoff Noise - Answer (click here)
46. Roundoff Noise in FIR Filters - Answer (click here)
47. Limit Cycle Oscillations - Answer (click here)
48. Overflow Oscillations - Answer (click here)
49. Realization Considerations - Answer (click here)
50. Important Short Questions and Answers: FIR Filter Design - Answer (click
here)
51. Speech Recognition - Answer (click here)
52. Linear Prediction of Speech Synthesis - Answer (click here)
53. Sound Processing - Answer (click here)
54. Echo Cancellation - Answer (click here)
55. Vibration Analysis - Answer (click here)
56. Multistage Implementation of Digital Filters - Answer (click here)
57. Speech signal processing - Answer (click here)
58. Subband Coding - Answer (click here)
59. Adaptive Filter - Answer (click here)
60. Audio Processing - Answer (click here)
61. Image Enhancement: Spatial domain methods - Answer (click here)
62. Important Short Questions and Answers: Applications of DSP - Answer
(click here)

Subject : Measurements and Instrumentation


INTRODUCTION
1. Measurements and Instrumentation - Answer (click here)
2. Functional Elements of an Instrument - Answer (click here)
3. Static& Dynamic Performance Characteristics of an Instrument - Answer
(click here)
4. Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Statistical Evaluation of Measurement Data - Answer (click here)
6. Standard & Calibration - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: Measurements and
Instrumentation - Introduction - Answer (click here)

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INSTRUMENTS


1. Principle and Types of Analog and Digital Voltmeters - Answer (click here)
2. Ammeters & Multimeters - Answer (click here)
3. Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instrument (PMMC): Construction,
Control, Torque Equation, Errors, Advantages and Disadvantages -
Answer (click here)
4. Moving Iron Instruments: Classification, Construction, Torque Equation,
Errors, Advantages and Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
5. Electrodynamometer (Eelectrodynamic) Type Instruments: Operating
Principle, Control, Torque Equation, Errors, Advantages and
Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
6. Rectifier Type Instruments - Answer (click here)
7. Types of Digital Voltmeter(DVM) - Answer (click here)
8. Single and Three Phase Wattmeters and Energy Meters: Construction
and principle of operation - Answer (click here)
9. Electrodynamometer Wattmeters: Construction, Theory, Errors - Answer
(click here)
10. Ferrodynamic Wattmeters - Answer (click here)
11. Three Phase Wattmeters - Answer (click here)
12. Instrument Transformers - Answer (click here)
13. Magnetic Measurements - Answer (click here)
14. Determination of B-H curve and Hysteresis Loop - Answer (click here)
15. Important Short Questions and Answers: Electrical and Electronics
Instruments - Answer (click here)

COMPARISON METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS


1. D.C and A.C Potentiometers - Answer (click here)
2. D.C and A.C Bridges - Answer (click here)
3. Wheatstone bridge(Null-type, D.C. bridge) - Answer (click here)
4. Deflection-type D.C. bridge - Answer (click here)
5. Null-type impedance A.C bridge - Answer (click here)
6. Maxwell bridge: Definition, Circuit Diagram, Explanation, Advantages
and Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
7. Schering Bridge: Definition, Circuit Diagram, Explanation, Advantages -
Answer (click here)
8. Hay Bridge: Definition, Circuit Diagram, Explanation, Advantages and
Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
9. Wien bridge: Definition, Circuit Diagram, Explanation, Advantages -
Answer (click here)
10. Transformer Ratio Bridges & Self-Balancing Bridges - Answer (click here)
11. Interference and Screening - Answer (click here)
12. Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Interference - Answer (click here)
13. Grounding (or Earthing) - Answer (click here)
14. Multiple Earth and Earth Loops - Answer (click here)
15. Important Short Questions and Answers: Comparison Methods of
Measurements - Answer (click here)

STORAGE AND DISPLAY DEVICES


1. Recorders - Answer (click here)
2. Magnetic Disk and Tape - Answer (click here)
3. Digital Plotters and Printers - Answer (click here)
4. CRT(Cathode Ray Tube) Display and its Parts - Answer (click here)
5. Digital Storage Oscilloscope: Block Diagram, Explanation, Advantages -
Answer (click here)
6. Data Logger: Definition, Components, Examples, Advantages,
Applications - Answer (click here)
7. LED-Backlit LCD Television - Answer (click here)
8. LCD & Dot Matrix Display - Answer (click here)
9. Important Short Questions and Answers:Storage and Display Devices -
Answer (click here)

TRANSDUCERS AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS


1. Transducers - Answer (click here)
2. Classification of Electrical Transducers - Answer (click here)
3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Electrical Transducers - Answer (click
here)
4. Characteristics of Transducer - Answer (click here)
5. Transducer Selection Factors - Answer (click here)
6. Resistance Transducers - Answer (click here)
7. Resistance Thermometers: Construction, Advantages, Limitations -
Answer (click here)
8. Thermistors: Construction, Advantages, Limitations - Answer (click here)
9. Capacitive Transducers and its Application - Answer (click here)
10. Inductive Transducers - Answer (click here)
11. Digital Transducers - Answer (click here)
12. Piezoelectric Transducers - Answer (click here)
13. Hall-effect transducers - Answer (click here)
14. Data Acquisition Systems and its Elements - Answer (click here)
15. Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications of Data Acquisition
Systems - Answer (click here)
16. Analogue-To-Digital Converters - Answer (click here)
17. Digital-To-Analogue (D/A) Conversion - Answer (click here)
18. Smart Sensors - Answer (click here)
19. Optical Transducer - Answer (click here)
20. Important Short Questions and Answers: Transducers - Answer (click here)

Subject : Power System Analysis


INTRODUCTION
1. Power System Analysis - Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Modern Power System (Or) Electric Energy System - Answer (click here)
3. Analysis For System Planning and Operational Studies - Answer (click here)
4. Basic Components of a Power System - Answer (click here)
5. Concept of Real and Reactive Power - Answer (click here)
6. Modeling of Components For Load Flow Analysis - Answer (click here)
7. Single Line diagram of an Electrical system - Answer (click here)
8. Impedance Diagram - Answer (click here)
9. Reactance Diagram - Answer (click here)
10. Per Phase and Per Unit Representation - Answer (click here)
11. Change of Base - Answer (click here)
12. Formation of Y BUS & Z BUS - Answer (click here)
13. Solved problems and Examples on Per Unit Analysis - Answer (click here)
14. Important Short Questions and Answers: Power System Analysis -
Introduction - Answer (click here)

POWER FLOW ANALYSIS


1. Importance of Power Flow Analysis in Planning and Operation of Power
Systems - Answer (click here)
2. Statement of Power Flow Problem - Answer (click here)
3. Classification of Buses - Answer (click here)
4. Iterative Solution Using Gauss-Seidel Method - Algorithm - Answer (click
here)
5. Iterative Solution Using Newton-Raphson Method - Algorithm - Answer
(click here)
6. Iterative Solution Using Fast Decoupled Load Flow Method - Algorithm
- Answer (click here)
7. Compare the Gauss Seidel and Newton Raphson Methods of Load Flow
Study - Answer (click here)
8. Important Short Questions and Answers: Power Flow Analysis - Answer
(click here)

FAULT ANALYSIS BALANCED FAULTS


1. Importance Short Circuit (Or) For Fault Analysis - Answer (click here)
2. Basic Assumptions in Fault Analysis of Power Systems - Answer (click
here)
3. Symmetrical Fault - Answer (click here)
4. Fault Analysis Using Z-Bus Matrix - Algorithm - Answer (click here)
5. Solved problems: Fault Analysis - Balanced Faults - Answer (click here)
6. Important Short Questions and Answers: Fault Analysis - Balanced
Faults - Answer (click here)

FAULT ANALYSIS UNBALANCED FAULTS


1. Introduction to Symmetrical Components - Answer (click here)
2. Sequence Impedances Sequence Networks - Answer (click here)
3. Representation of Single Line to Ground, Line to Line and Double Line
to Ground Fault Conditions - Answer (click here)
4. Unbalanced Fault Analysis Problem Formulation - Answer (click here)
5. Important Short Questions and Answers: Symmetrical Components And
Unbalanced Fault Analysis - Answer (click here)

STABILITY ANALYSIS
1. Classification of Power System Stability - Angle and Voltage Stability -
Answer (click here)
2. Power angle equation and draw the power angle curve - Answer (click here)
3. Swing equation for a SMIB (Single machine connected to an infinite bus
bar) system - Answer (click here)
4. Critical clearing angle - Answer (click here)
5. Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) System: Development of Swing
Equation - Answer (click here)
6. Critical clearing angle and critical clearing time in transient stability -
Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions Answers: Stability Analysis - Answer (click
here)

Subject : Microprocessors and Microcontrollers


8085 PROCESSOR
1. Hardware Architecture of 8085 Microprocessor - Answer (click here)
2. Pin Diagram of 8085 Microprocessor - Answer (click here)
3. Memory Interfacing of 8085 Microprocessor - Answer (click here)
4. Timing Diagram and machine cycles of 8085 Microprocessor - Answer
(click here)
5. Interrupts and Types of Interrupts in 8085 Microprocessor - Answer (click
here)
6. Hardware Architecture of 8086 Microprocessor - Answer (click here)
7. 8086-Minimum mode of operation - Answer (click here)
8. I/O Ports and Data Transfer Concepts - Answer (click here)
9. Important Short Questions and Answers: 8085 & 8086 Processor -
Answer (click here)

PROGRAMMING OF 8085 PROCESSOR


1. Instruction Format - Programming of 8085 Processor - Answer (click here)
2. The 8085 Addressing Modes - Answer (click here)
3. Instruction Set Classification of 8085 Processor - Answer (click here)
4. Sample ASM Assembly Program - 8085 Processor - Answer (click here)
5. Important Short Questions and Answers: Programming of 8085
Processor - Answer (click here)

8051 MICRO CONTROLLER


1. Architecture of 8051 Micro Controller - Answer (click here)
2. Instruction Format - 8051 Micro Controller - Answer (click here)
3. Addressing Modes of 8051 Micro Controller - Answer (click here)
4. Interrupt Structure - 8051 Micro Controller - Answer (click here)
5. I/O Ports - 8051 Micro Controller - Answer (click here)
6. Timers - 8051 Micro Controller - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: 8051 Micro Controller - Answer
(click here)

PERIPHERAL INTERFACING
1. Programmable peripheral interface (8255): Architecture, Pin Diagram,
Operational Modes and Control Word Format - Answer (click here)
2. Programmable Interrupt Controller (8259): Features,Pinout, Block
diagram - Answer (click here)
3. 8251 USART-Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter - Answer (click here)
4. Programmable Keyboard/Display Interface- 8279 - Answer (click here)
5. ADC Interfacing with 8085 Microprocessor - Answer (click here)
6. DAC Interfacing with 8085 Microprocessor - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: Peripheral Interfacing - Answer
(click here)

MICRO CONTROLLER PROGRAMMING and


APPLICATIONS
1. Micro Controller Programming - Answer (click here)
2. Interfacing and Program for Keyboard to 8051 Microcontroller - Answer
(click here)
3. LCD and Seven Segment Disply Interfacing with 8051 Micro Controller
- Answer (click here)
4. Stepper Motor Interfacing with 8051 Micro Controller - Answer (click here)
5. Servo Motor Interfacing with 8051 Micro Controller - Answer (click here)
6. Washing Machine Control Interfacing with 8051 Micro Controller -
Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: Micro Controller Programming
& Applications - Answer (click here)

