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Cross-sections in SCIA Engineer

Defining, importing and modifying cross-sections


Contacts 7
Introduction to cross-sections 9
Sectional characteristics and other properties 10
Overview of sectional characteristics and parameters 10

Contacts 17

Introduction 19

Overview of Cross-section Characteristics 20

Determination of Section Characteristics 23

Cross-section property calculation 23

Cross-section property calculation 23

Extension: Multi-Material (Composite) sections 27


Basic principle 31
General formulation 32
Material Characteristics 34
Centerline 37
Generation 37

Thickness 38

Fictive elements 38

Fused elements 39

Curved elements 39

Calculation Procedure 40
Fibre Mapping 43
Standard case 43

Centerline extension 44

Default Mesh Size 45


Torsion Analysis: Prandtl 45
Shear Analysis: Grashof-Jouravski 47
Openings 49

References 56

Other cross-section parameters 57

Special parameters for Steel cross-sections when using code EC-EN 58

-2-
Special parameters for aluminium cross-sections when using code EC-EN 59

Cross-section types 61
Geometric shapes 61

Thin-walled cross-sections 61

Profile Library cross-sections 62

Sheet welded cross-sections 64

Closed welded cross-sections 65

Haunch cross-sections 66

Built-up welded cross-sections 67

Composed cross-sections 68

Concrete cross-sections 69

Timber cross-sections 69

Bridge cross-sections 69

Numerical cross-section 70

General cross-section 71

Introduction to paired cross-sections 71

Introduction to build-in beams 72

Introduction to precast cross-section 73

Westok 74

Profile Library Filter 75

Geometrical Constraints 75

Defining a new cross-section 78


Cross-section manager 78

General procedure for the definition of a new cross-section 79

Selecting the cross-section type 80

List of available cross-section types 80

List of possible variants (sub-types) for the current type 80

Drawing of the currently selected variant 81

List of already defined cross-sections 81

Control buttons 81

Specifying sectional parameters and properties 81

Graphical window 82

-3-
Chapter 0

Property table 82

Control buttons 83

Button [Update] 83

Button [Document] 83

Button [OK] 83

Button [Cancel] 83

Graphical window versus property table relation 83

Reviewing the calculated sectional characteristics 83

Property table in the Cross-section manager 84

Property table in the dialogue for editing of a cross-section 84

Document-style view in the preview window 84

Importing the cross-sections from another project 85

Export of required cross-sections from the "source" project 85

Import of required cross-sections into the "target" project 86

Limitations of the import process 87

Modifying an existing cross-section 88


Editing a cross-section 88

Deleting a cross-section 88

Copying a cross-section 88

Replacing a cross-section 89

General cross-section 90
Examples of a general cross-section 90

Rules for general cross-sections 91

Type of partial sections in the general cross-section 91

Polygonal cross-section 91

Thin walled cross-section 92

Library cross-section 93

Thin-walled versus solid cross-section 93

General cross-section editor 93

Opening the General cross-section editor 93

Using the General cross-section editor 94

Functions of the General cross-section editor 95

-4-
Creating a new general cross-section 101

Inserting a new polygonal section 101

Plane polygon toolbar 103

Inserting a new thin walled section 105

Inserting a new library section 106

Inserting a new opening 106

Import of a general cross-section 107

Adjusting the properties 109

Properties of the final general cross-section 109

Properties of the partial cross-section 110

Modifying the existing general cross-section 111

Modifying the properties of the whole cross-section 111

Modifying the properties of a partial cross-section 113

Changing the geometry of the general cross-section 113

Changing the geometry of a partial section 114

Defining a parametric cross-section 114

Introduction to the parametric cross-section 114

Defining a new parameter 115

Assigning the parameters 115

Example of parameterised cross-section 115

Profile Library Editor 122


Introduction 122

1. Profile Library Folders 122

Default folders 122

Library naming and order 124

Folder Content 124

2. Profile Library Editor 124

Edit Profile Library 124

Editing an existing section type 127

Adding a new section type 134

Annex A: Profile Library Formcodes 151

Annex B: Cross-section Characteristics 171

-5-
Chapter 0

Annex C: Profile Library filters 172

Annex D: Folder Content 176

References 177

-6-
Contacts
Belgium Headquarters France
SCIA nv SCIA France sarl
Industrieweg 1007
Centre d'Affaires
B-3540 Herk-de-Stad
29, Grand' Rue
Tel: +32 13 55 17 75
FR-59100 Roubaix
E-mail: info@scia.net
Tel.: +33 3.28.33.28.67
Support Phone Fax: +33 3.28.33.28.69
CAE (SCIA Engineer) E-mail: france@scia.net
Tel: +32 13 55 09 90
Agence commerciale
CAD (Allplan) 8, Place des vins de france
Tel: +32 13 55 09 80 FR-75012 Paris
Tel.: +33 3.28.33.28.67
Support E-mail:
Fax: +33 3.28.33.28.69
support@scia.net
E-mail: france@scia.net

Brazil USA
SCIA do Brasil Software Ltda SCIA North America
Rua Dr. Luiz Migliano, 1986 - sala 702 , CEP 7150 Riverwood Drive
SP 05711-001 São Paulo 21046 Columbia, MD
Tel.: +55 11 4314-5880 Tel.; +1 443-542-0638
E-mail: brasil@scia.net Fax.:+1 410-290-8050
E-mail: usa@scia.net

Netherlands Switzerland
SCIA Nederland B.V. SCIA Swiss Office
Wassenaarweg 40 Dürenbergstrasse 24
NL-6843 NW ARNHEM CH-3212 Gurmels
Tel.:+31 26 320 12 30 Tel.: +41 26 341 74 11
Fax.: +31 26 320 12 39 Fax: +41 26 341 74 13
E-mail: info@scia.net E-mail: info@scia.ch

Czech Republic Slovakia


SCIA CZ s.r.o. Praha SCIA SK s.r.o.
Evropská 2591/33d Murgašova 1298/16
160 00 Praha 6 SK-010 01 Žilina
Tel.: +420 226 205 600 Tel.: +421 415 003 070
Fax: +420 226 201 673 Fax: +421 415 003 072
E-mail: info.praha@scia.cz E-mail: info@scia.sk

SCIA CZ s.r.o. Brno


Slavickova 827/1a
638 00 Brno
Tel.: +420 530 501 570
Fax: +420 226 201 673
E-mail: info.brno@scia.cz

-7-
Chapter 0

Austria Germany
SCIA Datenservice Ges.m.b.H. SCIA Software GmbH
Dresdnerstrasse 68/2/6/9 Technologie Zentrum Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Strasse 76-80
A-1200 WIEN D-44227 Dortmund
Tel.: +43 1 7433232-11 Tel.: +49 231/9742586
Fax: +43 1 7433232-20 Fax: +49 231/9742587
E-mail: info@scia.at E-mail: info@scia.de

Support
Tel.: +43 1 7433232-12
E-mail: support@scia.net

All information in this document is subject to modification without prior notice. No part of this manual may be reproduced,
stored in a database or retrieval system or published, in any form or in any way, electronically, mechanically, by print, photo
print, microfilm or any other means without prior written permission from the publisher. SCIAis not responsible for any direct
or indirect damage because of imperfections in the documentation and/or the software.
© Copyright 2017 SCIA nv. All rights reserved.

Document created: 18 / 07 / 2017


SCIA Engineer 17.0

-8-
Introduction to cross-sections

Introduction to cross-sections
A cross-section together with material is a basic property of a 1D member. In practice, one can meet a wide range of various
cross-section types, shapes, and sizes. SCIA Engineer provides powerful tolls for easy definition of almost any cross-section
type.
A cross-section in SCIA Engineer is defined not only by dimensions and shape, but also by the material or materials used.
This means that if you want to use in your project the exactly same shape of a cross-section for two different 1D members
and each of the two 1D members is made of a different material, let’s say of wood and concrete, you have to define two dif-
ferent cross-sections: one of wood and the other of concrete.
To minimize the effort the user has to invest in order to define a cross-section, the program offers selection from a plentiful
library of:

l industrially produced steel profiles (e.g. I-beams, channels, angles, tubular profiles, etc.),
l common geometric shapes,
l often used shapes for thin-walled cross-sections,
l common shapes of concrete profiles,
l commonly used welded steel sections (both open and box) made of steel flats,
l often applied two material built-up sections,
l possible combinations of two or more steel cross-sections welded together,
l variants of rolled cross-section pairs,
l standard bridge sections,
l solutions for haunch application,
l common timber profiles.

In addition, the program allows the user to define an arbitrary cross-section regarding shape, size, number of parts, number
of materials used for individual parts, etc. If required in some special cases, a cross-section may be defined not via its shape
and size, but only by means of explicitly typed sectional characteristics as the characteristics are what is essential for the cal-
culation.

-9-
Chapter 2

Sectional characteristics and other properties

Overview of sectional characteristics and parameters


A cross-section is defined by means of its type and dimensions.
The sectional characteristics are calculated automatically by SCIA Engineer on closing of the dialogue for the editing of a
cross-section. In addition, the automatic calculation may be carried out at any time during the editing phase via button
[Update] of the above-mentioned dialogue.
The sectional characteristics such as sectional area, moment of inertia, position of centroid, etc. are calculated automatically
by the program.
In addition to the common sectional characteristics, there are some other parameters that are common to all cross-section
types, such as name, type description, colour, etc. All of these parameters are available to the user for inserting, editing,
reviewing, and printing.

- 10 -
Cross-section characteristics
Theory
Chapter 0

Contacts 7
Introduction to cross-sections 9
Sectional characteristics and other properties 10
Overview of sectional characteristics and parameters 10

Contacts 17

Introduction 19

Overview of Cross-section Characteristics 20

Determination of Section Characteristics 23

Cross-section property calculation 23

Cross-section property calculation 23

Extension: Multi-Material (Composite) sections 27


Basic principle 31
General formulation 32
Material Characteristics 34
Centerline 37
Generation 37

Thickness 38

Fictive elements 38

Fused elements 39

Curved elements 39

Calculation Procedure 40
Fibre Mapping 43
Standard case 43

Centerline extension 44

Default Mesh Size 45


Torsion Analysis: Prandtl 45
Shear Analysis: Grashof-Jouravski 47
Openings 49

References 56

Other cross-section parameters 57

Special parameters for Steel cross-sections when using code EC-EN 58

- 12 -
Special parameters for aluminium cross-sections when using code EC-EN 59

Cross-section types 61
Geometric shapes 61

Thin-walled cross-sections 61

Profile Library cross-sections 62

Sheet welded cross-sections 64

Closed welded cross-sections 65

Haunch cross-sections 66

Built-up welded cross-sections 67

Composed cross-sections 68

Concrete cross-sections 69

Timber cross-sections 69

Bridge cross-sections 69

Numerical cross-section 70

General cross-section 71

Introduction to paired cross-sections 71

Introduction to build-in beams 72

Introduction to precast cross-section 73

Westok 74

Profile Library Filter 75

Geometrical Constraints 75

Defining a new cross-section 78


Cross-section manager 78

General procedure for the definition of a new cross-section 79

Selecting the cross-section type 80

List of available cross-section types 80

List of possible variants (sub-types) for the current type 80

Drawing of the currently selected variant 81

List of already defined cross-sections 81

Control buttons 81

Specifying sectional parameters and properties 81

Graphical window 82

- 13 -
Chapter 0

Property table 82

Control buttons 83

Button [Update] 83

Button [Document] 83

Button [OK] 83

Button [Cancel] 83

Graphical window versus property table relation 83

Reviewing the calculated sectional characteristics 83

Property table in the Cross-section manager 84

Property table in the dialogue for editing of a cross-section 84

Document-style view in the preview window 84

Importing the cross-sections from another project 85

Export of required cross-sections from the "source" project 85

Import of required cross-sections into the "target" project 86

Limitations of the import process 87

Modifying an existing cross-section 88


Editing a cross-section 88

Deleting a cross-section 88

Copying a cross-section 88

Replacing a cross-section 89

General cross-section 90
Examples of a general cross-section 90

Rules for general cross-sections 91

Type of partial sections in the general cross-section 91

Polygonal cross-section 91

Thin walled cross-section 92

Library cross-section 93

Thin-walled versus solid cross-section 93

General cross-section editor 93

Opening the General cross-section editor 93

Using the General cross-section editor 94

Functions of the General cross-section editor 95

- 14 -
Creating a new general cross-section 101

Inserting a new polygonal section 101

Plane polygon toolbar 103

Inserting a new thin walled section 105

Inserting a new library section 106

Inserting a new opening 106

Import of a general cross-section 107

Adjusting the properties 109

Properties of the final general cross-section 109

Properties of the partial cross-section 110

Modifying the existing general cross-section 111

Modifying the properties of the whole cross-section 111

Modifying the properties of a partial cross-section 113

Changing the geometry of the general cross-section 113

Changing the geometry of a partial section 114

Defining a parametric cross-section 114

Introduction to the parametric cross-section 114

Defining a new parameter 115

Assigning the parameters 115

Example of parameterised cross-section 115

Profile Library Editor 122


Introduction 122

1. Profile Library Folders 122

Default folders 122

Library naming and order 124

Folder Content 124

2. Profile Library Editor 124

Edit Profile Library 124

Editing an existing section type 127

Adding a new section type 134

Annex A: Profile Library Formcodes 151

Annex B: Cross-section Characteristics 171

- 15 -
Chapter 0

Annex C: Profile Library filters 172

Annex D: Folder Content 176

References 177

- 16 -
Contacts

Belgium Headquarters France


SCIA nv SCIA France sarl
Industrieweg 1007
Centre d'Affaires
B-3540 Herk-de-Stad
29, Grand' Rue
Tel: +32 13 55 17 75
FR-59100 Roubaix
E-mail: info@scia.net
Tel.: +33 3.28.33.28.67
Support Phone Fax: +33 3.28.33.28.69
CAE (SCIA Engineer) E-mail: france@scia.net
Tel: +32 13 55 09 90
Agence commerciale
CAD (Allplan) 8, Place des vins de france
Tel: +32 13 55 09 80 FR-75012 Paris
Tel.: +33 3.28.33.28.67
Support E-mail:
Fax: +33 3.28.33.28.69
support@scia.net
E-mail: france@scia.net

Brazil USA
SCIA do Brasil Software Ltda SCIA North America
Rua Dr. Luiz Migliano, 1986 - sala 702 , CEP 7150 Riverwood Drive
SP 05711-001 São Paulo 21046 Columbia, MD
Tel.: +55 11 4314-5880 Tel.; +1 443-542-0638
E-mail: brasil@scia.net Fax.:+1 410-290-8050
E-mail: usa@scia.net

Netherlands Switzerland
SCIA Nederland B.V. SCIA Swiss Office
Wassenaarweg 40 Dürenbergstrasse 24
NL-6843 NW ARNHEM CH-3212 Gurmels
Tel.:+31 26 320 12 30 Tel.: +41 26 341 74 11
Fax.: +31 26 320 12 39 Fax: +41 26 341 74 13
E-mail: info@scia.net E-mail: info@scia.ch

Czech Republic Slovakia


SCIA CZ s.r.o. Praha SCIA SK s.r.o.
Evropská 2591/33d Murgašova 1298/16
160 00 Praha 6 SK-010 01 Žilina
Tel.: +420 226 205 600 Tel.: +421 415 003 070
Fax: +420 226 201 673 Fax: +421 415 003 072
E-mail: info.praha@scia.cz E-mail: info@scia.sk

SCIA CZ s.r.o. Brno


Slavickova 827/1a
638 00 Brno
Tel.: +420 530 501 570
Fax: +420 226 201 673

- 17 -
Chapter 0

E-mail: info.brno@scia.cz

Austria Germany
SCIA Datenservice Ges.m.b.H. SCIA Software GmbH
Dresdnerstrasse 68/2/6/9 Technologie Zentrum Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Strasse 76-80
A-1200 WIEN D-44227 Dortmund
Tel.: +43 1 7433232-11 Tel.: +49 231/9742586
Fax: +43 1 7433232-20 Fax: +49 231/9742587
E-mail: info@scia.at E-mail: info@scia.de

Support
Tel.: +43 1 7433232-12
E-mail: support@scia.net

All information in this document is subject to modification without prior notice. No part of this manual may be reproduced,
stored in a database or retrieval system or published, in any form or in any way, electronically, mechanically, by print, photo
print, microfilm or any other means without prior written permission from the publisher. SCIAis not responsible for any direct
or indirect damage because of imperfections in the documentation and/or the software.
© Copyright 2017 SCIA nv. All rights reserved.

Document created: 18 / 07 / 2017


SCIA Engineer 17.0

- 18 -
Introduction
In this Theoretical Background in depth information is given regarding the calculation of cross-section properties.
The first chapter gives an overview of the different axis systems as well as a list of all cross-section properties calculated by
SCIA Engineer.
The second chapter details the actual methods for determining cross- section properties. After introducing the stand-
ardization of cross-section properties the overall procedure followed by SCIA Engineer is explained.
The chapter then explains the different numerical methods, both using 1D Finite Elements and 2D Finite Elements, for cal-
culating section characteristics.
The chapter concludes with a listing of all closed-form formulae used for standard section shapes.

- 19 -
Chapter 2

Overview of Cross-section Characteristics


In this chapter the different Axis systems used within SCIA Engineer are outlined.
The second part of this chapter gives an overview of the properties related to these Axis systems.

Axis Systems
Within SCIA Engineer the Cross-section Characteristics are referenced to three distinct Axis systems.

a. The UCS or 'Input' Axis system is defined using an arbitrary origin and uses a horizontal Y-axis and a vertical Z-axis. This
system serves as a reference from which the center of gravity is calculated.
b. The LCS Axis system has its origin in the center of gravity and YLCS and ZLCS axis parallel to the axis of the UCS system.
This system serves as a reference from which the rotation of the principal axis is calculated.
c. The Principal Axis system has its origin in the center of gravity and principal y- and z-axis rotated according to the angle of
rotation between the principal and LCS systems.

The following picture illustrates these different Axis Systems:

- 20 -
In case the rotation angle of the Principal Axis system is zero, this system is equal to the
LCS Axis system. In this case, only the Principal Axis system is displayed.

Cross-Section Characteristics
The following table provides an overview of all Cross-section Characteristics calculated by SCIA Engineer:

Property Description
A Area
Ay Shear Area in principal y-direction
Az Shear Area in principal z-direction
AL Circumference per unit length
AD Drying Surface per unit length
cYUCS Centroid coordinate in Y-direction of Input axis system
cZUCS Centroid coordinate in Z-direction of Input axis system
IYLCS Second moment of area about the YLCS axis
IZLCS Second moment of area about the ZLCS axis
IYZLCS Product moment of area in the LCS system
α Rotation Angle of the principal axis system
Iy Second moment of area about the principal y-axis
Iz Second moment of area about the principal z-axis
iy Radius of gyration about the principal y-axis
iz Radius of gyration about the principal z-axis
Wely Elastic section modulus about the principal y-axis
Welz Elastic section modulus about the principal z-axis
Wply Plastic section modulus about the principal y-axis
Wplz Plastic section modulus about the principal z-axis
Mply+ Plastic moment about the principal y-axis for a positive My moment
Mply- Plastic moment about the principal y-axis for a negative My moment
Mplz+ Plastic moment about the principal z-axis for a positive Mz moment
Mplz- Plastic moment about the principal z-axis for a negative Mz moment
dy Shear center coordinate in principal y-axis measured from the centroid
dz Shear center coordinate in principal z-axis measured from the centroid
It Torsional  constant
Iw Warping constant
βy Mono-symmetry constant about the principal y-axis
βz Mono-symmetry constant about the principal z-axis

In addition to these properties in each fibre of the cross-section the following unit stress values are calculated:

Fibre stress Description


Shear(Vy) Shear stress in principal y-direction caused by a unit shear force Vy
Shear(Vz) Shear stress in principal z-direction caused by a unit shear force Vz
Torsion(Mxp) Primary Torsion stress caused by a unit torsion moment Mxp

- 21 -
Chapter 2

Fibre stress Description


Torsion(Mxs) Secondary Torsion stress caused by a unit torsion moment Mxs
Unit Warping Standardised unit warping ordinate
Warping(Mw) Normal stress caused by a unit bimoment Mw

In the subsequent chapters the calculation of these different characteristics is detailed.

