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cu») United States c2) Patent Application Publication Pilliod et al. (00) Pub. No.: US 2018/0122973 Al (4s) Pub. Dat May 3, 2018 (54) OBSCURING, COLOR MATCHING, AND ‘CAMOUFLAGING SOLAR PANELS (71) Applicant: Tesla Motors, Ine, Palo Alto, CA (US) (72) Inventors: Michael Plliod, Los Angeles, CA (US); Christos Gougoussis, Cupertino, CA (US); Oliver Lefevre, Palo Alto, CA (US); Mike Laurin, Palo Alto, CA (US), John Liu, Psio Alto, CA (US) (93) Assignee: “Tesla Motors, Ine, Palo Alto, CA (US) (21) Appl. Now 187796,683 (22) Filed: Oct. 27, 2017 Related U.S. Application Data (60) Provisional application No. 62/414,275, fled on Oct. 28, 2016, provisional application No. 62/450,000, fled on jan. 24, 2017, provisional application No. 62/452,221, fled on Jan, 30,2017, provisional appli= cation No, 62/452,269, filed on Jan. 30, 2017, Publication Classification GI) Ineo, HOU 31/0463 (2006.01) HOLL 31/088 (200601), W028 4020 (2006.01), M028 2023, (2006.01), HOI 310236 (2006.01) (2) US.CL CPC onus HOI 31/0463 (2014.12), HOLL 31/048 (2013.01): HOU 3102366 (2013.01); HO2S ‘2023 (2014.12), HO2S 40/20 (2014.12) 6 ABSTRACT A solar panel includes @ backsheet layer, a bottom encap- slant layer adjacent the acksheet ayer, a plurality of photovolinc cells adjacent the bottom eneepsulant layer, a top encepsulant layer adjacent the plurality of photovoltaic cells having plurality of louvers contracted therein to block side view of the plurality of photovoltaic cells, and a top layer adjaceat the top encapsulant layer. May 3,2018 Sheet 1 of 34 US 2018/0122973 AI Patent Application Publication Old US 2018/0122973 AI May 3, 2018 Sheet 2 of 34 Patent Application Publication eo Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 3 of 34 US 2018/0122973 AL FIG. 3 Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 4 of 34 US 2018/0122973 AL FIG. 4 Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet S of 34 US 2018/0122973 AL 802 500 504 FIG. 5A 504 504 Patent Application Publication May 3,2018 Sheet 6 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al © There is a Critical Angle for Total Reflection High Angle: Reflected Low Angle: Absorbed FIG. 5B Patent Application Publication May 3,2018 Sheet 7 of 34 US 2018/0122973 AI Bee Alto, Spacing=100,:m Orthogonal Louvers, Facing South ——— 0 Deg Side Angle | 45 Deg Side Angle LZ 'y Index vs no Louvers(%) T T 10 20 300 «©4006 «650 60 70 80s. Roof Angle (Deg) FIG. 6A Patent Application Publication May 3,2018 Sheet 8 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al ~ Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Dec Year Average nee Alto, Spacing=100,:m Orthogonal Louvers, Facing South % Transmitted vs no Louvers Solar Panel Angle (Deg) FIG. 6B US 2018/0122973 AI May 3, 2018 Sheet 9 of 34 Patent Application Publication 5 as rs 5. z > s = Jun Dec Year Average Palo Alto, Spacing=100,1m Orthogonal Louvers, Facing South 1004 20-4 6 4 a $19AN07 OU SA payuIsUed, % Solar Panel Angle (Deg) FIG. 7A Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 10 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al P. Ee 70 65 + 60 + 55 4— 50 ‘% Transmitted vs no Louvers 0 10 2 30 40 50 60 70 8 99 Solar Panel Angle (Deg) FIG. 7B Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 11 of 34 US 2018/0122973 AI % Transmitted vs no Louvers 0 10 20 30 40 SO 60 70 80 9 Solar Panel Angle (Deg) FIG. 7 Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 12 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Dec Year Average % Transmitted vs no Louvers 0 10 20 30 40 SC 60 70 8 Solar Panel Angle (Deg) FIG. 7D Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 13 of 34 US 2018/0122973 AL 802 FIG. 8A 800~ yr 802 FIG. 8B Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 14 of 34 US 2018/0122973 AL 900~, 902 FIG. 9A 00 902 Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 15 of 34 US 2018/0122973 AL 1000 10024 1002 FIG. 10A FIG. 10B Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 16 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al Assessment 8-10 High Res. Photos. (min Flight Geo-tagged Pictures -> Point Cloud Data Generation Roof Type + Condition Area + Features FIG. 11A Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018. Sheet 17 of 34 US 2018/0122973 AI Design Rendering, Layout. Cost Roof Kit Potential for In-store Point Sale Manufacturing Assemble O Laminate Inspect FIG. 11B Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 18 of 34 US 2018/0122973 AL FIG. 12 Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 19 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 20 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 21 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al -1502B 1502A FIG. 15A 1500~, 1502 Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 22 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al 1500 > 1502B 15024 1602: FIG. 15B ‘US 2018/0122973 AL May 3, 2018 Sheet 23 of 34 Patent Application Publication titi ti ttf tf tt 2 1500 1502 1502B-~ 1502A—+ FIG. 15 Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 24 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al FIG. 15D 1604— ‘US 2018/0122973 AL May 3, 2018 Sheet 25 of 34 Patent Application Publication 7 buns 809 May 3, 2018 Sheet 26 of 34 US 2018/0122973 AI Publication Patent Application Patent Application Publication May 3,2018 Sheet 27 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al 2500 2000 st BE 22 ow ge s 9 sr s = 2 3 PS 2 8 B 3S eS a = i 2 f 2 6 6 & 8S 8 Ss aouRjayay 3 Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 28 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al v- 1900 1902 Glass a Frontsheet 71904 Silicon Wafer (Photovoltaic Material) _~ 1906 Backsheet 7 1908 FIG. 19 Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 29 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al FIG. 20B Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 30 of 34 US 2018/0122973 AL FIG. 21B FIG. 22A FIG, 22B FIG. 22C FIG. 22D Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 33 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al FIG. 23 Patent Application Publication May 3, 2018 Sheet 34 of 34 US 2018/0122973 Al TiO, (100nm) ee Al (4nm) eae TiO, (5m) va Backsheet Substrate FIG, 24 US 2018/0122973 AI OBSCURING, COLOR MATCHING, AND ‘CAMOUFLAGING SOLAR PANELS CROSS-REEERENCE TO RELATED "APPLICATIONS, {0001} This application claims priority to the fllowing US. provisional patent applications: U.S. provisional patent pplication No. 62/414.215, tiled “Obscuring Solar Arrays From Certain Viewing Angles.” fled on Oct. 28, 2016; US. provisional patent application No. 62/450,000, titled “Coated Backsheet for Solar Panels,” filed Jan, 24, 2017; US. provisional patent application No, 62/452,221, titled “Solar Cell Camouflage Structures,” filed Jan. 30, 2017; and US. provisional patent application No, 62/452.269, titled "Solar Cel Camouflage Steneares” fled tan. 30, 2017, the ‘content of each of these applications is herchy incorporated by reference in its entirety for al purposes BACKGROUND Technical Field 10002} The present disclosure