THE 8086 MICROPROCESSOR


1. 8086 Microprocessor architecture - Answer (click here)
2. 8086 Microprocessor Addressing Modes - Answer (click here)
3. Instruction set and assembler directives of 8086 Microprocessor - Answer
(click here)
4. Sample Program with Instruction set in Assembly language - Answer (click
here)
5. 8086 Microprocessor Assembly language programming - Answer (click
here)
6. 8086 Microprocessor Modular programming - Answer (click here)
7. 8086 Microprocessor Linking and Relocation - Answer (click here)
8. memory Stacks in 8086 Microprocessor - Answer (click here)
9. 8086 Microprocessor code Procedures - Answer (click here)
10. Macros - 8086 Microprocessor - Answer (click here)
11. Interrupts and Interrupt Routines in 8086 Microprocessor - Answer (click
here)
12. Strings and String Handling Instructions in 8086 Microprocessor -
Answer (click here)
13. Important Short Questions and Answers: 8086 Microprocessor - Answer
(click here)

8086 SYSTEM BUS STRUCTURE


1. 8086 signals - Answer (click here)
2. Basic configurations: Read Write Timing Diagram - Answer (click here)
3. System Bus timings: Minimum mode 8086 system and timings - Answer
(click here)
4. System Design using 8086: Maximum mode 8086 system and timings -
Answer (click here)
5. IO programming and Multiprocessor Systems - Answer (click here)
6. Coprocessor configurations, Closely and Loosely Coupled Configuration
- Answer (click here)
7. 80286 Microprocessor - Answer (click here)
8. Internal Architecture of 80286 - Answer (click here)
9. Internal Block Diagram of 80286 - Answer (click here)
10. Interrupts of 80286 - Answer (click here)
11. Signal Description of 80286 - Answer (click here)
12. Real Address Mode - Answer (click here)
13. Protected Virtual Address Mode (PVAM) - Answer (click here)
14. Important Short Questions and Answers: Microprocessor and
Microcontroller - 8086 System Bus Structure - Answer (click here)

I O INTERFACING
1. Memory Interfacing and I/O interfacing - Answer (click here)
2. Parallel Communication Interface: 8255 Programmable Peripheral
Interface and Interfacing - Answer (click here)
3. Serial Communication interface: Using 8251 - Answer (click here)
4. D/A and A/D Interface - Answer (click here)
5. Programmable timer device 8253 - Answer (click here)
6. 8279 Programmable Keyboard/Display Controller - Answer (click here)
7. Interrupt controller Intel 8259A - Answer (click here)
8. DMA Controller 8257 - Answer (click here)
9. Traffic Light control Controller Using 8086 - Answer (click here)
10. Important Short Questions and Answers: I/O Interfacing - Answer (click
here)

MICROCONTROLLER
1. Architecture of 8051 - Answer (click here)
2. Special Function Registers(SFRs) of 8051 Microcontroller - Answer (click
here)
3. I/O Pins Ports and Circuits of 8051 Microcontroller - Answer (click here)
4. Instruction set and Assembly language programming of 8051
Microcontroller - Answer (click here)
5. Addressing modes of 8051 Microcontroller - Answer (click here)
6. Important Short Questions and Answers: 8051 Microcontroller - Answer
(click here)

INTERFACING MICROCONTROLLER
1. Programming 8051 Timers: Using Timers to Measure Time - Answer
(click here)
2. Serial Port Programming: 8051 Serial Communication - Answer (click here)
3. 8051 Interrupt Programming - Answer (click here)
4. Interfacing a Microprocessor to Keyboard - Answer (click here)
5. Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters - Answer (click here)
6. Stepper Motor Interface - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: Interfacing Microcontroller -
Answer (click here)
Referance Extra Notes
1. Introduction to Microprocessor and Microcomputer Architecture - Answer
(click here)
2. 8085 Microprocessor Architecture - Answer (click here)
3. 8085 Pin Description - Answer (click here)
4. Instruction Set and Execution in 8085 - Answer (click here)
5. Instruction Execution and Timing Diagram - Answer (click here)
6. 8085 Interrupts - Answer (click here)
7. Interfacing Memory Chips With 8085 - Answer (click here)
8. Peripheral and Memory Mapped I/O Interfacing - Answer (click here)
9. INTEL 8255: (Programmable Peripheral Interface) - Answer (click here)
10. INTEL 8259A Programmable Interrupt Controller - Answer (click here)
11. 8257: Direct Memory Access Controller - Answer (click here)
12. 8086 Microprocessor Architecture and Operation - Answer (click here)
13. Microcontrollers Vs Microprocessors - Answer (click here)
14. Microcontroller Chips - Answer (click here)
15. Basic 8051 Architecture - Answer (click here)
16. I/O Port Configuration in 8051 - Answer (click here)
17. 8051 interrupts - Answer (click here)
18. Interface of 8051 - Answer (click here)
19. Operation in Multiprocessor mode in 8051 - Answer (click here)
20. 8051 Instructions - Answer (click here)

Subject : Power Plant Engineering


COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANTS
1. important Questions and Answers: Coal Based Thermal Power Plants -
Answer (click here)
2. Working of thermal power plant - Answer (click here)
3. Merits (Advantages) and Demerits of thermal power plants - Answer (click
here)
4. Process of the Rankine Cycle - Answer (click here)
5. Regenerative Ranking Cycle and Binary Vapour Cycle - Answer (click here)
6. Types of pulverised coal firing system - Answer (click here)
7. Principles of Fluidized Bed Combustion Operation - Answer (click here)
8. Classification of Fluidized Bed Combustion - Answer (click here)
9. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) - Answer (click here)
10. Steps involved in coal handling - Answer (click here)
11. Belt Conveyor - Answer (click here)
12. Pulverized coal storage in Bunker and coal handing system - Answer (click
here)
13. Layout and Equipment of Ash handling system - Answer (click here)
14. Classification of Ash Handling System - Answer (click here)
15. Draught and Wright the types of Draught - Answer (click here)
16. Natural Draught - Answer (click here)
17. Forced Draught, Induced Draught, Balanced Draught and Artificial
Draught - Answer (click here)
18. Compare Forced and Induced Draught - Answer (click here)
19. Classification of boilers - Answer (click here)
20. Water Tube Boilers: Babcock and Wilcox boiler - Answer (click here)
21. Working principle of Economizer - Answer (click here)
22. Air pre-heater - Answer (click here)
23. Super heater - Answer (click here)
24. Injector and Steam trap - Answer (click here)
25. Feed pump - Answer (click here)
26. Steam separators (Steam Driers) - Answer (click here)
27. Open cycle and closed cycle condensing system - Answer (click here)
28. Classification of condensers - Answer (click here)

DIESEL and GAS TURBINE AND COMBINED CYCLE


POWER PLANTS
1. Kaplan turbine - Answer (click here)
2. Compare Impulse and reaction turbines - Answer (click here)
3. Construction and working principle of pumped storage plants - Answer
(click here)
4. Important Questions and Answers: Diesel,Gas Tubine and Combined
Cycle Power Plants - Answer (click here)
5. Open and closed cycle gas turbine power plant - Answer (click here)
6. Gas turbine Fuels - Answer (click here)
7. Measure performance of a Gas Turbine - Answer (click here)
8. Gas turbine cycle with reheater - Answer (click here)
9. Working of gas turbine cycle with Regenerator - Answer (click here)
10. Working of gas turbine cycle with inter cooling - Answer (click here)
11. Advantages and disadvantages of Gas turbine power plant - Answer (click
here)
12. Diesel engine power plant - Answer (click here)

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS


1. Important Questions and Answers: Neclear Power Plants - Answer (click
here)
2. Fission Energy, Chain Reaction, Fusion Energy - Answer (click here)
3. Types of Reactors - Answer (click here)
4. Construction and working principle of Pressurized Water Reactor
(PWR) - Answer (click here)
5. Main components of nuclear power plants - Answer (click here)
6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Power Plant - Answer (click
here)
7. Construction and working principle of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) -
Answer (click here)
8. Heavy Water Cooled Reactor (HWR) (or) CANDU - Answer (click here)
9. Advantages and disadvantages of HWR (or) CANDU type Reactor -
Answer (click here)
10. Sodium Graphite Reactor (SGA) - Answer (click here)
11. Fast Breeder Reactor - Answer (click here)
12. Safety Measures carried out in Nuclear Power Plant - Answer (click here)

POWER FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY


1. Important Questions and Answers: Power From Renewable Energy -
Answer (click here)
2. Construction and working principle of Solar power plant - Answer (click
here)
3. Advantages, disadvantages and application of Solar Energy - Answer (click
here)
4. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) - Answer (click here)
5. Working principle of Tidal power plants - Answer (click here)
6. Different tidal power plants - Answer (click here)
7. Kinds of Geothermal Sources Hydrothermal systems - Answer (click here)
8. Geothermal power plant - Answer (click here)
9. Wind-Electric Generating power plant - Answer (click here)
10. Fuel cell with Schematic diagram - Answer (click here)
11. Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) - Answer (click here)
12. Thermo Electric conversion system - Answer (click here)
13. Thermo ionic conversion system - Answer (click here)

ENERGY and ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES


OF POWER PLANTS
1. Working principle of Economizer - Answer (click here)
2. Safety Measures carried out in Nuclear Power Plant - Answer (click here)
IMPORTANT TOPICS
1. Important Questions and Answers: Power From Renewable Energy -
Answer (click here)
2. Construction and working principle of Solar power plant - Answer (click
here)
3. Advantages, disadvantages and application of Solar Energy - Answer (click
here)
4. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) - Answer (click here)
5. Working principle of Tidal power plants - Answer (click here)
6. Different tidal power plants - Answer (click here)
7. Kinds of Geothermal Sources Hydrothermal systems - Answer (click here)
8. Geothermal power plant - Answer (click here)
9. Wind-Electric Generating power plant - Answer (click here)
10. Fuel cell with Schematic diagram - Answer (click here)
11. Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) - Answer (click here)
12. Thermo Electric conversion system - Answer (click here)
13. Thermo ionic conversion system - Answer (click here)
14. Steam Power Plants - Answer (click here)
15. Hydel Power Plants - Answer (click here)
16. Diesel Power Plants - Answer (click here)
17. Nuclear Power Plants - Answer (click here)
18. Nuclear Reactor - Answer (click here)
19. Gas Turbine Power Plants - Answer (click here)
20. Magneto Hydr O Dynamic (Mhd) Power Plants - Answer (click here)
21. Combined Power Cycles - Answer (click here)
22. Load Duration Curve - Answer (click here)
23. Boilers - Answer (click here)
24. Classification of Boilers - Answer (click here)
25. High Pressure Boilers - Answer (click here)
26. La-Mont Boiler - Answer (click here)
27. Benson Boiler (Supercritical Boiler) - Answer (click here)
28. Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC) - Answer (click here)
29. Important Questions and Answers: Power Plants and Boilers - Answer
(click here)
30. Steam Power Plants System - Answer (click here)
31. Fuel Handling System - Answer (click here)
32. Pulverized Coal Storage - Answer (click here)
33. Ash Handling System - Answer (click here)
34. Draught And Classification of Draught - Answer (click here)
35. Surface Condenser - Answer (click here)
36. Cooling Towers - Answer (click here)
37. Important Questions and Answers: Steam Power Plants - Answer (click
here)
38. Classification of Hydro-Power plants - Answer (click here)
39. Important Questions and Answers: Neclear and Hydro Power plants -
Answer (click here)
40. Diesel Engine Power Plant Systems - Answer (click here)
41. Operation Theory of Gas Turbine Power Plant - Answer (click here)
42. Important Questions and Answers: Diesel and Gas Turbine Power Plant
- Answer (click here)

Subject : Power Electronics


POWERSEMI CONDUCTOR DEVICES
1. Introduction to Power Electronics - Answer (click here)
2. Power diode - Answer (click here)
3. Thysistor - Answer (click here)
4. GTO (Gate turn off thyristor) - Answer (click here)
5. TRIAC - Answer (click here)
6. Power BJT - Answer (click here)
7. Thyristor Protection and Gate Protection - Answer (click here)
8. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor(IGBT) - Answer (click here)
9. Power MOSFET - Answer (click here)
10. Series and parallel operation of SCR - Answer (click here)
11. Important Terms - Power Semi Conductor Devices - Answer (click here)