The Cross-section provides the calculation of the unit stress values for Torsion. The split of
the Torsion moment Mx into Primary Torsion Mxp and Secondary Torsion Mxs is handled
by the respective Checks. See also "Decomposition of arbitrary torsion line".

- 22 -
Determination of Section Characteristics
The first part of this chapter details the general procedure for calculating standardized cross-section properties as well as
the procedure used in SCIA Engineer.
Subsequent subchapters deal with the actual calculation of properties, as well as the applied closed form formulae.

Standardized Cross-section properties


In general the calculation of cross-section properties is divided into 2 parts:

Cross-section property calculation


Standardized Cross-section properties Part I: Biaxial bending and axial force

l Area
l Center of Gravity
l Angle of the principal axis system
l Principal moments of Inertia

Standardized Cross-section properties Part II: Torsion

l Shear Center
l Torsion Constant
l Warping Constant
l Standardized Warping Ordinate

For a detailed background into the calculation of properties according to the above logic reference is made to Ref.[1].
Applied to SCIA Engineer this gives the following differentiation:

Cross-section property calculation


Standardized Cross-section properties Part I: Biaxial bending and axial force

A, cYUCS, cZUCS, IYLCS, IZLCS, IYZLCS, α, Iy, Iz


Extended with:

l Ay, Az, AL, AD, iy, iz, Wely, Welz


l Wply, Wplz, Mply+, Mply-, Mplz+, Mplz-
l Unit stress Shear(Vy), Unit stress Shear(Vz)
l Initial values for βy, βz
l General solid It

Standardized Cross-section properties Part II: Torsion

dy, dz, It, Iw, Unit warping ω


Extended with:

l Unit stress Shear(Vy), Unit stress Shear(Vz)


l Unit stress Torsion(Mxp), Unit stress Torsion(Mxs)

- 23 -
Chapter 3

l Unit stress Warping(Mw)


l Final values for βy, βz

As indicated on the above overview, each part is extended with multiple 'derived' properties i.e. properties which are determ-
ined using the base properties calculated in that part.

Overall Procedure
The previous paragraph showed the general principle of calculating cross-section properties using two distinct parts. In addi-
tion to these parts, SCIA Engineer also takes into account specific overrulings of properties, for example in case the 2D FE
Method is used, or in case a cross-section is taken from the Profile Library etc.
The following diagram shows the complete calculation procedure as used in SCIA Engineer.

By default, for Thick-walled sections the 2D FE Method is activated for Torsional analysis,
however this can be de-activated by the user leading to the Simplified Torsion analysis.

In the subsequent paragraphs of this chapter each item of the above diagram is described in detail.

- 24 -
Calculation of Standardized Cross-section properties Part I
The first part of the standardised cross-section properties concerns those related to bending and axial force.
Basic characteristics
The basic cross- section characteristics are calculated using the standard formulas from solid mechanics. For detailed
information, reference is made to Ref.[3] and Ref.[4].

The cross-section is discretized into n elemental areas dA.


First, using the arbitrary origin of the UCS or 'Input' Axis system the following properties are calculated using a horizontal Y-
axis and a vertical Z-axis:

Area:

First Moment of Area:

- 25 -
Chapter 3

Using these magnitudes the coordinates of the centroid are determined:

Centroid:

The centroid defines the origin of the LCS Axis system with YLCS and ZLCS axis parallel to the axis of the UCS system.
According to these axis the second moments of area can be determined:

Second Moment of Area:

Product Moment of Area:

Finally, using these magnitudes the Principal Axis system and corresponding characteristics can be determined:
Second Moment of Area:

Angle of Rotation:

in case

in case

and 

- 26 -
Extension: Multi-Material (Composite) sections

otherwise

The above determination of the angle of rotation accounts for minor numerical dis-
crepancies. For background information, reference is made to Ref.[1].

In addition, in case the angle of rotation is calculated according to the above formula and
exceeds a tolerance of 3°, the angle is increased by π/2 in case Iz > Iy.

Extension: Multi-Material (Composite) sections


In case of multi-material cross-sections the basic characteristics are determined using the principles given in this paragraph.
For background information see Ref.[5]

Centroid
First the area Ai and centroid position of each cross-section part/polygon i are calculated.

To determine the location of the centroid (Neutral Axis 'NA') of the whole cross-section the following general equation is
used:

Where n represents the number of polygons and Ei the E-modulus of the material of the respective polygon.

The distances z1, z2, … zn are the distances from the NA to the centroid of each polygon (measured in the UCS Axis sys-
tem). These distances can be written in function of the centroid distance cZUCS so the above equation can be solved this
centroid distance.
The above equation illustrates the principle used for cZUCS, in the same way the equation can be written out for cYUCS.

Area
The Area of the multi-material section is calculated using the following general formula:

- 27 -
Chapter 3

Where n represents the number of polygons, Ei the E-modulus of the material of the respective polygon and Ai the area of
the respective polygon.
As indicated by the equation, each polygon of the multi-material cross-section is in fact referenced to the material of the 'first'
polygon.

Within SCIA Engineer this literally means the 'first' inputted polygon. So the material of this
'first' inputted polygon serves as reference material for the multi-material cross-section.
This 'first' material is shown with a cyan background color for easy reference.

Second Moment of Area


The Second Moment of Area of the multi-material section is calculated using the following general formula:

Where n represents the number of polygons, Ei the E-modulus of the material of the respective polygon and Ai the area of
the respective polygon.
As indicated by the equation, each polygon of the multi-material cross-section is in fact referenced to the material of the 'first'
polygon.
The above equation is used to determine IYLCS, IZLCS and IYZLCS.
Circumference and Drying surface
The Circumference per unit length or 'Exterior Surface' AL is calculated as the outer circumference of the cross-section.
This calculation accounts for the fact that parts are connected/touching.

For those parts which are not connected the circumference AL is calculated as the summation of the outer circumference of
the different unconnected parts:

- 28 -
Extension: Multi-Material (Composite) sections

The drying surface per unit length AD is calculated as the outer circumference AL increased by the circumference of any
openings within the cross-section. In case there are no openings AD will thus be equal to AL.
An 'opening' in this case concerns any closed in empty area within the cross-section. This calculation method thus accounts
for 'constructed' openings for example when creating an RHS from four separate rectangles.

Shear Area and Unit Shear Stress


The Shear Area Ay and Az in principal directions are determined as follows:

with:

The width of the cross-section at position z from the principal y-axis


b(z)

The width of the cross-section at position y from the principal z-axis


b(y)

The First moment or Area of the 'cut-off' area A', determined according to the
S y principal y-axis
(z)

The First moment or Area of the 'cut-off' area A', determined according to the
S z principal z-axis
(y)

Second moment of area about the principal y-axis


Iy

Iz Second moment of area about the principal z-axis

On the following picture the 'cut-off' area A' is illustrated for the Shear Area Az.

- 29 -
Chapter 3

The Unit Shear stresses in the fibres are calculated as follows:


Unit stress Shear y in fibre i:

Unit stress Shear z in fibre i:

With Vy and Vz taken as unity and yi and zi the coordinates of fibre i in the principal axis system.

In case the width b at a given fibre position is zero the Unit Shear stress is taken as zero for
that fibre.

For thin-walled (Centerline) sections, reference is made to the "Centerline" on page 37.


For multi-material (Composite) sections reference is made to the "Default Mesh Size" on page 45.
Radii of Gyration
The Radii of Gyration iy and iz about the principal axis are determined as follows:

Elastic Section Moduli


The Elastic Section Moduli Wely and Welz about the principal axis are determined as follows:

- 30 -
Basic principle

The distances z and y according to the principal axis are determined for each fibre of the cross-section. In essence each
fibre thus has a different Elastic Section Modulus. The Moduli shown in the cross-section properties are the minimal values
taken over all fibres. These minimal values are thus obtained by using the maximal fibre distances as shown in the above for-
mulas.
The following picture illustrates the maximal distances for an arbitrary cross-section:

During stress calculations in the fibres (for example in the Steel checks), the stresses are
calculated in each fibre separately. These stress calculations thus use the actual Elastic Sec-
tion Moduli in each fibre and not the minima over the entire cross-section.

Plastic Moments and Section Moduli

Basic principle
In this paragraph the basic principle of the plastic property calculation is explained.
The principle is illustrated for a general cross-section made out of one material which has equal characteristics in both ten-
sion and compression (like for example Steel).
As shown on the following picture, this cross-section is loaded by a bending moment M which causes part of the cross-sec-
tion to be in compression (C) and part of the cross-section to be in tension (T).

- 31 -
Chapter 3

All the fibres in this cross-section have yielded as shown by the stress blocks.
The Plastic Neutral Axis (PNA) is defined by the axis located between the fibres yielding in compression and those yielding in
tension. This axis is off course parallel to the principal axis about which the moment was applied.
For a single material cross-section with homogeneous material characteristics the PNA is easily determined as the axis
which splits the cross section into two equal areas: the area AC in compression and AT in tension.
The Plastic Section Modulus Wpl is calculated as the sum of the First Moments of Area of the part in tension (ST ) and the
part in compression (SC ):

with:

A C The areas of the section in compression and tension respectively for a bending
and moment about the given principal axis.
AT

d C The distances from the centroid of the areas of the section in compression and
and tension respectively to the Plastic Neutral Axis, measured perpendicular to the
dT given principal axis.

Using the material strength f of the homogeneous material the Plastic Moment Mpl is calculated as follows:

General formulation
The basic principle explained in the previous paragraph holds true for a homogeneous uni-strength material. In general
however there are several complexities which need to be accounted for:

l The material of the cross-section can have different characteristics in compression and in tension.
l The cross-section can be composed out of multiple materials.
l The material characteristics depend on the sign of the moment.

Consider the following composite section as an example:

- 32 -
General formulation

For a positive My bending moment about the principal axis, the concrete will be in compression while the steel will be in ten-
sion.
In case of a negative My bending moment about the principal axis, the concrete will be in tension while the steel will be in com-
pression.
Depending on the position of the Plastic Neutral Axis one of the materials can even be partially in compression and partially
in tension.
The calculation of the Plastic Moment is therefore split according to axis and according to sign which leads to Mply+, Mply-,
Mplz+ and Mplz-. For each of these plastic magnitudes a separate calculation is done.
The determination of the Plastic Neutral Axis needs to take into account the material characteristic of each part. In general
the following equation is solved which specifies an equilibrium of tensile and compressive forces:

with:

n The number of cross-section parts


AC,i The area in compression of part i
fC,i The compressive strength of part i
AT,i The area in tension of part i
fT,i The tensile strength of part i

With the position of the PNA known, the Plastic Moment can be determined as follows:

- 33 -
Chapter 3

In which di signifies the distance from the centroid of the area of part i of the section to the plastic neutral axis, measured per-
pendicular to the given principal axis.

The above Plastic Moment calculation assumes a 'full bond' between the different mater-
ials. The actual Composite checks take into account the effects of partial bond and recal-
culate the Plastic Moments accordingly.

Since for each part the material strength can be different there is no more straightforward way to obtain the Plastic Section
Modulus Wpl. Within SCIA Engineer, this value is referenced to the material of the 'first' inputted polygon, see also the para-
graph on "Extension: Multi-Material (Composite) sections" on page 27.
In addition, since there is both a positive and a negative Plastic Moment for the given axis, the final Plastic Section Modulus is
determined using the minimum of both.

With f 1 the material strength of the 'first' polygon. This can either be the compressive or tensile strength of this material
depending on which stress dominates in this part.

These values for the Plastic Section Moduli are merely used for display in the Cross-Sec-
tion Manager. The actual Composite checks directly use the Plastic Moments which are
thus not referenced to the 'first' material but take into account all material characteristics.

Material Characteristics
As indicated in the above paragraphs the plastic calculation requires the compressive and tensile strength of the respective
material. These values are defined as follows for materials with code dependent data:

Material Compressive strength fC Tensile strength fT


Steel fy fy
Aluminium fy fy
Concrete fck Taken as zero
Masonry fck Taken as zero
Timber fc,0,k ft,0,k
Other 240 N/mm^2 240 N/mm^2

Any material which does not have code dependent data is taken as 'Other'.

Mono-Symmetry Constants
The Mono-Symmetry Constants βy and βz about the principal axis are determined as follows:

- 34 -
Material Characteristics

with:

Second moment of area about the principal y-axis


Iy

Second moment of area about the principal z-axis


Iz

Coordinates in the principal axis system


y&z

Distance between centroid and shear centre, taken as dy


y0

z0 Distance between centroid and shear centre, taken as dz

When these parameters are initially calculated the shear centre coordinates dy and dz are not yet determined. The Mono-
Symmetry Constants βy and βz are thus initially calculated taking dy and dz equal to zero. After the "Calculation of Stand-
ardized Cross-section properties Part II" on the next page the actual shear centre coordinates dy and dz are determined
after which the Mono-Symmetry Constants βy and βz are modified accordingly.
For more background information regarding these parameters reference is made to Ref.[2]

- 35 -
Chapter 3

Simplified Torsional Constant


To finalize the calculation of Part I of the Standardised Cross-section properties the Torsional constant It is calculated using
the following simplified formula for a general solid Cross-section:

with

In normal cases this It value will be overwritten by the exact It calculation done in Part II. In
case however the Part II calculation is not done the above calculation ensures there is at
least an approximate value for It. This approach avoids numerical instabilities during the
analysis.

Calculation of Standardized Cross-section properties Part II


The second part of the standardised cross-section properties concerns those related to torsion.
Introduction
For calculating properties related to torsion the general theory makes a distinction between the following types of cross-sec-
tions, see Ref.[1]:

a) Thin-walled, open cross-sections

b) Thin-walled, closed cross-sections

c) Arbitrary, thick-walled cross-sections

A cross-section is defined as thin-walled if, through a reduction to the profile centreline and the application of simplified the-
ories, sufficiently exact calculation results are obtained. Ref.[1].

- 36 -
Centerline

Within Scia-Engineer a thin-walled section is thus a section for which a centreline is available. To simplify the identification,
the Shape Type (thin-walled or thick-walled) is shown in the properties of each cross-section.
In literature, for thin-walled, open sections analytical solutions are widely available. For thin-walled, closed (hollow) sections
with a single opening analytical solutions are also available Ref.[6] however in case of multiple openings a statically inde-
terminate problem emerges which requires a large effort to solve analytically.
Therefore, within SCIA Engineer, a numerical 1D Finite Element Method is used to calculate the torsional properties of any
thin-walled section. The main advantages of this method are that it applies to both open and closed sections and can be
used for closed sections with any amount of openings.
In literature, for thick-walled sections analytical solutions only exist for a few basic shapes such as rectangles, triangles and
ellipses. Within SCIA Engineer, for thick-walled sections a numerical 2D Finite Element Method is used to provide an exact
solution for any shape.
In addition, the 2D Finite Element Method can even be applied optionally to thin-walled sections.
The following table summarizes this approach:

Shape Type Method for Torsional Analysis


Thin-walled open section 1D FEM (Optionally 2D FEM)
Thin-walled closed section 1D FEM (Optionally 2D FEM)
Thick-walled section 2D FEM

The following chapters give an overview of both the 1D and 2D Finite Element Methods.
1D FE Method for Thin-Walled Sections
For thin-walled sections (open or closed or a combination of both) a general One-Dimensional Finite Element approach is
applied. For a detailed background regarding this method including calculation examples reference is made to Ref.[1].

Centerline
The centerline representation of a cross-section concerns an idealized 'skeleton' profile which shows the general element
geometry and connectivity Ref.[13].
This representation suggests that all the 'linkages' in the section will traverse along the line of mid-thickness of each com-
ponent regardless of their thickness.

Generation
The centerline is generated in two steps. In the first step, the centerline of each separate thin-walled part is generated at the
line of mid-thickness:

- 37 -
Chapter 3

In the second step, when two thin-walled parts are touching, the centerlines are extended until they intersect. These exten-
sions form additional centerline elements.

The centerline extensions have a thickness equal to the thickness of the centerline element from which they were extended.
The maximal length of the extension between two centerline elements 1 and 2 is 0,5 * (t1 + t2) with t1 the thickness of center-
line element 1 and t2 the thickness of centerline element 2. When the distance of the extension would exceed this limit, no
intersection is made i.e. the thin-walled parts are seen as not connecting.

Thickness
Each centerline element has a constant thickness. The centerline is thus split into multiple parts in case there is a difference
in thickness.

Fictive elements
In case parallel thin-walled parts are touching in an asymmetric way i.e. not directly through their mid-line, a "fictive" element
is added to ensure connectivity between the different parts.

- 38 -
Centerline

This fictive element is used purely for 'linkage' purposes and is given a thickness which is negligible compared to other 'nor-
mal' centerline elements (1e-10 mm).

In very special cases the generation of fictive elements can lead to unrealistic results. A typ-
ical example concerns a closed pair section formed out of two cold-formed C-sections. In
this case, the fictive elements are located on the outer centerline of the closed shape. Due
to their negligible thickness this will lead to an unrealistic torsional constant. For such cases
the 2D FE Method should be applied instead.

Fused elements
Parallel thin-walled parts which are joined by for example welds are replaced by a single centerline element with a thickness
equal to the resulting thickness sum. This simulates that these parts have been 'fused' together into one idealized combined
part.
The following example illustrates this in case of an I-section which is welded to the web of a larger I-section:

At the position where the flange of the small section and the web of the large section are connected together, a single
"Fused" centerline element is generated with thickness equal to the sum of both element thicknesses. In order to connect
this element to the rest of the web of the larger I-section, "Fictive" elements are used.
In this example, the "Fused" element in turn is split in two due to the intersection with the extended web centerline of the
smaller I-section.

Curved elements
In case a general thin-walled cross-section is inputted it is possible to define curved elements. For the centerline generation
curved elements are not accounted for and replaced by straight elements as follows:

- 39 -
Chapter 3

- In case the angle between straight parts (connected to a curved part) is <= 135° then the intersection is made between the
extension of the centerlines of the straight parts.

- In case the angle between straight parts (connected to a curved part)is >135° then a simplification is used since no inter-
section can be found or the intersection is far away from the rounding position. In this case the straight parts are directly con-
nected.

Calculation Procedure
Based on the centerline the cross-section is discretised into nodes and elements as schematised on the following picture:

Each element is defined with a begin node a, an end node b and a constant thickness t.

- 40 -
Calculation Procedure

The Finite Element analysis is carried out using the following steps:

Step 1: Calculation of the warping ordinate

Equation system (boundary condition: ):

Element matrices:

,
with:

for D = S

Step 2: Position of the shear centre and standardisation of the warping ordinate:

Step 3: Calculation of the cross-section properties Iw and It

- 41 -
Chapter 3

Step 4: Calculation of shear deformations due to shear forces and secondary torsion:

Equation system (boundary condition: ui = 0 ):


Element load vector:

with:

Step 5: Calculation of shear stresses:


Shear stresses due to primary torsion:

linearly via t with:

constantly via t:

The unit (primary) torsion stress per fibre is then calculated as the superposition of the absolute values of and
.
Shear stresses due to shear forces and secondary torsion:

The above procedure is given here for informative reasons. For a full description of all abbreviations used in this procedure
as well as background information and worked out examples, reference is made to Ref.[1].
The main advantage of this method is that it can be used for both open and closed thin-walled sections or combinations of
both (sections with openings and outstands). The method is however only valid for sections with a continuous centerline i.e.
where all parts are connected by one continuous line.

Additional Step: Calculation of unit warping stress


The above calculation procedure is extended with the calculation of the unit warping stress per fibre:

in which Mw is taken as a unit bimoment.