relates to solar panels; and ‘more particularly to techniques for obscuring solar panels from certain sight Fines or vantage points, color matching & backsheet of a solar panel with the cell of the panel, and ‘camoutflaging solar panels. Description OF Related Art 10003] ‘Today, most ofthe elotical power generated that js used to ight and heat homes and buildings is derived from ‘coal, petroleum, hydro electric dams, nuclear power, wind power, ocean current power and so forth. The electrical power is genersted ata poser plant by wilty companies and Uelivered to end users via transmission ines and distribution lines. The electrical power is distributed within homes and businesses at usable voltages 1000S) Most currently used techniques for generating elec- trical power have a fuel cost. All facilites for generating ‘elecisical power have a facility cost. Further, the eost of transmission and distribution lines is substantial, Power loss “during transmission of the eletcical power from the poser plans tothe end users can be substantial. As electrical power ‘consumption continues to ineresse additional Facilities must be constructed wo service the increase in demand. 0005) Fossil fuels, such as petroleum and coal that pro- ‘duce most electical energy are non-renewable. The price of these natural resources continies to increase. In cases of hydro clectic power generatog, the avaiable elects output depends entirely upon natural circumstances such as rain {all For instance, during years when rainfall is los, poster generation is also low, which affects the entire community Who use this source of electrical power. Wind power is ‘ypically only available during daylight hours and fctaates both seasonally and based upon local weather patterns. In the ease of nuclear power, the technology is expensive. ‘construction of power penerating stations is expensive, and spite of e safeguanls. Nuclear power generation is mot avail- able in many regions of the world because of security 10006] In addition, adverse environmental effets from all ‘of these power generation methods is enormous. In other words, each of these power peneration methods has is own May 3, 2018 adverse environmental effets such as hydo electric dams adversely affecting biodiversity and possibly causing Boods fof enormous destruction should a dam burst, The wind power generation takes huge amounts of land and may be Aesthetically unpleasant. Coal and petroleum generation ‘causes enviroameatal degradation in the form of earboa dioxide and toxic emissions, causing enomous adverse effects on natural weather cycles, having damaging effects fn life as a whole inthe planet, in the long run. Similarly, uelear waste can be hazardous: disposing nuclear waste is very expensive and also has the ability to have an adverse cllet on the environment [0007] Solar panels, also referred to as photovoltaic pan- os, typically include a relatively large number of pherovol- {aie celsto conver solar energy directly to electrical energy. This electrical energy is used in place of electrical energy szencmited from other sources an is used to power homies and businesses. Solar panels are often times deployed in famays and clectscally coupled together Io produce a com- bined eletrical outp, The solar arrays are often coupled to banks of batteries and coupled tothe electrical grid via an inverter, Excess cletrical energy produced by an array of solar panels is od back into the Mility electrical grid and ‘transmitted to other users. BRIBE DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS: [0008] FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating the relationship between a solar panel mounted on an angled roof of & ‘welling, a pedestrian observer, and the sun, [0009] FIG. 2 isa diagram illustrating various angles of Solar panel arrays at diflering angles of orientation with respect to a horizontal reference. [0010] FIG. 3 is an exploded view of a solar pane! ‘sonsircted according to ote oF more embodiments, [O11] FIG. 4 is a diggram illustrating louvers of a solar panel constructed socording to one oF more embodiments [0012] FIG. Sis a diguram illustrating the path of solar insolation upoo a solar panel via a louver layer according 10 ‘one of more embodiments, [0013] FIG. SB is diagram illstesting 4 solar panel thst jncludes tilted louvers cotstricted according to ane or more embodiments. [0014] FIG. 6A sc graph illustrating street visibility index versus roof angle ofa solar panel constructed aeconting t0 fone oF more embodiments [0015] FIG. 6 is a graph ilusiring the percentage of sunlight transmitted through the louvers versts solar panel angle ofa Sola panel eonsircted according to one or more embodiments. [0016] FIGS. 7A, 7B, 7C, and 7D are graphs illustrating the percentage of sunlight transmitted through the louvers vers solar panel angle ofa solar panel constracted accord- ing t0 one oF more embodiments, [0017] FIGS. 8A and 8B illustrate prior ant solar pane! ‘and a portion ofa solar panel construed according 10 one for more embodiments [0018] FIGS. 9A and 9B illustrate a prior ant solar pan! and portion ofa solar panel construed according 0 one for more embodiments [0019] FIGS. 104 and 108 are photographs of a moting tile that has mounted therein a solar panel constnicted according tone oF more embodiments. US 2018/0122973 AI 10020] FIGS, 11 aad 118 include photographs ad dae trams illustrating steps in designing solar panels for one oF more dwellings aeeording to one or more embodiments [0021] FIG. 12 is an overhead view of a neighborhood having homes located therein for which solar panels of the homes are designed according to one or more embodiments [0022] FIG. 13 are photographs illustrating views. of @ home having solar panels mounted thereon that ae designed and constructed according to one oF more embodiment. [0023] FIG. 14 are photographs illustrating views of @ home having solar panels mounted thereon that are designed ‘and constructed according lo one or more embodiments, [0024] FIGS. 154, 153, 1SC and ISD illustrate atop layer that is constricted oF glass and that includes a saw tooth surface that obscures a view of covered photovoltaic cols from a low viewing angle 10025] FIG. 16 is a sectional side view illustating @ tated solar panel eonsiucted according to one or more ‘embodiments 10026] FIG. 17s «sectional side view illustrating « coated backsheet constricted according to one or more embodi- [0027] FIG. 18 is © groph fhustating the reflectance spec- trum ofa solar panel constructed according to one or more ‘embodiments 10028] FIG. 19 is a sectional side view illustrating @ Jaminated solar panel constructed according to one or more ‘embodiments [0029] FIGS, 208-208 are random pattems generated that ‘can be used (o create a camouflage film according to one oF ‘more embodiments 10030] FIG. 21, isa solartile that comprises camouflage film according to one oF more embodiments [0031] FIG. 218 is a solar tle that does not comprise @ ‘camouflage film according to one or more embodiments. 