PHASE CONTROLLED CONVERTERS


1. Phase-Controlled Converters - Answer (click here)
2. Important Terms - Phase Controlled Converters - Answer (click here)

DC TO DC CONVERTER
1. DC to DC Converter - Answer (click here)
2. Important Terms - DC to DC Converter - Answer (click here)

INVERTERS
1. Inverters - Answer (click here)
2. Important Terms - Inverters - Power Electronics - Answer (click here)
AC TO AC CONVERTERS
1. AC to AC Converters - Answer (click here)
2. Three-phase, Three-wire AC Regulator with Balanced Resistive Load -
Answer (click here)
3. Three-phase Delta-connected AC Regulator with Balanced Resistive
Load - Answer (click here)
4. AC voltage control techniques - Answer (click here)
5. Full Bridge Ac voltage controller - Answer (click here)
6. Single phase cycloconverter - Answer (click here)
7. Three Phase Cycloconverter - Answer (click here)
8. Three-Phase to Three-Phase (3f-3f) Cycloconverter - Answer (click here)
9. Matrix converter - cycloconverters - Answer (click here)
10. Important Terms - AC to AC Converters - Answer (click here)

Subject : Electrical Machines II


SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
1. Fundamental Principles of A.C. Machines - Answer (click here)
2. E.M.F. equation of an elementary alternator single phase - Answer (click
here)
3. E.M.F. equation of an elementary alternator three phase - Answer (click
here)
4. Relation between speed and frequency - Answer (click here)
5. Factors affecting the induced emf (Coil Pitch and Distributed Windings)
- Synchronous Generator - Answer (click here)
6. Armature Reaction - Synchronous Generator - Answer (click here)
7. Synchronous Generators - Answer (click here)
8. Open circuit characteristic (OCC) and Short Circuit Characteristics
(SCC) of a Synchronous generator - Answer (click here)
9. Armature Reaction Reactance - Synchronous Generators - Answer (click
here)
10. Synchronous reactance - Answer (click here)
11. Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) - Synchronous Generator - Answer (click here)
12. Load Characteristics - Synchronous Generator - Answer (click here)
13. Potier Reactance - Synchronous Generator - Answer (click here)
14. Voltage Regulation - Synchronous Generator - Answer (click here)
15. Methods of finding Voltage Regulation in Synchronous Generator -
Answer (click here)
16. Power angle characteristics - Answer (click here)
17. Salient pole alternators and Blondel's Two Reaction Theory - Answer
(click here)
18. Direct-axis and Quadrature-axis Synchronous Reactances - Answer (click
here)
19. Power Angle Characteristic of Salient Pole Machine - Answer (click here)
20. Slip Test - Answer (click here)
21. Parallel Operation of Alternators - Answer (click here)
22. Synchronizing Current - Answer (click here)
23. Effect of Change of Excitation - Answer (click here)
24. Effect of Change of Input Torque - Answer (click here)
25. Sharing of load when two alternators are in parallel - Answer (click here)
26. Prime-mover Governor Characteristic - Answer (click here)
27. Important Short Questions and Answers: Synchronous Generator -
Answer (click here)

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
1. Synchronous Motors: Construction, Operating Principle, Equivalent
Circuit - Answer (click here)
2. Phasor Diagram - Synchronous Motors - Answer (click here)
3. Torque and Power Relations - Answer (click here)
4. V-Curves and Inverted V-Curves - Answer (click here)
5. Effect of Changing Field Excitation at Constant Load - Answer (click here)
6. Synchronous Condenser and its Advantages, Disadvantages - Answer
(click here)
7. Methods of starting synchronous motor - Answer (click here)
8. Performance Characteristic of Synchronous Motors - Answer (click here)
9. Hunting and Damper Winding - Answer (click here)
10. Synchronous Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
11. Important Short Questions and Answers: Synchronous Motors - Answer
(click here)

THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR


1. Three Phase Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
2. Types and Construction of Three Phase Induction Motor - Answer (click
here)
3. Squirrel cage Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
4. Slip ring Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
5. Principle of Operation - Three Phase Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
6. Rotating Magnetic Field and Induced Voltages - Answer (click here)
7. Alternate Analysis for Rotating Magnetic Field - Answer (click here)
8. Phasor Diagram of Three Phase Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
9. Equivalent Circuit of Three Phase Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
10. Power and Torque Relations of Three Phase Induction Motor - Answer
(click here)
11. Induction Motor Torque - Answer (click here)
12. Rotor Output - Answer (click here)
13. Circle Diagram - analyse the three phase induction motor performance -
Answer (click here)
14. Tests to Determine the Equivalent Circuit Parameters - Induction Motor
- Answer (click here)
15. Construction of Circle Diagram - Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
16. Performance Characteristics of Three phase Induction Motor - Answer
(click here)
17. Operation with Unbalanced Supply Voltage on Polyphase Induction
Motors - Answer (click here)
18. Important Short Questions and Answers: Three Phase Induction Motor -
Answer (click here)

STARTING AND SPEED CONTROL OF THREE PHASE


INDUCTION MOTOR
1. Methods of Starting Three Phase Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
2. Starting of Slip-Ring Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
3. Speed control of Three Phase Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
4. Changing applied voltage - Speed control of Three Phase Induction
Motors - Answer (click here)
5. Rotor resistance control - Speed control of Three Phase Induction
Motors - Answer (click here)
6. Cascade control - Speed control of Three Phase Induction Motors -
Answer (click here)
7. Pole changing method - Speed control of Three Phase Induction Motors
- Answer (click here)
8. Stator frequency control - Speed control of Three Phase Induction
Motors - Answer (click here)
9. Power Stages in an Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
10. Double Cage Induction Motor: Construction, Working - Answer (click here)
11. Cogging and Crawling of Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
12. Induction Generator - Answer (click here)
13. Induction Generator advantages, disadvantages and Application - Answer
(click here)
14. Induction Motor Braking Regenerative Plugging Dynamic - Answer (click
here)
15. Important Short Questions and Answers: Starting and Speed Control of
Three Phase Induction Motor - Answer (click here)

SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND SPECIAL


MACHINES
1. Single Phase Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
2. Double Revolving Field Theory of Single Phase Induction Motor -
Answer (click here)
3. Equvalent Circuit of Single Phase Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
4. Methods of Starting Single Phase Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
5. Principle and Working of Split Phase Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
6. Types of Split-Phase Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
7. Repulsion starting - Single Phase Induction Motor: Construction,
Working and Characteristics - Answer (click here)
8. Shaped Pole Starting - Single Phase Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
9. Single Phase Series Motor: Operation, Applications, Phasor Diagram -
Answer (click here)
10. Schrage Motor - Answer (click here)
11. Universal Motors: Operation, Characteristic, Applications - Answer (click
here)
12. Magnetic Levitation - Answer (click here)
13. Stepper Motor Advantages and Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
14. Important Short Questions and Answers: Single Phase Induction Motor
and Special Machines - Answer (click here)

Subject : Control Systems


SYSTEMS AND THEIR REPRESENTATION
1. Basic elements of control system - Answer (click here)
2. Open loop and Closed loop systems - Answer (click here)
3. Mechanical Translational systems - Answer (click here)
4. Mechanical Rotational Systems - Answer (click here)
5. Modeling of electrical system - Answer (click here)
6. Transfer Function - Answer (click here)
7. Synchros - Answer (click here)
8. AC Servo Motors - Control Systems - Answer (click here)
9. DC Servo Motor - Control Systems - Answer (click here)
10. Block diagram reduction Techniques - Transfer Function - Answer (click
here)
11. Signal Flow Graph Representation - Answer (click here)
12. Tutorial Problems: Control Systems - Systems and their Representation -
Answer (click here)
13. Important Short Questions, Answers: Control Systems - Systems and
their Representation - Answer (click here)

TIME RESPONSE
1. Time response - Answer (click here)
2. Time response analysis - Answer (click here)
3. Typical Input Signals - Answer (click here)
4. System Time Response - Answer (click here)
5. Steady State Error - Answer (click here)
6. P, PI, PD and PID Compensation - Answer (click here)
7. Impulse Response of a First Order System - Answer (click here)
8. Time Domain Specifications of a Second Order System - Answer (click
here)
9. Root Locus Technique, Analysis and Application Procedure - Answer
(click here)
10. Important Short Questions, Answers, Tutorial Problems: Time Response
Analysis - Answer (click here)

FREQUENCY RESPONSE
1. Frequency Response - Answer (click here)
2. Bode plot - Answer (click here)
3. Polar plot - Answer (click here)
4. Nyquist Plot - Answer (click here)
5. Frequency domain specifications - Answer (click here)
6. Types of Compensation - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions, Answers, Tutorial Problems: Frequency
Response Analysis - Answer (click here)

STABILITY AND COMPENSATOR DESIGN


1. Stability - Answer (click here)
2. Routh Hurwitz Criterion - Answer (click here)
3. Nyquist Stability Criteria - Answer (click here)
4. Relative stability - Answer (click here)
5. Important Short Questions, Answers, Tutorial Problems: Stability and
Compensator Design - Answer (click here)

STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS


1. State space representation of Continuous Time systems - Answer (click
here)
2. Solution of State equations - Answer (click here)
3. Concepts of Controllability and Observability - Answer (click here)
4. State space representation for discrete time systems - Answer (click here)
5. Sampled Data System and Sampling Theorem - Answer (click here)
6. Sample & Hold - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions, Answers, Tutorial Problems: State Variable
Analysis - Answer (click here)

Subject : Communication Engineering


ANALOG COMMUNICATION
1. Noise - Analog Communication - Answer (click here)
2. External Noise, Internal Noise - Answer (click here)
3. Introduction to Communication System - Answer (click here)
4. Modulation, Types, Need for Modulation - Answer (click here)
5. Theory of Amplitude Modulation - Answer (click here)
6. Frequency Spectrum and Bandwidth Requirement of Angle Modulated
Wave - Answer (click here)
7. The Concept of Angle Modulation and Its Waveform, Frequency and
Phase Modulation - Answer (click here)
8. Important Short Questions and Answers: Analog Communication -
Answer (click here)

DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
1. Introduction to Digital Communication - Answer (click here)
2. Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) - Answer
(click here)
3. Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK) - Answer (click
here)
4. Concept of Binary Phase Shift Keying to BPSK, 8 PSK, 16 PSK - Answer
(click here)
5. Quadrature Amplitude modulation (QAM) - Answer (click here)
6. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) Techniques and its Block
Diagram - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: Digital Communication -
Answer (click here)

SOURCE CODES and LINE CODES and ERROR CONTROL


1. Entropy, Source Encoding Theorem - Answer (click here)
2. Techniques used for compression of information - Answer (click here)
3. Huffmann Coding Techniques - Answer (click here)
4. Mutual Information - Answer (click here)
5. Entropy - Answer (click here)
6. Channel Capacity theorem - Answer (click here)
7. Cyclic codes, Error Control Coding - Answer (click here)
8. Linear Block Codes - Answer (click here)
9. Viterbi Algorithm - Answer (click here)
10. Convolutional Codes - Answer (click here)
11. Important Short Questions and Answers: Source and Error Control
Coding - Answer (click here)

MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES


SATELLITE and OPTICAL FIBER and POWERLINE and
SCADA
ANALOG COMMUNICATION
1. Noise - Analog Communication - Answer (click here)
2. External Noise, Internal Noise - Answer (click here)
3. Introduction to Communication System - Answer (click here)
4. Modulation, Types, Need for Modulation - Answer (click here)
5. Theory of Amplitude Modulation - Answer (click here)
6. Frequency Spectrum and Bandwidth Requirement of Angle Modulated
Wave - Answer (click here)
7. The Concept of Angle Modulation and Its Waveform, Frequency and
Phase Modulation - Answer (click here)
8. Important Short Questions and Answers: Analog Communication -
Answer (click here)

DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
1. Introduction to Digital Communication - Answer (click here)
2. Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) - Answer
(click here)
3. Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK) - Answer (click
here)
4. Concept of Binary Phase Shift Keying to BPSK, 8 PSK, 16 PSK - Answer
(click here)
5. Quadrature Amplitude modulation (QAM) - Answer (click here)
6. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) Techniques and its Block
Diagram - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: Digital Communication -
Answer (click here)

DATA AND PULSE COMMUNICATION


1. History of Data Communication, Standards Organizations for Data
Communication - Answer (click here)
2. Data Communication Circuits, Data Communication Codes - Answer (click
here)
3. Error Detection and Correction Techniques - Answer (click here)
4. Pulse Communication - Answer (click here)
5. Important Short Questions and Answers: Data and Pulse Communication
- Answer (click here)

SOURCE AND ERROR CONTROL CODING


1. Entropy, Source Encoding Theorem - Answer (click here)
2. Techniques used for compression of information - Answer (click here)
3. Huffmann Coding Techniques - Answer (click here)
4. Mutual Information - Answer (click here)
5. Entropy - Answer (click here)
6. Channel Capacity theorem - Answer (click here)
7. Cyclic codes, Error Control Coding - Answer (click here)
8. Linear Block Codes - Answer (click here)
9. Viterbi Algorithm - Answer (click here)
10. Convolutional Codes - Answer (click here)
11. Important Short Questions and Answers: Source and Error Control
Coding - Answer (click here)

MULTI
1. Multi-User Radio Communication - Answer (click here)
2. Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS) - Answer (click here)
3. Cellular Concept and Frequency Reuse, Channel Assignment and
Handoffs - Answer (click here)
4. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Code division
multiple access (CDMA) - Answer (click here)
5. Satellite Communication - Answer (click here)
6. Important Short Questions and Answers: Multi-User Radio
Communication - Answer (click here)
Subject : Solid State Drives
DRIVE CHARACTERISTICS
1. Electrical Drives - Answer (click here)
2. Dynamics of Motor Load System - Answer (click here)
3. Classification of Load Torques - Answer (click here)
4. Multi quadrant Operation - Answer (click here)
5. Steady State Stability - Answer (click here)
6. Important Short Questions and Answers: Solid State Drives - Drive
Characteristics - Answer (click here)

CONVERTER and CHOPPER FED DC MOTOR DRIVE


1. Single Phase Fully Controlled Converter Fed Separately Excited D.C
Motor Drive - Answer (click here)
2. Continuous Armature Current - Answer (click here)
3. Discontinuous Armature Current - Answer (click here)
4. Three Phase Fully Controlled Converter Fed Separately Excited D.C
Motor Drive - Answer (click here)
5. Four Quadrant Operation of a Converters - Answer (click here)
6. Time Ratio Control (TRC) - Answer (click here)
7. Current Limit Control - Answer (click here)
8. Important Short Questions and Answers: Converter, Chopper Fed DC
Motor Drive - Answer (click here)

INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES


1. Stator Voltage Control - Answer (click here)
2. V/F Control: Open and Closed Loop V/F Control - Answer (click here)
3. Field Weakening Mode - Answer (click here)
4. Voltage source Inverter-driven Induction Motor - Answer (click here)
5. Vector Control of AC Induction Machines - Answer (click here)
6. Closed-loop control of induction motor - Answer (click here)
7. Constant air gap flux control - Answer (click here)
8. Important Short Questions and Answers: Induction Motor Drives -
Answer (click here)

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVES


1. V/F of Permanent Magnets Synchronous Motors - Answer (click here)
2. Self-Control Synchronous Motor - Answer (click here)
3. Power Factor Correction of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Drive - Answer (click here)
4. Design Equations of Boost Power Factor Correction Circuit - Answer
(click here)
5. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Black Diagram of Closed Loop
Control - Answer (click here)
6. Vector Control Technique - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: Synchronous Motor Drives -
Answer (click here)

DESIGN OF CONTROLLERS FOR DRIVES


1. Transfer Function For DC Motor - Answer (click here)
2. Armature Current Controlled - Answer (click here)
3. Closed Loop Control with Current and Speed Feedback - Answer (click
here)
4. Speed control by armature voltage variation - Answer (click here)
5. Flux-Weakening Control Design and Analysis - Answer (click here)
6. Speed Controller - Answer (click here)
7. Current Controller - Answer (click here)
8. Important Short Questions and Answers: Design of Controllers For
Drives - Answer (click here)

Subject : Embedded Systems


INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Refer from below
EMBEDDED NETWORKING Refer from below
EMBEDDED FIRMWARE DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT
Refer from below
RTOS BASED EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN Refer from
below
EMBEDDED SYSTEM APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT Refer
from below
Embedded Systems Design Second edition by Steve Heath
1 What is an embedded system
1. What is an embedded system? - Answer (click here)
2. Inside the embedded system - Answer (click here)

2 Embedded processors
1. Embedded processors - Answer (click here)
2. 8 bit accumulator processors - Answer (click here)
3. Example 8 bit architectures: Z80, Z80 programming model, MC6800 -
Answer (click here)
4. Microcontrollers: MC68HC05, MC68HC11 - Architecture - Answer (click
here)
5. Data processors: Complex instructions, microcode and nanocode -
Answer (click here)
6. INTEL 80286 - Answer (click here)
7. INTEL 80386DX - Answer (click here)
8. INTEL 80486 - Answer (click here)
9. Intel Pentium - Answer (click here)
10. Motorola MC68000 and its hardware - Answer (click here)
11. Motorola MC68020 - Answer (click here)
12. Motorola MC68030 - Answer (click here)
13. The MC68040 - Answer (click here)
14. Integrated processors - Answer (click here)
15. RISC processors - Answer (click here)
16. The Berkeley RISC model - Answer (click here)
17. Sun SPARC RISC processor - Answer (click here)
18. The Stanford RISC model - Answer (click here)
19. The MPC603 block diagram - Answer (click here)
20. The ARM RISC architecture - Answer (click here)
21. Digital signal processors - Answer (click here)
22. DSP basic architecture - Answer (click here)
23. Choosing a processor - Answer (click here)

3 Memory systems
1. Memory systems and Memory technologies - Answer (click here)

4 Basic peripherals
1. Parallel ports - Answer (click here)
2. Timer/counters - Answer (click here)
3. 8253 timer modes - Answer (click here)
4. MC68230 modes - Answer (click here)
5. Timer processors - Answer (click here)
6. Real-time clocks - Answer (click here)
7. Serial ports - Answer (click here)
8. Serial peripheral interface - Answer (click here)
9. I2C bus - Answer (click here)
10. What is an RS232 serial port? - Answer (click here)
11. Asynchronous flow control - Answer (click here)
12. UART implementations - Answer (click here)
13. DMA controllers - Answer (click here)
14. A generic DMA controller - Answer (click here)
15. DMA controller models - Answer (click here)
16. Channels and control blocks - Answer (click here)
17. Sharing bus bandwidth - Answer (click here)
18. DMA implementations - Answer (click here)

5 Interfacing to the analogue world


1. Analogue to digital conversion techniques - Answer (click here)
2. Sample rates and size: Irregular sampling errors, Nyquist’s theorem -
Answer (click here)
3. Codecs: Linear, A-law and Inf-law, DPCM and ADPCM - Answer (click
here)
4. Power control in Interfacing to the analogue - Answer (click here)

6 Interrupts and exceptions


1. What is an interrupt? - Answer (click here)
2. Interrupt sources - Answer (click here)
3. Recognising an interrupt - Answer (click here)
4. The interrupt mechanism - Answer (click here)
5. MC68000 interrupts - Answer (click here)
6. RISC exceptions - Answer (click here)
7. Fast interrupts - Answer (click here)
8. Interrupt controllers - Answer (click here)
9. Instruction restart and continuation - Answer (click here)
10. Interrupt latency - Answer (click here)
11. Do’s and Don’ts - Interrupts and exceptions - Answer (click here)

7 Real
1. What are operating systems? - Answer (click here)
2. Operating system internals - Answer (click here)
3. Multitasking operating systems - Answer (click here)
4. What is a real-time operating system? - Answer (click here)
5. Task swapping methods - Answer (click here)
6. Scheduler algorithms - Answer (click here)
7. Priority inversion - Answer (click here)
8. Tasks, threads and processes - Answer (click here)
9. Exceptions - Answer (click here)
10. Memory model - Answer (click here)
11. Memory management address translation - Answer (click here)
12. Choosing an operating system - Answer (click here)
13. Commercial operating systems - Answer (click here)
14. Windows NT characteristics - Answer (click here)
15. Resource protection - Answer (click here)
16. Linux - Answer (click here)
17. Disk partitioning - Answer (click here)
18. The Linux disk partitioning - Answer (click here)
19. Linux software structure, Physical and Memory management - Answer
(click here)
20. Linux limitations - Answer (click here)
21. eLinux - Answer (click here)

8 Writing software for embedded systems


1. Writing software for embedded systems - Answer (click here)
2. The compilation process - Answer (click here)
3. Native versus cross-compilers - Answer (click here)
4. Run-time libraries - Answer (click here)
5. Writing a library - Answer (click here)
6. Using alternative libraries - Answer (click here)
7. Using a standard library - Answer (click here)
8. Porting kernels - Answer (click here)
9. C extensions for embedded systems - Answer (click here)
10. Downloading- Writing software for embedded systems - Answer (click
here)

9 Emulation and debugging techniques


1. Debugging techniques - Answer (click here)
2. High level language simulation - Answer (click here)
3. Low level simulation - Answer (click here)
4. Onboard debugger - Answer (click here)
5. Task level debugging - Answer (click here)
6. Symbolic debug - Answer (click here)
7. Emulation - Answer (click here)
8. Optimisation problems in Emulation techniques - Answer (click here)
9. Xray - Emulation technique - Answer (click here)
10. The role of the development system: Floating point and memory
management functions - Answer (click here)
11. Emulation techniques: BDM, OnCE, JTAG - Answer (click here)

10 Buffering and other data structures


1. What is a buffer? - Answer (click here)
2. Linear buffers - Answer (click here)
3. Directional buffers - Answer (click here)
4. Double buffering - Answer (click here)
5. Buffer exchange - Answer (click here)
6. Linked lists - Buffering - Answer (click here)
7. FIFOs and Circular buffers - Answer (click here)
8. Buffer underrun and overrun - Answer (click here)
9. Allocating buffer memory - Answer (click here)
10. Memory leakage in Buffering - Answer (click here)

11 Memory and performance trade


1. The effect of memory wait states - Answer (click here)
2. Single cycle processor with large external memory - Answer (click here)
3. Reducing the cost of memory access - Answer (click here)

12 Software examples
1. Benchmark example - Embedded Systems - Answer (click here)
2. Creating software state machines - Answer (click here)

13 Design examples
1. Burglar alarm system - Answer (click here)
2. Burglar alarm system - Answer (click here)

14 Real time without a RTOS


1. Choosing the software environment - Answer (click here)
2. Deriving real-time performance from a non-real-time system - Answer
(click here)
3. Scheduling the data sampling - Answer (click here)
4. Sampling the data- Real-time without a RTOS - Answer (click here)
5. Controlling from an external switch - Answer (click here)
6. Problems- Real-time without a RTOS - Answer (click here)
7. Program listing- Real-time without a RTOS - Answer (click here)