- 42 -
Fibre Mapping

In case of multiple unconnected parts (like a pair section composed out of two thin-walled
sections which do not touch each other) the 1D FE Method cannot be applied since there is
no continuous centerline. In such cases the 2D FE Method should be applied.

Fibre Mapping
The results calculated using the 1D FE Method as outlined in the previous paragraph are determined on the centerline.
These results need to be 'mapped' to the fibres of the cross-section which will then be used in the stress checks etc.

Standard case
The fibre mapping is done in two steps. In the first step, for a given fibre, the normal projection of the fibre to each centerline
in the cross-section is made. Only centerlines for which this length of the normal line is smaller than the thickness of the
centerline element are kept.
This principle is illustrated on the picture below:

For fibre 1 the normal line to centerlines 1 and 2 is made.


The length n1 of the normal line to centerline 1 exceeds the thickness t1 of this centerline. Therefore this centerline is not
kept.
The length n2 of the normal line to centerline 2 is smaller than the thickness t2 of this centerline. Therefore this centerline is
kept. In other words, the fibre is found to be more closely positioned to centerline 2 than to centerline 1 and thus the fibre will
receive results from centerline 2.
In the second step, for the centerlines which are kept, the result values are determined at the points of projection of the fibre.
Of those results, the maximal value is stored as the result value for the fibre.

- 43 -
Chapter 3

Centerline extension
In case for a given fibre no centerline is found, a special procedure is executed. This is a typical result in case of the corner
point of an L-section:

In the above picture, fibre 1 is outside of any centerline so no normal line can be determined. In this case, all centerlines are
extended at the begin and at the end with 20% of their length.
The centerline results on the extension at the begin are taken equal to the result at the begin point, the centerline results on
the extension at the end are taken equal to the result at the end point of the centerline.
After this extension again the normal lines and final fibre results are being determined as in the previous procedure.
In case, even after this extension, a fibre is still located outside of any centerline, it does not receive any result mapping.
2D FE Method for Thick-Walled Sections
For arbitrary thick-walled sections a general Two-Dimensional Finite Element approach is applied.

This is the method used automatically in case of multi-material (composite) sections.

Beside thick-walled sections this method can also be applied to thin-walled sections.
As the name indicates, the 2D FE Method discretises the cross-section using two-dimensional elements.

The analysis is split into two separate parts: a Torsion Analysis and a Shear Analysis.
The following paragraphs give more information regarding the determination of the default mesh size and both analysis
types.

- 44 -
Default Mesh Size

Default Mesh Size


In case no mesh size is inputted the default mesh size is determined as follows:

1. The cross-section is divided into approximately 250 elements:

With A the area of the cross-section

2. In case the area of the circumscribed rectangle around the cross-section exceeds 10 times the area A the mesh size of
the previous step is halved:

This correction accounts for thin-walled sections.

3. The mesh size of the previous step is then rounded using a .5 accuracy. This is the mesh size used for the Torsion Ana-
lysis.
4. For the Shear Analysis the mesh of the previous step is further refined as follows:

This final step is applied always, also in case a manual input of the mesh size is made.

As with any Finite Element approach, to obtain accurate results the mesh needs to be suf-
ficiently refined.

Torsion Analysis: Prandtl


The Torsion Analysis determines the Torsional constant It, the Warping Constant Iw and the unit torsion stresses.
The analysis is executed according to the Prandtl theory. Within this paragraph the basic principles of the theory are
explained.
The Prandtl theory (often referred to as the Membrane or Soap-Film Analogy) is based on the similarity of the torsion stress
function equation and the equilibrium equation of a membrane subjected to lateral pressure.

- 45 -
Chapter 3

l Consider an opening in an x-y plane which has the same shape as the cross-section to be investigated.
l Cover the opening with a homogeneous membrane.
l The pressure against the membrane causes the membrane to bulge out of plane.
l The lateral displacement z(x,y) of the membrane and the Prandtl torsion stress function φ(x,y) satisfy the same equation
in (x,y)

Prandtl Torsion function:

Elastic Membrane function:

Where z denotes the lateral displacement due to a pressure p and an initial tension S.
The theory concludes with the following:

l Stress components are proportional to the derivatives of the membrane displacement.


l Stresses are proportional to the slope of the membrane.
l The twisting moment is proportional to the volume enclosed by the membrane and x-y plane

- 46 -
Shear Analysis: Grashof-Jouravski

Further elaboration and background information regarding the Prandtl theory and 2D FEM analysis can be found in Ref.[1],
[7],[8],[9].

The 2D FE Method determines the primary torsion stresses Torsion(Mxp). The values for
Torsion(Mxs) will remain zero.

Shear Analysis: Grashof-Jouravski


The Shear Analysis determines the Shear areas Ay & Az and the unit Shear stresses.
The analysis is executed according to the Grashof-Jouravski theory. For background information reference is made to Ref.
[10].
The following paragraphs describe the theory for the shear Area Az. The same logic can be written out for Ay.
The theory is generally valid in case the following requirements are met:

l The cross-section symmetrical about the z-axis


l The cross-section is massive, without large holes
l Overall the obtained results are better in case the height is bigger than the width

- 47 -
Chapter 3

The Shear stresses lead off from the cross-section into one point K.

The area takes on the shear force Q z .


The value βz is calculated from the shear stresses in one of the following ways:

1. Only from the vertical components (without influence of )

- 48 -
Shear Analysis: Grashof-Jouravski

2. From both components and

In case the cross-section does not meet the requirements of the Grashof-Jouravski theory,
the βz values calculated with the influence of τx are absolutely incorrect and often unreal.
They should not be used in this case.
Depending on the rate of unrealized conditions, the βz values which were calculated only
from the vertical τx component (without influence of τx ) are real and can be used in this
case.
The user should in all cases evaluate if the values determined by the theory are acceptable
or not.

In case of multi-material (heterogeneous) cross-sections the calculated shear areas Ay and Az can be used under the fol-
lowing conditions:

l The heterogeneities are symmetrical.


l The heterogeneities do not disturb the Grashof-Jouravski stress theory.
l The heterogeneity is diffused.
l A local heterogeneity consists of less than 10% of the cross-section area.

Openings
As specified, the above theory for shear areas is not valid in case of large openings like for example openings which divide a
cross-section into different unconnected parts. A typical example are web openings in steel members.
Specifically for such a case a modified procedure is applied:
In case:

l The cross-section consists of multiple unconnected parts i


l The rotation angle α of the cross-section is 0°

Then the Shear Analysis of the 2D FE Method is used separately for each part i and the shear area Av,i of each part is
stored. The final shear area Av of the cross-section is then calculated as the sum of the shear areas of the different parts:

Application of Closed-Form Formulae


For many standard cross-section shapes (I-sections, RHS sections, CHS sections …) closed-form formulae exist for the
cross-section properties.
After the calculation of properties, depending on the shape specific properties are overruled by fixed formulae as indicated
in the following paragraphs.

- 49 -
Chapter 3

Doubly-Symmetric I-section

For Doubly-Symmetric I-sections (Formcode 1) the Torsional constant It is overruled as follows:

This formula was taken from Ref.[11]


In addition the unit torsion stress per fiber is overruled as follows:
Torsion_stress = Torsion_stress * (It,old / It,new )

With:

It,old a The original It value


It,new The new It value calculated by the above formula

These modifications are only done in case the rounding r≠0 i.e. when it concerns a true rolled section shape.
Asymmetric I-section

For Asymmetric I-sections (Formcode 101) the Warping constant Iw is overruled as follows:

This formula was taken from Ref.[12]

- 50 -
Shear Analysis: Grashof-Jouravski

Full Circular section

For a Full circular section (Formcode 11 or geometric 'Circle') with diameter D the Area A is overruled as:

The Second Moments of Area Iy and Iz are overruled as:

The Elastic Section moduli Wely and Welz are overruled as:

The Plastic Section moduli Wply and Wplz are overruled as:

The Torsional constant It is overruled as:

The Shear areas Ay and Az are overruled as:

These formulas were taken from Ref.[4].


Full Rectangular Section

For a Full Rectangular section (Formcode 7 or geometric  'Rectangle' or 'RECT') with width b and height h the Tor-
sional constant It is overruled as follows:

with:

This formula was taken from Ref.[1]


The Shear areas Ay and Az are overruled as:

This formula was taken from Ref.[4].

- 51 -
Chapter 3

Polygon with hole

For a polygon with hole (geometric  'Polygon with hole') the Torsional constant It is overruled using the second for-
mula of Bredt:

With A' the closed in area, taken as:

With S the circumference of the closed in area, taken as:

With r the radius of the polygon, n the number of corners and t the thickness.
The Shear areas Ay and Az are overruled as:

Rectangular Hollow Section

For a symmetrical RHS (Formcode 2) the Torsional constant It is overruled using the second formula of Bredt:

With A' the closed in area, taken as:


A' = (H - t) * (B - t)
With S the circumference of the closed in area, taken as:
S = 2 * [(H - t) + (B - t)]
Where B is the width of the cross-section, H the height and t the thickness.
The Warping constant Iw is overruled as follows:

The Shear areas Ay and Az are overruled as:

Ay = A * [ B / (B + H)]

Az = A * [H / (B + H)]

Asymmetric Rectangular Hollow Section

For an asymmetrical RHS (geometric  'O' or geometric  'O asymmetric') the Torsional constant It is overruled using
the second formula of Bredt:

- 52 -
Shear Analysis: Grashof-Jouravski

With A' the closed in area, taken as:


class="indent"A' = Hc * Bc
With S the circumference of the closed in area, taken as:

= 2 * (Hc/tha) + (Bc/thb1) + (Bc/thb2)


With Hc and Bc the centerline dimensions:
Hc = H - (thb1 / 2) - (thb2 / 2)
Bc = B - tha
Where B is the width of the cross-section, H the height, tha the web thickness and thb1 & thb2 the flange thicknesses.
Torsional stresses are calculated using an average thickness.
The Shear areas Ay and Az are overruled as:

Ay = A * [B / (B + H)]

Az = A * [H / (B + H)]

Circular Hollow Section

For a CHS (Formcode 3 or geometric 'Tube') the Area A is overruled as:

The Moments of inertia Iy and Iz are overruled as:

The Section moduli Wely and Welz are overruled as:

The Plastic section moduli Wply and Wplz are overruled as:

The Torsional constant It is overruled using the second formula of Bredt:

With A' the closed in area, taken as:

- 53 -
Chapter 3

With S the circumference of the closed in area, taken as:

With Dc the centerline dimension, taken as:


Dc = D - t
With Di the inner diameter taken as:
Di = D - (2 * t)
Where D is the diameter of the cross-section and t the thickness.
The Shear areas Ay and Az are overruled as:

Corrugated Web SIN1

For a corrugated web section SIN1 the Area A is overruled as:


A=2*B*t
The inertia Iy is overruled as:

In which the distance z1 is determined as follows:

z1 = ( H - t ) / 2

The section modulus Wely is overruled as:

The plastic modulus Wply is calculated by multiplying this Wely value with the ratio of the original Wely and Wply of the (full)
section
The shear area Az is calculated as:

In these formulas B indicates the width of the cross-section, H the height, Hw the height of the web, t the flange thickness
and s the web thickness. The parameters w and sw describe the geometry of the corrugation.
These formulas were provided by the company Zeman, Austria.
Corrugated Web SIN2

For a corrugated web section SIN2 the Area A is overruled as:

- 54 -
Shear Analysis: Grashof-Jouravski

A = Bt * tt + Bb * tb
The inertia Iy is overruled as:

In which the distances z1 and z2 are determined as follows:

z1= h - (tb / 2)

z2 = H - h - (tt / 2)

The distance h is determined as:


h = Sy / A

With the modulus Sy calculated as:

The section modulus Wely is overruled as:

The plastic modulus Wply is calculated by multiplying this Wely value with the ratio of the original Wely and Wply of the (full)
section
The shear area Az is calculated as:

In these formulas Bt and Bb indicate the width of the top and bottom flange, tt and tb the thicknesses of the flanges, H the
height of the cross-section, Hw the height of the web and s the web thickness. The parameters w and sw describe the geo-
metry of the corrugation.
These formulas were provided by the company Zeman, Austria.

Profile Library Properties


For those cross-section defined in the Profile Library the properties defined in the Library are used to overrule the calculated
properties.
As can be seen on the "Overall Procedure" on page 24, the properties from the Profile Library are applied after all prop-
erties have been calculated. The logic behind this is that the Profile Library might not define all properties but only a few or
even none at all.
In addition the overruling is done only in case the difference between the calculated property and the property inputted in the
Profile Library differs less than 10%.
This "10% rule" serves as a safety margin to avoid the application of incorrectly inputted properties in the Profile Library.

- 55 -
Chapter 4

References
Steel Structures: Design using FEM
[1] Kindmann R., Kraus M.
Ernst & Sohn, 2011
The Behaviour and Design of Steel Structures to EC3
Fourth edition
[2]
Trahair N.S., Bradford M.A., Nethercot D.A., Gardner L.
Taylor & Francis, 2008
Moments of Area: Introductory Engineering Mechanics
[3] Alexander N.A.
University of Bristol, 2004
Formulas in Solid Mechanics
[4] Dahlberg T.
Linköping University Sweden, 2003
eCourse mechanics
Ch 6. Advanced Beams, Composite Beams
[5]
Gramoll K.
http://www.ecourses.ou.edu/
Torsion and Shear Stresses in Ships
[6] Shama M.
Springer-Verlag, 2010
Handbook of engineering mechanics
First edition
[7]
W.Flügge
McGraw-Hill, 1962
Berekening van constructies: bouwkunde en civiele techniek
Vandepitte D.
[8]
Story-Scientia, 1979
www.berekeningvanconstructies.be
Membrane Analogy for Torsion
[9] Lagace P.A.
MIT, 2001
Grasshof-Žuravského teorie
[10]
FEM Consulting

- 56 -
Brno
Sections and Merchant Bars
[11] Sales Programme
Arcelor Mittal, Edition 2011-1
Torsional Section Properties of Steel Shapes
[12]
Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, 2002
Warping Constant of Open Sections with Arbitrary Profile Geometry
[13] Structural Design Corporation
Libertyville, 2010.

Other cross-section parameters


In addition to sectional characteristics, a cross-section in SCIA Engineer has some additional parameters such as name,
type description, colour, etc.
The common parameters in SCIA Engineer (except the common sectional characteristics) are:

A name of a cross-section. The name must be unique within one project. If an attempt to insert a name that
Name already exists in the project, the typed name is not accepted and is automatically changed to a project-
unique name.
This parameter describes briefly the cross-section type so that the user can easily and quickly see what type
Type
the particular cross-section is.
Detailed Some cross-sections (e.g. welded ones) use this item to specify the cross-section type, shape and possibly
(description) dimensions in more detail.
Material This item defines the material the cross-section is made of.
Draw colour
This item defines the colour that is used in SCIA Engineer to draw the cross-section in the cross-section
Colour
manager.
If this option is not selected then it is not possible to edit individual calculated sectional characteristics.

Properties If the option is ON, some of the sectional characteristics may be manually edited in order to define the cross-
editable section whose characteristics exactly correspond to particular conditions.

The properties that can be edited are: Ay, Az, It, Iw


Buckling y-y,
These two parameters determine the buckling curve types used for buckling calculations.
z-z
Fabrication This item specifies the way the cross-section is produced.
If ON, the sectional characteristics are calculated using finite element method.

See separate chapter Sectional characteristics calculated by FEM.

If the FEM analysis is selected, the user can specify additional parameters:
FEM ana-
lysis Mesh size

This parameter specifies the size of the finite elements used for the calculation.

IMPORTANT: Please, read chapter Sectional characteristics calculated by FEM for important notes relating
to the mesh size.

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Chapter 4

Min. point distance

Specifies the minimum distance of two FEM nodes.

In order to see the calculated sectional characteristics, click button Update.


This parameter is used ONLY in concrete checks for circular and curved edges of cross-sections . When a
Curve divid-
cross-section has a curved edge, it is substituted with a polyline (composed of straight lines). This parameter
ing
specifies how many straight line segments are used to represent the original curved edge.
The user can specify reduction factors for selected properties. The property is then multiplied by this reduc-
tion factor. For example, reduction factor k a of 0,2 will lead to sectional area of 20% instead of the full area.

This reduced property is used both in checks, and in the calculation!

The self weight is thus calculated with the full section while the check is executed with the reduced section.
This is typically used in practice for clients who, for example, did some laboratory tests on sections. In such
tests they derive a reduction factor for the surface to account for buckling effects. The full section is there in
reality so they want the full section for the self weight, however the check has to be performed with the
reduced area since buckling is accounted for in this reduction.
Use reduc-
tion factor The following reduction coefficients are available:

kA

k Ay

k Az

k It

k Iy

k Iz
Edit named It is possible to name selected fibres of the cross-section and use these names as reference in display of res-
items ults, etc.
Edit joints It is possible to define joints and use them later.
Edit cuts It is possible to define sections (cuts) across the cross-section and use them later.

Special parameters for Steel cross-sections when using code EC-EN


Initial shape subgroup
For thin-walled Steel cross-sections an Initial shape is defined by default.
For a General cross-section the ‘Thin-walled representation’ has to be used to be able to define the Initial Shape.
More information can be found in the respective chapter of the Theoretical Background for EN 1993: "Initial
Shape".
Initial shape
Within this dialog the Initial Shape can be reviewed.
Classification
This action runs the Classification dialog which performs the classification of the cross-section under different
actions.
More information can be found in the respective chapter of the Theoretical Background for EN 1993: "Clas-
sification"
Effective section
This action runs the effective section dialog which calculates the effective section properties under different
actions.

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More information can be found in the respective chapter of the Theoretical Background for EN 1993: "Effective
Section properties"
Advanced procedure
This option allows the use of the Advanced procedure for calculation of effective section properties.
More information can be found in the respective chapter of the Theoretical Background for EN 1993:"Advanced
Procedure for Effective Shape Calculation"

Special parameters for cold-formed cross-sections


In case of Steel cross-sections with fabrication cold-formed the Initial shape subgroup is extended with the fol-
lowing settings:
Free flange geometry
This setting is visible for selected section types and shows the geometry of the free flange for use in purlin design.
More information as well as a list of supported sections can be found in the respective chapter of the Theoretical
Background for EN 1993:"Special considerations for Purlins"
Restrained by sheeting
When this option is selected the cross-section is assumed to be restrained by sheeting.
This prohibits bending about the principal axis and allows only bending about the local LCS axis.

Cold-formed subgroup
This subgroup shows specific settings for cold-formed sections.
Average yield strength
When this setting is activated the average yield strength as defined in EN 1993-1-3 is used.
More information can be found in the respective chapter of the Theoretical Background for EN 1993:"Material
properties"
Steel core thickness
When this setting is activated the steel core thickness can be set as defined in EN 1993-1-3.
The thickness of the thin-walled elements are modified according to the inputted metallic coating and all section
properties are recalculated.
More information can be found in the respective chapter of the Theoretical Background for EN 1993:"Material
properties"

Special parameters for aluminium cross-sections when using code EC-EN


Initial shape
For aluminium cross-sections an Initial shape can be defined.
More information can be found in the Theoretical background manual and in code EN 1999-1-1:2007.
If the option is selected, the following additional parameters appear in the dialogue:
Edit initial shape
Within this dialog the Initial Shape can be modified. Specifically for Aluminium sections this allows the definition of
welds on the different elements.
Effective section
This action runs the analysis of the reduced cross-section. Both the classification and effective shape calculation
are part of this action.

In addition to the numerical data available for a cross-section, the program offers also a drawing of the cross-section with
marked vertex numbers. The numbers are important mainly if the user includes a cross-section characteristics table into a

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Chapter 4

document where some of the values correspond to individual vertices. Therefore, it is essential to know the convention of
vertex numbering. The vertex numbers are given on a separate tab of the graphical window in the editing dialogue.