10032] FIG. 22A-22D ae solar tiles with a camouflage ‘lm according wo one oF more embodiments, [0033] "FIG. 23 isa series of micrographs that show the Topography ofa silicon water. 10034] FIG. 24 is a sectional side view illustrating @ Jaminated backsheet according w one or more embodiments DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCLOSURE. 10035] A number of design tradeoffs exist for soar panels Iis beneficial for the solar panels tobe efficient, inexpen- sive, and aesthetically pleasing, becanse they are installed in arays. These arays of solar panels may be considered ‘eye-sores by some observers. Residential solar arrays, for ‘example, are oflen mounted upon the rools of homes and ‘ther buildings. When mounted on the roofs of homes, the solar panels mount parallel to the oofs. While this type of ‘mounting technigue is cost effective, the photovoltaic clls ‘of the solar panels are visible to persons viewing the home ‘or other structure, using an unsightly appearance to the home, detracting from the aesthetics of the home. Such unsightly appearance may also violate restrictive covenants jn some neighborhoods. Thus, i is desirable forthe solar panels to have the appearance of roofing, material with same'similarcolorto shingles. Further, its desirable forthe solar panels to have uniform perccived color across their ‘areas and otherwise be visually appealing. The disclosure below provides various techniques for impraving the aes theties and performance of solar panes. May 3, 2018 1. Obscuring Solar Arrays From Certain Viewing Angles [0036] FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating the relationship between a solar panel 102 (or solar panel seray) mounted on an angled roof ofa dwelling, a pedestrian observer, and the sun. As illustrated and generally know, it is desired t have the solar panel 102 perpendicular tothe angle of incidence of the solar rays coming from the sun to maximize captured Solar energy and convert the eaptured solar energy to elee- ‘ical enemy. A pedestrian observer of the solar array 102 ‘may judge the solar panel 102 unsightly. Funher, the view of the solar panel 102 may violate restitive covenants or tract from the aesthetic qualities of the home or other structure upon Which the solar pane! 102 mounts [0037]. ‘Thus, according to some embodiments, the solar panel 102 fas a consiuet that helps 10 obscure the solar panel 102 from being viewed by the pedestrian observer. la the constrict of the solar panel 102, the solar panel 102 includes one or more louver layers. The structure of suck a solar panel will be describe furher wit reference to FIG. 3. The louver layer of the solar panel causes the solar panel ‘o have a substantially or fully solid color when viewed at a side angle, such as the side angle ofthe pedestrian observer Of FIG. 1, That i, the louver layer helps to obscure the solar ppancl or solar cell from view along certain sight lines. The fouser layer optionally includes film that contains the louvers [0038] FIG. 2 isa diagram illustrating various angles of | solar panel arrays at differing angles of orientation With respoct 10 a horizontal reference. Each of the solar panels 202, 204, and 206 mounts ata differing angle with respect {o the sun and the pedestrian observer illustrated in FIG. 2 According to some embodiments, the design ad construe: ‘ion ofthe louvers of the solar panels 202, 204 and 206 are ‘based upon the ange(s) of mounting of the solar panels 202, 204, and 206. Examples of the design and construction process for such solar panels 202, 204, and 206 will be Geseribod further herein with respect to subsequent figures. [039] FIG. 3 is an exploded view of a solar panel 300 constricted according #9 some embodiments. The solar panel 300 includes a backsheet layer 302, a bottom encap- Slant layer 4M adjacent the backsheet layer 302, a plurality of photovoltaic cells 306 adjacent the bottom encapsul layer 304, atop encapsulant layer 308 adjacent the plurality of photovoltaic cells 306 having a plurality of louvers eonsircted therin to block side view of the plurality of phiotovoliie cells 306, and atop layer 310 adjacent the top feneapstlnt layer 308, [0040] In some embodiments, the backsheet layer 302 is construeted of glass ora barrier film, The bottom encapst- Jant layer 304 may be constructed of Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), also known as poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) (PEVA), ‘which is the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate. The shovovoliaie ells 306 may be of conventional construct Ia Some embodiments, the top encapsulant layer 308 is a formed structure of EVA that includes the louvers. The top layer 310 may be constructed of glass that is textured toughed, having low iron content and ofa thickness sul cient t protect the solar panel 300 underlying components. ‘The encapsulant layers can aso be polyolefin encapsulant stich as 3M Solar Encapsulant Film POSLOON, [041] The top encapsulant layer 308 may include 2 plurality of lowers distributed across its area, The plurality ff louvers may include difering incident angles across the {op encapsulant layer 308, Fuster, in some embodiments US 2018/0122973 AI first group of the plurality of louvers have a first incident angle and a second group of the plurality of louvers have & second incident angle that differs from the first incident ‘angle. In other constructs, the louvers have « number of siffering incident angles. As will be deseribod further herein, the louvers are designed to provide viewing obsirution to the photovoltaic cells 306 when viewed from a side angle but fo minimally impede salar energy passed to the photo- voltaic cells 306 [0042] The plurality of louvers may have a design color that causes the solar panel to have the appearance of the ‘design color when viewed from a side angle, thereby obseur- ing the solar panel from view. Furber, with this constrict, the solar panel may have the design color when viewed from the side angle and a differing color when Viewed from other than the side angle [0043] With the emboxtiments ofthe solar panel deseribed herein, it is desired to increase the angle transparency'of the louvers for solar efficiency but to have the solar panel have the appearance of solid color from a side angle. Various ‘colors may be used, including gray tones from dark to light, ‘earth tones, cedar color or appearance, and a print appear ‘ance. Thus, the top encapsulant layer 308 tht includes the Jouvers may be constrated not only to cause the appearance ‘ofa parietlar color or colors from the side Viewing angle but alsa a particular pattem or design, [0044] According wo some aspects of the present disclo- sure, the solar panel 300 may include a small vertical wall to further obscure view of the photoveltaie cells 306 whea viewed from the sie, Further, the tp layer 310 may have 3 textured surface (textured glass), for example, ina saw tot pattem. This saw tooth pattem may include verteal wall on ‘each tooth that asiss in obscuring the view of a covered Photovoltaic panel from a low viewing angle. Examples of this structure ae illustrated furher in FIGS. 18.