EMBEDDED SYSTEM APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT


1. Embedded System : An Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Elements of Embedded Systems - Answer (click here)
3. Core of The Embedded System - Answer (click here)
4. Characteristics & Quality Attributes of Embedded Systems - Answer (click
here)
5. Program for Embedded Systems and Build Process - Answer (click here)
6. Debugging on Embedded Systems - Answer (click here)
7. Embedded Hardware from Software Programmers Perspective - Answer
(click here)
8. Embedded Systems: Memory - Answer (click here)
9. Embedded Systems: Memory Testing - Answer (click here)
10. Embedded Systems: Peripherals - Answer (click here)
11. Embedded Operating System - Answer (click here)
12. Embedded Systems: Integrated Development Environment - Answer (click
here)
13. Embedded Development Life Cycle - Answer (click here)
14. EDLC Models - Answer (click here)
15. Trends in Embedded Systems - Answer (click here)
16. Case Study of an Embedded System for Smart Card - Answer (click here)

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS and REAL TIME OPERATING


SYSTEMS
1. Introduction to Embedded Systems - Answer (click here)
2. Devices and Buses for Devices Network - Answer (click here)
3. Bus communication Protocols: 12C, USB, CAN, PCI - Answer (click here)
4. Embedded Programming Concepts - Answer (click here)
5. Concepts and Embedded Programming in C, C++ - Answer (click here)
6. Real Time Operating Systems - Answer (click here)
7. Real Time Operating System Programming - Answer (click here)

EMBEDDED COMPUTING
1. Embedded Computing - Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Challenges in Embedded Computing System Design - Answer (click here)
3. The Embedded System Design Process - Answer (click here)
4. 8051 Microcontroller - Answer (click here)
5. ARM processor - Answer (click here)
6. Important Short Questions and Answers: Embedded Computing - Answer
(click here)

MEMORY AND INPUT OUTPUT MANAGEMENT


1. Programming Input and Output in Embedded Systems - Answer (click here)
2. Memory System Mechanisms - Answer (click here)
3. Memory Devices in Embedded Systems - Answer (click here)
4. I/O Devices - Answer (click here)
5. Component Interfacing: Memory and Device Interfacing - Answer (click
here)
6. Interrupts in Embedded Systems - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: Embedded Systems - Memory
and Input/Output Management - Answer (click here)

PROCESSES AND OPERATING SYSTEMS


1. Multiple Tasks and Multiple Processes - Answer (click here)
2. Context Switching - Answer (click here)
3. Scheduling Policies - Answer (click here)
4. Interprocess Communication Mechanisms - Answer (click here)
5. Evaluating Operating System Performance - Answer (click here)
6. Telephone Answering Machine - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: Processes and Operating
Systems - Answer (click here)

EMBEDDED SOFTWARE
1. Programming Embedded Systems in Assembly And C - Answer (click here)
2. Embedded Software Development Tools - Answer (click here)
3. Embedded System Development Tools - Answer (click here)
4. Important Short Questions and Answers: Embedded Software - Answer
(click here)

EMBEDDED SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT


1. Embedded System Development - Answer (click here)
2. Intruder Alarm System - Answer (click here)
3. Important Short Questions and Answers: Embedded System
Development - Answer (click here)

Subject : Power System Operation and Control


INTRODUCTION
1. Power System - Answer (click here)
2. System Load Variation - Answer (click here)
3. Economic of Generation - Answer (click here)
4. Important Terminalogies and Formulas - Power System Operation and
Control - Answer (click here)
5. Overview of Power System Control (Plant Level and System Level
Control) - Answer (click here)
6. Power System Operation - Answer (click here)
7. Important Short Questions and Answers: Power System Operation and
Control - Introduction - Answer (click here)

REAL POWER FREQUENCY CONTROL


1. Technical Terms in Real Power Frequency Control - Answer (click here)
2. Speed Governing Mechanism and Modelling - Answer (click here)
3. Load Frequency Control - Answer (click here)
4. Automatic Load Frequency Control - Answer (click here)
5. LFC Control of Single Area and Derive the Steady State - Answer (click
here)
6. LFC Control of Single Area and Derive the Dynamic Response - Answer
(click here)
7. Model of Uncontrolled two Area Load Frequency Control System -
Answer (click here)
8. Dynamic Response of Load Frequency Control Loops - Answer (click here)
9. Interconnected Operation - Answer (click here)
10. Two Area Systems - Tie-Line Power Model - Answer (click here)
11. Dynamic Response - Answer (click here)
12. Important Short Questions and Answers: Real Power Frequency Control
- Answer (click here)

REACTIVE POWER VOLTAGE CONTROL


1. Excitation Systems Requirements - Answer (click here)
2. Types of Excitation System - Answer (click here)
3. Reactive Power - Answer (click here)
4. Voltage Control Method - Answer (click here)
5. Static VAR Compensators - Answer (click here)
6. Types of SVC - Answer (click here)
7. Steady State Performance Evaluation - Answer (click here)
8. Dynamic Response of Voltage Regulation Control - Answer (click here)
9. Important Short Questions and Answers: Reactive Power -Voltage
Control - Answer (click here)

UNIT COMMITMENT AND ECONOMIC DISPATCH


1. Commitment and Economic Dispatch - Answer (click here)
2. Economic Dispatch Without Loss - Answer (click here)
3. Thermal System Dispatching With Network Losses - Answer (click here)
4. Economic Dispatch Solution By Lambda-Iteration Method - Answer (click
here)
5. Base Point and Participation Factors - Answer (click here)
6. Unit Commitment - Introduction - Answer (click here)
7. Unit Commitment Solution Methods - Answer (click here)
8. Important Short Questions and Answers: Commitment and Economic
Dispatch - Answer (click here)

COMPUTER CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS


1. Computer Control of Power Systems - Answer (click here)
2. Energy Management System (EMS) - Answer (click here)
3. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) - Answer (click here)
4. Security Analysis & Control - Answer (click here)
5. Various Operating States - Answer (click here)
6. Important Short Questions and Answers: Computer Control of Power
Systems - Answer (click here)

Subject : Design of Electrical Machines


INTRODUCTION
1. Major considerations in Electrical Machine Design - Answer (click here)
2. Materials for Electrical Machines - Answer (click here)
3. Window space factor Kw - Answer (click here)
4. Choice of Specific Electrical and Magnetic loadings - Answer (click here)
5. Heat flow - Answer (click here)
6. Temperature rise - Answer (click here)
7. Rating of machines - Answer (click here)
8. Standard specifications - Answer (click here)
9. Important Short Questions and Answers: Design of Electrical Machines
- Introduction - Answer (click here)

DC MACHINES
1. Output Equations and Main Dimensions of DC Machine - Answer (click
here)
2. Magnetic circuit calculations - Answer (click here)
3. Carter’s Coefficient - Answer (click here)
4. Net length of Iron - Answer (click here)
5. Real & Apparent flux densities - Answer (click here)
6. Selection of number of poles - Answer (click here)
7. Design of Armature - Answer (click here)
8. Design of commutator and brushes - Answer (click here)
9. Performance prediction using design values - Answer (click here)
10. Important Short Questions and Answers: Design of Electrical Machines
- DC Machines - Answer (click here)

TRANSFORMERS
1. Design features of power and distribution type transformers - Answer
(click here)
2. Output Equations and Main Dimensions- Design of Transformers -
Answer (click here)
3. Window space factor Kw - Design of Transformers - Answer (click here)
4. Overall dimensions - Design of Transformers - Answer (click here)
5. Volt / turn equation - Design of Transformers - Answer (click here)
6. Core design - Design of Transformers - Answer (click here)
7. Core type transformer - Design of Transformers - Answer (click here)
8. No-load current of a transformer - Answer (click here)
9. Resistance and Reactance of Transformer - Answer (click here)
10. Temperature rise in Transformers - Answer (click here)
11. Design of Tank and Tubes - Transformers - Answer (click here)
12. Methods of cooling of Transformers - Answer (click here)
13. Important Short Questions and Answers: Design of Electrical Machines
- Transformers - Answer (click here)

INDUCTION MOTORS
1. Design of Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
2. Output equation of Induction motor - Answer (click here)
3. Choice of Specific loadings - Design of Induction Motors - Answer (click
here)
4. Choice of power factor and efficiency - Design of Induction Motors -
Answer (click here)
5. Separation of D and L - Answer (click here)
6. Design of Stator - Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
7. Solved problems: Design of Stator - Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
8. Design of Rotor - Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
9. Solved problems: Design of Rotor - Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
10. Performance Evaluation - Design of Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
11. No load current - Design of Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
12. Magnetic leakage calculations - Answer (click here)
13. Leakage reactance of polyphase machines - Design of Induction Motors
- Answer (click here)
14. Magnetizing current - Design of Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
15. Short circuit current, Circle diagram, Operating characteristics - Design
of Induction Motors - Answer (click here)
16. Important Short Questions and Answers: Design of Electrical Machines
- Induction Motors - Answer (click here)

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
1. Types and Construction of synchronous machines - Answer (click here)
2. Relative dimensions of Turbo and water wheel alternators - Design of
Synchronous Machines - Answer (click here)
3. Specifications of the synchronous machine - Answer (click here)
4. Main Dimensions and Output equations - Design of Synchronous
Machines - Answer (click here)
5. Choice of Specific loadings - Design of Synchronous Machines - Answer
(click here)
6. Design of salient pole machines - Answer (click here)
7. Separation of D and L - Design of Synchronous Machines - Answer (click
here)
8. Short circuit ratio - Design of Synchronous Machines - Answer (click here)
9. Length of the air gap - Design of Synchronous Machines - Answer (click
here)
10. Design of stator winding - Design of Synchronous Machines - Answer
(click here)
11. Solved Numerical Problems - Design of Synchronous Machines - Answer
(click here)
12. Design of the field System: Salient pole Alternator - Design of
Synchronous Machines - Answer (click here)
13. Design of field winding for salient pole Alternator - Answer (click here)
14. Numerical Problems on Field System Design of Salient pole machines -
Answer (click here)
15. Design of the field System: Non Salient pole Alternator - Answer (click
here)
16. Shape of pole face - Design of Synchronous Machines - Answer (click here)
17. Armature design and parameters - Design of Synchronous Machines -
Answer (click here)
18. Design of rotor - Design of Synchronous Machines - Answer (click here)
19. Design of damper winding - Design of Synchronous Machines - Answer
(click here)
20. Important Short Questions and Answers: Design of Electrical Machines
- Synchronous Machines - Answer (click here)

Subject : High Voltage Engineering


OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
1. Natural Causes of Over Voltages - Answer (click here)
2. Lightning Phenomenon - Answer (click here)
3. Lightning Voltage Surges - Answer (click here)
4. Wilson’s Theory of Charge Separation - Answer (click here)
5. Mechanism of Lightning Stroke - Answer (click here)
6. Over Voltages Due to Switching surges - Answer (click here)
7. Switching Surge Test Voltage Characteristics - Answer (click here)
8. Over voltage Protection - Answer (click here)
9. Surge Protection of Rotating Machine - Answer (click here)
10. System Faults and Other Abnormal Conditions - Answer (click here)
11. Bewley Lattice Diagram - Answer (click here)
12. Important Short Questions and Answers: Over Voltages in Electrical
Power Systems - Answer (click here)

DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN
1. Electrical Breakdown in Gases, Solids and Liquids - Answer (click here)
2. Classical Gas Laws - Answer (click here)
3. Corona Discharges - Answer (click here)
4. Ionization and Decay Processes - Answer (click here)
5. Townsend’s Criterion - Answer (click here)
6. Paschen's Law - Answer (click here)
7. Streamer or Kanal Mechanism of Spark - Answer (click here)
8. Breakdown in Non-Uniform Fields - Answer (click here)
9. Breakdown in Liquid Dielectrics - Answer (click here)
10. Breakdown in Solid Dielectrics - Answer (click here)
11. Electromechanical Breakdown - Answer (click here)
12. Thermal Breakdown - Answer (click here)
13. Breakdown in Composite Dielectrics - Answer (click here)
14. Electric Discharge in Vacuum - Answer (click here)
15. Solved Problems: Over(High) Voltages in Electrical Power Systems -
Answer (click here)
16. Important Short Questions and Answers: Electrical breakdown is gases,
solids& Liquids - Answer (click here)