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Cross-section types

Cross-section types

Geometric shapes
SCIA Engineer offers a predefined set of basic cross-section shapes.
The procedure for insertion of this cross-section type into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-section
type; the user just has to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, choose the appropriate shape and size, and review
or change the required parameters.
Similarly to other cross-section types, basic sectional characteristics are automatically calculated and the user may type in
the non-numerical parameters such as name, material, colour, etc.
Sample cross-sections

Note: A separate book Profile library: Checked sections contains an overview of rolled
cross-sections included in SCIA Engineer’s database.

Thin-walled cross-sections
SCIA Engineer offers a predefined set of common steel thin-walled cross-sections.
The procedure for insertion of this cross-section type into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-section
type; the user just have to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, then choose the appropriate shape and size, and
oversee or change the required parameters.
As for any other cross- section type, the sectional characteristics such as sectional area, moment of inertia, position of
centroid, etc. are calculated automatically by the program. The user may input or modify other cross-section parameters
such as material, name, etc.
In addition to the basic sectional characteristics, the program also calculates, designs and displays data such as:

l shape of a wall stiffener,


l diagram of warping lines,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Y-direction,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Z-direction,
l centre lines of the cross-section.

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Chapter 5

Note: Some of the above mentioned data depend on the shape of the particular cross-sec-
tion. Therefore, some of the values may not be available for some of the cross-section
shapes.

Sample cross-sections

Profile Library cross-sections


Hot-rolled and cold-formed cross-sections made of steel are cross-sections manufactured in specialised factories. In SCIA
Engineer whenever the user wants to use a hot-rolled or cold-formed steel cross-section, s/he may select appropriate
shape and size from the integrated library of industrially manufactured cross-sections. All sectional characteristics are auto-
matically read into the program and the user is not forced to take care of anything related to the section and its parameters
and characteristics.
The procedure for insertion of a rolled cross-section into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-section
type; the user just have to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, then choose the appropriate shape and size, and
oversee or change the required parameters.
By default, all the sectional characteristics of a rolled or formed cross-section are automatically imported into SCIA Engineer
the moment the user makes a selection of required shape and size in the integrated cross-section library. If required, the
user may specify the non-numerical parameters such as name, colour, material, etc. In addition to the basic sectional char-
acteristics, the program also calculates data such as:

l shape of a wall stiffener,


l diagram of warping lines,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Y-direction,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Z-direction,
l centre lines of the cross-section.

The table below shows diagrams of the above-mentioned sectional characteristics for an I-beam.

- 62 -
Cross-section types

Warping lines

Shear(Vy)

Shear(Vz)

- 63 -
Chapter 5

Shape of stiffeners

Note: Some of the above mentioned data depend on the shape of the particular cross-sec-
tion. Therefore, some of the values may not be available for some of the cross-section
shapes. E.g. the shape of stiffener is not provided for angles, or no additional parameters
are available for bars, etc.

Sample cross-sections

Sheet welded cross-sections


SCIA Engineer provides for easy definition of commonly used types of welded cross-sections made of steel flats by offering
the selection from a library of such cross-sections.

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Cross-section types

The procedure for insertion of a welded cross-section into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-sec-
tion type; the user just have to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, then choose the appropriate shape and size,
and oversee or change the required parameters.
As for any other cross- section type, the sectional characteristics such as sectional area, moment of inertia, position of
centroid, etc. are calculated automatically by the program. The user may input or modify other cross-section parameters
such as material, name, etc.
In addition to the basic sectional characteristics, the program also calculates, designs and displays data such as:

l shape of a wall stiffener,


l diagram of warping lines,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Y-direction,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Z-direction,
l centre lines of the cross-section.

Note: Some of the above mentioned data depend on the shape of the particular cross-sec-
tion. Therefore, some of the values may not be available for some of the cross-section
shapes.

Sample cross-sections

Note: The last two cross-sections (framed in the picture)have corrugated web. Therefore,
their sectional characteristics differ from the first two cross-section.

Closed welded cross-sections


Welded cross-sections are similar to welded built-up open cross-section. The user can make a selection from a library of
commonly used shapes of welded hollow sections.
The procedure for insertion of a welded hollow cross-section into a project is identical with the procedure for any other
cross-section type; the user just have to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, then choose the appropriate shape
and size, and oversee or change the required parameters.
As for any other cross- section type, the sectional characteristics such as sectional area, moment of inertia, position of
centroid, etc. are calculated automatically by the program. The user may input or modify other cross-section parameters
such as material, name, etc.
In addition to the basic sectional characteristics, the program also calculates, designs and displays data such as:

- 65 -
Chapter 5

l shape of a wall stiffener,


l diagram of warping lines,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Y-direction,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Z-direction,
l centre lines of the cross-section.

Note: Some of the above mentioned data depend on the shape of the particular cross-sec-
tion. Therefore, some of the values may not be available for some of the cross-section
shapes.

Sample cross-sections

Haunch cross-sections
It is quite common that a 1D member contains haunches at one or both of its ends. Sometimes the beam cross-section just
simply "changes" its dimension (usually the height), sometimes a special cross-section is made for such a 1D member. This
special cross-section consists of two parts – one that remains constant along the whole beam span, and one that "makes"
the haunch. SCIA Engineer allows the user to select from a set of pre-defined "haunch" cross-sections.
The procedure for insertion of a "haunch" cross-section into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-sec-
tion type; the user just have to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, then choose the appropriate shape and size,
and oversee or change the required parameters.
As for any other cross- section type, the sectional characteristics such as sectional area, moment of inertia, position of
centroid, etc. are calculated automatically by the program. The user may input or modify other cross-section parameters
such as material, name, etc.
In addition to the basic sectional characteristics, the program also calculates, designs and displays data such as:

l shape of a wall stiffener,


l diagram of warping lines,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Y-direction,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Z-direction,
l centre lines of the cross-section.

Note: Some of the above mentioned data depend on the shape of the particular cross-sec-
tion. Therefore, some of the values may not be available for some of the cross-section
shapes.

Sample cross-sections

- 66 -
Cross-section types

Built-up welded cross-sections


Built-up members are used when a single member would not be sufficient or when the slenderness ratio is too high and res-
ulting in excessive vibrations or when a built-up member would reduce the complexity of the connection.
The procedure for insertion of a built-up cross-section into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-sec-
tion type; the user just have to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, then choose the appropriate shape and size,
and oversee or change the required parameters.
As for any other cross- section type, the sectional characteristics such as sectional area, moment of inertia, position of
centroid, etc. are calculated automatically by the program. The user may input or modify other cross-section parameters
such as material, name, etc.
In addition to the basic sectional characteristics, the program also calculates, designs and displays data such as:

l shape of a wall stiffener,


l diagram of warping lines,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Y-direction,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Z-direction,
l centre lines of the cross-section.

Note: Some of the above mentioned data depend on the shape of the particular cross-sec-
tion. Therefore, some of the values may not be available for some of the cross-section
shapes.

Sample cross-sections

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Chapter 5

Composed cross-sections
Cross-sections composed of two different materials are quite common in the engineering practice. They provide for the
combination of "good qualities" and "advantages" of the combined materials. Probably most often a steel beam is joined
together with a concrete slab creating thus the top flange of the cross-section. However, SCIA Engineer allows the user to
define materials of the composite cross-section freely.
The procedure for insertion of a composite cross-section into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-sec-
tion type; the user just have to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, then choose the appropriate shape and size,
and oversee or change the required parameters.
As for any other cross- section type, the sectional characteristics such as sectional area, moment of inertia, position of
centroid, etc. are calculated automatically by the program. The user may input or modify other cross-section parameters
such as material, name, etc.
In addition to the basic sectional characteristics, the program also calculates, designs and displays data such as:
shape of a wall stiffener,

l diagram of warping lines,


l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Y-direction,
l diagram of shear stress distribution over the cross-section for a unit force acting in Z-direction,
l centre lines of the cross-section.

Note: Some of the above mentioned data depend on the shape of the particular cross-sec-
tion. Therefore, some of the values may not be available for some of the cross-section
shapes.

Sample cross-sections

- 68 -
Cross-section types

Concrete cross-sections
SCIA Engineer offers a predefined set of concrete cross-section shapes that are used most often. The section may be
simply selected from the library list. All basic sectional characteristics are automatically calculated by the program.
The procedure for insertion of a concrete cross-section into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-sec-
tion type; the user just have to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, then choose the appropriate shape and size,
and oversee or change the required parameters.
Similarly to other cross-section types, basic sectional characteristics are automatically calculated and the user may type in
the non-numerical parameters such as name, material, colour, etc.
Sample cross-sections

Timber cross-sections
Members made of wood generally use a wooden-specific cross-sections. SCIA Engineer library of pre-defined cross-sec-
tions offers also a set for this material.
The procedure for insertion of a concrete cross-section into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-sec-
tion type; the user just have to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, then choose the appropriate shape and size,
and oversee or change the required parameters.
As for any other cross- section type, the sectional characteristics such as sectional area, moment of inertia, position of
centroid, etc. are calculated automatically by the program. The user may input or modify other cross-section parameters
such as material, name, etc.
Sample cross-sections

Bridge cross-sections
Special cross-sections are used for bridges. SCIA Engineer offers a collection of such cross-sections.

- 69 -
Chapter 5

The procedure for insertion of a bridge cross-section into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-section
type; the user just have to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, then choose the appropriate shape and size, and
oversee or change the required parameters.
As for any other cross- section type, the sectional characteristics such as sectional area, moment of inertia, position of
centroid, etc. are calculated automatically by the program. The user may input or modify other cross-section parameters
such as material, name, etc.
Sample cross-sections

Numerical cross-section
A numerical cross-section is a special cross-section type. It enables the user to define an arbitrary cross-section. The user
does not have to define the shape of the cross-section. The only thing s/he has to do is fill in a table of sectional char-
acteristics.

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Cross-section types

General cross-section
A general cross-section is a cross-section that:

l may be of an arbitrary shape,


l may consist of an arbitrary number of partial cross-sections,
l may be made of an arbitrary number of materials.

This type of cross-section may be useful mainly for sections tailored for a specific purpose (steel thin walled cross-sections,
aluminium sections, bridge sections, hollow concrete sections, etc.).
The general cross-section may be designed by means of a tool called General cross-section editor. This editor is a special
environment, fully integrated into SCIA Engineer that provides the user with all functions necessary for an efficient design of
a "free-shape" and "free-composition" cross-section.

Introduction to paired cross-sections


SCIA Engineer offers the possibility to use the cross-sections of the profile library in pairs.
The procedure for insertion of this cross-section type into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-section
type; the user just has to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue and review or change the required parameters.
Similarly to other cross-section types, basic sectional characteristics are automatically calculated and the user may type in
the non-numerical parameters such as name, material, colour, etc.

- 71 -
Chapter 5

Sample cross-sections

Introduction to build-in beams


Build-in beams are often used to place the floor slab on the bottom flange in order to optimize the free height in a building.
The build-in beams are of the types SFB (Slim Floor Beam), IFB (Integrated Floor Beam) or THQ (Top Hat Beams).
The procedure for insertion of a build-in cross-section into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-sec-
tion type; the user just have to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, then choose the appropriate shape and size,
and oversee or change the required parameters.
As for any other cross- section type, the sectional characteristics such as sectional area, moment of inertia, position of
centroid, etc. are calculated automatically by the program. The user may input or modify other cross-section parameters
such as material, name, etc.
In the picture below you can see the different types:

- 72 -
Cross-section types

Introduction to precast cross-section


Precast cross-sections are used for modelling and calculating of concrete bridges or beams represented via 1D members.
The procedure for insertion of a precast cross-section into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-sec-
tion type; the user just have to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, then choose the appropriate shape and size,
and oversee or change the required parameters.
As for any other cross- section type, the sectional characteristics such as sectional area, moment of inertia, position of
centroid, etc. are calculated automatically by the program. The user may input or modify other cross-section parameters
such as material, name, etc.
In the picture below you can see the different types:

- 73 -
Chapter 5

Westok
The Westok group allows the definition of cellular beam cross-sections according to Westok.
The procedure for insertion of this cross-section type into a project is identical with the procedure for any other cross-section
type; the user just has to specify the type in the type-selection dialogue, choose the appropriate shape and size, and review
or change the required parameters.
Similarly to other cross-section types, basic sectional characteristics are automatically calculated and the user may type in
the non-numerical parameters such as name, material, colour, etc.

- 74 -
Cross-section types

Profile Library Filter


The Westok cellular beam section uses a specified list from which the user can select the rolled section types. This list is lim-
ited to the following types:
- UB
- UC
- UKB
- UKC
- IPE
- HE
- HD
- HL

Geometrical Constraints
Upon confirming the input of the Westok cellular beam cross-section several tests are executed to verify the correct input of
the geometry.

The following parameters are used:


Top section:
bt - Flange width of the top section
tft - Flange thickness of the top section
twt - Web thickness of the top section
rt - Rounding of the top section

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Chapter 5

ht - Height of the original I-section from which the top T is cut


Ht - height of the top T-section

Bottom section:
bb - Flange width of the bottom section
tfb - Flange thickness of the bottom section
twb - Web thickness of the bottom section
rb - Rounding of the bottom section
hb - Height of the original I-section from which the bottom T is cut
Hb - height of the bottom T-section

Total section:
H - Total height of the combined section

Openings:
a0 - Opening diameter
at - Distance of opening to top flange (Ht - 0,5 * a0 - tft)
ab - Distance of opening to bottom flange (Hb - 0,5 * a0 - tfb)
S - Opening spacing

Using these parameters the following tests are executed:

Test 1: Opening diameter

Test 2: Distance from opening edge to flange

Test 3: Opening spacing

Test 4: Relations between opening spacing and diameter

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Cross-section types

Test 5: Flange dimensions

Test 6: Web thickness

Test 7: Radii

Test 8: T-depth

Test 9: Overall Depth

In case any of those tests fail a warning is issued and the user has to modify the geometry accordingly.

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Chapter 6

Defining a new cross-section

Cross-section manager
The Cross-section manager is a versatile tool for dealing with cross-section. The cross-section manager is used to:

l define a new cross-section,


l edit an existing cross-section,
l delete an existing cross-section,
l review parameters of existing cross-sections,
l choose one if the existing cross-sections as a "default" for later called functions that require a cross-section as a para-
meter.

The cross-section manager is one of the " manager" integrated in SCIA Engineer and its layout and operation is identical to
the other SCIA Engineer "managers". It is open when function Cross-sections is activated. It may represent one of the steps
in the General procedure for the definition of a new cross-section.
Generally, there are several ways to open the Cross-section manager:

l Tree menu function Library > Cross-sections.


l Project toolbar.
l Menu function Libraries > Cross-sections.
l "Manager" button in any of numerous property dialogues that contain at least one item Cross-section.

Note: Which way is actually chosen depends on two factors: (i) where (what part of the pro-
gram) is the manager called from, and (ii) habits of a particular user.

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Defining a new cross-section

General procedure for the definition of a new cross-


section
The process for the definition (or we can say insertion) of a new cross-section in a SCIA Engineer project consists of a few
steps.
Procedure for the definition of a new cross-section

1. Call function Cross-sections. There are various ways to do so:


1. Use tree menu function Library > Cross-sections.
2. Start function for the insertion of a new 1D member and open the Cross-section manager from within the Beam prop-
erties dialogue.
3. Click the appropriate icon on the Project toolbar.
4. Call menu function Libraries > Cross-sections.
2. Function Cross-sections opens the Cross-section manager.
3. Press button [New item]. This action opens a dialogue for the selection of cross-section type. (Note: If no cross-section
has been defined yet, this step is automatically skipped and the cross-section type dialogue is opened directly).
4. Select the appropriate cross-section type.
5. Specify the sectional parameters and properties.
6. Review the calculated sectional characteristics and possibly include them into a document.
7. Close the Cross-section manager or repeat steps 3 to 6 as many times as required.

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Chapter 6

Selecting the cross-section type


The selection of a required cross-section type or types can be done in the New cross-section type dialogue.

The dialogue consists of the following control and information elements:

List of available cross-section types It contains all the available cross-section types.
List of possible variants (sub-types) for the current type It offers possible sub-types for the selected type.
Drawing of the currently selected variant It shows the particular selected cross-section.
List of already defined cross-sections It lists all he already defined (inserted) cross-section.
Control buttons They provide for the control of the dialogue.

List of available cross-section types


The dialogue offers a list of available cross-section types. The contents of the list may vary depending on the purchased con-
figuration of SCIA Engineer and the material types selected for the particular project.
For example, a user who selected steel and concrete materials in the Project settings dialogue can select from variety of
steel and concrete cross-sections, while another user who selected just timber material in the project settings can only use
timber cross-sections.

List of possible variants (sub-types) for the current type


This dialogue element displays a set of graphical symbols (icons) representing the individual variants of the cross-section
type that is currently selected in the List of available cross-section types.

Note: If the type selected is "rolled steel cross-section ", the list of possible variants is dif-
ferent than for other cross-section types. In this case, the list offers both "shapes" of rolled
section and available dimensions for each particular "shape". That means that the user can
select directly the required type (shape) of rolled section and its appropriate size.

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Defining a new cross-section

Drawing of the currently selected variant


A small window displays a drawing of the currently selected variant of the currently selected cross-section type. A short
"description name" of the particular variant is added to the drawing mainly to facilitate the identification of a particular cross-
section sub-type and type.

Note: This window is hidden if the rolled steel cross-section type is selected.

List of already defined cross-sections


In addition to the available cross-section types, the dialogue displays a list containing all the cross-sections that have been
defined (i.e. inserted into the project) so far.

Control buttons

Button [Add] and Button with a "Right Arrow"


Button [Add] confirms the selection of a particular type and variant. Depending on the cross-section type and variant, a new
cross-section is either (i) inserted directly into the SCIA Engineer project, or (ii) a dialogue for editing of cross-section para-
meters is opened. The former happens if e.g. a rolled steel section has been selected because there is no need to specify its
dimensions, name, etc. The latter action is performed if some kind of specification is required for the selected cross-section
such as the definition of dimensions for welded steel or cast concrete cross-section, etc. Once a new cross-section is inser-
ted by means of this button, the cross-section is added to the List of already defined cross-sections.

Button [Close]
This button closes the New cross-section type dialogue.

Specifying sectional parameters and properties


The specification of cross-section parameters can be done in a dialogue for editing of a particular cross-section. This dia-
logue is opened automatically once the user selects and confirms the required type in the New cross-section type dialogue.
In addition, the editing dialogue can be opened any time later via the [Edit] button of the Cross-section manager.

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Chapter 6

The editing dialogue consists of three main parts:

Graphical win-
It displays the cross-section including dimension lines, labels, etc.
dow
If comprises all the parameters and sectional characteristics of the cross-section and provides for their
Property table
editing.
Control buttons They perform various tasks connected with the editing.

Graphical window
The graphical window displays the cross-section, dimension lines, labels and, if available, some of the cross-section prop-
erties or characteristics: for example cross-section vertex numbers, shape of stiffeners, diagrams of selected quantities
such as shear stress distribution, etc. These additional data about the cross-section are shown on separate tabs (one tab
per each property).

Property table
The property table contains all the available and computable cross-section characteristics and parameters. Here the para-
meters can be input or edited.
The parameters can be divided into three groups: basic sectional characteristics, parameters independent of the cross-sec-
tion type and type-specific parameters.
It should be stated here that some of the parameters (basic sectional characteristics in particular) cannot be neither input
nor edited as they are uniquely determined by the shape and dimensions of the cross-section and are therefore auto-
matically calculated by the program.
There exists a special interconnection between the property table and graphical window that will be described later in this
chapter.

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Defining a new cross-section

Control buttons

Button [Update]
This button starts an algorithm that recalculates the sectional characteristics on the basis of input values.
On entering the editing dialogue for a new cross-section, the property table shows only those parameters that may be
edited. In order to see also the computer sectional characteristics, the button must be user.
What’s more, the computed sectional characteristics listed in the property table disappear once the user changes any of the
input values. The characteristics are displayed again after this button is pressed. It must be also used to initiate the regen-
eration of some of the drawings in the graphical window.