-18D. The solar panel 800 may also include electronics or an electrical ‘eonncior for coupling the solar panel 300 to other solar panels orto other electrical connection. [0045] FIG. 4 is a diagram ilusirting louvers 402 of a solar panel constricted according to ane or more aspects of the present invention. As shown the louvers 42 are dis- persed across the top eneapsilont layer 308. The size, shape height, and separation ofthe louvers is designed to cause the solar panel to have # desired appearance from one or more particular side viewing angles and also to maximize the mount of solar energy that passes through the top encap- sulant layer 308, which includes the louvers, tothe photo- Vollac cells 306 [0046] FIG. 5A isa disgram illustrating the path of solar lation upon a solar pane! 500 via @ louver layer $02 socording o one or more aspects of the present disclosure. Asis shown, the louvers 504 are preferably designed! and ‘constricted to pass & maximum amount of solar energy t0 the photovoltaic calls $06 and to cause the salar panel 10 have a desied appearance from a side viewing angle. The ‘design of the lovers 04 is made to maximize performance and to meet aesthetics. Simulations may inelude simple ray tracing and take into account eefraetive index of the surface ‘of the cell, impact of multiple reflections, and the exact Position of the sun. Approximations in the design may ‘consider un-poarized light, fll absorption by the photovol- taie cells inside the louvers, thatthe simlated day is sunny and thatthe layers are transparent. The louvers $04 shown in FIG. SA may be tilted to assist in internal eolletion of May 3, 2018 solar energy (0 increase efficiency of the solar panel $00. Te louver layer S02 may be s fil that contains the louvers 508. [0047] FIG. SB isa diagram illstating 4 solar panel $10 that includes tlted louvers $12 consiructed according Wo one ‘or more aspects ofthe present disclosure, With ted Touvers $512, such as those illustrated ia FIG. 8A, sunlight at alow angie with respect tothe solar panel is absorbed to obscure the view of the photovoltaic cells from an angle of an observer, and the Sunlight that is received ata high angle of incidence is reflected (internally in some embodiments) by the louvers $12 onto the photovoltaic cells S14, [0048] FIG. 6A. graph illustrating street visibility index versus of angle of solar panel constructed according to ‘one or more aspects ofthe present disclosure. As is shown, as the rvof angle approaches 90 degrees, more of the photovoltaic pal is visible (louvers hide less). Further at Tow mof angles, the photovoltaic panels are not viewable from a zero-degree side view but lesser impeded from a 4S-deuree side view. Parameters modeled (0 ereate these simulated results inehide the shape and orientation of the Touvers (eg, orthogonal louvers with 100 miiron spac the roof orientation (eg. facing south), the geographic Iocation ofthe roof (eg. Palo Alto, Calif}, the day, the hour, and other parameters, as well as the reactive index of the ‘mateix and the louvers [0049] FIG. 6B is a graph illustrating the percentage of light transmitted though the louvers versus solar pane! angle ‘of solar panel constricted according to one ce more aspects fof the present disclosure, As is illustrated, these graphs ‘consider month ofthe year and yearly average of the percent ‘of transmitted light though the top encapsulant layer which includes the louvers, versus solar panel angle fora particular louver design [0050] FIGS. 7A, 7B, 7C, and 7D are graphs illustrating the percentage of light transmitted through the louvers versis solar panel angle of a solar panel constructed accord ing to one of more aspects ofthe present disclosure. Asis illustrated, these wraphs consider month of the year and yearly average of the percent of transmitted light though the ‘op encapsulant layer, which includes the louvers, versus solar panel angle Tor particular louver designs, [0051] FIGS, 8A and 8B illstate a peior amt solar pane! 800 anda portion ofa solar panel 802 constricted according ‘o:one or more aspects ofthe present disclosure . The solar pac! 802 causes the photovoltaic cells be viewable from ‘close wo perpendicular viewing angle ia FIG. RA and to be hidden from more of side angle view in FIG. 8B. Contrast this tothe prior ant solar panel 800 that allows the photo- volisic cells to be seen from both viewing angles [0052] FIGS, 9A and 9B illsteate a peior art solar pane! 900 an a solar panel 992 constructed soconding to one oF mone aspects ofthe present disclosure. The solar panel 902 tases the photovaltsic cells to be viewable fom a close to perpendicular viewing angle in FIG. 9A and to be hidden from more ofa side ale view in FIG. 9B. Contrast histo the prior art solar panel 900 that allows the photovotaie cells to be seen from Both viewing angles [0053] FIGS, 10A and 108 illustrate a roofing tile 1000 that has mounted therein a solar pane! 1002 constricted ‘according to one or more aspects of the present disclosure When viewed from 2 substantially perpendicular viewing the photovoltaic cells 1002 ofthe rofing tile 1000 ae US 2018/0122973 AI Viewable ia FIG. 104, From aside angle as shown in FIG. 108, the photovoltaic cells 1002 ofthe roofing tile 1000 are hidden of obscured 10054] FIGS. 11 and 118 include photographs and dia- grams illustrating steps in designing solar panels for one oF more dwellings aecording to one or more aspects of the present disclosure, The frst stp is to make an assessment of ‘4 roof upon which solar panels will be installed. The ‘dwelling, inthis cas, is photographed and then geotagged, Data is generated from the photogreph and the geota, e. ‘area und features, eo pitch, geographical data, and a street vantage point. The solar panels are then designed, rendered laid out and considered for cost based upon the generted data, The color of the rook, the type of solar panel 10 be Jnstalled, the vantage point fm, and other considerations are made in the design of the solar pane. A roof kit is then enerated, tempered, assembled, laminated, inspected, and Shipped to te site for installation. [0055] FIG. 12 is an overhead view of a neighborhood having homes loested therein for which solar panels of the homes are designed acconting to one or more aspects of the present disclosure, The neighborhood in which the homes ave located may have restrictive covenants requiring certain roofing appearance, The solar panels may be designed to ‘meet these restrictive covenants and local laws and furhee to cause the aesthetics of the installation to be utiactive. [0086] FIG. 13 ace photographs illustrating views. of @ home having solar panels mounted thereon that are designed and constricted according (© one or more aspeets of the present disclosure [0057] FIG. 14 are photographs lusting views of a home having solar panels mounted thereon that ae designed and constricted according 0 one or more aspects of the present disclosure [0058] FIGS. ISA, 188, 1SC, and 18D illustrate an ‘embodiment of a 19 layer (eg. top layer 310). Top layer 1500 illustrated in FIGS. 15A-1SD is constructed of glass and includes a sav tooth surface 1502 that obscures a view ‘of covered photovoltaic cells 1804 from a low viewing ‘angle. Referring first to FIG. 184, the top layer 1500 is shown to have surface 1502 that is formes in saw toot pattem having vertical woth surfaces 1S02A and angled Tooth suefaces 15028, The vertical oth surfaces 15028 are Formed substantially perpendicolar (approximately 90 degrees) to the solar panel stricture and the angled tooth surfaces 15028 are formed at an angle that i between perpendicular to the solar panel structure and parallel to the Solar panel structure. In some embodiments, this angle is elected based upon the installation location of the solar pane 1 cause the solar panel to be efficient while sill able to hide the photovoltaic panels from a low angle side view. The view of FIG. 1SA isa side view and the top layer 1500 js therefore substantially non-transparent based upon the black coloring upon the vertical tooth surfaces 1502. 