GENERATION OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND HIGH CURRENTS


1. Generation of High Voltages and High Currents - Answer (click here)
2. Half Wave Rectifier Circuit - Generation of High Voltages and Currents
- Answer (click here)
3. Cockroft Walton Voltage Multiplier Circuit - Generation of High
Voltages and Currents - Answer (click here)
4. Electrostatic Generator - Answer (click here)
5. Generation of high A.C. voltages - Answer (click here)
6. Reactive Power Compensation - Answer (click here)
7. Series Resonant Circuit - Generation of High Voltages and Currents -
Answer (click here)
8. Impulse Voltages - Answer (click here)
9. Impulse voltage generator circuits - Answer (click here)
10. Multistage impulse generator circuits - Answer (click here)
11. Tripping and Control Of Impulse Generators - Answer (click here)
12. Important Short Questions and Answers: Generation of High Voltages
and High Currents - Answer (click here)

MEASUREMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND HIGH


CURRENTS
1. Measurement of High Voltage and High Currents - Answer (click here)
2. Uniform Field Spark Gaps - Measurement of High Voltage and Currents
- Answer (click here)
3. Rod Gaps - Measurement of High Voltage and Currents - Answer (click
here)
4. Electrostatic Voltmeter - Measurement of High Voltage and Currents -
Answer (click here)
5. Peak Voltmeters with Potential Dividers - Answer (click here)
6. Impulse Voltage Measurements Using Voltage Dividers - Answer (click
here)
7. CRO Forimpulse Voltage and Current Measurement - Answer (click here)
8. Resistance Potential Dividers - Digital Techniques in High Voltage
Measurement - Answer (click here)
9. Capacitance Potential Dividers - Digital Techniques in High Voltage
Measurement - Answer (click here)
10. Klydonograph or Surge Recorder - Digital Techniques in High Voltage
Measurement - Answer (click here)
11. Important Short Questions and Answers: Measurement of High Voltage
and High Currents - Answer (click here)

HIGH VOLTAGE TESTING and INSULATION


COORDINATION
1. High Voltage Testing of Electrical Power Apparatus - Answer (click here)
2. Testing Of Overhead Line Insulators - Answer (click here)
3. Testing of Cables - Answer (click here)
4. Testing of Bushings - Answer (click here)
5. Testing of power capacitor - Answer (click here)
6. Testing of Power Transformers - Answer (click here)
7. Testing of Circuit Breakers - Answer (click here)
8. Testing Isolators - Answer (click here)
9. Surge Arresters - Answer (click here)
10. Tan Delta Measurement - Answer (click here)
11. Partial Discharge Measurements - Answer (click here)
12. The basic PD(Partial Discharge) test circuit - Answer (click here)
13. Partial Discharge(PD) currents - Answer (click here)
14. Radio Interference Due to High Voltage Insulator String - Answer (click
here)
15. International and Indian Standards DC Testing Test Voltage - Answer
(click here)
16. Insulation Coordination - Answer (click here)
17. Important Short Questions and Answers: High Voltage Testing of
Electrical Power Apparatus - Answer (click here)

Subject : Protection and Switchgear


PROTECTION SCHEMES
1. Fundamentals of Power System Protection - Answer (click here)
2. Consequences of occurrence of Faults - Answer (click here)
3. Zones and types of Protection system - Answer (click here)
4. Protection System Requirements and some basic terminologies used -
Answer (click here)
5. Protection against over voltages due to lightning and switching - Answer
(click here)
6. Arcing Grounds - Answer (click here)
7. Surge absorber - Answer (click here)
8. Surge diverter - Answer (click here)
9. Types and Method of Neutral Earthing in Power Distribution - Answer
(click here)

ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAYS
1. Types of Electromagnetic Relay - Answer (click here)
2. Over Current Relay: Working Principle and Types - Answer (click here)
3. Directional Over Current Relays - Answer (click here)
4. Distance relay - Answer (click here)
5. Impedance Relay - Answer (click here)
6. Differential Relay - Answer (click here)
7. Static relays - Answer (click here)

APPARATUS PROTECTION
1. Over current and earth fault protection - Answer (click here)
2. Transformer Protection - Answer (click here)
3. Buchholz relay: Operation, Advantages, Applications - Answer (click here)
4. Generator protection - Answer (click here)
5. Protection of bus bars - Answer (click here)
6. Zones and types of Protection system - Answer (click here)
7. Current Transformers(CT)s and Potential Transformer(PT)s and their
applications in protection schemes - Answer (click here)

STATIC RELAYS AND NUMERICAL PROTECTION


1. Formation of arc during circuit breaking - Answer (click here)
2. AC and DC circuit breaking - Answer (click here)
3. Restriking voltage and recovery voltage - Answer (click here)
4. Rate of rise of recovery voltage - Answer (click here)
5. Resistance switching - Answer (click here)
6. Current Chopping - Answer (click here)
CIRCUIT BREAKERS
1. Rating of Circuit Breaker - Answer (click here)
2. Air blast circuit breaker: Working principle, Advantages, Disadvantages
- Answer (click here)
3. Oil circuit breakers: Types, Construction, Operation, Advantages,
Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
4. SF6 circuit breaker: Construction, Operation, Advantages,
Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
5. Vacuum circuit breakers: Construction, Operation, Advantages,
Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
6. Testing of circuit breakers - Answer (click here)

Subject : Special Electrical Machines


SYNCHRONOUS RELUCTANCE MOTORS
1. Construction of Synchronous Reluctance Motor - Answer (click here)
2. Rotor Design - Synchronous Reluctance Motor - Answer (click here)
3. Rotor Construction - Synchronous Reluctance Motor - Answer (click here)
4. Working of Synchronous Reluctance Motor - Answer (click here)
5. Primary Design Considerations - Synchronous Reluctance Motor -
Answer (click here)
6. Torque - Speed Characteristics - Synchronous Reluctance Motor - Answer
(click here)
7. Phaser Diagram of Synchronous Reluctance Motor - Answer (click here)
8. Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications of Synchronous
Reluctance - Answer (click here)
9. Vernier Motors - Answer (click here)

STEPPER MOTORS
1. Stepping Motor - Answer (click here)
2. Classification of Stepper Motors - Answer (click here)
3. Single Stack Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor: Construction and
Principle of Operation - Answer (click here)
4. Micro Stepping Control of Stepping Motor - Answer (click here)
5. Multistack Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor - Answer (click here)
6. Hybrid stepper motor - Answer (click here)
7. Claw Tooth PM Motor - Answer (click here)
8. Single Phase Stepping Motor - Answer (click here)
9. Theory of Torque Prediction - Answer (click here)
10. Terminologies Used in Stepper Motor - Answer (click here)
11. Characteristics of Stepper Motor - Answer (click here)
12. Torque-Speed Characteristics - stepper motor - Answer (click here)
13. Figures of Merit (FM's) - stepper motor - Answer (click here)
14. Drive System and Control Circuitry for Stepper Motor - Answer (click here)
15. Linear And Non Linear Analysis - stepper motor - Answer (click here)
16. Application of Stepper Motor - Answer (click here)

SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS SRM


1. Switched Reluctance Motor - Answer (click here)
2. Construction and operation of SRM(Switched Reluctance Motor) -
Answer (click here)
3. Power Semiconductor Switching Circuits for SRM(Power Controllers) -
Answer (click here)
4. Voltage and Torque Equations of SRM(Switched Reluctance Motor) -
Answer (click here)
5. Control Circuits For SRM(Switched Reluctance Motor) - Answer (click
here)
6. Hysterisis Type Current Regulation - Answer (click here)
7. Voltage PWM Type Current Regulation - Answer (click here)
8. Torque-Speed Characteristics of SRM(Switched Reluctance Motor) -
Answer (click here)
9. Distinction Between Switched Reluctance Motor And The Variable
Reluctance Stepper Motor: Merits, Demerits, Application - Answer (click
here)
10. Shaft Position Sensing - Answer (click here)
11. Microprocessor or Computer Based Control of SRM Drive - Answer (click
here)

PERMANENT MAGNET BRUSHLESS DC MOTORS


1. Permanent Magnet Brushless D.C. Motors - Answer (click here)
2. Constructional Features of BLPM Motors - Answer (click here)
3. B – H Loop and Demagnetization Characteristics of BLPM Motors -
Answer (click here)
4. Principle of Operation of Brushless PM DC Motor - Answer (click here)
5. Classification Of BLPM Dc Motor - Answer (click here)
6. Emf Equation of BLPM SQW DC Motors - Answer (click here)
7. Basic Voltage Equation of BLPMDC Motor - Answer (click here)
8. Torque Equation of BLPM Square Wave Motor - Answer (click here)
9. Torque- Speed Charactersistics of BLPM SQM DC Motor - Answer (click
here)
10. Commutation in Motors With 120° and 180° Magnet Arc - Answer (click
here)
11. Magnetic Circuit Analysis on Open Circuit - Answer (click here)
12. A controller for BLPM SQW DC Motor - Answer (click here)
13. Types of BLPM motor - Answer (click here)

PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS PMSM


1. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor - Answer (click here)
2. Construction and Principle of Operation - Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Motor - Answer (click here)
3. EMF Equation of BLPM Sine Wave Motor - Answer (click here)
4. Torque Equation of BLPM Sine Wave Motor - Answer (click here)
5. Phasor Diagram of a Brushless PM SNW or BLPB Synchronous Motor -
Answer (click here)
6. Permissible Torque-Speed Characteristics - Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Motor - Answer (click here)
7. Vector Control of BLPM SNW Motor - Answer (click here)
8. Self Control of PMSM - Answer (click here)
9. Microprocessor Based Control of PMSE - Answer (click here)

Subject : Principles of Management


INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT AND
ORGANIZATIONS
1. Important Short Questions and Answers: Human Population and the
Environment - Answer (click here)
2. Levels of Management - Answer (click here)
3. Functions of Management - Answer (click here)
4. Roles of Manager - Answer (click here)
5. Evolution of Management Thought - Answer (click here)
6. Organization and Environmental Factors - Answer (click here)
7. Classification of Environmental Factors - Answer (click here)
8. Trends and Challenges of Management in Global Scenario - Answer (click
here)
9. Important Short Questions and Answers: Principles of Management -
Answer (click here)
10. The contribution of F.W.Taylor to scientific management - Answer (click
here)
11. The contribution of Henry Fayol to modern management - Answer (click
here)
12. Major functions of management - Answer (click here)
13. Management is an art or science both science and art - Answer (click here)
14. Types of business organization - Answer (click here)

INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT AND


ORGANIZATIONS Short Notes
1. Importance and Definition of Management - Answer (click here)
2. Management Functions - Answer (click here)
3. Role of Managers - Answer (click here)
4. Managerical skills - Answer (click here)
5. Evolution of Management Thought - Answer (click here)
6. Organization and Environmental Factors - Answer (click here)
7. Classification of Environmental Factors - Answer (click here)
8. Trends and Challenges of Management in Global Scenario - Answer (click
here)
9. Important Short Questions and Answers: Principles of Management -
Answer (click here)