Button [Document]
This button invokes the preview window to show the cross-section parameters in a document-style table. The table may be
edited the same way as a standard document table.

Button [OK]
This button closes the dialogue and accepts all the inputs and changes made in it.
If a new cross-section has been defined in the editing dialogue it is inserted into the project.
If an existing cross-section has been modified here, the changes are taken into account and saved into the project.

Button [Cancel]
This button closes the dialogue and all the inputs and changes made in it are abandoned.
If a new cross-section has been defined in the editing dialogue it is NOT inserted into the project.
If an existing cross- section has been modified here, the changes are not taken into account and the project remains
unchanged.

Graphical window versus property table relation


The graphical window and the property table are provided with a special interlink that provides for easy and lucid style of edit-
ing.
The graphical window contains two types of labelling symbols: either dimension lines, or labels, or both. The dimension lines
describe dimensions of the individual cross-section edges and parts. The labels depict partial units (e.g. individual rolled
steel sections) of a built-up or composite cross-section.
The same items (partial units or dimensions) that are referred to in the graphical window by means of dimension lines and
labels can also be found in the property table where they form individual editable cells. In order to facilitate the editing pro-
cess, there is a link between corresponding property table cells and graphical symbols in the graphical window. That means
that if the user wants to change a dimension of a cross-section, it may either (i) select the appropriate cell in the table, or (ii)
select the corresponding graphical symbol in the graphical window. What’s more, in order to find quickly which dimension or
partial unit the individual table cells refers to, the user can simply select the cell in the table and the appropriate dimension
line or label is highlighted in the graphical window.

Reviewing the calculated sectional characteristics


There are a few ways to see and scrutinise the parameters of a cross-section including both the input data and calculated
sectional characteristics.

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Chapter 6

Property table in the Cross- The Cross-section manager contains a vertically oriented window that displays the basic sec-
section manager tional characteristics and parameters of currently selected cross-section in a property table.
Property table in the dia-
Each dialogue for editing of a cross-section contains a vertically oriented property table with
logue for editing of a cross-
all the available parameters of the edited cross-section.
section
Document-style view in This is the most sophisticated kind of display for parameters of a cross-section. It is access-
thepreview window ible from within the dialogue for editing of a cross-section.

Property table in the Cross-section manager


The property table in the Cross-section manager provides for quick overview of basic characteristics and parameters of indi-
vidual defined cross-sections. It is possible to edit some of the parameters, however, this table is not primarily intended for
thorough editing of a cross- section. If a cross- section must be modified, the cross- section editing dialogue should be
invoked.

Property table in the dialogue for editing of a cross-section


The property table in this dialogue provides for both clear overview of the cross-section parameters and their straight-
forward modification. Most of the items may be edited in this dialogue. The only exception is the sectional characteristics that
are automatically calculated from the dimensions. Such characteristics are not allowed to be modified.

Document-style view in the preview window


The sectional characteristics and all the other parameters can be displayed in a readable way in the preview window. The
preview window then displays a table with all the cross-section parameters sorted in it.
The table is in fact a standard SCIA Engineer document table and consequently its format can be adjusted to meet any spe-
cific requirements. The adjustment can be done the same way as with any other document table.
The table shows not only all the parameters of the cross-section and all its parameters which are displayed in the property
tables of dialogues for dealing with cross-sections (i.e. Cross-section manager and Editing dialogue), but also a set of addi-
tional information including a couple of diagrams. The additional information depend on the type of cross-section.
The picture below shows a sample preview for an angle section

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Defining a new cross-section

Importing the cross-sections from another project


Quite often, the user may encounter the situation that s/he wants to use the same cross-sections in several different pro-
jects. Especially for "man-made" cross-sections (i.e. not rolled ones), the repetitious definition of the same cross-sections
may be rather time consuming and boring. What’s more, it may become a source of serious mistakes.
SCIA Engineer enables the user to solve this task effectively and clearly. The procedure consists of two separate steps and
is limited only by one rule.

Export of required cross-sections from the "source" project


Firstly, the cross-sections defined in one project must be exported into an external database. Later, they may be imported
into other projects. The export can be controlled in the Write to database dialogue.

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Chapter 6

The left hand side of the dialogue lists all the cross-sections defined in the current project.
The right hand side of the dialogue lists all the cross-sections saved in the selected user-database file.
The buttons below the list boxes can be used to manage the external database.

Write to database Writes the selected cross-section from the list of project cross-sections into the database file.
Write all Writes all the cross-section from the list of project cross-sections into the database file.
Delete Deletes the selected cross-section from the database file.

The procedure for export of cross-sections into an external database

1. In it is not the case, define the required cross-sections in the original (or source) project.
2. Open the Cross-section manager.

3. Press button [Save into file] ( ).


4. Define a new or browse for the existing User-database file.
5. The Write-to-database is opened on the screen.
6. Export the required cross-sections.
7. Confirm with [OK].
8. Close the Cross-section manager.

Import of required cross-sections into the "target" project


Once the required cross-sections have been successfully exported into the user-database file, they may be imported into
the target project.

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Defining a new cross-section

The import can be controlled in the Read from database dialogue, which is similar in appearance to the Write to database
dialogue (see above).
The left hand side of the dialogue lists all the cross-sections defined in the current project.
The right hand side of the dialogue lists all the cross-sections saved in the selected user-database file.
The buttons below the list boxes can be used to import items from the external database. 

Copy to project Copies the selected cross-sections from the external user-database into the current project.
Copy all Copies all the cross-sections from the external user-database into the current project.

The procedure for import of cross-sections from an external database

1. Open the Cross-section manager.

2. Press button [Read from file] ( ).


3. Browse for the existing User-database file.
4. The Read-from-database is opened on the screen.
5. Import the required cross-sections.
6. Confirm with [OK].
7. Close the Cross-section manager.

Limitations of the import process


Despite the fact that the Import is rather versatile, there is a limitation with reference to material code of cross-section mater-
ials. As a cross-section stores, among others, the information about the material it is made of, there is a rule concerning
materials defined in the project.

Note: AT LEAST ONE of the material codes defined in the source project MUST also be
defined in the target project. Otherwise, the import is not made correctly.

Example:

Source project material codes Target project material codes

Material codes defined in the source project, i.e. the Material codes defined in the target project, i.e. Import result
project from which the cross-sections have been the project into which the cross-sections are being
exported imported
CSN, EC, DIN EC, SIA correct
CSN, DIN EC, SIA INCORRECT
CSN,DIN DIN correct

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Chapter 7

Modifying an existing cross-section

Editing a cross-section
Any cross-section that has been inserted into a project can be edited any time later. In order to do so, the user has to activate
the editing dialogue of the particular cross-section.
Procedure for editing of an existing cross-section

1. Open the Cross-section manager.


2. Select the required cross-section in the list of defined cross-sections.
3. Use button [Edit] to open the editing dialogue for the selected cross-section.
4. Make the necessary changes of cross-section parameters.
5. Close the editing dialogue using [OK] button to confirm the changes.
6. If required, repeat steps 2 to 5 for other cross-sections.
7. Close the Cross-section manager.

Deleting a cross-section
A cross-section that is no longer used in a project, i.e. that is no longer assigned to any of the 1D members in the modelled
structure, can be removed from the project database. The deletion may both save the computer memory and improve the
orientation in the project data.
It is advisable to remove all unnecessary cross-sections from the project. Any redundant item in the project database deteri-
orates the lucidity of the data and may be a source of an accidental mistake.
Procedure for deletion of an existing cross-section

1. Open the Cross-section manager.


2. Select the required cross-section in the list of defined cross-sections.
3. Use button [Delete] to erase the cross-section from the project database.
4. If required, repeat steps 2 and 3 for other cross-sections.
5. Close the Cross-section manager.

Note: If a cross-section is used anywhere in the project, the program does not allow the
user to remove it.

Copying a cross-section
It may be convenient for some reason or another to create a copy of an existing cross-section. The copy may be later mod-
ified to define a new cross-section that is similar to its original and varies in a few parameters only. This procedure may be
useful for example if the user wants to make experiments or variants for cross-sections of the same geometry but different
material.

- 88 -
Modifying an existing cross-section

Procedure for copying of an existing cross-section

1. Open the Cross-section manager.


2. Select the required cross-section in the list of defined cross-sections.
3. Use button [Copy] to make a copy of the selected cross-section.
4. If required, repeat steps 2 and 3 for other cross-sections.
5. Close the Cross-section manager.

This procedure will be most likely immediately followed by the procedure for editing of a cross-section in order to make
necessary modifications to the copies.

Replacing a cross-section
Sometimes a need may arise to replace one cross-section used in the structure with another one in all its appearances. This
task may be done effectively by means of Change cross-section function.
This function allows the user to replace one of the already defined cross-sections with a new one. Once the new cross-sec-
tion is defined, it is applied for all 1D members in the structure where the "replaced" cross-section was used so far.
Procedure for replacing of an existing cross-section

1. Open the Cross-section manager.


2. Select the required cross-section in the list of defined cross-sections.
3. Use button [Change] to replace the selected cross-section with a new one.
4. If required, repeat steps 2 and 3 for other cross-sections.
5. Close the Cross-section manager.

- 89 -
Chapter 8

General cross-section

Examples of a general cross-section


This chapter has been made just to give a gist of what form a general cross-sections can be.

- 90 -
General cross-section

Rules for general cross-sections


The final cross-section may consist of several partial sections. The mutual position of these partial sections follows several
rules:

l The partial sections may be independent, i.e. they do not intersect nor "touch" each other.
l The partial sections may "touch" each other or they even may overlap one another (see Properties of the partial section).
l It is possible to combine solid (thin-walled) partial section, thin-walled partial section and library cross-section in one gen-
eral cross-section.
l If solid and thin-walled sections are combined in the general cross-section, principles given in chapter Thin-walled versus
solid cross-section should be taken into account.

Type of partial sections in the general cross-section


Polygonal cross-section
A polygonal cross-section is an arbitrary closed polygon. It is clear that individual segments (edges) of the polygon MUST
NOT intersect each other. On the other hand, if the final cross-section consists of several partial sections, these may inter-
sect or overlap - see Rules for general cross-sections.
The individual segments of the polygon may be (i) linear or (ii) circular.
It is possible to adjust the following parameters for the polygonal section.

Specifies the name of the polygonal. It is used for easier orientation especially if the final cross-section con-
Name
sists of a larger number of partial sections.
Type This parameter cannot be changed and indicates the type of the partial section.
Material See chapter Properties of the partial cross-section.
Corrosion See chapter Properties of the partial cross-section.
Phase See chapter Properties of the partial cross-section.
Overlap See chapter Properties of the partial cross-section.

A polygon may also be used to create an opening in another polygonal cross-section. The only requirement is that the open-
ing intersects or lies inside the other partial section that may be either of polygonal or thin-walled type. The intersection of
two regions is deducted from the non-opening shape. A few examples follow.

"Full-time" opening
The smaller polygon (with one circular edge) is fully inside the rectangular polygon. The result is a cross-section of rect-
angular outline with an opening.

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Chapter 8

Partial opening
The two triangular openings just overlap the solid square.

The result is an irregular hexagonal cross-section.

Thin walled cross-section


A thin-walled cross-section is a section defined by its centreline (or midline) and the width. If a cross-section is supposed to
have segments of different width, it must be defined as consisting of two (or more) partial and interconnected sections.
Even a thin-walled cross-section may be subject to corrosion. It should be stated, however, that in SCIA Engineer the cor-
rosion affects only the thickness of the section. The length of the midline remains unaffected by the corrosion.

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General cross-section

Opening may also be defined in a thin-walled cross-section. It is possible to just cut (shorten) a thin-walled section or even
make a whole in it (even though this may be considered strange from the practical point of view).
For more information about openings in a thin-walled section, see chapter Thin-walled versus solid cross-section.

Specifies the name of the polygonal. It is used for easier orientation especially if the final cross-section con-
Name
sists of a larger number of partial sections.
Type This parameter cannot be changed and indicates the type of the partial section.
Material See chapter Properties of the partial cross-section.
Corrosion See chapter Properties of the partial cross-section.
Thickness Specifies the thickness of the section web.
Alignment The "definition" line may be either the mid-line of the section, or its left or right surface line.
Phase See chapter Properties of the partial cross-section.
Overlap See chapter Properties of the partial cross-section.

Library cross-section
A partial section of a general cross-section may also be formed by standard cross-sections imported from the cross-section
library, e.g. by rolled steel cross-sections, predefined concrete sections, wooden sections, etc.
An arbitrary number of library sections may be added into a general cross-section and they may be freely combined with
polygonal and/or thin-walled sections.
What’s also important is the fact that once inputted the library cross-section may still be edited inside the General cross-sec-
tion editor, e.g. the depth of a concrete section, its inclination, etc. may be changed.

Thin-walled versus solid cross-section


A partial cross-section of a general cross-section may be defined as a thin-walled section or as a solid section (thick-walled)
section. If the final general cross-section consists of one type of sections only, there is nothing to bother about. If all the par-
tial sections are thin-walled, the final cross-section is thin-walled as well. If all the partial sections are solid, the final cross-sec-
tion is solid as well.
But what happens if thin-walled parts are combined with solid ones? In SCIA Engineer, the final cross-section is considered
as solid section.
What’s more important to know is the fact that even an opening is considered to be a "solid" section, so if a thin-walled sec-
tion is cut with an opening, the result is a solid cross-section.

Note: It is important to remember this rule as it determines which formulas are used to cal-
culate sectional characteristics.

General cross-section editor


Opening the General cross-section editor
The General cross-section editor is a tool that, at first sight, resembles the Picture gallery editor. What both editors have in
common is that they both are a "drawing tool" for creation of a "drawing".
In General cross-section editor, the drawing represents a cross-section. In Picture gallery, the drawing is a picture of ana-
lysed structure.

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Chapter 8

The procedure to open the General cross-section editor in order to create a new general cross-sec-
tion

1. Open the Cross-section manager:


1. either via tree menu item Library > Cross-sections,
2. or using menu function Libraries > Cross-sections,
3. or by means of button [Cross-sections] on toolbar Project.
2. Click button [New] to add a new cross-section.
3. Select General in the Available groups list.
4. Click button [Add].
5. The General cross-section editor is opened on the screen.
6. Define the new cross-section.
7. Close the editor.
8. Confirm the new cross-section.
9. Close the New cross-section dialogue.
10. Close the Cross-section manager.

The procedure to open the General cross-section editor in order to edit an existing general cross-
section

1. Open the Cross-section manager:


1. either via tree menu item Library > Cross-sections,
2. or using menu function Libraries > Cross-sections,
3. or by means of button [Cross-sections] on toolbar Project.
2. In the list of defined cross-section, select the one you need to change.
3. Click button [Edit] to edit the selected cross-section.
4. The Cross-section edit dialogue is opened on the screen.
5. If only some of the general parameters need to be altered, make the change in the property table of the dialogue.
6. If the shape or property of only a partial section need to me modified, press button [Edit] in the property table of the dia-
logue.
7. The General cross-section editor is opened on the screen.
8. Make the necessary changes.
9. Close the editor.
10. Confirm the result in the General cross-section editor.
11. Close the Cross-section manager.

Using the General cross-section editor


Once the General cross-section editor is opened, it is possible to define (draw) a new cross-section or edit an existing one.
This may be done by means of numerous functions available in the General cross-section editor.
The functions can be sorted by their type:

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General cross-section

l Working plane and user-coordinate system


l Adjustment of the view
l Setting of view parameters
l Dot grid
l Selections
l SNAP mode
l Geometric manipulations
l Input of a new partial cross-section
l Dimension lines
l Definition and application of parameters

The individual functions are described in separate chapters of this book.

Functions of the General cross-section editor

Working plane and user co-ordinate system


The principles of working plane and user co-ordinate systems have been laid in the main reference manual. Those cap-
abilities that are meaningful also in the General cross-section editor have been implemented in it.

UCS by 3 points Defines a UCS by means of 3 points.


According to entity Defines a UCS in such a way that X-axis goes along a selected entity edge (e.g. polygon seg-
LCS ment).
GCS The UCS is made identical to the GCS.
GCS parallel The UCS axes are parallel with the GCS axes but the origin is not in the origin of the GCS.
Move The UCS may be moved to a new origin.
Rotate The UCS may be rotated.
Previous The previous UCS may be taken back.

Note: For more information about working plane and user co-ordinate systems in general
see chapters Basic working tools > Working plane and Basic working tools > User co-ordin-
ate system (UCS).

Adjusting the view


The General cross-section editor offers similar view adjusting function as the main SCIA Engineer graphical environment.

Zoom in Zooms in.


Zoom out Zooms out.
Zoom – Cut- Requires defining a cut-out for the zoom. The cut-out is then magnified in order to fit into the whole area
out of the graphical window.
Zoom – All Zoom in or out in order to fit the whole structure into the whole area of the graphical window.
Zoom – Selec-
Zoom in or out in order to fit the selected entities into the whole area of the graphical window.
tion

- 95 -
Chapter 8

Note: For more information about adjusting the view in general see chapter Basic working
tools > Adjusting the viewpoint.

Controlling the view parameters


The user may control the way the partial cross-sections are drawn on the screen. There are several means of control.
Names of partial sections and node (vertex) numbers

A button on the main toolbar ( ) can be used to switch ON / OFF the labels giving (i) partial section names and (ii) vertex
numbers of polygonal partial section or thin-walled partial section.

Depic-
tion OFF

Depic-
tion ON

Colour palette
As in the main graphical environment of SCIA Engineer, the user may adjust colour for individual types of lines. In the Gen-
eral cross-section editor the following colours related to the cross-section may be set in addition to standard line types.

The setup dialogue may be opened via button ( ) on the main toolbar.

Cross-section outline Specifies the colour of the contour of the cross-section.


Cross-section midline Specifies the colour of the midline of the cross-section.
Cross-section fibre Specifies the colour of letters used to depict cross-section vertices.
Cross- section cor-
Specifies the colour of the corrosion level.
rosion
Cross-section joints
Cross- section insert Specifies the colour of the insertion point, i.e. the point that is used to manipulate with the section
point by mouse.

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General cross-section

Fonts
Once again, the General cross-section editor enables the user to set required font type and size.

The setup dialogue may be opened via button ( ) on the main toolbar.

Labels of nodes Specifies the font used to depict cross-section vertices.


Labels of sectional parts Specifies the font used to depict partial cross-sections.
Main labels Specifies the font used for basic labels.

Dimension lines
Similarly to dimension lines used in picture gallery or paper-space gallery, it is possible to set the basic parameters of dimen-
sion lines used for dimensioning of general cross-sections.

The setup dialogue may be opened via button ( ) on the main toolbar.

Dot grid
The definition and use of the dot grid are identical with those of the main SCIA Engineer graphical environment.

Note: For more information about dot grid in general see chapter Basic working tools > Dot
grid.

Making the selection


Making a selection by the mouse cursor
single
One entity is selected each time the user clicks the mouse button.
selection
rectangular The user draws a rectangle on the screen. The program selects all entities located inside the rectangle or
cut-out overlapping it (see the paragraph below for details about this selection mode).
intersection The user draws a line (or a polygon) on the screen. The program selects all entities that have an inter-
line section with the drawn line.
polygonal
The user draws a closed polygon on the screen. The program selects all entities located inside the polygon
cut-out
select-all All currently displayed entities are selected
previous Activates the last made selection.
clear selec-
The current selection is cleared (the entities are not deleted, they are just unselected).
tion

Note: For more information about selections in general see chapter Basic working tools >
Selections.

Adjusting the snap mode


The principles of "snapping" have been laid in other chapters of the main reference manual. Here, in the general cross-sec-
tion context, it is worth to say that the same SNAP modes can be utilised for the definition or modification of a general cross-
section in the General cross-section editor.