10089] Referring next wo FIG. 18B, the top layer 1500 is shown as being viewed from a perspective of approximately perpenclicula to the solar panel. Ths the top layer 1500 is ‘mostly transparent fom this perspective view [0060] Referring next t FIG. I8C, the top layer 1800 is shown residing upon a photovoltaie cell layer 1804, The view of FIG. ISC is approximately from the same viewing angle asthe view of FIG, 18D. From this viewing angle, the top layeris mostly transparent such that the photowoltsie ell 1804 may be viewed through the top layer 100, May 3, 2018 [061] Referring next to FIG. 18D, the top layer 1500 is shown residing upon the photovoltaic cell layer 1504 from 4 View sinilar © that of FIG. 154. Thus, the photovoltaic fells are hidden from view based upon the stdcture of the ‘Sa tooth sae of the top layer. 2. Coated Backshet for Solar Panels [0062] Tuning now to FIGS. 1618, a coated backsheet Tora solar panel is deseribe! that reflects ight a the infrared range to maintain a lower eel temperature ofthe solar panel ‘while also providing low reflection in the visible range 10 color match the backsheet with the cell and improve the aesthetics ofthe solar panel [0063] In the architectural industey, physical vapor depo- sition (PVD) coatings made of altemate dielectric and metalic layers are suocessfully used to reduce the heat going into buildings. According to one or more embodiments, ‘new backsheet made of a coated plastic film that reflects light inthe infrared range also provides low rellecton in the visible range. [0064] FIG, 16 is 9 sectional side view illustrating @ laminated solae panel 1600 constructed according to one oF ‘more embodiments. The laminated solar panel 1600 includes a topsheet 1602, a solar cell ayer 1604, and 2 backsheet 1606. The topsheet 1602 is made of glass in the illustrated embodiment but may be made of differing mate- rials in other embodiments. The solar cell layer 1604 is made ‘of EVA i the illustrated embodiment but may be made of ifering materials, such as polyolefin in other embodi- meats. The solar eel ayer 1604 includes a plurality of solar cells 1608 encapsulated within the EVA material. Sunlight 1608 substantially passes through the topsbeet 1602 and either impacts the solar cells 1605 or passes between the solar cells to the backsheet 1606. The backsheet 1606 absorbs some ofthe sunlight 1608 and reflects « portion of the sunlight [0065] FIG. 17s. sectional side view illustrating a coated backsheet 1606 constricted secording to one oe more embodiments. According to certin embodiments, layers 1704A-1704D as shown in FIG. 17 are deposited wsing PVD process on top ofa substrate 1702, The backsheet panel 1606 is made of transparent oF nowiransparent substrate 1702 such as glass, EVA, polyethylene terephalate (PET), of fn alloy of polyphenylene oxide and styrene (modificd PPO), The substrate 1702 may or may not contain absorbing ‘material to cause it to have a black (or any other) color. On that substrate 1702 is applied a thin coating made of n+l icletric modules (1704, 17048, 1704C. and 1704D. also referred toas dielectric layers) and a metallic layers (1706A, 17068, and 1706C),n being an intewer (ex, I, 2,07 3). coating of 2n+l layers is applied as follows: dieletie ‘moduleimetallic layerdielectrie modale/metallic layer idielectric module'substae, each metallic ayer being between two dielectric modtles and the substrate being in cnet with a dielectric module. In some embostiments, the ‘numberof layers difers from the illustrated embodiments. [0066] In some embosiiments, a dielectric module is ‘ransparent material mace of one of several layers of nities ‘oroxides ofthe elements Si ATi, Zn, Sa, Nb, In, Zr, oF any ‘combination of those elements, For example, 3 nm af Si,N, ‘material isadioletric module, anda stack of 30 nm of SigN, ‘and 10 aim of Zine Aluminum oxide is also a dielectric ‘odie. A dicloctie mode thickness is preferahly between 10 am and 100 ai, US 2018/0122973 AI 10067] In some embodiments, 9 metallic layer is made of ‘one or sever] layers of Ni, Cr, Fe, Nb, Ti, Cu, Al Ag. Au, Pt or any combination of those metals. For example, layer ‘ofNb isa metallic layer. Alayer of Nb with Ni and Cr layers above or below the Nb layer is also a metalic layer. 8 metallic layer thickness is preferably between 4 nm and 40 10068] According to certain embodiments of the present disclosure, the backsheet has difleent characteristics ‘depesding on the specific layers that are deposited using PVD. For example, a deposited layer of Si,N ean provide ‘an elicient barier to alkaline ions such as Nas, Further, depositing a conductive layer as one of the layers in the backsheet coating can be used to enhance electrostatic properties. In some embodiments, one or more of the ‘deposited layers that comprise the backsheet is electrically ‘conductive and can be used as part of the energy harvesting mechanism. Specific stricture or circuitry within that layer cean he created by depositing the layer using PVD and subsequently ser etching away conductive material t0 ‘reate tracks (or circuity). According to some embodiments, the layers that are ommed using PVD cause the backsheet © absorb ight in the visual range, which ids in color matching ‘of the hacksheet to cell 1608, In some embodiments, the ‘deposit layers are chosen to provide low overall radiation “absorption (high reiletion) while Keoping low reflectance in the visible rang, to yield desirable color matching tothe ell ‘while maintaining 2 lower cell temperature (eg, providing less heat to the cell compared to some traditional back- sheets) thereby increasing cell eficieney and energy gen- [0069] FIG. 18 js 8 groph illustrating the reflectance spec- tum ofa solar panel constructed according to one or more ‘embodiments. The embediment resulting in the spectrum of FIG. 18 may be constructed follows: vate Te en PET absoe 10070] In the reflectance spectrum of FIG. 18, the refee- lance is higher for infrared wavelengths compared to wave- Jengths i the visible range, ths giving high performance of low visible reflectivity and high energy reflectivity. Total solar reflectance (IS09050) is 28% (compare to 6% for & black sheet). The visible