PLANNING
1. Nature and purpose of planning - Answer (click here)
2. Planning process - Answer (click here)
3. Types of Plans / Components of Planning - Answer (click here)
4. Managing By Objective (MBO) - Answer (click here)
5. Planning - Types of strategies - Answer (click here)
6. Planning Policies - Answer (click here)
7. Decision Making - Answer (click here)
8. Decision Making Process - Answer (click here)
9. Rational Decision Making Process - Answer (click here)
10. Decision Making under different conditions - Answer (click here)
11. Important Short Questions and Answers: Principles of Management -
Planning - Answer (click here)
12. The concept of MBO - Answer (click here)
13. Strategy formulation and implementation process - Answer (click here)
14. Decision making process: Problem Analysis vs Decision Making -
Answer (click here)

PLANNING Short Notes


1. Planning - Answer (click here)
2. Nature and Purpose of Planning - Answer (click here)
3. Planning Process - Answer (click here)
4. Types of Plans / Components of Planning - Answer (click here)
5. Features of Objectives - Answer (click here)
6. Management By Objectives (MBO) - Answer (click here)
7. Types of Strategies - Answer (click here)
8. Policies - Answer (click here)
9. Decision Making and Types of Decisions - Answer (click here)
10. Decision Making Process - Answer (click here)
11. Rational Decision Making Model - Answer (click here)
12. Decision Making Under Various Conditions - Answer (click here)
13. Important Short Questions and Answers: Principles of Management -
Planning - Answer (click here)

ORGANISING
1. Nature and purpose of organizing - Answer (click here)
2. Importance or Advantages of Organizing - Answer (click here)
3. Organizing Process - Answer (click here)
4. Principles of Organization Structure - Answer (click here)
5. Formal and Informal Organization: Characteristic Features, Advantages
and Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
6. Differences Between Formal and Informal Organization - Answer (click
here)
7. Line and Staff authority: Types, Features, Advantages and
Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
8. Departmentation: Various patterns, Advantages and Disadvantages -
Answer (click here)
9. Span of control: Factors Affecting, Advantages and Disadvantages -
Answer (click here)
10. Centralization and Decentralization: Characteristics, Advantages and
Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
11. Delegation of authority - Answer (click here)
12. Staffing: Recruitment and Selection - Answer (click here)
13. Employee Induction / Orientation - Answer (click here)
14. Career development - Answer (click here)
15. Career stages - Answer (click here)
16. Performance Appraisal - Answer (click here)
17. Important Short Questions and Answers: Principles of Management -
Organizing - Answer (click here)
18. Distinguish between formal and informal organization - Answer (click here)
19. Bases of departmentation - Answer (click here)
20. The various selection process that are followed by an organization -
Answer (click here)
21. Various sources of manpower supply in an organization - Answer (click
here)

ORGANISING Short Notes


1. Organizing - Answer (click here)
2. Nature or Characteristics of Organizing - Answer (click here)
3. Organizing Process - Answer (click here)
4. Organization Structure - Answer (click here)
5. Principles of Organization Structure - Answer (click here)
6. Formal and Informal Organization - Answer (click here)
7. Line and Staff Authority - Answer (click here)
8. Departmentation by Different Strategies - Answer (click here)
9. Span of Control, Centralization and Decentralization - Answer (click here)
10. Delegation of Authority - Answer (click here)
11. Staffing - Answer (click here)
12. Staffing: Selection Process - Answer (click here)
13. Career Development and Career Stages - Answer (click here)
14. Training and Performance Appraisal - Answer (click here)
15. Important Questions and Answers: Principles of Management -
Organizing - Answer (click here)

DIRECTING
1. Directing: Creativity and Innovation - Answer (click here)
2. Motivation and Satisfaction - Answer (click here)
3. Motivation Theories - Answer (click here)
4. Leadership Styles - Answer (click here)
5. Leadership theories - Answer (click here)
6. Communication: Process and Guidelines for effective Communication -
Answer (click here)
7. Barriers to Effective Communication - Answer (click here)
8. Organization Culture: Elements and types of culture - Answer (click here)
9. Managing cultural diversity - Answer (click here)
10. Important Short Questions and Answers: Principles of Management -
Directing - Answer (click here)
11. Theory of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - Answer (click here)
12. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y - Answer (click here)
13. Hertzbergs Two Factor Theory or Hygeine Theory - Answer (click here)
14. Electronic media of communication used in business organizationa and
Information communication revolutions - Answer (click here)

DIRECTING Short Notes


1. Directing: Creativity and Innovation - Answer (click here)
2. Motivation - Answer (click here)
3. Leadership and Leadership Styles - Answer (click here)
4. Leadership Theories - Answer (click here)
5. The Communication Process - Answer (click here)
6. Barriers to Effective Communication - Answer (click here)
7. Elements of Organizational Culture - Answer (click here)
8. Managing Cultural Diversity - Answer (click here)
9. Important Questions and Answers: Principles of Management -
Directing - Answer (click here)

CONTROLLING
1. Process of controlling - Answer (click here)
2. Types of control - Answer (click here)
3. Budgetary Control: Definition, Features and Classifiction - Answer (click
here)
4. Budgetary Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
5. Non-Budgetary Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
6. Managing Productivity: Typical Productivity Calculations - Answer (click
here)
7. Cost control - Answer (click here)
8. Purchase control - Answer (click here)
9. Maintenance Control- Quality Control- Planning operations - Answer
(click here)
10. Important Short Questions and Answers: Principles of Management -
Controlling - Answer (click here)
11. Steps in the process of controlling - Answer (click here)
12. Role of MIS play at various levels of management - Answer (click here)
13. Globalisation of Business: Stages, Essential Conditions and Advantages
- Answer (click here)
14. Requirements of Effective Control - Answer (click here)
15. Control Techniques: Budget and Budgetary Control - Answer (click here)

CONTROLLING Short Notes


1. Controlling and Control Process - Answer (click here)
2. Budgetary Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
3. Non-Budgetary Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
4. Productivity - Answer (click here)
5. Cost, Quality, Purchase and Maintenance Control - Answer (click here)
6. Important Questions and Answers: Principles of Management -
Controlling - Answer (click here)

Subject : Flexible AC Transmission Systems


INTRODUCTION
1. Multinational Corporations with Neat Example - Answer (click here)
2. Computer Ethics is the Technological Background of the Society -
Answer (click here)
3. Environmental Ethics Through Engineering Ecology and Economics -
Answer (click here)
4. Human-Centered Ethics - Answer (click here)
5. Involvement in Weapons Work - Answer (click here)
6. Honesty - Answer (click here)
7. Important Questions and Answers: Global Issues - Answer (click here)
8. Concept of Facts - Answer (click here)
9. Reactive Power Control - Answer (click here)
10. Uncompensated Transmission Lines - Answer (click here)
11. Passive Compensation and its Types - Answer (click here)
12. Overview of FACTS Devices - Answer (click here)
13. Importants Short Questions and Answers: Flexible Alternating Current
Transmission System(FACTS) - Introduction - Answer (click here)

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR SVC AND APPLICATIONS


1. Voltage Control by Static VAR Compensator (SVC) - Answer (click here)
2. Advantages of the Slope in the SVC Dynamic Characteristics - Answer
(click here)
3. Influence of SVC on the System Voltage - Answer (click here)
4. SVC Applications - Answer (click here)
5. Important Short Questions and Answers: Static VAR
Compensator(SVC) and Application - Answer (click here)

THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR TCSC


AND APPLICATIONS
1. Important Short Questions and Answers: Static VAR
Compensator(SVC) and Application - Answer (click here)
2. Operaton of TCSC(Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor) - Answer (click
here)
3. Modeling of TCSC(Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor) - Answer (click
here)
4. Applications of TCSC(Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor) - Answer
(click here)
5. Important Short Questions and Answers : Thyristor Controlled Series
Capacitor (TCSC) and Applications - Answer (click here)

VOLTAGE SOURCE CONVERTER BASED FACTS


CONTROLLERS
1. Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) - Answer (click here)
2. Principle of Operation and Advantages- STATCOM - Answer (click here)
3. V-I Characteristics of STATCOM - Answer (click here)
4. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC): Principle, Modes of Operation
and Applications - Answer (click here)
5. Important Short Questions and Answers: Emerging FACTS Controllers -
Answer (click here)

CO ORDINATION OF FACTS CONTROLLERS


1. Co-Ordination of FACTS Controllers - Answer (click here)
2. FACTS Controller Interactions - Answer (click here)
3. SVC-SVC Interactions - Answer (click here)
4. Co-Ordination of Multiple Controllers using Linear - Control
Techniques - Answer (click here)
5. Co-Ordination of multiple Controllers using Non Linear - Control
Techniques - Answer (click here)
6. Important Short questions and answers: Co-Ordination of FACTS
Controllers - Answer (click here)

Subject : Power Quality


INTRODUCTION TO POWER QUALITY
1. Introduction to Power Quality - Answer (click here)
2. Terms and Definitions- Power Quality - Answer (click here)
3. Concepts of transients- Power Quality - Answer (click here)
4. Sags and Swells- Power Quality - Answer (click here)
5. Power frequency variations - Answer (click here)
6. International Standards of power quality - Answer (click here)
7. Computer Business Equipment Manufactures Associations(CBEMA)
and ITI Curves - Answer (click here)
8. Important Short Questions and Answers: Introduction to Power Quality -
Answer (click here)

VOLTAGE SAGS AND INTERRUPTIONS


1. Voltage Sags and Interruptions- Power Quality - Answer (click here)
2. Sources of sags and interruptions - Answer (click here)
3. Estimating Voltage sag Performance - Answer (click here)
4. Voltage sags due to induction motor starting - Answer (click here)
5. Estimation of the Sag Severity - Answer (click here)
6. Mitigation of Voltage Sags - Answer (click here)
7. Motor Generator Set - Answer (click here)
8. Active series compensators - Answer (click here)
9. Static Transfer Switches - Answer (click here)
10. Fast Transfer Switch (FTS) - Answer (click here)
11. Important short questions and answers: Voltage Sags and Interruptions -
Answer (click here)

OVERVOLTAGES
1. Over Voltages - Answer (click here)
2. Classification of transient over voltages - Answer (click here)
3. Sources of over voltages - Answer (click here)
4. Mitigation of voltage swells - Answer (click here)
5. Lightning Protection - Answer (click here)
6. Protection of Transformers - Answer (click here)
7. Protection of cables - Answer (click here)
8. Computer Analysis Tools for Transient – PSCAD and EMTP - Answer
(click here)
9. Important short questions and answers: Over Voltages - Answer (click here)

HARMONICS
1. Harmonics - Answer (click here)
2. Harmonic Sources from Commercial Loads - Answer (click here)
3. Harmonics sources from industrial loads - Answer (click here)
4. Locating Harmonic Sources - Answer (click here)
5. Power System Response Characteristics - Answer (click here)
6. Effects of Harmonics - Answer (click here)
7. Harmonic Distortion Evaluation - Answer (click here)
8. Devices for Controlling Harmonic Distortion - Answer (click here)
9. IEEE and IEC Standards - Answer (click here)
10. Important short questions and answers: Harmonics - Answer (click here)

POWER QUALITY MONITORING


1. Power Quality Monitoring - Answer (click here)
2. Monitoring Consideration - Power Quality Monitoring - Answer (click here)
3. Power Quality Measurement Equipment - Answer (click here)
4. Application of Expert Systems for power quality monitoring - Answer
(click here)
5. Important short questions and answers: Power Quality Monitoring -
Answer (click here)

Subject : Electric Energy Generation, Utilization


and Conservation
ELECTRIC DRIVES AND TRACTION
1. Merits and Advantages of electric traction - Answer (click here)
2. Requirements of an ideal traction system - Answer (click here)
3. AC and DC Supply Systems in Electric Traction or System of Track -
Answer (click here)
4. Mechanics of train movement - Answer (click here)
5. Traction motors and control - Answer (click here)
6. Electric braking - Answer (click here)
7. Recent trends in electric traction - Answer (click here)
8. Track Equipment and Current Collecting System - Answer (click here)
9. Important Short Questions and Answers: Electric Drives and Traction -
Answer (click here)