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Chapter 8

Available SNAP modes are:

Dot grid The cursor is locked to the points of a defined dot grid.
Only snapped If this option is ON, the first two variants are automatically turned OFF and only characteristic points of
points already defined entities may be used to snap to. In other words, only the object SNAP mode is enabled.
Midpoints Middle points of entities are used as snap points.
Endpoints /
End points of entities are used as snap points.
Nodes
Intersections Intersections of entities are used as snap points.
Orthogonal
This option snaps to a point that forms a perpendicular with the selected object.
points
Tangential
The Tangential point SNAP mode snaps to a tangent point on a circle.
points
Arc / circle This option snaps to the centre of a circle, arc or polyline arc segment. The cursor must pass over the cir-
centre cumference of the circle or the arc so that the centre can be found.
Points on line / The program automatically divides a selected entity into N segments and thus generates (N+1) points
curve N-th on an entity under cursor. The points may be used to snap to.
Points in line /
This option is similar to the one above. But the division of a 1D member is defined by percents and not
curve % of
by the number of segments.
length

Note: For more information about SNAP modes in general see chapter Basic working tools
> Cursor SNAP modes.

Geometric manipulations
Several geometric manipulations are available to modify the already input polygonal partial cross-sections. The functions
are analogous to geometric functions for SCIA Engineer structural entities (e.g. 1D members).
Geometric manipulations
Move Moves selected partial section/sections to a new location.
Copy Makes a copy of the selected partial section/sections.
Multicopy Makes several copies of the selected partial section/sections.
Rotate Rotates the selected partial section/sections.
Scale Enlarges or scales down the selected partial section/sections.
Mirror Creates a mirror image of the selected partial section/sections.
Trim Trims the selected partial section/sections to a given border entity.
Extend Extends the selected partial section/sections to a given border entity.

Edit polyline
Insert node Inserts a node to the selected part of a polygon.
Remove node Removes the selected from the selected part of a polygon.

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General cross-section

Geometric manipulation with curves


Edit arc angle Changes the angle of the selected arc.
Edit arc bulge Changes the bulge of the selected arc.
Edit arc radius Changes the radius of the selected arc.
Convert curve to line Converts the selected curve to a straight line.
Convert line to circle arc Converts the selected straight line to an arc.

Note: For more information about geometric manipulations in general see chapter Geo-
metry.

Dimension lines
Once the general cross-section is defined (or partly defined), it is possible to add dimension lines to the drawing of the sec-
tion.
There are three types of drawing lines: (i) vertical, (ii) horizontal, and (iii) general.
The procedure to input a new dimension line

1. Open function Dimension line from the tree menu of the General cross-section editor.
2. If required, change dimension line parameters.
3. Select the first point that the dimension line refers to.
4. Select the second point that the dimension line refers to.
5. Define the position of the dimension line.
6. Repeat as many times as required.

Parameters of dimension line


Name Specifies the name of the dimension line.
Style Selects the style: vertical, horizontal, general.
Label Specifies a text label attached to the dimension line.
Defines the offset of the plot line from the cross-section.

Plot line offset

offset = 5 

- 99 -
Chapter 8

offset = 50 

Selects the type of plot line.

Plot line short 

long 

Defines the alignment.

Label alignment

left 

- 100 -
General cross-section

centre 

right 

Example of dimension lines

Creating a new general cross-section


Inserting a new polygonal section
The procedure to insert a new polygonal section

1. Open the General cross-section editor.


2. Use the tree menu located on the left hand side to start function Polygon.

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Chapter 8

3. If required, adjust polygon parameters in the dialogue that opens on the screen.
4. Close the setting dialogue.
5. Define the starting point of the section’s outline:
1. either by means of mouse which "sticks" to selected SNAP points,
2. or by typing the vertex co-ordinates on the command line.
6. Use the same approach to define additional vertices of the polygon.
7. When finished, close the function:
1. either by pressing [Esc] key,
2. or via right mouse button’s pop-up menu and its function End of command.

Note 1: See also chapter Plane polygon toolbar.

Note 2: When you start inputting individual vertices, the program draws the outline of the
section. If possible, the program also closes the polygon and gives the idea of what the
cross-section would look like if you input the vertex and then immediately close the function.
If however, it is not possible to close the polygon (without intersecting one or more seg-
ments), the polygon is let open and only the defined part of the polygon is drawn.

The two pictures below demonstrate what has been said in the note above. Please note, that the vertex at the cursor (small
square) has not been input yet.

The program suggests the "closed" shape (Fig. above).

- 102 -
General cross-section

There is no possibility to close the polygon at the moment (Fig. above).


Example of a polygonal section

Plane polygon toolbar


Once function New polygon is started the user may select advanced option from toolbar Plane polygon.

Buttons of the toolbar have the following meaning.

New circle
If this button is pressed, the sub-toolbar with two buttons is opened.
New circle – centre, radius point
The user must define the centre point and a point on the circle that specifies the radius.
New circle – 3 points
The user must input three points located on the circle.

New rectangle
The user must define two opposite corners of a rectangle.

New polygon
The user must define individual vertices of the polygon.

New straight line


The following edge (segment) of the currently defined polygon will be a straight line.

New circular arc


The following edge (segment) of the currently defined polygon will be a circular arc (the intermediate point and end point of
the circular segment must be input).

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Chapter 8

Select line
This button is useful if a new polygon is supposed to follow the shape of a previously defined polygon. The user does not
have to pick all the vertices of the new polygon, but may select existing edges of the already input polygon.
Example:
Let’s assume that a polygon has been input as shown below.

Another polygon is supposed to follow the circular part of the first polygon.
The procedure may be:

1. Start function New polygon.


2. Input the first point to the right of vertex P4 of the defined polygon.
3. Input the second point in directly in vertex P4.
4. Press button [Select line] on the toolbar.
5. Select edge P4-P5 of the first polygon.
6. Select edge P5-P7 of the first polygon.
7. Select edge P7-P6 of the first polygon.
8. Press button [New straight line] on the toolbar.
9. Input the remaining vertices of the new polygon.

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General cross-section

Step back
This button goes one step back in the definition of the polygon. If a polygon is being defined, the last vertex is removed. If a
circle is being defined by means of three points and two points have been defined so far, this function removes the second
point of the circle but leaves the first circle point unaffected.

Inserting a new thin walled section


The procedure to insert a new thin walled section

1. Open the General cross-section editor.


2. Use the tree menu located on the left hand side to start function Thin walled.
3. If required, adjust section parameters in the dialogue that opens on the screen.
4. Close the setting dialogue.
5. Define the starting point of the section’s midline:
1. either by means of mouse which "sticks" to selected SNAP points,
2. or by typing the vertex co-ordinates on the command line.
6. Use the same approach to define additional vertices of the section midline.
7. When finished, close the function:
1. either by pressing [Esc] key,
2. or via right mouse button’s pop-up menu and its function End of command.

Example of a thin-walled section

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Chapter 8

Inserting a new library section


The procedure to insert a new library section

1. Open the General cross-section editor.


2. Use the tree menu located on the left hand side to start function Section from library.
3. Select the type and size of the library section.
4. If required, adjust section parameters in the dialogue that opens on the screen.
5. Close the setting dialogue.
6. Define the location of the reference point of the section:
1. either by means of mouse which "sticks" to selected SNAP points,
2. or by typing the vertex co-ordinates on the command line.

Inserting a new opening


An opening is in fact a polygon. So the procedure for its definition is very similar to that for polygonal cross-section. The dif-
ference is that the opening has got no material property.
The procedure to insert a new opening

1. Open the General cross-section editor.


2. Use the tree menu located on the left hand side to start function Polygonal opening.
3. If required, adjust parameters in the dialogue that opens on the screen.
4. Close the setting dialogue.
5. Define the starting point of the opening’s outline:
1. either by means of mouse which "sticks" to selected SNAP points,
2. or by typing the vertex co-ordinates on the command line.
6. Use the same approach to define additional vertices of the polygon of the opening.
7. When finished, close the function:
1. either by pressing [Esc] key,
2. or via right mouse button’s pop-up menu and its function End of command.

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General cross-section

Import of a general cross-section


Not only a structure itself, but also a cross-section shape can be imported from DWG/DXF files.
The editor of a general cross-section can be opened via the Cross-section manager. Use function New cross-section > Gen-
eral cross-section.

Procedure to import the shape of a cross-section from DWG/DXF file

1. Open the Cross-section manager.


2. Start function New.
3. Select General.
4. The Cross-section editor is opened on the screen.
5. Double click function Import DXF/DWG.
6. Browse for the file to be imported.
7. The import dialogue is opened on the screen.
8. Make necessary adjustments and/or actions (see below for the meaning of dialogue controls).
9. Complete the action of the import usng buttons [Import selected] or [Import all].

Layers
This list box contains the layers that were defined in the original DWG/DXF file. Only selected layers are shown in the pre-
view window of the Import dialogue.

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Chapter 8

Entity types
This list contains available entity types. Only selected types are shown in the preview window of the Import dialogue.

Selection mode
Thin walled The selected lines are imported as a thin-walled section.
Polygons The selected lines are imported as a polygonal cross-section.
Polygonal openings The selected lines are imported as a polygonal opening in the cross-section.

Scale
The scale for the import. It may be necessary when the drawing is not in SI units. The item provides for the transformation
from "imaginary" units of the DWG/DXF file and metres (used in SCIA Engineer as the basic unit).

Note: If the scale is set to 1 (one), SCIA Engineer assumes the data to be stored in metres.

Insertion point
The user can define the insertion point:
Centre
The centre of the model in the imported file is selected as the insertion point (where the cursor is) and by this point
the user can place the imported model into the graphical window.
The "centre" is the centre of a bounding rectangle circumscribed around the imported model.
Original
The original insertion point of the imported model is selected as the insertion point (where the cursor is) and by
this point the user can place the imported model into the graphical window.
Origin in 0,0,0
The origin of the coordinate system of the imported file is placed into the origin (0,0,0) of the coordinate system in
SCIA Engineer.

Sizes
This is an informative item, which shows the dimensions calculated from the input scale.

Connect single curves to closed polygon


The following procedure merges individual lines of the drawing into polygon
Press [Select curves].
Select lines to be inserted into the polygon.
Press [Connect curves].
Repeat as many times as required.
Press [End]

Preview window
The view in the preview can be adjusted using the standard SCIA Engineer mouse+key controls (shifted, rotated, zoomed
in/out).

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General cross-section

Adjusting the properties


Properties of the final general cross-section
The final general cross-section has a set of properties that may be adjusted by the user.

Name Specifies the name of the cross-section


Buckling y-y Buckling length related to y-y axis.
Buckling z-z Buckling length related to z-z axis
Fabrication Type of fabrication of the section.
If ON, the shape of the area of the section is drawn as filled.
Display final
If OFF, only the contour of the section is drawn.
shape
See example below.
Regardless of the adjustment of the parameter above, displays temporarily the final shape of the sec-
Refresh
tion.

Example

Final shape ON

Final shape OFF

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Chapter 8

Properties of the partial cross-section


Each partial section of a general cross-section has several parameters that may (but also may not) be adjusted inde-
pendently on other parts of the general cross-section. For example, individual partial sections may be made of different
material or they may be subject to different level of corrosion, etc.
The parameters are:

Material This parameter specifies the material the part is made of.
Here, the user may define that the partial section has been exposed to the elements and has been
Corrosion
"weakened" due to corrosion.
Phase The partial section may belong to a particular phase (or stage) of the construction process.
If two partial sections overlap, this parameter says which of the two parts is of higher priority and should be
Overlap
taken as the leading part. The other part is then cut accordingly (see the example below).

Corrosion example
If corrosion is defined, the corresponding partial cross-section is drawn with a dashed line next to the outline of the section.
The dashed line shows the corroded part of the section. Sectional characteristics are automatically calculated from the part
of the section that has NOT corroded.

Overlap example
Let’s assume a general cross-section consisting of two overlapping partial sections: (i) a square and (ii) a triangle.

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General cross-section

The square is made of concrete (will be drawn in grey colour), the triangle of steel (will be drawn in blue).
First, let’s set the overlap for the square to 1 and let the overlap for the triangle on the default value equal to zero.
The square is of higher priority, its shape is taken as the leading one, and a part of the triangle is automatically cut off.

Second, if the overlap priorities are swapped, i.e. the overlap for the square is set to 0 and the overlap for the triangle is set
to 1, the result will be the opposite. The triangle will remain unaffected and a part of the square will be removed from the final
cross-section.

Modifying the existing general cross-section


Modifying the properties of the whole cross-section
The properties of a general cross-section can be edited in two ways. First, they may be changed directly in the Editing dia-
logue of the cross-section. Second, it is possible to change them in the General cross-section editor.

Editing dialogue
Procedure for changing the properties in the editing dialogue

1. Open the Cross-section manager.


2. Select the cross-section to be modified.

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Chapter 8

3. Click button [Edit].


4. The editing dialogue is opened on the screen.
5. On its right hand side there is a list of sectional properties.
6. The first three groups may be edited here – see below for details.
7. Change the required parameters.
8. Close the editing dialogue via button [OK].
9. Close the Cross-section manager.

Parameters that may be changed in the editing dialogue:

Name Specifies the name of the cross-section


Mat 1, 2, Materials used in the general cross-section. There may be one or more materials defined in one general
etc. cross-section.
Colour of the section.
Colour
It is applied when colours by cross-section are adjusted in the graphical window of SCIA Engineer.
Buckling y-
Buckling length related to y-y axis.
y
Buckling z-
Buckling length related to z-z axis.
z
Fabrication Type of fabrication of the section.

General cross-section editor


Procedure for changing the properties in the editor

1. Open the Cross-section manager.


2. Select the cross-section to be modified.
3. Click button [Edit].
4. The editing dialogue is opened on the screen.
5. Click button [Edit] located in the property table.
6. The General cross-section editor is opened on the screen.

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General cross-section

7. On its left hand side there is a list of sectional properties.


8. Change the required parameters.
9. Close the editor.
10. Close the editing dialogue via button [OK].
11. Close the Cross-section manager.

Parameters that may be changed in the editor are described in chapter Properties of the final general cross-section.

Modifying the properties of a partial cross-section


Properties of a partial section of a general cross-section may be edited in the General cross-section editor.
Procedure for changing the properties of a partial section

1. Open the Cross-section manager.


2. Select the cross-section to be modified.
3. Click button [Edit].
4. The editing dialogue is opened on the screen.
5. Click button [Edit] located in the property table.
6. The General cross-section editor is opened on the screen.
7. Select the part of the general cross-section to be edited.
8. On its left hand side there is a list of sectional properties.
9. Change the required parameters.
10. If required, clear the selection and modify other parts of the cross-section.
11. Close the editor.
12. Close the editing dialogue via button [OK].
13. Close the Cross-section manager.

Note: For library cross-sections, the parameters that may be changed in the editor depend
on the type of the section. For example, the depth and width will be offered in the property
table for rectangular concrete section, while the selection of a different size or type will be
available for rolled cross-section.

Changing the geometry of the general cross-section


Any part of the general cross-section may be treated the same way as a standard geometric entity in the main SCIA Engin-
eer environment.
The cross-section as a whole or any of its parts may be:

l moved to a new location,


l copied,
l rotated,

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Chapter 8

l mirrored,
l enlarged to the given scale,
l trimmed,
l stretched.

The application of above-mentioned functions is the same as the application of corresponding functions in the main SCIA
Engineer environment.

Changing the geometry of a partial section


The geometry modification functions applicable to the whole cross-section (see chapter Changing the geometry of the gen-
eral cross-section) are also available for any of the partial sections.
In addition, polygon-editing functions are available for thin-walled and polygonal sections. These are:

Insert node into This functions enables the user to add a new intermediate vertex to the outline or midline, respectively,
polyline of an already defined solid or thin-walled section.
Delete node This function removes the selected node from the outline or midline, respectively, of an already
from polyline defined solid or thin-walled section.

Further, co-ordinates of vertices of both polygonal outline of a solid section and midline of a thin-walled section can be manu-
ally edited in the property table. The user just has to select the required node (or nodes) and retype the appropriate co-ordin-
ate in the property table.
Finally, for library sections, the property table provides for the modification of the:

l insertion point (which leads to a change of the position of the section within the general cross-section).
l rotation.

Note: All the available modification functions and procedures may be freely combined for
any of the partial sections in order to achieve the required final shape and dimension of the
overall general cross-section.

Defining a parametric cross-section


Introduction to the parametric cross-section
Sometimes it may be useful to define the general cross-section not by direct definition of its dimensions, partial section
types, etc., but by means of parameters. The parameters may be later easily modified and thus the shape and/or dimension
of the general cross-section may be changed.

Note: For more information on parameters see chapter Advanced tools > Parametric input
> Using the parameters in the project of the main Reference manual of SCIA Engineer.

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General cross-section

Defining a new parameter


The procedure to define a new parameter

1. In General cross-section editor, open tree menu function Parameter.


2. The Parameters manager opens on the screen.
3. Define the required parameters and set their type and values.
4. Close the Parameters manager.
5. It is now possible to assign the defined parameters to appropriate dimensions.

Assigning the parameters


The procedure to assign the defined parameter

1. Input the cross-section in usual way.


2. Define the parameters.
3. Select the node (vertex) whose position should be defined by means of "length" parameter.
4. In the property table of the node, select the appropriate parameter.
5. Repeat for other nodes.
6. If applicable, select the rolled cross-section whose size and type is to be defined via parameter.
7. In the property table of the node, replace the type by the appropriate parameter.
8. Repeat for other rolled cross-sections.
9. Close the General cross-section editor.

Note 1: Whenever the value of parameters is changed, the corresponding cross-section is


reshaped accordingly.

Note 2: What’s more, the parameters appear in the editing dialogue of the cross-section.
Therefore, it is easy to change the cross-section section without necessity to open the Gen-
eral cross-section editor.

Example of parameterised cross-section


Let’s create a simple rectangular cross-section with two circular openings. Further, let’s edit this section and make it para-
meterised.

Note : The dimensions stated in this example are in metres. Generally, be careful with units
when defining new parameters.

First of all, define the section in usual way. Input the bottom left corner of the section to the origin of the global co-ordinate
system (This is not a general condition, but it is assumed in our example).

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Chapter 8

Then, define the necessary parameters:

Parameter Type Evaluation Value / Formula


H Css length Value 0.6
B Css length Value 1.0
H1 Css length Formula H * 0.5
D Css length Value 0.25
D1 Css length Formula H1 + D / 2
B1 Css length Formula B /3
B2 Css length Formula B /3 *2

Further, assign the parameters to appropriate points of the defined cross-section.


Select the top left corner of the rectangle (see below).

In the property table set the global Z co-ordinate to parameter H (see below).

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General cross-section

Clear the selection. Select the top right corner and set the global Z co-ordinate to parameter H and the global Y co-ordinate
to parameter B (see below).

Z = H; Y = B

Clear the selection. Select the bottom right corner and set the global Y co-ordinate to parameter B (see below).

Y=B

Clear the selection. Select the centre of the left circular opening and adjust the global Y and Z co-ordinates to parameter B1
and H1 respectively (see below).

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Chapter 8

Z = H1; Y = B1

Clear the selection. Select the centre of the right circular opening and adjust the global Y and Z co-ordinates to parameter
B2 and H1 respectively (see below).

Z = H1; Y = B2

Clear the selection. Select the top most point of the left circular opening and adjust its global Y and Z co-ordinates to para-
meter B1 and D1 respectively (see below).

Z = D1; Y = B1

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General cross-section

Clear the selection. Select the top most point of the right circular opening and adjust the global Y and Z co-ordinates to para-
meter B2 and D1 respectively (see below).

Z = D1; Y = B2

Close the General cross-section editor. In the editing dialogue, you can see the three Value-type parameters B, H, D that
fully define the cross-section’s dimensions (see below).

The same parameters may be reviewed, though not changed, in the Cross-section manager (see below).