colors for D6S CIE 1934 at 60 degrees incidence is L*-S5, a*-1, b*=6 (giving a purple color matching the cell). For comparison a white backsheet ‘would have L270, not matching the cell, 10071] In some embostimeats, a coating is obtained by PVD with commercially available equipment, for example ‘na eollo-roll process. For example: SigN, can be oblaied by reactive sputtering of a Si target in plasma made of argon and nitrogen; T102 can be obtained by sputtering ofa “TiO, target in argon; SiO, can be obtained by sputtering of ‘Si target in O,, Ar plasma; and Nb layer can be obtained by spuitering of » Nb target in Ae plasma 10072] This PVD coating technology is well known for ‘architectural coatings. Optional functionalities to the back- May 3, 2018 sheet include electricity conduction for enemy harvesting, This can be obtained by laser etching of tacks inside the film, which is already conductive. The Si,N, layer used in some exemplary coatings is an elicient barter to alkaline fons such as Nat. In some embostiments, the conductive ralure of the film bas good electrostatic properties. 3. Solar Cell Camouflage Structures {0073] Turing now w FIGS. 19-24, tecaigues ore deseribed to sere solar panels from view through spe- ciaized constuction of pttemed eamentge ns, textured backsheets, and colored hacksheets {0074} FIG. 19 shows a sectional side view that llasteates 4 solae cell 1900, The sole cell 1900 shown in FIG. 19 Comprises a silicon wafer 1906 that acts a te photovota ‘ateial. On top ofthe siteon wafer 1906 is typically a polymer front shect 1904 and ontop ofthe polymer font Shoct 1904 a glass layer 1902 (ea, topshet). The glass layer 1902 may comprise amorphous silica. The gas layer 1902 may also compase ser tanspareat medals. nsome ebodizient, the Soar cell 1900 is obscured in such 3 ‘manner that an observer finds it iiul to se the solr eel 1900 and the sole eel 1900 bles ito the backround. or Jooks similar o the surounding environment, FIG. 218 Alsrates solar cell 2108 that dacs not blend into the surrounding roofing tle 2110 (together referred to a8 solar Sle 2106). The solar cell 2108s observable towards the eater ofeach roofing tle 210. Solar ells may use other Photovelisie material beside silicon wafer and would sil ene irom the obscuring” and camouflage techniques deseribod herein. {0075} This disclosure describes ways to obscure or cam collage the solar cells from view by enaking them Blend nto the surounding environment andor obscure the silicon ‘war rom view. Aconling 0 someembodiments a system ‘ses pttemed coatings that eameurlage the solar el A. Pattemed| Coating To Camouflage The Solar Cell [0076] ‘The solar cells may be camouflaged from view by ‘causing them to blend into the remainder of the solar tle vusing a camouflage patter, This camouflage pattern ‘includes a thin transpatent coating that is patterned. The pattem includes blocks ofa specific shape (such asa square, ‘rectangle, a circle, oan arbitrary shape) For example, the ‘camouage shape may comprise squares tht are darker thaa the lightest color observed when observing the sola eel. ‘This patter of squares (or other geometries) may be ran. domly distributed around the area of the soar cell. In some embodiments, the coating allows light transmission for the solar spectrum greater than 0% but is slightly reflective (Gellection forthe solar spoctrum between I and 20%). That Js the coating reflects a portion ofthe solar spectrum thatthe Photoveliaic material may absorb, [0077] ‘The random pattem of shapes (squates or other shape) may be generated using an Ising model wilizing the ‘Metropolis slgorithm. Specifically, Metropolis. dynamics ‘may be applied around the eritieal temperature to generate ‘mages having good seale invarianee. properies that are suitable for obscuring and camouflaging the soar cells, However, other methods such as random spatial processes, Gaussian random fields (e.g field generated using a Hurst spectral distribution la), or use of natural pattems such as stone pictures may be used to obtain both small seale and US 2018/0122973 AI large eae features to make obscure the sla eel FIG. 208 shows a out oblined using an sing model uilizing the Meteopolis algorithm. FIG. 208 shows an ebodiment of a Gaussian field Theve random patiems have the avaniaye that they Took nairaland non-tepetitve. Optionally, coors ‘of tiles and pattems ean be varie rom tle to te (0 give 8 more natural appearance {0078} ‘This random patter» may be used 10 generate a ‘coating wih « sine pattern. Depending on the specie parameters, for example, the size and shape of the object, {ferent parterns may ees {0079} The coating isl comprises one or more layers of rater epplied in some are, preferentially between 10% an 90% of the oa) area ofthe solar cel to transparent Substrate, sch as lass ora polymer sheet suchas PET. The layers may be deposited othe tansparet substate, using PVD or anotber teenigue known to persans of skill inthe an. The PVD or ber technique must beable to form the roquired coating thickness and be compatible” with the materials in the coating. For example, Ti, 20, Si, Al So, i, Cu, Zr. Nb, oF Sb oxides or nteides may be use 8 ane oF more ofthe layers formed onthe substrate. Other layers may consist of meals sul as Nb, Ag. Cu, Fe, Cr Ni Al or flone or in combination. An exemplary coating comprises 50 nm of SiN, applied on ylss cr PET by reactive sput- tering of «Si tg ina plasna containing Ar and Ne ch ‘widely used in PVD, Preferential deposition maybe ‘blaine sing 2 mask (or other techniques kaowa in the fant). For example, the mask may be a sheet of Kapon ‘onisiing the spevife patter that is tobe deposited. Other techniques that may’ be used to creat the Jeposited patera include photolithography or printing. techniques. For ‘example an organi onan poy) with a negative pattem may be printed athe surface o gle. The polymce may act asa mask fora layer coat using PVD (or another tcchnigue). The omanic may then be removed, by for ‘example, Burning dhe materi ia an oven to remove it In some embodiments, the costing is achicved by sublimation printing or oter ink printing technigue [0080] The costing may be in the fore of lim applied to the glass layer 1902 (ether the front or the back) oF FIG. 19 ‘oF the foatseet layer 1904 (ether the front or the back) of F1G.19. The coating may also be dee printed ont either the gloss or fontshet. Alteratively, the costing may com- prising a separate layer tats above the silicon water shown inFIG. 