ILLUMINATION
1. Illumination: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Importance of lighting - Answer (click here)
3. Properties of good lighting scheme - Answer (click here)
4. Laws of illumination - Answer (click here)
5. Classification of light sources or lamps - Answer (click here)
6. High Pressure Mercury Vapour Lamp - Answer (click here)
7. Incandescent lamp - Answer (click here)
8. Gaseous discharge lamps - Answer (click here)
9. Sodium Vapour Lamp - Answer (click here)
10. Fluorescent Lamp - Answer (click here)
11. Lighting Calculations - Answer (click here)
12. Design of lighting system - Answer (click here)
13. Types of Lighting - Answer (click here)
14. Industrial Luminaries - Answer (click here)
15. Road Lighting - Answer (click here)
16. Flood Lights - Answer (click here)
17. Glare Evaluation - Answer (click here)
18. Interior Lighting - Answer (click here)
19. Sports Lighting - Answer (click here)
20. Energy Efficient Lighting : LED and CFL - Answer (click here)
21. Important Short Questions and Answers: Illumination - Answer (click here)

HEATING AND WELDING


1. Electric Heating Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Role electric heating for industrial applications - Answer (click here)
3. Requirement of Heating Material - Answer (click here)
4. Advantage of Electric Heating - Answer (click here)
5. Mode of Heat Transfer - Answer (click here)
6. Classification of Methods of Electric Heating - Answer (click here)
7. Resistance Heating: Types, Advantages, Application - Answer (click here)
8. Induction heating: Types, Advantages, Application - Answer (click here)
9. Dielectric heating: Advantages, Application - Answer (click here)
10. Electric arc furnaces: Advantages, Application - Answer (click here)
11. Introduction to electric welding - Answer (click here)
12. Types of electric welding - Answer (click here)
13. Resistance welding - Answer (click here)
14. Arc welding - Answer (click here)
15. Welding Generator - A.C Supply - Answer (click here)
16. Welding Transformer - Answer (click here)
17. Laser Beam Welding - Answer (click here)
18. Important Short Questions and Answers: Industrial Heating and Welding
- Answer (click here)

SOLAR RADIATION AND SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTORS


1. Solar Radiation and Solar Energy Collectors - Answer (click here)
2. Solar Spectrum - Answer (click here)
3. Solar Constant - Answer (click here)
4. Solar Radiation at the Earth’s Surface - Answer (click here)
5. Solar Radiaion Geometry - Answer (click here)
6. Solar Radiation Data - Answer (click here)
7. Physical Principles of the Conversion of Solar Radiation Into Heat -
Answer (click here)
8. Flat Plate Collectors: Principle, Components, Types - Answer (click here)
9. Transmissivity of the Cover System on Flat Plate Collectors - Answer
(click here)
10. Overall Loss Coefficient and Heat Transfer Correlations - Answer (click
here)
11. Flat Plate Collector Efficiency Factor - Answer (click here)
12. Concentrating Collectors - Answer (click here)
13. Concentrating Collectors: Definitions - Answer (click here)
14. Types of Concentrating Collectors - Answer (click here)
15. Thermal Analysis of Concentrating Collectors - Answer (click here)
16. Advantages and Disadvantages of Concentrating Collectors - Answer
(click here)
17. Cylindrical Parabolic Concentrating Collector - Answer (click here)
18. Performance Analysis of Cylindrical Parabolic Concentrating Collector -
Answer (click here)
19. A Grid Tie Inverter for Solar PV System - Answer (click here)
20. Important Short Questions and Answers: Solar Radiation and Solar
Energy Collectors - Answer (click here)

WIND ENERGY
1. Wind Energy - Answer (click here)
2. Basic Principles of Wind Energy Conversion - Answer (click here)
3. Wind Energy Conversion - Answer (click here)
4. Site Selection Consideration For WECS(Wind Energy Conversion) -
Answer (click here)
5. Types of Wind Turbines - Answer (click here)
6. Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT): Schematic Structure,
Advantage, Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
7. Vertical Axis Wind Turbines(VAWT): Schematic Structure, Advantage,
Disadvantages - Answer (click here)
8. Darrieus Wind Turbine: Detail, Advantage, Disadvantages - Answer (click
here)
9. Savonius wind turbine: Schematic Structure, Advantage, Disadvantages
- Answer (click here)
10. Classification Of WECS (Wind Energy Conversion) - Answer (click here)
11. Structure and components of wind mill - Answer (click here)
12. Analysis of Aerodynamic Forces Acting on the Blade - Answer (click here)
13. Performance of Wind Machines - Answer (click here)
14. Important Short Question and Answers: Wind Energy - Answer (click here)

Subject : Professional Ethics in Engineering


HUMAN VALUES
1. Senses of Engineering Ethics - Answer (click here)
2. Kohlberg and Gilligan Views - Answer (click here)
3. Act and Rule Utilitarian - Answer (click here)
4. Moral Dilemma - Answer (click here)
5. Morality and Moral Issues - Answer (click here)
6. Moral Autonomy - Answer (click here)
7. Consensus and Controversy - Answer (click here)
8. Models of Professional Roles - Answer (click here)
9. Ethical Theories - Answer (click here)
10. Important Questions and Answers: Engineering Ethics - Answer (click here)

ENGINEERING ETHICS
1. Ethics and Positive Roles of Code of Ethics - Answer (click here)
2. Engineering Experiments With Standard Experiments - Answer (click here)
3. Engineers as Responsible Experimenters - Answer (click here)
4. Important Questions and Answers: Engineering as Social
Experimentation - Answer (click here)

ENGINEERING AS SOCIAL EXPERIMENTATION


1. Safety and Risk - Answer (click here)
2. Risk Assesment - Answer (click here)
3. Risk Benefit Analysis - Answer (click here)
4. Bhopal Gas Tragedy - Answer (click here)
5. Difficulties in Establishing Safeguards - Answer (click here)
6. Important Questions and Answers: Engineer'S Responsibility For Safety
- Answer (click here)

SAFETY, RESPONSIBILITIES AND RIGHTS


1. Collegiality and Loyalty - Answer (click here)
2. Collective Bargaining and Occupational Crime - Answer (click here)
3. Intellectual Property Rights - Answer (click here)
4. Employee Rights - Answer (click here)
5. Employee Role of Confidentiality - Answer (click here)
6. Important Questions and Answers: Responsibilities and Rights - Answer
(click here)
7. Multinational Corporations with Neat Example - Answer (click here)
8. Computer Ethics is the Technological Background of the Society -
Answer (click here)
9. Environmental Ethics Through Engineering Ecology and Economics -
Answer (click here)
10. Human-Centered Ethics - Answer (click here)
11. Involvement in Weapons Work - Answer (click here)
12. Honesty - Answer (click here)
13. Important Questions and Answers: Global Issues - Answer (click here)

GLOBAL ISSUES
1. Multinational Corporations with Neat Example - Answer (click here)
2. Computer Ethics is the Technological Background of the Society -
Answer (click here)
3. Environmental Ethics Through Engineering Ecology and Economics -
Answer (click here)
4. Human-Centered Ethics - Answer (click here)
5. Involvement in Weapons Work - Answer (click here)
6. Honesty - Answer (click here)
7. Important Questions and Answers: Global Issues - Answer (click here)

Subject : Total Quality Management


INTRODUCTION
1. Quality Management - Answer (click here)
2. Various dimensions of quality with examples - Answer (click here)
3. Deming’s Philosophy - Answer (click here)
4. Quality Planning - Answer (click here)
5. The barriers to TQM implementation and Deming Philosophy - Answer
(click here)
6. Evolution of quality - Answer (click here)
7. Basic concepts, principles, barriers and benefits of Total Quality
Management (TQM) - Answer (click here)
8. Important Questions and Answers: Quality Management - Answer (click
here)
TQM PRINCIPLES
1. Leadership - Answer (click here)
2. Quality Council - Answer (click here)
3. Seven Steps to Strategic Quality Planning - Answer (click here)
4. Quality Statements - Answer (click here)
5. Customer Satisfaction - Answer (click here)
6. Tebouls Model of customer satisfication - Answer (click here)
7. Customer Retention - Answer (click here)
8. Motivation Concept of Motivation - Answer (click here)
9. Theories of Motivation - Answer (click here)
10. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory - Answer (click here)
11. Empowerment - Answer (click here)
12. Job Enrichment Vs Job Empowerment - Answer (click here)
13. Teams - Answer (click here)
14. Characteristics of Successful Teams - Answer (click here)
15. Stages of Team Development - Answer (click here)
16. Recognition and Reward - Answer (click here)
17. Importance of Performance Appraisals - Answer (click here)
18. Benefits of Employee Involvement - Answer (click here)
19. The PDCA Cycle - Answer (click here)
20. 5-S: Housekeeping - Answer (click here)
21. Kaizen - Answer (click here)
22. Supplier Partnership - Answer (click here)
23. Partnering - Answer (click here)
24. Supplier Selection - Answer (click here)
25. Supplier Rating - Answer (click here)
26. Aspects of Employee Involvement - Answer (click here)
27. Intrinsic Vs Extrinsic Rewards - Answer (click here)
28. Customer complaints (feedback) - Answer (click here)
29. Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) - Answer (click here)
30. Important Questions and Answers: Total Quality Management (TQM)
Principles - Answer (click here)

TQM TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES I


1. Seven tools of quality - Answer (click here)
2. New Seven management Tools - Answer (click here)
3. Management Tool: Affinity Diagram - Answer (click here)
4. Management Tool: Relations Diagram - Answer (click here)
5. Management Tool: Tree Diagram - Answer (click here)
6. Management Tool: Matrix Diagram - Answer (click here)
7. Matrix Data Analysis Diagram - Answer (click here)
8. Management Tool: Arrow Diagram - Answer (click here)
9. Six Sigma - Answer (click here)
10. Benchmarking - Answer (click here)
11. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis - Answer (click here)
12. Important Questions and Answers: Total Quality Management Tools &
Techniques - Answer (click here)
13. The seven traditional tools of quality - Answer (click here)
14. New management tools - Answer (click here)
15. Types of Benchmarking - Answer (click here)
16. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) - Answer (click here)
17. Timing of FMEA - Answer (click here)
18. Benchmarking process - Answer (click here)

TQM TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES II


1. TQM Tools And Techniques - Answer (click here)
2. Quality Function Deployment - Answer (click here)
3. Taguchi’s Quality Loss Function - Answer (click here)
4. Maintenance development stages - Answer (click here)
5. Total Productive Maintenance - Answer (click here)
6. Quality costs - Answer (click here)
7. Voice of the customer - Answer (click here)
8. Design of FMEA document - Answer (click here)
9. Different types of needs - Answer (click here)
10. Major benefits of quality function deployment (QFD) - Answer (click here)
11. Quality circles - Answer (click here)
12. Organisational structure - Answer (click here)
13. Important Questions and Answers: Total Quality Management Tools and
Techniques - Answer (click here)

QUALITY SYSTEMS
1. ISO 9000 STANDARDS - Answer (click here)
2. Need of Quality system - Answer (click here)
3. ISO 9000:2000 Quality Systems - Answer (click here)
4. Need for ISO 9000- ISO 9000-2000 Quality System - Answer (click here)
5. QS 9000 – ISO 14000 – Requirements - Answer (click here)
6. ISO 9000 Documentation and Documentation Hierarchy - Answer (click
here)
7. Clauses in ISO 9001 - Answer (click here)
8. ISO 14000 - Environmental Management systems - Answer (click here)
9. Processes of Software Quality Management - Answer (click here)
10. Cost of Quality - Answer (click here)
11. Concepts and Benefits of ISO 14000 - Answer (click here)
12. Important Questions and Answers: Quality Systems - Answer (click here)