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Chapter 8

Any time in the future, you may edit these three values and reshape the cross-section.
It may also be convenient to make copy or copies of this cross-section and create a set of cross-sections of different size.
What’s more, dimension lines may be added to the cross- section. If provided with proper labels they may significantly
improve the clearness of the parameters (see below).

An example of the "D" dimension line is in the figure below (see the parameter values on the left).

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General cross-section

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Chapter 9

Profile Library Editor

Introduction
This document illustrates the usage of the Profile Library Editor which is used to modify the Profile Library of steel cross-sec-
tions within SCIA Engineer.
In the first chapter the folder structure of the Profile Library as well as the naming and ordering of different libraries is
explained.
The second chapter discusses the Profile Library Editor which allows to add new sections to the library or edit and remove
existing ones. Both main functions (editing and adding) are illustrated using a practical example.
At the end of this document, several annexes are provided which give additional information.
Annex A gives an overview of the Formcodes used within SCIA Engineer, including all parameters which describe the
shapes.
Annex B provides a list of all Cross-section characteristics which can be inputted in the Profile Library.
Annex C contains information regarding filters, which allow an easy filtering of the Profile Library section Types.
The final annex, Annex D lists the different files located in the folder of the SCIA Engineer Profile Library.

Within Chapter 2 an example MS Excel file is used named Example_Profile_Library.xlsx.


This file is supplied with this manual

1. Profile Library Folders


In this chapter the folder structure of the Profile Library as well as the naming and ordering of different libraries is explained.

Default folders
The first part of this chapter will focus on the structure of the Profile Library. Therefore, the directory settings of SCIA Engin-
eer are examined:

l Launch SCIA Engineer.

l When the Open project dialog appears, press .


l Go to Setup > Options
l Go to the tab Directories
l Set the 'Show directories for:' combo-box to Profile Libraries

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Profile Library Editor

The actual numbers in the folders (ESA13.0, ESA13.1, ...) can differ depending on the ver-
sion of SCIA Engineer which is installed.

By default two directories are listed in this dialog, one referring to the installation folder and one referring to the user folder.
In general they can be written as follows:
Folder 1: "C:\Program Files (x86)\SCIA\Engin-
eerXXXX.X\ProfileLibrary\"

The first directory refers to the installation folder of SCIA Engineer. The ProfileLibrary subfolder contains the so-called Sys-
tem library i.e. the Profile Library which is supplied with SCIA Engineer.
Folder 2: "C:\User-
s\#USER#\ESAXX.X\User-
\ProfileLibrary\UserLibrary\"

The second folder refers to the user folder of SCIA Engineer. This specific path refers to the UserLibrary i.e. the default loc-
ation where any new Library sections added by the user will be stored.

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Chapter 9

Using the New and Delete buttons folders can be added or removed. In this way it is for example possible to set a
Profile Library folder located on a network location.

When installing a patch of SCIA Engineer, the ProfileLibrary will be updated. The User-
Library will not be modified, so no data is lost/overwritten when applying a patch. It is there-
fore recommended to always use the UserLibrary when adding new sections!

Library naming and order


Each folder entry is seen as a separate library. Each library receives a name equal to the last subfolder of the path. The num-
ber (or order) of these libraries depends on the order in which they are listed in the dialog.
For the two default folders specified above this means that the first folder will be labeled ProfileLibrary and seen as the first
library while the second folder is labeled as UserLibrary and is seen as the second library.
If for example a third folder would have been added labeled "D:\Test\SCIA" then this folder would represent the 3rd library
(by its order in the list) and would be labeled SCIA (the name taken from the last subfolder of the path).

Using the Move Item Up/Down buttons the order of folders (Libraries) can be changed but this is not required.

SCIA Engineer always takes the first folder as being the System library.

Folder Content
A rundown of the content of the ProfileLibrary folder can be found in Annex D.
The UserLibrary folder will be empty initially. Files are generated in the UserLibrary folder when sections are added into this
library. This is illustrated in Chapter 2.

2. Profile Library Editor


In this chapter the Profile Library Editor is discussed which allows the user to add new sections to the library or edit and
remove existing ones.

Edit Profile Library


In order to open the Profile Library Editor a new project needs to be created (or an existing one opened).
- Launch SCIA Engineer.

- When the Open project dialog appears, press .


- Go to File > New

- Select a new Analysis project

- Confirm the selection with .

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Profile Library Editor

The Project data dialog opens:

- In this dialog, set the National Code to for example EC-EN, activate Steel material and set the Project Level to Advanced.

A different National Code may also be selected but it should contain Steel material.

- Confirm these settings with .


When the project environment is loaded the Profile Library Editor can be opened either through the Menu toolbar at the top
or through the tree in the Main dialog.

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Chapter 9

- Go to Tools > Edit profile library


The Edit Profile Library dialog appears:

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Profile Library Editor

Using the button a New section type can be added to a library (either system or user).
The Existing type combo-box shows an alphabetical list of all sections found in the different Libraries. This list shows the con-
tent of all Libraries set in the Profile Library Folders (see Chapter 1).

When an Existing type is selected this can either be edited using the button or removed using the

button.
In the following paragraphs the different options of this dialog are further elaborated.

Editing an existing section type


In this paragraph, the editing of an existing section type is illustrated by means of an example.
- Follow the steps of the previous paragraph to get to the Edit Profile Library dialog.
- In the Existing type combo-box either select IPE from the drop-down list or type IPE into the input field.

- Now press the button.


The Profile Library Editor will open, showing the data for the selected type (IPE).

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Chapter 9

On the previous picture the different items of the dialog have been marked by red numbers (X). These items will now be dis-
cussed one by one in the following paragraphs.

1. Type
The Type, marked with number (1) on the Profile Library Editor picture shows the type of the selected section, in this case
"IPE".
The Type may only contain letters i.e. no numbers.
Additional information regarding the Name of a section is given in Paragraph 8.

2. Library
The Library, marked with number (2) on the Profile Library Editor picture shows the Library in which this Type is located.
As specified in Chapter 1 the naming and ordering of the libraries depends on the folder name and order in the directory set-
tings.
In this example, the IPE type is located in the ProfileLibrary which is the 1st library (denoted by the 1).

3. & 4. Formcode and picture


Within SCIA Engineer, each shape within the Profile Library is uniquely identified by a so called Formcode. The Formcode
defines the shape, the parameters which describe the shape and in some cases also additional parameters like distance
between bolt holes, unit warping ordinates etc.

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Profile Library Editor

Annex A of this manual gives a complete overview of all Formcodes used within the Profile Library including pictures of the
shapes and descriptions of the different parameters.
Within the Profile Library Editor picture the Formcode is marked with number (3). Number (4) shows the corresponding pic-
ture which details the shape of this Formcode and all parameters which define this shape.
In this example, the IPE Type has Formcode 1 i.e. I-sections. The picture shows the I-section shape including an overview of
all geometrical parameters which define this shape.

5. Fabrication
The Fabrication, marked with number (5) on the Profile Library Editor picture provides the default fabrication for this Type.
When any section of this Type is inputted in the SCIA Engineer Cross-Section Manager it will get this fabrication by default.
The drop-down list allows a selection between Rolled, Welded and Cold-formed which represent the main fabrications for
steel library sections.
In this example, the IPE Type concerns hot-rolled I-sections and thus the Fabrication is shown as Rolled.

6. Description
The Description combo-box is marked with number (6) on the Profile Library Editor picture.
The Description field shows a description of the Type as given by the manufacturer. For example "European standard
beam", "Cold formed C section", "British parallel flange channel"...
The content of the Description drop-down list is defined in the file Descrip_ID.txt located in the folder of the selected Library.
This file can be edited using a default text editor.

On each line within this file, two fields are defined which are separated by a semicolon.
The first field gives a number while the second field concerns the actual Description string.
Within the Profile Library Editor the respective item can then be selected from the drop-down list.

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Chapter 9

The number is only shown in this dialog, in order to make it convenient for the user to select
the proper string. Within SCIA Engineer, for example in the Cross-Section Manager, only
the Description string is shown, not the number.

In this example the IPE Type is set as "1 European I beam".

Each library (folder) has its own Descrip_ID.TXT file. When editing a type, make sure to
edit the corresponding Descrip_ID.TXT file of that library since else the changes will not be
visible.

Extension: Translations
The content of the Descrip_ID.txt file is used by default for any interface language of SCIA Engineer.
Within the standard ProfileLibrary folder, additional Descrip_ID files can be found i.e. Descrip_ID_05, Descrip_ID_07,
Descrip_ID_0c...
These files have the same content as the standard Descrip_ID.txt file but contain strings for specific languages. The number
used to identify a certain language concerns the Locale ID (LCID) as provided by Microsoft. More specifically the last two
digits of the LCID are used. The following table illustrates this principle:

Language LCID Number used in filename


Czech
0405 05

German
0407 07

English
0809 09

French
040c 0c

Dutch
0813 13

Slovak 041b 1b

A list of all LCID's as provided by Microsoft can be found on the MSDN website.
Thus when the interface of SCIA Engineer is for example set to German, the Description strings will be read from the file
Descrip_ID_07.txt. In case this file does not exist, the content of Descrip_ID.txt is used.

These Translations are only used by the standard ProfileLibrary, not the UserLibraries.

7. Source
The Source combo-box is marked with number (7) on the Profile Library Editor picture.
The Source field gives a reference to the source documentation from which the data of this Type was gathered. Typically it
refers to the catalogue of a manufacturer or a book in which the data was published.

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Profile Library Editor

The content of the Source drop-down list is defined in the file Source_ID.txt located in the folder of the selected Library. This
file can be edited using a default text editor.

On each line within this file, three fields are defined which are separated by a semicolon.
The first field gives a number while the second field concerns the actual Source string. The third field is currently not used
thus remains empty.
Within the Profile Library Editor the respective item can then be selected from the drop-down list.

The number is only shown in this dialog, in order to make it convenient for the user to select
the proper string. Within SCIA Engineer, for example in the Cross-Section Manager, only
the Source string is shown, not the number.

In this example the IPE Type is set as "20 ArcelorMittal / Sales Programme / Version 2012-1".

Each library (folder) has its own Source_ID.TXT file. When editing a type, make sure to edit
the corresponding Source_ID.TXT file of that library since else the changes will not be vis-
ible.

Extension: Translations
The content of the Source_ID.txt file is used by default for any interface language of SCIA Engineer.
Within the standard ProfileLibrary folder, additional Source_ID files can be found i.e. Source _ID_05, Source _ID_07,
Source _ID_0c,...
These files follow the same logic as explained for the Description strings.

8. Name, Parameters & Properties


The grid marked with number (8) on the Profile Library Editor picture concerns the core of the Editor.

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Chapter 9

On each line of this grid the following data for one section of the given Type can be set:
- Name: The first column in the grid contains the section Name.
A section Name is defined by a 'Type' and a 'Code'. For example an IPE200 has Type "IPE" and Code "200". The first num-
ber in the Name defines the start of the 'Code'.
The following conditions apply for the naming:
- The Type may only contain letters i.e. no numbers
- The Code has to start by a number and may also contain letters
So an IPE180A is fully valid and has Type "IPE" and Code "180A".
The Name always starts with the Type, so in this specific example, all sections start with "IPE" in their name.

The Type can also contain a part between brackets. This can be used to differentiate
between sections which have the same Type, for example L(ARC), L(ARCI), L(CSN).
Within the Cross-Section manager, when a cross-section is added to the project,  the part
between the brackets is automatically omitted from the Type, so all three L-Types given
above will be listed as L once inputted.

- Parameters: Next to the Name different columns are shown for the Parameters which describe the shape for the selected
Formcode.
As specified in Paragraph 3. & 4. the Parameters depend on the Formcode and are shown on the picture of the shape.
The Parameters can be easily recognized due to their blue font.
All standard Parameters which are required for the shape definition need to have values different from zero. In addition,
when the dialog is closed additional tests are done to verify if the inputted data is sensible (An I-section cannot have a web
thickness which is larger than its height etc).
Parameters which are not required for the shape can remain zero in case they are not used. Examples include the flange
slope in case of a section with parallel flanges, the internal bolt distance etc.
In the example, when the first section in the grid is examined the following can be seen:

These Parameters define the shape of the IPE80 I-section. The remaining parameters r1, a, W and wm1 are not used in
this case and remain zero.
The units used for these Parameters concern the standard SCIA Engineer Cross-Section units. These units can be mod-
ified in Setup > Units > Cross-section > Length.
- Properties: The remainder of the grid concern columns which contain the different Properties.
A list of all Properties which can be set in the grid can be found in Annex B.
In essence it is not required to input any Property. Each Property value which remains zero will later on, when the cross-sec-
tion is used, be calculated automatically by SCIA Engineer. It is thus possible to define only Parameters and no Properties.
In the example, when the first section in the grid is examined the following can be seen:

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Profile Library Editor

For the IPE80 this shows that A, AL, IYLCS and IZLCS have been inputted according to the documentation given in the
Source field while the Ay, Az and AD properties are not defined and will thus be calculated automatically by SCIA Engineer.
The units used for these Properties concern the standard SCIA Engineer Cross-Section units. These units can be modified
in Setup > Units > Cross-section > Properties.
The grid fully supports the Copy and Paste functionality from MS Excel. It is thus possible to Paste data obtained from MS
Excel, or first Copy data from the Editor to MS Excel, modify the data and Paste it back into the Editor etc. This functionality
will be further illustrated in the subsequent Paragraph for adding a new section Type.

9. Always use library values


Number (9) on the Profile Library Editor picture concerns a specific checkbox labeled Always use library values.
For the functionality of this checkbox reference is also made to [1] regarding the calculation of Cross-section properties.
Within SCIA Engineer, by default, all cross-section properties are calculated. After the properties have been calculated, the
values are compared with the values defined in the Profile Library. In case the difference between the calculated and the
inputted value is less than 10% the inputted value from the Library is used.
This so-called 10% rule is intended specifically to avoid errors in the input of the Library values. In typical cases, the values
within the Library (provided by manufacturer tables) are rounded off values and fall within this 10% range.
In the actual example, the Library contains a value for the area A of an IPE80 of 764 mm² coming from the manufacturer's
table. The calculated area A for an IPE80 is 764,74 mm². Since the values differ less than 10%, within the Cross-Section
Manager the Library value of 764 mm² is used.
For very special applications it is possible to activate the checkbox Always use library values. As this checkbox indicates, in
this case the library values will ALWAYS be used, even if they differ more than 10%.
A typical example could be a Pair section (Formcode 127 or 128) in which the manufacturer indicates to use the inertia Iz
around the weak axis as the sum of the inertias of the different parts.
In this case the Iz value in the Library will be much lower than the calculated one, thus by using the Always use library values
checkbox it can be forced to always use the inputted values.

Any values which are inputted as zero will still be calculated by SCIA Engineer, independent
if the Always use library values checkbox is activated or not.

The Always use library values checkbox should be used with care since the safety rule of
10% is in fact skipped.  The user should double check the inputted values to make sure
there are no errors in the input.

10. Note, Save & Cancel


The final items, noted by number (10) on the Profile Library Editor picture are located at the bottom.

- Save: The button is used to store changes made to the library after which a confirmation dialog will be
shown.
In case the Always use library values checkbox was activated an additional warning will be given to make sure the user activ-
ated this checkbox intentionally.
In case there is an error in any of the input fields a message will be given to explain what the error is (for example h > b) and
the cell which contains the incorrect value will be highlighted.

- Cancel: Using the button the dialog can be closed without storing any changes.

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- Note: The note shown at the bottom of the dialog is quite important:

When SCIA Engineer is open, data from the Library is already loaded in memory. In order to reflect the changes SCIA Engin-
eer should be closed and re-opened.

Closing and re-opening SCIA Engineer applies specifically in case new sections are added
into the Library. When data of an existing section has been edited it is not imperative to
close and re-open SCIA Engineer.

- To finalize this example press the button in order to avoid making any changes to the standard IPE Type.

- The Edit Profile Library dialog can then also be closed by pressing .

Adding a new section type


The previous paragraph illustrated how an existing Type can be edited and explained the different parts of the Profile
Library Editor.
In this paragraph, the adding of a new section Type is illustrated by means of an example.

Example Section Type


The following table shows typical manufacturer data for a hot-rolled section Type "UI":

The data was obtained from a fictive reference "Treatise on UI-sections / 1st Edition / 2013" and describes the parameters
and properties of a "Universal I-section".

In order to follow this example, either use the MS Excel file Example_Profile_Library.xlsx
provided with this manual or create a new MS Excel sheet with the same data.

Step 1: Create a new project / Open an existing project


In order to add new sections into the profile Library, first of all a project is needed. Either an existing project can be opened or
a new project can be created.
For this example a new project will be created.
- Launch SCIA Engineer.

- When the Open project dialog appears, press .


- Go to File > New

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Profile Library Editor

- Select a new Analysis project

- Confirm the selection with .


The Project data dialog opens:

- In this dialog, set the National Code to for example EC-EN, activate Steel material and set the Project Level to Advanced.

A different National Code may also be selected but it should contain Steel material.

- Confirm these settings with .


The project will now be created with the selected settings.

Step 2: Set correct units


Data provided by a manufacturer will have manufacturer specific units. For example some manufacturers show all units in
[mm], others use [cm], others use Imperial units etc.
In order to have a smooth copy/paste operation later on, the units within SCIA Engineer are modified to match those used in
the MS Excel sheet.

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Chapter 9

In this specific case, both the Parameters and Properties are given in [mm]. The units within SCIA Engineer can be changed
as follows:
- Go to Setup > Units
- Open up the tree nodes for Cross-section Length and Cross-section Properties

In this dialog it can be seen that the unit for Cross-section Length is already set to [mm]. The unit for Cross-section Prop-
erties however is by default set to [m].
- Change the Unit combo-box from Cross-section Properties to [mm].

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Profile Library Editor

- Confirm the changes with .


The units within SCIA Engineer now match with the units used in the MS Excel sheet. This will make the Copy/Paste from
the data much easier.

In some cases it can be required to modify the data in the MS Excel file in order to have
equal units between MS Excel and SCIA Engineer.

Step 3: Open the Profile Library Editor


The Profile Library Editor can now be opened either through the Menu toolbar at the top or through the tree in the Main dia-
log.

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Chapter 9

- Go to Tools > Edit profile library


The Edit Profile Library dialog appears:

- Use the button to indicate that a New section type will be defined.
The New Type dialog appears in which the basic information for the new type can now be defined.

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Profile Library Editor

- Within the Type input field the string for the Type can be defined, in this case UI.

The Formcode combo-box can now be used to set the proper Formcode. As detailed in Chapter 2 and Annex A, the Form-
code defines the shape and all related shape parameters.
- Since the new UI Type concerns an I-section shape the Formcode is left on the default 1 I sections.
The Library combo-box is used to specify in which Library the new section type will be created. By default, this combo-box
will always point to the UserLibrary (the second entry in the Folder settings as explained in Chapter 1).
When installing a patch of SCIA Engineer, the UserLibrary will not be modified, so no data is lost/overwritten when applying
a patch. It is therefore at all times recommended to use the UserLibrary when adding new section types.
- Following the above logic, the Library is left on the default 2 UserLibrary.

- Confirm the changes with .


The Profile Library Editor will now open.

Step 4: Copy data from MS Excel


The Profile Library Editor shows an empty grid at this point. All the information from the previous dialog is visible here and
the Formcode is illustrated by a picture and parameter description.

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Chapter 9

- The Fabrication combo-box is by default set to Rolled. Since the UI Type concerns hot-rolled I-sections this setting is left on
the default.
- The Description and Source combo-boxes at this time are empty since this is the very first entry ever made in this User-
Library. Therefore, the Source_ID.txt and Descrip_ID.txt files as specified in Chapter 2 are not yet generated. In a sub-
sequent step they will be defined.
Name and Parameters
The first data which will be copied from the MS Excel sheet will be the name and parameters. Before starting it is always
advised to check if the data in Excel is shown in the same order as in the Editor. The columns in the MS Excel sheet should be
repositioned accordingly.
In this example, the order of the property columns matches.
- Within the MS Excel sheet, select the name and parameter values (h, b, tf, tw, r) as shown on the following screenshot:

- Within the MS Excel sheet, right-click the selection and select Copy from the context menu.