19 0081) FIG. 214 shows an example ofa coating with a ‘eamouiage pte that is applied to the solar cells 2102, ‘according to embodiments ofthe present disclosure. The ‘amouflge pattem obscures the solr eels 2102 from the Surrounding material and makes the sola tile 2109 appear to bemore uniform in appearance (eit iilcult wo ubserve where the traditional rooting metal 2104 stops and the Solar cell 2102 begins). FIG. 24B illustrates solar cells 2108 ‘without #camoutage fim. The solar ells 2108 are visible Uowards the middle of each sole tile 2106) {0082} _In cerain embodiments, textured substrate may be used 0 inher enhance the obscuring ells of the pattemod fim. FIGS. 22A-22D ilhutrate exemplary cam- ‘ue eoatings formed ona textured substrate aceon 10 ‘certain embodiments ofthe present divslosare. The texturing nay comprise raised or depress ines in a cet direction, Taied of deprescd square patton, pebbling oF other texturing May 3, 2018 1B, Bocksheet With Cell Color Matching 0083} Another way to obscure the calls within the solar ties is by matching the backsheet color tothe silicon wafer of the photovoltaic andor ereating a textured backshoot, ‘according to certain embodiments of the present disclosure [0084] In some embodiments, the silicon wafer surface includes a pyramidal topography. FIG. 28 illustrates the imicrostructire ofthe silicon surface ina series of electron rographs. The pyramidal topography may result when the silicon (eg. Si(IH) surface is the exposed face. The topography of the silicon surface may be different if a tiflerent silicon surface, such as the Si 110) or the Si(100) surface is exposed, Similarly, the topography may be dif ‘rent ifthe photovoltaic comprised another semiconductor, sueh as gallium nitride, gallium arsenide, gallium phos: phide, oF another semiconductor. [08] According to some embodiments of the present disclosure, the backsheet comprises a textured polymer layer, such as PET, Polycarbonate, or another suitable poly mer. The textured polymer layer may have @ pyramidal ‘topography, similar othe strmctures exhibited in the Si(HH1) srlace shown ia FIG. 23..\ coating may then be applied to the top of the textured polymer layer. In some embodiments, the coating layer hat a similar color (or anray of colars) compared fo the cell (oF specifically the silicon wafer or photovoltaic). The result ofthe coating/ilm on top of the polymer buckshost is a film that matches the very complex color behavior observed whea looking at @ traditional cell and silicon wafer. If the topography’ ofthe silicon is differ tent, for example, it contains eubie Features, then the back- sheet may comprise similar features (instead of pyramidal ‘atures. In certain embodiments, the backsheet may com- prie a glass or other transparent material that need not be & polymeric material [086] textured polymer (such as PET) buckshot may be synthesized using a number of techniques. For example, a textured backsheet can be synthesized using a polymer injection method in which a mastor mold is fist ereate Using such a method, a master mold i ereted. This master may be a metal master formed! by taking s metal blank and ‘example, pyramidal features may be laser cut or otherwise formed in the meta blank. Alternatively, the master may be a glass master formed by laser cutting or using other deposition or etching techniques, such as eleetroforming. ‘The master may also be formed according to other tech- gues known to persons of skill in the ait. ‘The resulting naster will contain a negative impression ofthe features, for ‘example 8 pyramidal feature in the resulting film will appear as a pyramidal pit in the master [0087] According to certain embodiments, other mold “parents” may be created with both postive and negative impressions in order 0 allow for the further ereation of Additional masters that willbe used to produce the textured polymer backsheet. Thats, “parent” mold that contain the ‘negative impression of the features may be used to exeate ‘one of more “exer parent” molds with positive impeestions ‘ofthe features to be formed inthe textured polymer bock- set, The one or more “other parent” molds with the Positive impressions may be used to ereate one oF more negative master molds that are then used to form the textured polymer hacksheet. Creating “parent” and “other parent vokds is desirable in certain instances because they allow for US 2018/0122973 AI the eration of other master molds that ae used to form the textured polymer backshect, which may be necessary if @ master mold is los, or the features deteriorate from use. Additional master molds may also be ereated when increas- ing proguetion 10088] After a master mold has been created, it may be used to form the textured polymer backsheet, For example, the master mold may be used as part of a polymerinjection” molding process to form the textured polymer backshect. The master mold may be inserted into an enclosure (for ‘eximple a die) and molten polymer (or other materia) poured into the dic and allowed to dry. The textured back- Sheet will have the positive Features, such as pyramidal features, similar to the silicon shown in FIG. 23, The textured polymer backsbeet may be tested for quality stan- dards, 10089] In some embodiments, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sof Tithograpliy may be used to ereate the master ‘molds and the textured polymer backshee. Other fabrication Techniques may be used 10 create the mater mold and textured polymer backsheet. In some embodiments, the resulting textured polymer backsheet contsins the desired surface features c .surface features that match the surface ‘oposrapiy of the lass surface). In certain embodiments, instead of « polymer (such as PET) backshee, glass (silica for another (ansparent material) is used as the backsheet substrate, 10090] The backsheet substrate (extured oF otberwise) may be coated with one or more layers t ereste a specific ‘color profile that helps to visually obscure the cell, and specifically the silicon wafer (or wafer formed of other semiconductor material) ofthe photovoltaic cell. The coat- jing on top oF on the bottom of the hackshoet substrate may ‘consist of one or more layers, The entire surface of the backsheet substrate noed not be coated. Optionally, the total surface atea of the backshoet substrate is coated beeen 10% to 90%. The coating layers may be formed with PVD ‘oranothertechnigue known to persons of skill in the art. The PVD or other tecinigue fons the routed coating thickness ‘and is compatible with the materials in the costing. For ‘example, Ti, Zn, Si Al, Sn, in, Cu, Zr, Nb, Sb oxides oF nitrides may be used as one or more of the layers Formed on the backsheet substrate. Other layers may include metals such as Nb, Ag, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Al, Ti alone or in combi- nation. For example FIG, 24 illustrates coating layers 2400 (10), 2402 (AD, and 2404 (T50,) acconding to certain ‘embodiments, The TiO./AV'TO, layers (inthe thicknesses shown in FIG. 24, specifically, 100 nmw'4 nm'S nm) produce ‘purplish color. In some embodimeats, the coating includes, a layer of Sion the substrate and ether a layer of indium tin ‘oxide (ITO) onthe Si layer (¢g., substate’Si/TO) ora layer ‘of SisN, on the Si layer (eg, substrate/Si'Si.N,). Option: ally, the entire backsheet is textured, In some embodiments, the textured backshoet is used to mimic an actual water (eg wo act as @ fake wafer with the same color as the vetual ‘waler). ‘The coating layers may comprise silicone based ‘coatings or solvent based ink systems. {0091} Patten coatings, pattem coatings over a textured substrate, a texted hacksficet, and a coated backshet may all be used together to help obscure the solar cell from view ‘andl cause it to blend into its environment (soch as the res, ‘of the solar tile, thereby obscuring or camoulloging the sola cell, May 3, 2018 0092] The foregoing disclosure is not intended to limit the present disclosure tothe precise Forms or particular fields of use disclosed, As such, itis contemplated that various fallemate embodiments andlor modification lo the present siselosure, whether explicitly deseribed or implied herein, ‘are posible i light ofthe disclosure, Having thus deseribed embodiments of the present dislosure, a person of ordinary slain the art will ecognize that changes may be made in form and detail without departing ftom the seope of the present disclosure. Thus, the present disclosure is limited only by the elsims. [0093] In the foregoing specification, the disetosure has been described with relerence to specific embodiments. However, as one skilled in the art will appreciate, various cmbodinients disclosed herein can he modified or otherwise ‘implemented in various other ways without departing from the spirit and scope of the disclosure. Accordingly, this description is to be considered as illustrative and is for the purpose of teaching those skilled i the ant the manner of ‘making and using various embodiments of the dislosed system, method, and computer program product. It ist be ‘understood thatthe foams of disclosure herein shown and Aescribed ae to be taken as representative embodiments Equivaleat elements, materials, processes or steps may’ be substituted for those representatively illustrated and described herein. Moreover, certain features of the diselo- sure may be utilized independently of the use of other features, all as would be apparent to one skilled in the at afler having the benefit of this description of the disclosure [094] As used herein, the terms “comprises,” “compris- ng,” “includes,” “ineding,” “has,” “having” of any con- (al variants thereof, ar intended to cover a aon-exclt- sive inclusion. For example, a process, product, atcle, or ‘apparatus tat comprise list of elements is not accestily Timited to only. those elements, but_may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, product, article, or apparatus. Further, unless expressly Stated 10 the contrary, “oe” refers to an inclusive or and not to an exchisive or. For example, a condition “A or BY is stisied by aay one ofthe Following: A is trv (oF present) and B i false (or not present), i false (or not present) and Bis tre (or present, and bash A and B is tue (or presen) [098] Although the steps. operations, or computations may be presented in a specific order, this order may be changed in different embodiments. In some embodiments, 10 the extent multiple steps are shown 3s sequential in this specification, some combination of such steps in alternative embodiments may be performed at the same time. The sequence of operations deseribed herein ean be iaterupted, suspended, reversed, or otherwise controlled by another process. [0096] 1c will also be appreciated that one or more of the Jements depicted in the drawings figures can also be imple- ated in 8 more separated or integrated manner, oF even removed or rendered a5 inoperable in eerain eases, a is ‘selUl in aovordance with a particular application. Addition. ally, any signal arrows in the drawinasfigures should be considered only as exemplary, and not limiting, unless rtherwise specifically noted, 1. A solar panel comprising: a backsheet layer: a bottom encapsulant layer adjacent the backsheet layer; 4 plurality of photovoltaic cells adjacent the boom ‘encapsulant layer; US 2018/0122973 AI 2 top encapslnt layer acon the pluraiy’of photo= ‘clan ells having a pltraiyof loaves onstrated thorin to block side vow ofthe plait of photoval tue eels and a top layer ajacent the top encapsulant aye. 2. The solar pane of claim 1, wherein the plurality of overs are ditrbuted actos the top encapulat layer 2 The solar panel of claim 2, wherein the plurality of tooversinclndordifring incident angles across the op scape 4 The solr pane of claim 2, whercn fist group ofthe plurality of lovers have fist incident angle anda second {roup of the pray of lovers hnve a sscond indent Angle tht dies fom he first indent ange The solar pane! of claim 1, when the plurality of Ionvers comprises design color tht couse the soar panel to have the appearance of the design color when viewed fiom a sie angle The solar panel of cli 8, wherein: the solar pane asthe design color when viewed from he side angle: and the sola panel his fering color when vowel rom ‘er thn the side angle. The solarpanel of elim 1, wherin a surface ofthe top layer inhds sa tooth ater, the saw ooth pater inciding» plurality of ech having vertical foth surfaces tangled foot srfaes, wherein te vertical tooth sre fees obscure he view ofthe photovoluspanel om asi ange 1 The solar pan! of esi 7, hers the wert! tooth surfaces are substontally perpendicular to the solar pana fn the angled oth surioes ae formed tan angle at berween perpendicular othe solr panel and parallel 0 the solar pans 9 The solar panel of clim 8, wherein the vertical toth rorfices are nibstntially opague andthe angled tooth ‘orice rest trmmprent such that the fp ayer is substan rnsparent when viewed from an angle sppeoximtely perpen the ole pan! a ban tly opaune ncn viewed fom te sie angle May 3, 2018 10. 4 solar panel eon a topsheet: 4 photovoltaic layer adjacent the topsheet comprising a plurality of photovoltaic cells encapsulated in 9 pho- fovoltaie layer material and ‘a backsheet adjacent the photovoltaic layer inluding: nel dielectric layers; and ‘metallic layers, each of which is sandwiched between two of the nel dielectric layers, wherein mis an integer. 11. The solar pane of claim 10, wherein the photovoltaic layer material comprises ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), 12. (canceled) 13. The solar panel of claim 10, wherein the backshoet includes a subsite that absorbs light 14. The solar pane! of claim 10, wherein at least some of the dielectric Layers comprise one or more of nitrides or oxides including the elements Si, AL, Ti, Zn, Sn, Nb ln, Ze, ‘or a combination of those elements, 18. The solar punel of claim 10, wherein atleast some of the dielectric layers comprise a thickness between 10-nm and 100 nm, 16, The sola panel of claim 10, wherein at last some of the dilectic layers fom a barrier to alkaline ions. 17. The solar panel of claim 10, wherein a least some of the metallic ayers comprise Ni, Cr, Fe, Nb, Ti, Cu, AL Ag. Au, Pt oF combination of those metas 18. The solar punel of elaim 10, wherein at least some of the metallic layers comprise a thickness between 4 nm and 40am, 19, Tho sola panel of claim 10, wherein at last some of the metalic layers comprise etched tracks that form electr- cal circuitry 20, The solar panel of claim 10, wherein the photovoltaic cells have color and the backshoot fle visible light that ‘matches the color of the photovoltaie cells 21. The solar panel of claim 10, wherein the relectance of the backsheet i higher for infrared wavelengths than for visible wavelengths. 22:37. (canceled) ising