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Profile Library Editor

- Within SCIA Engineer, put the mouse cursor just before the first line of the grid, right-click and select Paste from the context
menu.

The data has been copied into the grid. The parameters receive the blue color code.

Properties
In the same way the properties can now be copied. The MS Excel sheet provides data for four different properties which are
located on different places in the grid. Therefore these properties will be copied separately.
- Within the MS Excel sheet, select the area A values as shown on the following screenshot:

- Within the MS Excel sheet, right-click the selection and select Copy from the context menu.

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Chapter 9

- Within SCIA Engineer, put the mouse cursor on the first cell of the area A, right-click and select Paste from the context
menu.

The values of the area A are now copied into the grid.

When performing grid operations note that, both in MS Excel and in the SCIA Engineer
grid, the context menu which is shown on a right-click differs in case a cell is selected or in
case the content of a cell is being edited. In the above example at all times the cell is being
selected, not edited.

- Within the MS Excel sheet, select the inertia Iy and Iz values as shown on the following screenshot:

- Within the MS Excel sheet, right-click the selection and select Copy from the context menu.

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Profile Library Editor

- Within SCIA Engineer, put the mouse cursor on the first cell of the inertia Iy, right-click and select Paste from the context
menu.

The values of the inertia Iy and Iz are now copied into the grid.

- Within the MS Excel sheet, select the torsional constant It values as shown on the following screenshot:

- Within the MS Excel sheet, right-click the selection and select Copy from the context menu.

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Chapter 9

- Within SCIA Engineer, put the mouse cursor on the first cell of the torsional constant It, right-click and select Paste from the
context menu.

The values of the torsional constant It are now copied into the grid.

All data from the MS Excel file has now been transferred into the Profile Library.

In this Step the copy/paste functionality from MS Excel to the Profile Editor grid was illus-
trated. In the same way, data can be copied from the grid and pasted into MS Excel.

Step 5: Save the data and close SCIA Engineer


The modifications can now be saved into the database.

- Press the button


A confirmation is given that the data was successfully saved.

- Confirm this message by pressing the button.


The Edit Profile Library dialog re-appears.

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Profile Library Editor

This provides the possibility to add another section type etc.

- For this example no more new type is added so the dialog is closed by pressing .
As indicated in Chapter 2, the new changes made to the Profile Library will only be visible after SCIA Engineer has been
closed and re-opened.
- To finalize this step, close SCIA Engineer.

The project may be saved so it can be re-opened in a next step or the project may be closed
without saving. The data has been saved in the Profile Library, not the project, so by dis-
carding the project the data within the Profile Library is not lost.

Step 6: Source & Description


When the data was saved in the previous step, SCIA Engineer detected that there were no Source and Description files
within the UserLibrary folder and created those files automatically.
- Using Windows Explorer, navigate to the UserLibrary folder (see Chapter 1).
- Open the Descrip_ID.txt file using any default text editor.

Since the file is newly created it shows only one line, which has the not specified description.
- For this example, a new line is added with the number 1 and description Universal I-section. As specified in Chapter 2 both
fields (number and description string) are separated by a semicolon.

- Save the changes made to the Descrip_ID.txt file.


- Close the text editor.
In the same way the Source will now be added.
- Using Windows Explorer, navigate to the UserLibrary folder (see Chapter 1).
- Open the Source_ID.txt file using any default text editor.

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Chapter 9

Since the file is newly created it shows only one line, which has the not specified description.
- For this example, a new line is added with the number 1 and source Treatise on UI-sections / 1st Edition / 2013. As spe-
cified in Chapter 2, the source definition consists of three fields which are separated by semicolons and of which only the first
two are used.

- Save the changes made to the Source_ID.txt file.


- Close the text editor.
Both files now contain the required data and thus this information can now be assigned to the Profile Library.
- Launch SCIA Engineer.
- When the Open project dialog appears, either re-open the project saved in Step 5 or, if the project was discarded, Cancel
the dialog and create a new project as outlined in Step 1.
- Go to Tools > Edit profile library
The Edit Profile Library dialog appears:
- In the Existing type combo-box either select UI from the drop-down list or type UI into the input field.

- Now press the button.


The Profile Library Editor will open, showing the data for the selected type (UI).

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Profile Library Editor

The drop-down list of the Description combo-box now shows the modified content of the Descrip_ID.txt file:

- Change the Description combo-box to 1 Universal I-section.


The drop-down list of the Source combo-box now shows the modified content of the Source_ID.txt file:

- Change the Source combo-box to 1 Treatise on UI-sections / 1st Edition / 2013.

- Press the button to store the changes.

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Chapter 9

A confirmation is given that the data was successfully saved.

- Confirm this message by pressing the button.


The Edit Profile Library dialog re-appears.

- Close this dialog by pressing .

In case the Source_ID.txt and Descrip_ID.txt files already exist, they can directly be used in
Step 4 so Step 6 would not be required.

Step 7: Review the Cross-section


The new UI section Type is now defined into the Profile Library with its proper Source and Description strings. The cross-
section can now be used in the Cross-section Manager.
- Go to Libraries > Cross-sections

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Profile Library Editor

The Cross-section Manager as well as the New cross-section dialog will open. In case in Step 6 an existing project was

opened which already contained cross-sections then press the button to open the New cross-section dialog.
- In the Available groups select Profile Library.

- In the Available items of this group select the icon.

The new UI Type will now be visible. As can be seen, SCIA Engineer automatically shows the cross-sections of all the
defined libraries: ProfileLibrary, UserLibrary and any others as set in the library folders (see Chapter 1).
At the bottom the Source and Description strings will be visible:

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Chapter 9

- Select Type UI and code 100 and press the button.


The Cross-section dialog will open, showing the properties of the inputted cross-section.

The Source and Type descriptions subgroup will show the Source and Description.
The Fabrication is set to rolled, as defined in the Profile Library Editor.
The value of the Area A concerns the nicely rounded value which was inputted in the Profile Library Editor (the exact value
for this shape would be 1032 mm^2)
Scrolling to the bottom of the dialog shows the parameters of this section (h, b, tf, tw, r) and the Formcode.

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Profile Library Editor

This cross-section can now be used within the SCIA Engineer model, checks...

- Close the Cross-section dialog by pressing .

- Close the New cross-section dialog by pressing .

- Close the Cross-section manager by pressing .


- SCIA Engineer can now be closed, the project changes can be discarded.
This concludes the example for defining a new Section Type in the Profile Library Editor.

Annex C illustrates the creation of a Profile Library filter with which the new section Type
can be filtered.

Annex A: Profile Library Formcodes


Within SCIA Engineer, each shape within the Profile Library is uniquely identified by a so called Formcode. The Formcode
defines the shape, the parameters which describe the shape and in some cases also additional parameters like distance
between bolt holes, unit warping ordinates etc.
In this Annex the different Formcodes and their parameters are described.

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Chapter 9

Formcode 1: I-Section

Parameters Description
h Height
b Flange width
t Flange thickness
s Web thickness
r Radius at flange root
r1 Radius at flange toe
a Flange slope
W Internal bolt distance
wm Unit warping at flange toe

Formcode 2: Rectangular Hollow Section

Parameters Description
h Height
b Width

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Profile Library Editor

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Outer radius
r1 Inner radius

Formcode 3: Circular Hollow Section

Parameters Description
d Diameter
w Thickness

Formcode 4: L-Section

Parameters Description
h Height
b Width
t Thickness
r Radius at flange root

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Chapter 9

Parameters Description
r1 Radius at flange toe
W1 Bolt distance
W2 Bolt distance
W3 Bolt distance

Formcode 5: Channel Section

Parameters Description
h Height
b Flange width
t Flange thickness
s Web thickness
r Radius at flange root
r1 Radius at flange toe
a Flange slope
wm1 Unit warping at flange root
wm2 Unit warping at flange toe

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Profile Library Editor

Formcode 6: T-Section

Parameters Description
h Height
b Flange width
t Flange thickness
s Web thickness
r Radius at flange root
r1 Radius at flange toe
r2 Radius at web root
a1 Flange slope
a2 Web slope

Formcode 7: Full Rectangular Section

Parameters Description
h Height
b Width

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Chapter 9

Formcode 11: Full Circular Section

Parameters Description
d Diameter

Formcode 101: Asymmetric I-Section

Parameters Description
h Height
s Web thickness
bt Flange width top
bb Flange width bottom
tt Flange thickness top
tb Flange thickness bottom
r Radius at flange root

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Profile Library Editor

Formcode 102: Rolled Z-Section

Parameters Description
h Height
b Flange width
t Flange thickness
s Web thickness
r Radius at flange root
r1 Radius at flange toe

Formcode 111: Cold-Formed Angle Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Width
h Height

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Chapter 9

Formcode 112: Cold-Formed Channel Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height

Formcode 113: Cold-Formed Z-Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Total width
h Height

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Profile Library Editor

Formcode 114: Cold-Formed C-Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
c Lip

Formcode 115: Cold-Formed Omega Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Total width
h Height
c Inner length

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Chapter 9

Formcode 116: Cold-Formed C-Section Eaves Beam

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
c Lip
a Flange angle

Formcode 117: Cold-Formed C-Plus Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
c Lip
c2 Pluslip
a Pluslip angle

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Profile Library Editor

Formcode 118: Cold-Formed ZED-Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
bt Flange width top
bb Flange width bottom
h Height
c Lip

Formcode 119: Cold-Formed ZED-Section Asymmetric Lips

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
bt Flange width top
bb Flange width bottom
h Height
ct Lip top
cb Lip bottom

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Chapter 9

Formcode 120: Cold-Formed ZED-Section Inclined Lip

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
bt Flange width top
bb Flange width bottom
h Height
ct Lip top
cb Lip bottom
a Lip angle

Formcode 121: Cold-Formed Sigma Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width

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Profile Library Editor

Parameters Description
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
c Lip
b1 Web depression

Formcode 122: Cold-Formed Sigma Section Stiffened

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
c Lip
c2 Pluslip
b1 Web depression

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Chapter 9

Formcode 123: Cold-Formed Sigma-Plus Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
c Lip
c2 Pluslip
b1 Web depression
a Pluslip angle

Formcode 124: Cold-Formed Sigma Section Eaves Beam

Parameters Description
s Thickness

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Profile Library Editor

Parameters Description
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
c Lip
b1 Web depression
a Flange angle

Formcode 125: Cold-Formed Sigma-Plus Section Eaves Beam

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
c Lip
c2 Pluslip
b1 Web depression
a Flange angle
a2 Pluslip angle

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Chapter 9

Formcode 126: Cold-Formed ZED-Section Both Lips Inclined

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
bt Flange width top
bb Flange width bottom
h Height
ct Lip top
cb Lip bottom
a Lip angle

Formcode 127: Cold-Formed I-Plus Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width

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Profile Library Editor

Parameters Description
h Height
c Lip
c2 Pluslip
a Pluslip angle

Formcode 128: Cold-Formed IS-Plus Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
c Lip
c2 Pluslip
b1 Web depression
a Pluslip angle

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Chapter 9

Formcode 129: Cold-Formed Sigma Section Asymmetric

Parameters Description
s Thickness
r Inner radius
bt Flange width top
bb Flange width bottom
h Height
h1 Web height near flange
h2 Inner web height
ct Lip top
cb Lip bottom
b1 Web depression

Formcode 130: Cold-Formed 2C-Section

Parameters Description
s Thickness

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Profile Library Editor

Parameters Description
r Inner radius
b Flange width
h Height
c Lip

Formcode 150: Rail Type KA

Parameters Description
h1 Height
h2 Intermediate top height
h3 Intermediate top height
b1 Width bottom
b2 Intermediate width
b3 Intermediate width
k Width top
f1 Intermediate bottom height
f2 Intermediate bottom height
f3 Intermediate bottom height
r1 Radius
r2 Radius
r3 Radius
r4 Radius
r5 Radius
a Wear

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Chapter 9

Formcode 151: Rail Type KF

Parameters Description
h1 Height
h2 Intermediate top height
h3 Intermediate top height
b1 Width bottom
b3 Intermediate width
k Width top
f1 Intermediate bottom height
f3 Intermediate bottom height
r1 Radius
r2 Radius
r3 Radius

Formcode 160: Virtual Joists

Parameters Description
D Depth

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Profile Library Editor

Parameters Description
B Width
TB Flange thickness
TD Web thickness
DEE Depth of Web
BSD Minimum Bearing Seat Depth

Annex B: Cross-section Characteristics


The following table provides an overview of all Cross-section Characteristics which can be inputted into the Profile Library:

Property Description
A Area
Ay Shear Area in principal y-direction
Az Shear Area in principal z-direction
AL Circumference per unit length
AD Drying Surface per unit length
cYUCS Centroid coordinate in Y-direction of Input axis system
cZUCS Centroid coordinate in Z-direction of Input axis system
IYLCS Second moment of area about the YLCS axis
IZLCS Second moment of area about the ZLCS axis
IYZLCS Product moment of area in the LCS system
α Rotation Angle of the principal axis system
Iy Second moment of area about the principal y-axis
Iz Second moment of area about the principal z-axis
iy Radius of gyration about the principal y-axis
iz Radius of gyration about the principal z-axis
Wely Elastic section modulus about the principal y-axis
Welz Elastic section modulus about the principal z-axis
Wply Plastic section modulus about the principal y-axis
Wplz Plastic section modulus about the principal z-axis
Mply+ Plastic moment about the principal y-axis for a positive My moment
Mply- Plastic moment about the principal y-axis for a negative My moment
Mplz+ Plastic moment about the principal z-axis for a positive Mz moment
Mplz- Plastic moment about the principal z-axis for a negative Mz moment
dy Shear center coordinate in principal y-axis measured from the centroid
dz Shear center coordinate in principal z-axis measured from the centroid
It Torsional  constant
Iw Warping constant
βy Mono-symmetry constant about the principal y-axis
βz Mono-symmetry constant about the principal z-axis

For background information regarding these parameters reference is made to [1].

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Chapter 9

The centroid coordinates are not defined in the Profile Library since they refer to an arbit-
rary axis. These properties are always calculated by SCIA Engineer and referenced to the
Input Axis System (see [1]).

Annex C: Profile Library filters


The Profile Library filters in the New Cross-section dialog allow an easy selection of specific types. Any set of section types
can be gathered in a filter. This can be used to create filters for often used section types, filters for country specific sections
etc.
Within this Annex the creation of a filter is illustrated.
The content of a filter is defined by means of a filter file. This file concerns a simple text file which is located in the folder of a lib-
rary and has extension .FIL.
The standard ProfileLibrary has several filter files provided by default, for example European.FIL, German.FIL, Amer-
ican.FIL, ...
The name of the file defines the name of the filter i.e. how it will be visible within SCIA Engineer. A filter file can be edited
using a default text editor. The following picture shows the partial content of the European.FIL file:

As can be seen from the screenshot, the content is a list of all the section Types which should be visible when this filter is
selected.
Filter files can be located in any Library folder, and can contain Types of different libraries.
This is illustrated by means of the example of Chapter 2: at the end of that Chapter the UserLibrary contained a new UI sec-
tion Type.
- Using Windows Explorer, navigate to the UserLibrary folder (see Chapter 1).
- Within this folder, create a new text file using any default text editor.
- Save the file as MyFilter.FIL Make sure the .FIL extension is properly set (instead of .txt)
- As content, input the desired section Types. For this example, the IPE Type and the UI Type are used:

The IPE Type concerns a standard Type which is located in the ProfileLibrary while the UI Type is a user-defined Type loc-
ated in the UserLibrary. As indicated above, the filter file itself can be located in any Library folder, and can contain Types of
different libraries.
- Save and close the MyFilter.FIL file.

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Profile Library Editor

The filter file is now created and can be used within SCIA Engineer.
- Launch SCIA Engineer.
- When the Open project dialog appears, either re-open an existing project or Cancel the dialog and create a new project as
outlined in Chapter 2.
- Go to Libraries > Cross-sections

The Cross-section Manager as well as the New cross-section dialog will open. In case an existing project was opened which

already contained cross-sections then press the button to open the New cross-section dialog.
- In the Available groups select Profile Library.

- In the Available items of this group select the icon.

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At the bottom of the dialog the Profile Library filter combo-box contains the filters of all Libraries.
- Click on the Profile Library filter combo-box and select MyFilter from the list.

The Available items of this group now shows only the IPE and UI Types.

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Profile Library Editor

This example illustrated how filters for the Profile Library can be defined and used.

- Close the New cross-section dialog by pressing .

- Close the Cross-section manager by pressing .


- SCIA Engineer can now be closed, the project changes can be discarded.
Extension: Translations
Within the standard ProfileLibrary folder, additional files related to the filters can be found i.e. Filter_Names_05.txt, Filter_
Names_07.txt, Filter_Names_0c.txt...
Each of these files contains a translation of the filter file names for specific languages. The naming follows the same logic as
outlined in Chapter 2 for the Descrip_ID and Source_ID files.
The number used to identify a certain language concerns the Locale ID (LCID) as provided by Microsoft. More specifically
the last two digits of the LCID are used. The following table illustrates this principle:

Language LCID Number used in filename


Czech
0405 05

German
0407 07

English
0809 09

French
040c 0c

Dutch
0813 13

Slovak 041b 1b

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Chapter 9

A list of all LCID's as provided by Microsoft can be found on the MSDN website.
Thus when the interface of SCIA Engineer is for example set to German, the filter strings will be read from the file Filter_
Names_07.txt. In case this file does not exist, the content of Filter_Names.txt is used.

These Translations are only used by the standard ProfileLibrary, not the UserLibraries.

Annex D: Folder Content


This Annex gives an overview of the relevant files located within the standard ProfileLibrary folder.

File Description
dbgeo Actual library file containing parameters and properties

American.fil Filter file containing American sections


Brazilian.fil Filter file containing Brazilian sections
British.fil Filter file containing British sections
Chinese.fil Filter file containing Chinese sections
European.fil Filter file containing European sections
Finnish.fil Filter file containing Finnish sections
German.fil Filter file containing German sections
Indian.fil Filter file containing Indian sections
Japanese.fil Filter file containing Japanese sections
Russian.fil Filter file containing Russian sections
Swiss.fil Filter file containing Swiss sections

Descrip_ID.txt File containing Description strings used in any language interface


Descrip_ID_05.txt File containing Description strings used in the Czech language interface
Descrip_ID_07.txt File containing Description strings used in the German language interface
Descrip_ID_09.txt File containing Description strings used in the English language interface
Descrip_ID_0c.txt File containing Description strings used in the French language interface
Descrip_ID_13.txt File containing Description strings used in the Dutch language interface
Descrip_ID_1b.txt File containing Description strings used in the Slovak language interface

Filter_Names.txt File containing Filter name strings used in any language interface
Filter_Names _05.txt File containing Filter name strings used in the Czech language interface
Filter_Names _07.txt File containing Filter name strings used in the German language interface
Filter_Names _09.txt File containing Filter name strings used in the English language interface
Filter_Names _0c.txt File containing Filter name strings used in the French language interface
Filter_Names _13.txt File containing Filter name strings used in the Dutch language interface
Filter_Names _1b.txt File containing Filter name strings used in the Slovak language interface

Source_ID.txt File containing Source strings used in any language interface


Source _ID_05.txt File containing Source strings used in the Czech language interface

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Profile Library Editor

File Description
Source _ID_07.txt File containing Source strings used in the German language interface
Source _ID_09.txt File containing Source strings used in the English language interface
Source _ID_0c.txt File containing Source strings used in the French language interface
Source _ID_13.txt File containing Source strings used in the Dutch language interface
Source _ID_1b.txt File containing Source strings used in the Slovak language interface

References
1. Theoretical Background – Cross-Section Characteristics, SCIA, 2012

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